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Sample records for costal cartilage compared

  1. A comparative Study between the Structure of Cartilage Tissue Produced from Murine MSCs Differentiation and Hyaline Costal Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Baghban Eslaminezhad, Ph.D.;  L. Taghiyar, M.Sc; A. Piryaee, M.Sc

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vitro cartilage differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been noticed in several investigations. In this regard, almost always molecular differentiation of the cells has been examined, while structural and morphological differentiation of them has been ignored. Therefore, the present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the cartilage differentiated from murine MSCs compared with that of costal cartilage.Materials and Methods: 2× 105 MSCs isola...

  2. Namaste (counterbalancing) technique: Overcoming warping in costal cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil S Agrawal; Manoj Bachhav; Raghav Shrotriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indian noses are broader and lack projection as compared to other populations, hence very often need augmentation, that too by large volume. Costal cartilage remains the material of choice in large volume augmentations and repair of complex primary and secondary nasal deformities. One major disadvantage of costal cartilage grafts (CCG) which offsets all other advantages is the tendency to warp and become distorted over a period of time. We propose a simple technique to overcome th...

  3. Namaste (counterbalancing) technique: Overcoming warping in costal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Bachhav, Manoj; Shrotriya, Raghav

    2015-01-01

    Indian noses are broader and lack projection as compared to other populations, hence very often need augmentation, that too by large volume. Costal cartilage remains the material of choice in large volume augmentations and repair of complex primary and secondary nasal deformities. One major disadvantage of costal cartilage grafts (CCG) which offsets all other advantages is the tendency to warp and become distorted over a period of time. We propose a simple technique to overcome this menace of warping. We present the data of 51 patients of rhinoplasty done using CCG with counterbalancing technique over a period of 4 years. No evidence of warping was found in any patient up to a maximum follow-up period of 4 years. Counterbalancing is a useful technique to overcome the problem of warping. It gives liberty to utilize even unbalanced cartilage safely to provide desired shape and use the cartilage without any wastage.

  4. Namaste (counterbalancing technique: Overcoming warping in costal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil S Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indian noses are broader and lack projection as compared to other populations, hence very often need augmentation, that too by large volume. Costal cartilage remains the material of choice in large volume augmentations and repair of complex primary and secondary nasal deformities. One major disadvantage of costal cartilage grafts (CCG which offsets all other advantages is the tendency to warp and become distorted over a period of time. We propose a simple technique to overcome this menace of warping. Materials and Methods: We present the data of 51 patients of rhinoplasty done using CCG with counterbalancing technique over a period of 4 years. Results: No evidence of warping was found in any patient up to a maximum follow-up period of 4 years. Conclusion: Counterbalancing is a useful technique to overcome the problem of warping. It gives liberty to utilize even unbalanced cartilage safely to provide desired shape and use the cartilage without any wastage.

  5. Radiological observation of determination of sex by costal cartilage calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shin Hwa; Won, Jong Jin; Rhee, Song Joo; Moon, Moo Chang; Oh, Jong Hyun; Choi, Ki Chul

    1979-01-01

    The difference of patterns of costal cartilage calcification in male and female had been first described by Fischer in 1955. Thereafter several reports were published, but specific clinical significance was not found. During the period from January, 1978 to December, 1978, we, in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University, studied 2164 cases that showed the entire 12 pairs of ribs. Among these we detected 1494 cases of costal cartilage calcification and frequent sites of calcification. Patterns of costal cartilage calcification were classified into six groups- type l: central, type II: marginal, type III: junctional type, type IV: railroad, type V: diffuse, type VI: mixed. Results are as follows; 1. In a total of 2164 cases, calcification of costal cartilage was present in 1494 cases(69.0%). Of 1181 males 780 cases(66.0%) showed calcification, and of 983 females 714 cases (72.6%) showed calcification. 2. In 439 cases of males, except for 341 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows: marginal type in 265 cases (60.4%), junctional type in 134 cases (30.5%), mixed type in 21 cases (0.5%), central type in 17 cases(3.8%), and railroad type in 2 cases (0.5%). Diffuse type was not present. 3. In 492 cases of females, except of 222 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows; central type in 336 cases (68.3%), junctional type in 94 cases(19.1%), mixed type in 24 cases (4.9%), railroad type in 19 cases (3.9%), and diffuse type in 14 cases (2.8%). 4. When central calcification was observed, predictive value to female was 94.7%. When marginal calcification was observed, predictive value to male was 987.4%. 5. Males frequently showed calcification in upper costal cartilages, and females in lower costal cartilages.

  6. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  7. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  8. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, W.; Schuster, A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria

  9. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  10. [Relationship between PMI and ATR-FTIR Spectral Changes in Swine Costal Cartilages and Ribs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Qi; Jing, Xiao-li; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yin-ming; Wang, Zhi-jun; Li, Cheng-zhi; Lin, Han-cheng; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-yuan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postmortem chemical changes in Landrace costal cartilages and ribs using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and to provide a novel technique for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The swines were sacrificed by hemorrhage and their costal cartilages and ribs were kept in 20 degrees C. The chemical analysis of the costal cartilages and ribs were performed using ATR-FTIR every 72 h. The correlation between the certain spectral parameters and PMI was also analyzed. The time-dependent changes of costal cartilages were more significant than ribs. There were no obvious changes for the main absorbance bands position, and some absorbance band ratios showed time-dependent changes and significant correlations with the PMI. ATR-FTIR has the ability to analyze postmortem chemical changes of the swine costal cartilages and ribs, and it can be a new method to estimate PMI based on spectroscopy.

  11. Using Costal Chondrocytes to Engineer Articular Cartilage with Applications of Passive Axial Compression and Bioactive Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Le W; Sullan, Gurdeep K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2018-03-01

    Generating neocartilage with suitable mechanical integrity from a cell source that can circumvent chondrocyte scarcity is indispensable for articular cartilage regeneration strategies. Costal chondrocytes of the rib eliminate donor site morbidity in the articular joint, but it remains unclear how neocartilage formed from these cells responds to mechanical loading, especially if the intent is to use it in a load-bearing joint. In a series of three experiments, this study sought to determine efficacious parameters of passive axial compressive stimulation that would enable costal chondrocytes to synthesize mechanically robust cartilage. Experiment 1 determined a suitable time window for stimulation by its application during either the matrix synthesis phase, the maturation phase, or during both phases of the self-assembling process. The results showed that compressive stimulation at either time was effective in increasing instantaneous moduli by 92% and 87% in the synthesis and maturation phases, respectively. Compressive stimulation during both phases did not further improve properties beyond a one-time stimulation. The magnitude of passive axial compression was examined in Experiment 2 by applying 0, 3.3, 5.0, or 6.7 kPa stresses to the neocartilage. Unlike 6.7 kPa, both 3.3 and 5.0 kPa significantly increased neocartilage compressive properties by 42% and 48% over untreated controls, respectively. Experiment 3 examined how the passive axial compression regimen developed from the previous phases interacted with a bioactive regimen (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1, chondroitinase ABC, and lysyl oxidase-like 2). Passive axial compression significantly improved the relaxation modulus compared with bioactive treatment alone. Furthermore, a combined treatment of compressive and bioactive stimulation improved the tensile properties of neocartilage 2.6-fold compared with untreated control. The ability to create robust articular cartilage from passaged costal

  12. Precision carving of costal cartilage graft for contour fill in aesthetic and reconstructive rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autogenous costal cartilage is a good option for large volume requirements in rhinoplasty, when septal or conchal cartilages do not suffice. Reluctance to use costal cartilage is due to apprehension of warping. However, warping can be avoided if we follow the principle of balanced section as advocated by Gibson and Davis. "Warping" can also be utilized to change the curvature of the graft. Materials and Methods: We have used 69 costal cartilage grafts as a solid piece for contour fill in rhinoplasty in 31 patients over the last 10 years. Principle of balanced section as advocated by Gibson and Davis was adhered to while carving the grafts, however some grafts were allowed to warp to get different sizes and shapes. Results: All the procedures were uneventful. Aesthetic appearance of all patients was satisfactory and acceptable to all the patients. In two cases, the dorsal graft minimally shifted to one side, but remained straight. In one patient, there was late appearance of distortion. Conclusion: The mode of cartilage warping is predictable and it can be used to advantage. Apprehension to use costal cartilage graft is unjustified, as with precision carving a desired shape can be obtained.

  13. Sonography of occult rib and costal cartilage fractures: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Ross; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E; Welk, Aaron B; Kettner, Norman W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this case series is to describe the use of diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the detection of occult rib and costal cartilage fractures presenting as chest wall pain to a chiropractic clinic. Three patients presented with chest wall pain and tenderness. Two of the patients presented with acute chest wall injury and 1 carried a previous diagnosis of rib fracture after trivial trauma 2 months earlier. Diagnostic US was selected as a non-ionizing imaging tool for these patients after negative digital radiography studies. All fractures were considered isolated as there was no associated injury, such as pneumothorax. Both of the acute cases were followed up to complete healing (evidence of osseous union) using US. All patients eventually achieved pain-free status. In these cases, US was more sensitive than radiography for diagnosing these cases of acute rib and costal cartilage fractures. Early recognition of rib injury could avoid potential complications from local manipulative therapy.

  14. Trachea stabilisation with autologous costal cartilage in acquired tracheomalacia: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong-Boateng, K; Aniteye, E

    2001-06-01

    Post-operative tracheomalacia is a life threatening condition whose management is challenging. Surgical procedures which have been suggested in the literature to manage the condition include tracheostomy, staged thyroid reductions and the use of artificial stents either within the lumen of the tracheobronchial tree or as external support. We report the successful management of two patients using autologous costal cartilage to support the tracheal wall.

  15. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  16. Study of physical, chemical and structural effects caused by ionizing radiation and preservation on human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from cadaver donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues, decreasing the mechanical properties of the grafts. In this work, we evaluate physical/chemical and structural changes in deep-frozen (-70 deg C) or high concentration of glycerol (> 98%) preserved costal cartilage, before and after sterilization by ionizing radiation at 3 different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy). Samples of human costal cartilage were obtained from 20 cadaver donors ranging between 18 and 55 years old. A 60 Co irradiator was used as irradiation source. Thermogravimetry (TG), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and mechanical tension and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the changes in the cartilage. Regarding the thermogravimetric results, the obtained data has shown that the TG curves have the same pattern independently of the sample irradiated or not. On the other hand, non-irradiated samples showed great variability of thermogravimetric curves among different donors and for the same donor. Concerning the mechanical tests, when cartilages were irradiated with 15 kGy, their mechanical strength to tension was increased about 24%, in both deep-froze and preserved in glycerol samples. Samples deep-frozen, when irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy, presented a decrease of their mechanical behavior smaller than those preserved in high concentrations of glycerol and irradiated with the same dose. Therefore, deep-frozen cartilages can be sterilized with doses until 50 kGy and cartilages preserved in high concentrations of glycerol can be sterilized with doses until 25 kGy without significant changes in their bio-mechanical properties.(author)

  17. Imaging of irradiated human costal cartilage birefringence by PS-OCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Santin, Stefany P.; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Bringel, Fabiana A.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2011-01-01

    Sterilization by ionizing radiation is a technique used for tissue banks around the world to avoid transmission of infectious diseases by human allografts. However, high doses of ionizing radiation may cause undesirable changes in tissue structure, decreasing its mechanical properties, for example. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non destructive, non ionizing and real time method to investigate biological tissues without promote any change in tissue structure. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an OCT technique that combines polarimetry with low coherence reflectometry to provide depth resolved measurements from birefringent structures as collagen. Costal cartilages from 15 cadaveric donors were preserved in high concentration glycerol and each individual sample was divided in 6 fragments. One of them was kept as a control group and the others were irradiated with gamma radiation from a Co-60 source with doses of 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy. OCT and PS-OCT images of the same region of the samples were obtained from a device OCS 1300 SS (Thorlabs, USA) with a coupling polarization module PSOCT 1300 (Thorlabs, USA). According with our results, birefringence may be visualized in all test groups as well in the control group, suggesting that sterilization by ionizing radiation does not affect the collagen structure significantly to cause total loss of birefringence, even if high doses as 75 and 100 kGy are used. The next step of our work is to develop a new method to quantify the birefringence using the optical properties of the tissue. (author)

  18. Imaging of irradiated human costal cartilage birefringence by PS-OCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Santin, Stefany P.; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Bringel, Fabiana A.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: freitas.az@ipen.b, E-mail: rmosca@usp.b, E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sterilization by ionizing radiation is a technique used for tissue banks around the world to avoid transmission of infectious diseases by human allografts. However, high doses of ionizing radiation may cause undesirable changes in tissue structure, decreasing its mechanical properties, for example. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non destructive, non ionizing and real time method to investigate biological tissues without promote any change in tissue structure. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an OCT technique that combines polarimetry with low coherence reflectometry to provide depth resolved measurements from birefringent structures as collagen. Costal cartilages from 15 cadaveric donors were preserved in high concentration glycerol and each individual sample was divided in 6 fragments. One of them was kept as a control group and the others were irradiated with gamma radiation from a Co-60 source with doses of 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy. OCT and PS-OCT images of the same region of the samples were obtained from a device OCS 1300 SS (Thorlabs, USA) with a coupling polarization module PSOCT 1300 (Thorlabs, USA). According with our results, birefringence may be visualized in all test groups as well in the control group, suggesting that sterilization by ionizing radiation does not affect the collagen structure significantly to cause total loss of birefringence, even if high doses as 75 and 100 kGy are used. The next step of our work is to develop a new method to quantify the birefringence using the optical properties of the tissue. (author)

  19. Study of ionizing radiation effects in human costal cartilage by thermogravimetry and optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from post mortem donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to identify possible structural modifications caused by both preservation methods of cartilage and gamma irradiation doses. Cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -70 deg C or preserved in glycerol. Irradiation was performed by 60 Co source with doses of 15, 25 and 50 kGy. Our TGA results showed that glycerolized cartilages irradiated with different doses of radiation does not presented statistical differences when compared to the control group for the dehydration rate. However, the same was not observed for deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 15 kGy. The results of OCT associated to total optical attenuation coefficient showed that doses of 15 kGy promote cross-link between collagen fibrils, corroborating the results obtained from TGA. Moreover, total optical attenuation coefficient values are proportional to stress at break of cartilages, what will be very useful in a near future to predict the quality of the allografts, without unnecessary loss of biological tissue, once OCT is a nondestructive technique. By PS-OCT images, we found that high doses of ionizing radiation does not promote sufficient impairments to promote complete loss of tissue birefringence. Thus, TGA and OCT are techniques that can be used for tissue banks to verify tissue quality before its transplant. (author)

  20. Study of physical, chemical and structural effects caused by ionizing radiation and preservation on human costal cartilage; Estudo dos efeitos fisicos, quimicos e estruturais ocasionados pela radiacao ionizante e preservacao em cartilagem costal humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho, Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from cadaver donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues, decreasing the mechanical properties of the grafts. In this work, we evaluate physical/chemical and structural changes in deep-frozen (-70 deg C) or high concentration of glycerol (> 98%) preserved costal cartilage, before and after sterilization by ionizing radiation at 3 different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy). Samples of human costal cartilage were obtained from 20 cadaver donors ranging between 18 and 55 years old. A {sup 60}Co irradiator was used as irradiation source. Thermogravimetry (TG), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and mechanical tension and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the changes in the cartilage. Regarding the thermogravimetric results, the obtained data has shown that the TG curves have the same pattern independently of the sample irradiated or not. On the other hand, non-irradiated samples showed great variability of thermogravimetric curves among different donors and for the same donor. Concerning the mechanical tests, when cartilages were irradiated with 15 kGy, their mechanical strength to tension was increased about 24%, in both deep-froze and preserved in glycerol samples. Samples deep-frozen, when irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy, presented a decrease of their mechanical behavior smaller than those preserved in high concentrations of glycerol and irradiated with the same dose. Therefore, deep-frozen cartilages can be sterilized with doses until 50 kGy and cartilages preserved in high concentrations of glycerol can be sterilized with doses until 25 kGy without significant changes in their bio-mechanical properties.(author)

  1. Reconstruction of partially amputated external ear with costal cartilage graft: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, A; Bottini, D J; Cervelli, V; Cervelli, G; Grimaldi, M

    2004-06-01

    Many causes are responsible for secondary anomalies of the outer ear, such as: car accidents, sport- or work-related accidents, assaults, bites from animals or humans, benign or malignant tumours, burns and the effects of surgical interventions of the ear (plastic surgery on the ear or attempts at correction of primary malformations of the ear). The anatomical complexity of the ear makes its reconstruction particularly complicated with post-operative results that are often disappointing. The Authors describe their experience in the reconstruction of a partially amputated outer ear following a dog bite. The therapeutic protocol required various surgical stages. Initially, a cutaneous expander was applied at the level of the mastoid in order to ensure a sufficient quantity of local skin. The second stage was to remove cartilage from the ribs, followed by construction of a cartilaginous model of the ear and its insertion into the subcutaneous mastoid region after removal of the cutaneous expander and any residual ear cartilage. The last stage was to separate the neo-formed outer ear from the mastoid skin with the insertion of a cartilage graft to the posterior region of the reconstructed ear. This graft was covered by the occipital fascia rotated at 180 degrees and by a skin graft removed from the pubis. The postoperative result was satisfactory with recuperation of a good aesthetic appearance of the ear. Aim of the present report is to describe the surgical technique employed in the reconstruction of secondary anomalies of the ear and to highlight errors committed during this procedure. These considerations have allowed us to stress some fundamental elements in the reconstruction of the ear. In particular, the watershed was the awareness that we had to create a cartilaginous model that respected, as far as possible, the anatomy of the outer ear with all its ridges, trenches and cavities. This as well as ensuring a sufficient quantity of local skin in order to cover

  2. Optical properties of costal cartilage and their variation in the process of non-destructive action of laser radiation with the wavelength 1.56 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzhakov, A V; Sviridov, A P; Shcherbakov, E M; Baum, O I; Sobol, E N [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-31

    The optical properties of costal cartilage and their variation under the action of laser radiation with the wavelength 1.56 μm are studied. The laser action regime corresponds to that used for changing the cartilage shape. The dynamics of the passed scattered laser radiation was studied by means of the optical fibre system, and the optical properties of the cartilage tissue (on the basis of Monte Carlo modelling of light propagation) – using the setup with two integrating spheres. Under the influence of radiation, the characteristics of which corresponded to those used for the cartilage shape correction, no essential changes in the optical parameters were found. The results obtained in the course of studying the dynamics of optical signals in the process of costal cartilage irradiation can be used for developing control systems, providing the safety and efficiency of laser medical technologies. (biophotonics)

  3. Study of ionizing radiation effects in human costal cartilage by thermogravimetry and optical coherence tomography; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em cartilagem costal humana por meio de termogravimetria e tomografia por coerencia optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from post mortem donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to identify possible structural modifications caused by both preservation methods of cartilage and gamma irradiation doses. Cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -70 deg C or preserved in glycerol. Irradiation was performed by {sup 60}Co source with doses of 15, 25 and 50 kGy. Our TGA results showed that glycerolized cartilages irradiated with different doses of radiation does not presented statistical differences when compared to the control group for the dehydration rate. However, the same was not observed for deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 15 kGy. The results of OCT associated to total optical attenuation coefficient showed that doses of 15 kGy promote cross-link between collagen fibrils, corroborating the results obtained from TGA. Moreover, total optical attenuation coefficient values are proportional to stress at break of cartilages, what will be very useful in a near future to predict the quality of the allografts, without unnecessary loss of biological tissue, once OCT is a nondestructive technique. By PS-OCT images, we found that high doses of ionizing radiation does not promote sufficient impairments to promote complete loss of tissue birefringence. Thus, TGA and OCT are techniques that can be used for tissue banks to verify tissue quality before its transplant. (author)

  4. Incidence and Imaging Findings of Costal Cartilage Fractures in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma: A Retrospective Review of 1461 Consecutive Whole-Body CT Examinations for Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, Mari T; Bensch, Frank V; Pyhältö, Tuomo T; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To assess the incidence of costal cartilage (CC) fractures in whole-body computed tomographic (CT) examinations for blunt trauma and to evaluate distribution of CC fractures, concomitant injuries, mechanism of injury, accuracy of reporting, and the effect on 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. All whole-body CT examinations for blunt trauma over 36 months were reviewed retrospectively and chest trauma CT studies were evaluated by a second reader. Of 1461 patients who underwent a whole-body CT examination, 39% (574 of 1461) had signs of thoracic injuries (men, 74.0% [425 of 574]; mean age, 46.6 years; women, 26.0% [149 of 574]; mean age, 48.9 years). χ 2 and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Interobserver agreement was calculated by using Cohen kappa values. Results A total of 114 patients (men, 86.8% [99 of 114]; mean age, 48.6 years; women, 13.2% [15 of 114]; mean age, 45.1 years) had 221 CC fractures. The incidence was 7.8% (114 of 1461) in all whole-body CT examinations and 19.9% (114 of 574) in patients with thoracic trauma. Cartilage of rib 7 (21.3%, 47 of 221) was most commonly injured. Bilateral multiple consecutive rib fractures occurred in 36% (41 of 114) versus 14% (64 of 460) in other patients with chest trauma (OR, 3.48; 95% CI: 2.18, 5.53; P chest trauma with CC fractures (13%, 15 of 114) versus patients with chest trauma without CC fractures (4%, 18 of 460) (OR, 3.72; 95% CI: 1.81, 7.64; P = .0001), as well as aortic injuries (n = 4 vs n = 0; P = .0015; OR, unavailable). Kappa value for interobserver agreement in detecting CC fractures was 0.65 (substantial agreement). CC fractures were documented in 39.5% (45 of 114) of primary reports. The 30-day mortality of patients with CC fractures was 7.02% (eight of 114) versus 4.78% (22 of 460) of other patients with chest trauma (OR, 1.50; 95% CI: 0.65, 3.47; P = .3371). Conclusion

  5. Transverse Slicing of the Sixth-Seventh Costal Cartilaginous Junction: A Novel Technique to Prevent Warping in Nasal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Tara Lynn; Cheng, Homan; Pakdel, Amir; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Costal cartilage is an important reconstructive tissue for correcting nasal deformities. Warping of costal cartilage, a recognized complication, can lead to significant functional and aesthetic problems. The authors present a technique to prevent warping that involves transverse slicing of the sixth-seventh costal cartilaginous junction, that when sliced perpendicular to the long axis of the rib, provides multiple long, narrow, clinically useful grafts with balanced cross-sections. The aim was to measure differences in cartilage warp between this technique (TJS) and traditional carving techniques. Costal cartilage was obtained from human subjects and cut to clinically relevant dimensions using a custom cutting jig. The sixth-seventh costal cartilaginous junction was sliced transversely leaving the outer surface intact. The adjacent sixth rib cartilage was carved concentrically and eccentrically. The samples were incubated and standardized serial photography was performed over time up to 4 weeks. Warp was quantified by measuring nonlinearity of the grafts using least-squares regression and compared between carving techniques. TJS grafts (n = 10) resulted in significantly less warp than both eccentrically (n = 3) and concentrically carved grafts (n = 3) (P < 0.0001). Warp was significantly higher with eccentric carving compared with concentric carving (P < 0.0001). Warp increased significantly with time for both eccentric (P = 0002) and concentric (P = 0.0007) techniques while TJS warp did not (P = 0.56). The technique of transverse slicing costal cartilage from the sixth-seventh junction minimizes warp compared with traditional carving methods providing ample grafts of adequate length and versatility for reconstructive requirements.

  6. Management of chest deformity caused by microtia reconstruction: Comparison of autogenous diced cartilage versus cadaver cartilage graft partial filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ju Young; Kang, Bo Young; Hwang, Jin Hee; Oh, Kap Sung

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent chest wall deformity after costal cartilage graft are ongoing. In this study, we introduce a new method to prevent donor site deformation using irradiated cadaver cartilage (ICC) and compare this method to the autogenous diced cartilage (ADC) technique. Forty-two pediatric patients comprised the ADC group (n = 24) and the ICC group (n = 18). After harvesting costal cartilage, the empty perichondrial space was filled with autologous diced cartilage in the ADC group and cadaver cartilage in the ICC group. Digital photographs and rib cartilage three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed to compare the preventive effect of donor site deformity. We compared the pre- and postoperative costal cartilage volumes using 3D-CT and graded the volumes (grade I: 0%-25%, grade II: 25%-50%, grade III: 50%-75%, and grade IV: 75%-100%). The average follow-up period was 20 and 24 months in the ADC and ICC groups, respectively. Grade IV maintenance of previous costal cartilage volume was evident postoperatively in 22% of patients in the ADC group and 82% of patients in the ICC group. Intercostal space narrowing and chest wall depression were less in the ICC group. There were no complications or severe resorption of cadaver cartilage. ICC support transected costal ring and prevented stability loss by acting as a spacer. The ICC technique is more effective in preventing intercostal space narrowing and chest wall depression than the ADC technique. Samsung Medical Center Institution Review Board, Unique protocol ID: 2009-10-006-008. This study is also registered on PRS (ClinicalTrials.gov Record 2009-10-006). Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efeito do enxerto autólogo de pericôndrio costal com butil-2-cianoacrilato em lesão provocada na cartilagem articular do joelho de coelhos The effect of autologous costal perichondrium graft with butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in provoked injury in the articular cartilage of rabbit’s knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Viana Xavier

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade desse estudo foi verificar o efeito do enxerto autólogo de pericôndrio com butil-2-cianoacrilato em lesão provocada na cartilagem articular do joelho de coelhos. Foram utilizados animais machos, adultos, divididos em 2 grupos, denominados de Grupo A e de Grupo B, de 17 animais cada um. Os animais do Grupo A foram reoperados com 4 semanas e os do Grupo B com 8 semanas. Foi retirado um fragmento de 2 cm da 7ª cartilagem costal esquerda do qual se descolou o pericôndrio. Retiraram-se dois cilindros ósseo-cartilaginosos, um de cada côndilo femural medial do mesmo animal. De um lado a cartilagem articular do cilindro foi substituida por pericôndrio com um fina camada do adesivo tecidual na sua face externa e do outro lado só foi retirada a cartilagem articular. Os cilindros foram recolocados nos fêmures. Macroscopicamente, no Grupo A, encontrou-se a maioria das lesões com pericôndrio recobertas totalmente com tecido e todas as lesões sem pericôndrio recobertas parcialmente. No Grupo B, não se encontrou diferença macroscópica significante entre a cobertura total e parcial com tecido, das lesões. Estatisticamente, não houve diferença microscópica significante entre as lesões com pericôndrio e sem pericôndrio do Grupo A e do Grupo B e nem entre os Grupos A e B.The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of the perichondrium graft with butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in provoked injury in the articular cartilage of rabbit`s knee. Male adult animals were used, divided in 2 groups, called Group A and Group B, with 17 animals each. The Group A animals were reoperated in 4 weeks and the Group B animals in 8 weeks. A 2 cm fragment was taken out from the 7th costal cartilage from which the perichondrium was removed. Two osteo-cartilaginous cylinders were taken out from each medialis condyles of the femurs in the same animal. The articular cartilage of the cylinder was replaced in one side by the perichondrium with a thin layer

  8. A costal dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, L.; Nyberg, L.; Gidhagen, L.

    1990-01-01

    A dispersion model to be used off costal waters has been developed. The model has been applied to describe the migration of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. A summary of the results is presented here. (K.A.E)

  9. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won

    2001-01-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness

  10. Long term follow up of pinna reconstruction by costal cartilagenous allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanida Kanchanalarp; Yongyudh Vajaradul

    1999-01-01

    During 1990 to 1998,15 patients underwent pinna reconstruction using costal cartilagenous allografts,10 males, 5 females aged between 13 to 37 years old. The costal cartilages were implanted beneath the post auricular skin. Three months later, the composite cartilage-skin graft was elevated and the other free skin graft was used to reconstruct the pinna. Thirteen out of 15 patients had satisfactory cosmetic and function as usual. Only one cartilagenous graft had necrosis and the other one had infected necrosis after accidental trauma two weeks postoperatively. In conclusion costal cartilagenous allograft is an alternative pinna reconstruction with a good long-term result

  11. Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arnold I.

    1984-01-01

    Cartilage is a fundamental biological material that helps to shape the body and then helps to support it. Its fundamental properties of strength and resilience are explained in terms of the tissue's molecular structure. (JN)

  12. The junction between hyaline cartilage and engineered cartilage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Makoto; Komura, Hiroko; Otani, Yushi; Kanamori, Yutaka; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Tsuyoshi, Takato; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Tracheoplasty using costal cartilage grafts to enlarge the tracheal lumen was performed to treat congenital tracheal stenosis. Fibrotic granulomatous tissue was observed at the edge of grafted costal cartilage. We investigated the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the engineered cartilage plates that were generated by auricular chondrocytes for fabricating the airway. Controlled, prospecive study. In group 1, costal cartilage from New Zealand white rabbits was collected and implanted into a space created in the cervical trachea. In group 2, chondrocytes from auricular cartilages were seeded on absorbable scaffolds. These constructs were implanted in the subcutaneous space. Engineered cartilage plates were then implanted into the trachea after 3 weeks of implantation of the constructs. The grafts in group 1 and 2 were retrieved after 4 weeks. In group 1, histological studies of the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the implanted costal cartilage demonstrated chondrogenic tissue in four anastomoses sides out of the 10 examined. In group 2, the junction between the native trachea and the engineered cartilage showed neocartilage tissue in nine anastomoses sides out of 10. Engineered cartilage may be beneficial for engineered airways, based on the findings of the junction between the native and engineered grafts. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Articular cartilage explant culture; an appropriate in vitro system to compare osteoarthritic and normal human cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; Vander Kraan, P. M.; van Roy, J. L.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycan metabolism of normal and histologically mild to moderate osteoarthritic cartilage explants were studied. Explants were obtained from the human knee of donors aged over 40 years. Proteoglycan content, synthesis and release were very similar in normal cartilage obtained from donors with

  14. Autologous Cartilage Chip Transplantation Improves Repair Tissue Composition Compared With Marrow Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Olesen, Morten Lykke; Lind, Martin; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-06-01

    Repair of chondral injuries by use of cartilage chips has recently demonstrated clinical feasibility. To investigate in vivo cartilage repair outcome of autologous cartilage chips compared with marrow stimulation in full-thickness cartilage defects in a minipig model. Controlled laboratory study. Six Göttingen minipigs received two 6-mm chondral defects in the medial and lateral trochlea of each knee. The two treatment groups were (1) autologous cartilage chips embedded in fibrin glue (ACC) (n = 12) and (2) marrow stimulation (MST) (n = 12). The animals were euthanized after 6 months, and the composition of repair tissue was quantitatively determined using histomorphometry. Semiquantitative evaluation was performed by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) II score. Collagen type II staining was used to further evaluate the repair tissue composition. Significantly more hyaline cartilage was found in the ACC (17.1%) compared with MST (2.9%) group ( P cartilage repair tissue compared with MST at 6 months postoperatively. Further studies are needed to investigate ACC as a possible alternative first-line treatment for focal cartilage injuries in the knee.

  15. Comparative digital cartilage histology for human and common osteoarthritis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen DR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas R Pedersen, Jessica E Goetz, Gail L Kurriger, James A MartinDepartment of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAPurpose: This study addresses the species-specific and site-specific details of weight-bearing articular cartilage zone depths and chondrocyte distributions among humans and common osteoarthritis (OA animal models using contemporary digital imaging tools. Histological analysis is the gold-standard research tool for evaluating cartilage health, OA severity, and treatment efficacy. Historically, evaluations were made by expert analysts. However, state-of-the-art tools have been developed that allow for digitization of entire histological sections for computer-aided analysis. Large volumes of common digital cartilage metrics directly complement elucidation of trends in OA inducement and concomitant potential treatments.Materials and methods: Sixteen fresh human knees, 26 adult New Zealand rabbit stifles, and 104 bovine lateral plateaus were measured for four cartilage zones and the cell densities within each zone. Each knee was divided into four weight-bearing sites: the medial and lateral plateaus and femoral condyles.Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by pairwise multiple comparisons (Holm–Sidak method at a significance of 0.05 clearly confirmed the variability between cartilage depths at each site, between sites in the same species, and between weight-bearing articular cartilage definitions in different species.Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates multisite, multispecies differences in normal weight-bearing articular cartilage, which can be objectively quantified by a common digital histology imaging technique. The clear site-specific differences in normal cartilage must be taken into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA models. Together, these provide a path to consistently analyze the volume and variety of histologic slides necessarily generated

  16. Some Comparative Anatomical and Histological Studies on the Laryngeal Cartilages of Buffaloes, Camels and Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies concerned the upper air ways of domestic animals are few. So this study was carried out to compare between the larynx of buffaloes, camels and donkeys. The present investigation was carried out on 39 larynxes, 13 larynxes (7 males, 6 females of each species. Ten heads from each species were used for gross anatomical study; the remained three heads were used for the histological study. Results revealed that, the laryngeal cartilages of the three species were consisted of three single cartilages; the thyroid, the cricoid and the epiglottis, and two paired cartilages; the arytenoid and the corniculate. The cuneiform cartilages were paired cartilages present only in the larynx of the donkey. Thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid cartilages were of hyaline type, while the epiglottis, cuniform and corniculate cartilages and the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage were of elastic type. The laryngeal epithelium of aditus laryngis, greater part of epiglottis and vocal folds was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The remained parts of laryngeal epithelium from base of epiglottis and entire parts caudal to vocal folds were lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. The laryngeal glands of lamina propria were of mixed types in buffaloes and donkeys but in camels it was pure mucous glands. This study will fill a gap in the field of comparative anatomy and help other clinical investigation applied on these animals.

  17. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-01-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption

  18. Pronounced biomaterial dependency in cartilage regeneration using nonexpanded compared with expanded chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuchida, A.I.; Bekkers, J.E.J.; Beekhuizen, M.; Vonk, L.A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate freshly isolated compared with culture-expanded chondrocytes with respect to early regenerative response, cytokine production and cartilage formation in response to four commonly used biomaterials. Materials & methods: Chondrocytes were both directly and after expansion to

  19. Long-term use and follow-up of autologous and homologous cartilage graft in rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemali Khorasani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cartilage grafting is used in rhinoplasty and reconstructive surgeries. Autologous rib and nasal septum cartilage (auto graft is the preferred source of graft material in rhinoplasty, however, homologous cartilage (allograft has been extensively used to correct the nasal framework in nasal deformities. Autologous cartilage graft usage is restricted with complication of operation and limiting availability of tissue for extensive deformities. Alternatively, preserved costal cartilage allograft represents a readily available and easily contoured material. The current study was a formal systematic review of complications associated with autologous versus homologous cartilage grafting in rhinoplasty patients. Methods: In this cohort retrospective study, a total of 124 patients undergone primary or revision rhinoplasty using homologous or autologus grafts with postoperative follow-up ranging from 6 to 60 months were studied. The types of grafts and complications related to the grafts were evaluated. This included evaluation for warping, infection, resorption, mobility and fracture. Results: The total complications related to the cartilage grafts were 7 cases, which included 1 warped in auto graft group, three cases of graft displacement (two in allograft group and one in auto graft group and three fractures in allograft group. No infection and resorption was recorded. Complication rate (confidence interval 0.95 in autologous and homologous group were 1.25(0.4-3.88 and 2.08(0.78-5.55 in 1000 months follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between autologous and homologous group complications. Onset of complication in autologous and homologous group were 51.23(49.27-53.19 and 58.7(54.51-62.91 month respectively (P=0.81. Conclusion: The allograft cartilage has the advantage of avoiding donor-site scar. Moreover, it provides the same benefits as autologous costal cartilage with comparable complication rate. Therefore, it

  20. Cartilage grafting in nasal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Sara; White, W Matthew; Constantinides, Minas

    2011-02-01

    Nasal reconstruction after resection for cutaneous malignancies poses a unique challenge to facial plastic surgeons. The nose, a unique 3-D structure, not only must remain functional but also be aesthetically pleasing to patients. A complete understanding of all the layers of the nose and knowledge of available cartilage grafting material is necessary. Autogenous material, namely septal, auricular, and costal cartilage, is the most favored material in a free cartilage graft or a composite cartilage graft. All types of material have advantages and disadvantages that should guide the most appropriate selection to maximize the functional and cosmetic outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ostéite costale tuberculeuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Benosman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nous rapportons un cas de tuberculose costale chez une patiente de 44ans ayant des antécédents de miliaire tuberculeuse. L’atteinte costale était pseudotumorale ayant conduit à une biopsie exérèse chirurgicale de la masse costale dont l’étude histologique est revenue en faveur d’une tuberculose. Cette observation ainsi que celles de la littérature, confirment les difficultés diagnostiques de cette forme rare de tuberculose.

  2. Injection of Compressed Diced Cartilage in the Correction of Secondary and Primary Rhinoplasty: A New Technique with 12 Years' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, O Onur

    2017-11-01

    There are instances where small or large pockets are filled with diced cartilage in the nose, without use of wrapping materials. For this purpose, 1-cc commercial syringes were used. The obtained results were partial and incomplete. For better and improved results, the author designed new syringes, with two different sizes, which compress the diced cartilage for injection. The author presents his experience accrued over the past 12 years with 2366 primary, 749 secondary, 67 cleft lip and nose, and a total of 3182 rhinoplasties, using his new syringe design, which compresses diced cartilage and injects the diced cartilages as a conglutinate mass, simulating carved costal cartilage, but a malleable one. In 3125 patients, the take of cartilage graft was complete (98.2 percent) and a smooth surface was obtained, giving them a natural appearance. In 21 patients (0.65 percent), there was partial resorption of cartilage. Correction was performed with touch-up surgery by reinjection of a small amount of diced cartilage. In 36 patients (1.13 percent), there was overcorrection that, 1 year later, was treated by simple rasping. Compared with diced cartilage wrapped with Surgicel or fascia, the amount of injected cartilage graft is predictable because it consists purely of cartilage. The injected diced cartilage, because it is compressed and becomes a conglutinated mass, resembles a wood chip and simulates carved cartilage. It is superior to carved cartilage in that it is moldable, time saving, and gives a good result with no late show or warping. The injection takes only a few minutes.

  3. Comparative assessment of intrinsic mechanical stimuli on knee cartilage and compressed agarose constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Completo, A; Bandeiras, C; Fonseca, F

    2017-06-01

    A well-established cue for improving the properties of tissue-engineered cartilage is mechanical stimulation. However, the explicit ranges of mechanical stimuli that correspond to favorable metabolic outcomes are elusive. Usually, these outcomes have only been associated with the applied strain and frequency, an oversimplification that can hide the fundamental relationship between the intrinsic mechanical stimuli and the metabolic outcomes. This highlights two important key issues: the firstly is related to the evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical stimuli of native cartilage; the second, assuming that the intrinsic mechanical stimuli will be important, deals with the ability to replicate them on the tissue-engineered constructs. This study quantifies and compares the volume of cartilage and agarose subjected to a given magnitude range of each intrinsic mechanical stimulus, through a numerical simulation of a patient-specific knee model coupled with experimental data of contact during the stance phase of gait, and agarose constructs under direct-dynamic compression. The results suggest that direct compression loading needs to be parameterized with time-dependence during the initial culture period in order to better reproduce each one of the intrinsic mechanical stimuli developed in the patient-specific cartilage. A loading regime which combines time periods of low compressive strain (5%) and frequency (0.5Hz), in order to approach the maximal principal strain and fluid velocity stimulus of the patient-specific cartilage, with time periods of high compressive strain (20%) and frequency (3Hz), in order to approach the pore pressure values, may be advantageous relatively to a single loading regime throughout the full culture period. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Runners with Patellofemoral Pain Exhibit Greater Peak Patella Cartilage Stress Compared to Pain-Free Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tzu-Chieh; Keyak, Joyce H; Powers, Christopher M

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether recreational runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress compared to pain-free runners. A secondary purpose was to determine the kinematic and/or kinetic predictors of peak patella cartilage stress during running. Twenty-two female recreational runners participated (12 with PFP and 10 pain-free controls). Patella cartilage stress profiles were quantified using subject-specific finite element models simulating the maximum knee flexion angle during stance phase of running. Input parameters to the finite element model included subject-specific patellofemoral joint geometry, quadriceps muscle forces, and lower extremity kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes. Tibiofemoral joint kinematics and kinetics were quantified to determine the best predictor of stress using stepwise regression analysis. Compared to the pain-free runners, those with PFP exhibited greater peak hydrostatic pressure (PFP vs. control, 21.2 ± 5.6 MPa vs. 16.5 ± 4.6 MPa) and maximum shear stress (11.3 ± 4.6 MPa vs. 8.7 ± 2.3 MPa). Knee external rotation was the best predictor of peak hydrostatic pressure and peak maximum shear stress (38% and 25% of variances, respectively) followed by the knee extensor moment (21% and 25% of variances, respectively). Runners with PFP exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress during running compared to pain-free individuals. The combination of knee external rotation and a high knee extensor moment best predicted elevated peak stress during running.

  5. MR diagnosis of articular cartilage injury in the knee: compared with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Li Shiling; Guo Zhiping; Zhang Wei; Ma Xiaohui; Cai Pengli; Wei Peijian; Peng Zhigang; Sun Yingcai; Zhang Zekun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of FS-3D-FISP, FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T 1 WI sequences in the detection of articular cartilage injury of the knee. Methods: 34 consecutive patients with persistent symptoms of knee pain who were scheduled for arthroscopy underwent MR examination of the knee on a 1.5 TMR unit prior to arthroscopy. The 2D MR images were transferred to a workstation and processed tow-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Compared with the arthroscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa were 91.4%, 97%, and 0.818, respectively with FS-3D-F ISP sequence, 77.1%, 98%, and 0.531, respectively with FS-2D-FLASH sequence, 70%, 99%, and 0.518, respectively with SE-T 1 WI sequence. In the cases that had no acute trauma, 77.6% lesions were shown lower SI on T 1 -WI in the region of the subchondral bone and marrow near the lesions, and higher SI on FS-3D-FISP and FS-2D-FLASH sequences. Conclusion: Comparing with arthroscopy, the diagnosis accuracy of FS-3D-FISP sequence is obviously better than that of FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T 1 WI sequences. Correlation between FS-3D-FISP sequence and arthroscopy in detecting articular cartilage injury is remarkeble. Abnormal signal in the subchondral bone and marrow is an important indirect sign of articular cartilage injury. Three-dimensional reconstruction of articular cartilage is helpful for localization of the lesions after injury. (authors)

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TYMPANOPLASTY USING SLICED CARTILAGE GRAFT VS. TEMPORALIS FASCIA GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ashok Telang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The objective of the study was to compare the hearing improvement after using sliced cartilage graft with that of temporalis fascia and to compare the graft take-up between the two graft materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective clinical study including 60 patients with chronic mucosal otitis media, who were selected randomly from the outpatient department, after obtaining their consent were divided into 2 groups of 30 each, and evaluated according the study protocol. Their pre-operative audiometry was recorded and both groups of patients underwent surgery with one of the graft materials- temporalis fascia or sliced tragal cartilage with a thickness of 0.5 mm. All patients were regularly followed up and post-operative audiometry was done at 3 months. The hearing improvement in the form of closure of air-bone-gap and graft take-up was analysed statistically. RESULTS The temporalis fascia graft group had a pre-operative ABG of 22.33 ± 6.24 dB and post-operative ABG of 12.33 ± 4.72 dB with hearing improvement of 10.00 dB. The sliced cartilage graft group had a pre-operative ABG of 20.77 ± 5.75 dB and postoperative ABG of 10.50 ± 4.46 dB with hearing improvement of 10.27 dB. In the temporalis fascia group, 28 (93.3% patients had good graft take-up and in the sliced cartilage group 29 (96.7% had good graft take-up. There was statistically significant hearing improvement in both of our study groups but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in graft take-up also. CONCLUSION Sliced cartilage graft is a good auto-graft material in tympanoplasty, which can give good hearing improvement and has good graft take-up, which is comparable with that of temporalis fascia.

  7. T2* Mapping Provides Information That Is Statistically Comparable to an Arthroscopic Evaluation of Acetabular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patrick; Nissi, Mikko J; Hughes, John; Mortazavi, Shabnam; Ellerman, Jutta

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to validate T2* mapping as an objective, noninvasive method for the prediction of acetabular cartilage damage. Methods This is the second step in the validation of T2*. In a previous study, we established a quantitative predictive model for identifying and grading acetabular cartilage damage. In this study, the model was applied to a second cohort of 27 consecutive hips to validate the model. A clinical 3.0-T imaging protocol with T2* mapping was used. Acetabular regions of interest (ROI) were identified on magnetic resonance and graded using the previously established model. Each ROI was then graded in a blinded fashion by arthroscopy. Accurate surgical location of ROIs was facilitated with a 2-dimensional map projection of the acetabulum. A total of 459 ROIs were studied. Results When T2* mapping and arthroscopic assessment were compared, 82% of ROIs were within 1 Beck group (of a total 6 possible) and 32% of ROIs were classified identically. Disease prediction based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.713 and a specificity of 0.804. Model stability evaluation required no significant changes to the predictive model produced in the initial study. Conclusions These results validate that T2* mapping provides statistically comparable information regarding acetabular cartilage when compared to arthroscopy. In contrast to arthroscopy, T2* mapping is quantitative, noninvasive, and can be used in follow-up. Unlike research quantitative magnetic resonance protocols, T2* takes little time and does not require a contrast agent. This may facilitate its use in the clinical sphere.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BILATERAL SINGLE SITTING ENDOSCOPIC MYRINGOPLASTY CONCHAL CARTILAGE VERSUS TEMPORALIS FASCIA GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Thirugnanam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Though single sitting myringoplasty using temporalis fascia under general anaesthesia has been documented in many studies, but ours is the first center to have started using tragal cartilage and temporalis fascia harvested from one ear to do bilateral myringoplasty in one sitting using local anaesthesia with excellent results including very good graft uptake rate and audiological improvement without significant complications. The aim of the study is to compare the outcome of bilateral myringoplasty in dry central perforation in one sitting using cartilage on one side and temporalis fascia on the other ear in an urban tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients above the age of 15 years were included in the study who had dried bilateral perforated ear drum involving pars tensa both sides size of perforation and hearing loss were more or less-matched patients who had persistently discharging ear or had evidence of middle ear infection, granulation tissues, aural polypi, cholesteatoma, ossicular erosion or evidence of sensorineural hearing loss were excluded from the study. In the cases, temporalis fascia graft through postaural incision right side and conchal cartilage was harvested from the right side and endoscopic myringoplasty was performed. Temporalis fascia graft placed by underlay technique and conchal cartilage was used as graft on the left side for all the patients. Patients were followed up after 3 and 6 months to assess closure of tympanic membrane perforation and hearing improvement as depicted by closure of air above gap on pure tone audiometry at 6 months. Study Design- Interventional, descriptive. Place and Duration of Study- Department of ENT, UIORL, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, June 2012 to July 2013. RESULTS A total of 100 myringoplasties were performed on 50 patients included in the study. Majority of the patients included were having medium to large size

  9. Satisfactory surgical option for cartilage graft absorption in microtia reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Oh, Kap Sung

    2016-04-01

    We routinely perform auricular elevation at least 6 months after implantation of framework in microtia reconstruction using costal cartilage. However, in a few cases, cartilage graft absorption has occurred, which has led to contour irregularity with unfavorable long-term results. In the present study, we recount the details of using additional rib cartilage augmentation to achieve an accentuated contour in cartilage graft absorption cases. The cartilage graft absorption was defined as contour irregularity or cartilage graft deformation as evaluated by the surgeon and patient. Depending on the extent of cartilage graft absorption, another rib cartilage framework was added to the previously implanted framework, targeting the absorption area. We used banked cartilage or harvested new cartilage based on three-dimensional rib computed tomography. Additional recontouring of framework was conducted in eight patients who were examined for cartilage graft absorption from 1.5 to 5 years after implantation of the framework. Four patients received additional rib cartilage augmentation and tissue expander insertion simultaneously prior to auricular elevation. Two patients underwent auricular elevation simultaneously. In another two patients, additional rib cartilage augmentation was performed before auricular elevation. The mean follow-up period was 18 months, and in all cases reconstructive results were acceptable. Although further follow-up evaluation is required, additional rib cartilage augmentation is an attractive surgical option for cartilage graft absorption cases. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.

  11. Structural characterization and comparative analysis of human and piscine cartilage acidic protein (CRTAC1/CRTAC2)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Marta Lúcia Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2014 CRTAC (Cartilage Acidic Protein) firstly identified as a chondrocyte marker in humans and implicated in a number of diseases. This ancient protein is present from prokaryotes to vertebrates and the teleost are the only group that contain duplicates (CRTAC1/CRTAC2). The structure of CRTACs is poorly characterized and was the starting point of the present study. To establi...

  12. Degenerated human articular cartilage at autopsy represents preclinical osteoarthritic cartilage: comparison with clinically defined osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; Wenting, M. J.; Beekman, B.; te Koppele, J. M.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether macroscopically fibrillated human articular knee cartilage observed at autopsy can be considered an early, preclinical phase of osteoarthritis (OA). Histological and biochemical characteristics of 3 types of articular knee cartilage were compared: macroscopically degenerated

  13. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  14. Distraction arthroplasty compared to other cartilage preservation procedures in patients with post-traumatic arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jessica C; Beachler, Jason A

    2018-01-23

    Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is characterized by the deterioration of articular cartilage temporally associated with an articular injury. With a paucity of literature comparing joint preservation techniques, we performed a systematic review of the literature intending to describe and summarize the results of ankle distraction arthroplasty as it compares with studies on tibio-talar microfracture, allograft, and autograft for ankle joint preservation in the post-traumatic population under 50 years of age. Research databases were searched and abstracts screened for relevance on our topic of interest. Abstracts meeting screening criteria with high interobserver reliability underwent full-manuscript review and coding for pertinent citation, study level, treatment, and outcome variables. Outcome variables for patient-reported pain scales, validated outcome measurement tools, radiographic progression, reoperation/re-treatment rates, and complication rates were recorded. Out of 105 unique citations, 10 publications were included. The distraction arthroplasty studies had 36 out of 181 patients requiring reoperation for complications (19.9%), while other joint-preserving procedures studies had 40 out of 177 patients requiring reoperations for complications (22.6%). Clinical outcome scores at mean follow-up time ranging from 2 to 10 years between studies were similar. Reported results for a variety of cartilage preservation procedures, including distraction arthroplasty, are satisfactory and reoperation rates for complication are similar. Limitations in available data and underlying study quality affect synthesis of the results therein. While distraction arthroplasty is an option for cartilage preservation in patients with PTA of the ankle, the technique is highly specialized which may affect the external validity. III.

  15. 3D double-echo steady-state sequence assessment of hip joint cartilage and labrum at 3 Tesla: comparative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Christoph; Antoch, Gerald [University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hesper, Tobias; Rettegi, Fanni; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Ruediger; Bittersohl, Bernd [University of Dusseldorf, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Paradise Valley Hospital, Joint Preservation and Deformity Correction, San Diego, CA (United States); Tri-city Medical Center, Hip Preservation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of a high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence with radial imaging at 3 Tesla (T) for evaluating cartilage and labral alterations in the hip. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained at 3 T, including radially reformatted DESS images and intraoperative data of 45 patients (mean age 42 ± 13.7 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy, were compared. The acetabular cartilage and labrum of the upper hemisphere of the acetabulum and the central femoral head cartilage were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and negative and positive predictive values were determined. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the DESS technique were 96.7%, 75% and 93.7% for detecting cartilage lesions and 98%, 76.2% and 95.9% for detecting labral lesions. The positive and negative predictive values for detecting or ruling out cartilage lesions were 96% and 78.9%. For labral lesions, the positive and negative predictive values were 97.5% and 80%. A high-resolution, 3D DESS technique with radial imaging at 3 T demonstrated high accuracy for detecting hip cartilage and labral lesions with excellent interobserver agreement and moderate correlation between MRI and intraoperative assessment. (orig.)

  16. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  17. Shark Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shark cartilage (tough elastic tissue that provides support, much as bone does) used for medicine comes primarily from sharks ... Several types of extracts are made from shark cartilage including squalamine lactate, AE-941, and U-995. ...

  18. X-ray and CT findings of costal eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Zhanhai; Lin Zhengyu; Chen Yiguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT features of costal eosinophilic granuloma for a better understanding. Methods: Eight patients with costal eosinophilic granuloma proved by surgery or biopsy were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had X-ray plain film, 6 patients had CT examination, including a case of enhanced CT scan. Results: All 8 lesions were solitary. Six lesions were in the anterior rib and 2 in the posterior rib. On X-ray, all case showed single cavity and oval lesion with clear boundary. On CT images, 5 lesions demonstrated expansile destruction of bone with cortical bone thinning, and 3 were osteolystic destruction with soft tissue mass around. On the patient with enhanced CT scan, the lesions showed a moderate and uniform enhancement. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT findings of costal eosinophilic granuloma are characteristic. (authors)

  19. The imaging diagnosis of costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fa; Feng Shiting

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging features of costal eosinophilic granuloma so as to improve diagnosis accuracy of the disease. Methods: The clinical and imaging materials of 6 patients with costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma which were proved by surgery or histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. X-ray plain films were performed in all the cases, CT in 3 cases, 2 cases were received CT plain scan and I case received both CT plain scan and enhanced CT scan. Results: 4 cases of them located in the anterior ribs. All the lesions were round-like and 5 were single cavity and 1 was multiple cavities. 3 of them were expansile destruction and 3 were cystic destruction. Soft tissue mass around the lesion was identified. Conclusion: X-ray plain films integrating CT play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the costal eosinophilic granuloma. (authors)

  20. The heterozygous disproportionate micromelia (dmm) mouse: morphological changes in fetal cartilage precede postnatal dwarfism and compared with lethal homozygotes can explain the mild phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Robert E; Bomsta, Brandon D; Bridgewater, Laura C; Niederhauser, Cindy M; Montaño, Carolina; Sudweeks, Sterling; Eyre, David R; Fernandes, Russell J

    2008-11-01

    The disproportionate micromelia (Dmm) mouse has a mutation in the C-propeptide coding region of the Col2a1 gene that causes lethal dwarfism when homozygous (Dmm/Dmm) but causes only mild dwarfism observable approximately 1-week postpartum when heterozygous (Dmm/+). The purpose of this study was 2-fold: first, to analyze and quantify morphological changes that precede the expression of mild dwarfism in Dmm/+ animals, and second, to compare morphological alterations between Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal cartilage that may correlate with the marked skeletal differences between mild and lethal dwarfism. Light and electron transmission microscopy were used to visualize structure of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) of fetal rib cartilage. Both Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal rib cartilage had significantly larger chondrocytes, greater cell density, and less ECM per unit area than +/+ littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a decrease in aggrecan mRNA in Dmm/+ vs +/+ cartilage. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm cartilage was occupied by significantly more distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) compared with wild-type chondrocytes. Fibril diameters and packing densities of +/+ and Dmm/+ cartilage were similar, but Dmm/Dmm cartilage showed thinner, sparsely distributed fibrils. These findings support the prevailing hypothesis that a C-propeptide mutation could interrupt the normal assembly and secretion of Type II procollagen trimers, resulting in a buildup of proalpha1(II) chains in the RER and a reduced rate of matrix synthesis. Thus, intracellular entrapment of proalpha1(II) seems to be primarily responsible for the dominant-negative effect of the Dmm mutation in the expression of dwarfism.

  1. Diagnostic performance of CT-arthrography and 1.5T MR-arthrography for the assessment of glenohumeral joint cartilage: a comparative study with arthroscopic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoumi, Patrick [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc - Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Rubini, Alexandra; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E. [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc - Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Dubuc, Jean-Emile [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc - Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of multi-detector CT arthrography (CTA) and 1.5-T MR arthrography (MRA) in detecting hyaline cartilage lesions of the shoulder, with arthroscopic correlation. CTA and MRA prospectively obtained in 56 consecutive patients following the same arthrographic procedure were independently evaluated for glenohumeral cartilage lesions (modified Outerbridge grade ≥2 and grade 4) by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The cartilage surface was divided in 18 anatomical areas. Arthroscopy was taken as the reference standard. Diagnostic performance of CTA and MRA was compared using ROC analysis. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was determined by κ statistics. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA varied from 46.4 to 82.4 % and from 89.0 to 95.9 % respectively; sensitivity and specificity of MRA varied from 31.9 to 66.2 % and from 91.1 to 97.5 % respectively. Diagnostic performance of CTA was statistically significantly better than MRA for both readers (all p ≤ 0.04). Interobserver agreement for the evaluation of cartilage lesions was substantial with CTA (κ = 0.63) and moderate with MRA (κ = 0.54). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect with both CTA (κ = 0.94-0.95) and MRA (κ = 0.83-0.87). The diagnostic performance of CTA and MRA for the detection of glenohumeral cartilage lesions is moderate, although statistically significantly better with CTA. (orig.)

  2. Microdrilled cartilage defects treated with thrombin-solidified chitosan/blood implant regenerate a more hyaline, stable, and structurally integrated osteochondral unit compared to drilled controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Catherine; Chen, Gaoping; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Sun, Jun; Chen, Hongmei; Buschmann, Michael D; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzed the long-term cartilage and subchondral bone repair of microdrilled defects treated with chitosan glycerol-phosphate/blood implant, using thrombin (Factor IIa) to accelerate in situ solidification. We also evaluated the cartilage repair response to six smaller microdrill holes compared with two larger holes. Bilateral knee trochlear cartilage defects were created in n=8 skeletally mature rabbits, drilled with six proximal 0.5 mm and two distal 0.9 mm holes, then covered with in situ-solidified IIa-implants (treated) or with IIa-alone (control). After 6.5 months of repair, cartilage repair tissues were analyzed by histological scoring and histomorphometry for hyaline matrix characteristics and osseous integration. Subchondral repair bone was analyzed by 3D microcomputed tomography and compared to acute defects (n=6) and intact trochlea (n=8). Implant-treated cartilage repair tissues had higher structural integrity through the entire defect (p=0.02), twofold higher percent staining for glycosaminoglycan (p=0.0004), and ~24% more collagen type II staining over the smaller drill holes (p=0.008) compared with controls. Otherwise, hole diameter had no specific effect on cartilage repair. The subchondral bone plate was partially restored in treated and control defects but less dense than intact trochlea, with evidence of incomplete regeneration of the calcified cartilage layer. More residual drill holes (p=0.054) were detected in control versus treated defects, and control defects with more than 40% residual holes presented abnormally thicker trabeculae compared with treated defects. Low osteoclast numbers after 6.5 months repair suggested that bone was no longer remodeling. The subchondral bone plate surrounding the defects exhibited a significant thickening compared with age-matched intact trochlea. These data suggest that debridement and drilling can lead to long-term subchondral bone changes outside the cartilage defect. Compared with drilled

  3. Fracturas costales múltiples asociadas a tos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Bosio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La tos es un frecuente motivo de consulta en la práctica ambulatoria. Aunque generalmente es autolimitada, cuando es crónica e intensa puede ser causa de complicaciones como síncope, neumotórax o más raramente fracturas costales. Presentamos un paciente con fracturas costales múltiples inducidas por la tos. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por un centellograma solicitado luego de la sospecha clínica debida a la intensidad y persistencia del dolor y a pesar de no mostrar alteraciones en las radiografías convencionales. Un centellograma de control a los 5 meses mostró desaparición de los focos hipercaptantes. Las fracturas costales múltiples son una complicación infrecuente de la tos que debería considerarse cuando el dolor torácico es intenso y persistente aun con radiografía de tórax o parrilla costal normal.Multiple rib fractures associated with cough

  4. When is cartilage repair successful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S.; Schreiner, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [de

  5. Collateral sources of costal and crural diaphragmatic blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhat, D.; Magder, S.; Roussos, C.

    1985-01-01

    We measured the contribution of aortic, internal mammary, and intercostal arteries to the blood flow to the costal and crural segments of the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles in seven dogs breathing against a fixed inspiratory elastic load. We used radiolabeled microspheres to measure the blood flow with control circulation, occlusion of the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, combined occlusion of the aorta and both internal mammary arteries, and occlusion of internal mammary arteries alone. With occlusion of the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, blood flow to the crural diaphragm decreased from 40.3 to 23.5 ml . min-1 X 100 g-1, whereas costal flow did not change significantly (from 41.7 to 38.1 ml . min-1 . 100 g-1). Blood flows to the sternomastoid and scalene muscles (above the occlusion) increased by 200 and 340%, respectively, whereas flows to the other respiratory muscles did not change significantly. Blood flows to organs above the occlusion either remained unchanged or increased, whereas flows to those below the occlusion all decreased. When the internal mammary artery was also occluded, flows to the crural segment decreased further to 12.1 and costal flow decreased to 20.4 ml X min-1 X 100 g-1. Internal mammary arterial occlusion alone in two dogs had no effect on diaphragmatic flow. In conclusion, intercostal collateral vessels are capable of supplying a significant proportion of blood flow to both segments of the diaphragm but the costal segment is better served than the crural segment

  6. Comparative study of new autologous material, bone-cartilage composite graft, for ossiculoplasty with Polycel® and Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J S; Jeong, C Y; Shim, M J; Kim, W J; Yeo, S W; Park, S N

    2018-04-01

    Ossiculoplasty is a surgical procedure that recreates sound transmission of the middle ear in conductive hearing loss. Various materials have been used for ossicular reconstruction, but the most ideal material for ossiculoplasty remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel method of autologous ossiculoplasty, bone-cartilage composite graft (BCCG) and to compare its surgical results with different types of ossiculoplastic prostheses. A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary referral centre. Data of 275 patients who received ossiculoplasty using the three different materials of BCCG, Polycel ® and titanium were analysed according to type of ossiculoplasty: partial or total ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP or TORP). Hearing results, complication rates and clinical parameters including age, sex, past history, preoperative diagnosis and surgery type were compared among different groups. Ossiculoplasty with BCCG showed satisfactory hearing outcomes and the lowest complication rate among the three different materials. In particular, its extrusion rate was 0%. We propose that the BCCG technique is a useful alternative method for ossiculoplasty, with proper patient selection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Cartilage Marker Gene Expression Patterns during Axolotl and Xenopus Limb Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Mitogawa

    Full Text Available Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum can completely regenerate lost limbs, whereas Xenopus laevis frogs cannot. During limb regeneration, a blastema is first formed at the amputation plane. It is thought that this regeneration blastema forms a limb by mechanisms similar to those of a developing embryonic limb bud. Furthermore, Xenopus laevis frogs can form a blastema after amputation; however, the blastema results in a terminal cone-shaped cartilaginous structure called a "spike." The causes of this patterning defect in Xenopus frog limb regeneration were explored. We hypothesized that differences in chondrogenesis may underlie the patterning defect. Thus, we focused on chondrogenesis. Chondrogenesis marker genes, type I and type II collagen, were compared in regenerative and nonregenerative environments. There were marked differences between axolotls and Xenopus in the expression pattern of these chondrogenesis-associated genes. The relative deficit in the chondrogenic capacity of Xenopus blastema cells may account for the absence of total limb regenerative capacity.

  8. Setup of Columellar Height with Costal Cartilage Graft Modification in a Patient with Binder Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Uygur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Binder syndrome is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the nose and maxilla and altered morphology of the associated soft tissue. We present a surgical technique for setting up the columellar height in a patient with Binder syndrome.

  9. Human osteoarthritic cartilage is synthetically more active but in culture less vital than normal cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; van Roy, H.; Wilbrink, B.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The proteoglycan turnover of human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage was compared to that of normal (N) cartilage. The cartilage was obtained postmortem from human femoral knee condyles. Short term cultures were compared to longterm cultures, and proteoglycan synthesis rate, content and release

  10. Osteochondral Biopsy Analysis Demonstrates That BST-CarGel Treatment Improves Structural and Cellular Characteristics of Cartilage Repair Tissue Compared With Microfracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Stéphane; Changoor, Adele; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Stanish, William D.; Restrepo, Alberto; Shive, Matthew S.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The efficacy and safety of BST-CarGel, a chitosan-based medical device for cartilage repair, was compared with microfracture alone at 1 year during a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the knee. The quality of repair tissue of osteochondral biopsies collected from a subset of patients was compared using blinded histological assessments. Methods The international RCT evaluated repair tissue quantity and quality by 3-dimensional quantitative magnetic resonance imaging as co-primary endpoints at 12 months. At an average of 13 months posttreatment, 21/41 BST-CarGel and 17/39 microfracture patients underwent elective second look arthroscopies as a tertiary endpoint, during which ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) macroscopic scoring was carried out, and osteochondral biopsies were collected. Stained histological sections were evaluated by blinded readers using ICRS I and II histological scoring systems. Collagen organization was evaluated using a polarized light microscopy score. Results BST-CarGel treatment resulted in significantly better ICRS macroscopic scores (P = 0.0002) compared with microfracture alone, indicating better filling, integration, and tissue appearance. Histologically, BST-CarGel resulted in a significant improvement of structural parameters—Surface Architecture (P = 0.007) and Surface/Superficial Assessment (P = 0.042)—as well as cellular parameters—Cell Viability (P = 0.006) and Cell Distribution (P = 0.032). No histological parameters were significantly better for the microfracture group. BST-CarGel treatment also resulted in a more organized repair tissue with collagen stratification more similar to native hyaline cartilage, as measured by polarized light microscopy scoring (P = 0.0003). Conclusion Multiple and independent analyses in this biopsy substudy demonstrated that BST-CarGel treatment results in improved structural and cellular characteristics of repair tissue at 1 year posttreatment compared with

  11. Growth factor effects on costal chondrocytes for tissue engineering fibrocartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, D.E.; Athanasiou, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineered fibrocartilage could become a feasible option for replacing tissues like the knee meniscus or temporomandibular joint disc. This study employed five growth factors insulin-like growth factor-I, transforming growth factor-β1, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and basic fibroblast growth factor in a scaffoldless approach with costal chondrocytes, attempting to improve biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered constructs. Samples were quantitatively assessed for total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, collagen type I, collagen type II, cells, compressive properties, and tensile properties at two time points. Most treated constructs were worse than the no growth factor control, suggesting a detrimental effect, but the IGF treatment tended to improve the constructs. Additionally, the 6wk time point was consistently better than 3wks, with total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and aggregate modulus doubling during this time. Further optimization of the time in culture and exogenous stimuli will be important in making a more functional replacement tissue. PMID:18597118

  12. The effect of magnesium ion concentration on the fibrocartilage regeneration potential of goat costal chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagandora, Catherine K; Tudares, Mauro A; Almarza, Alejandro J

    2012-03-01

    Magnesium has recently been explored as a potential biomaterial for degradable orthopedic implants but its effect on fibrocartilage remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of high concentrations of magnesium ions on the matrix production of goat costal fibrochondrocytes in vitro. Cells were cultured using a scaffoldless approach with media containing magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) or magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) at concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 mM in addition to the baseline magnesium concentration of 0.8 mM MgSO(4). At 4 weeks, there were no significant differences in compressive tangent modulus and total matrix production between constructs cultured in 20 mM Mg(2+) and the 0.8 mM Mg(2+) control (435 ± 47 kPa). There was a significant decrease in compressive tangent modulus compared to the 0.8 mM Mg(2+) constructs in the 50 mM MgCl(2) and MgSO(4) groups, while the 100 mM groups were not mechanically testable (p < 0.05). The collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of the 50 and 100 mM MgCl(2) and MgSO(4) constructs was significantly lower than the control (6.9 ± 0.5% and 16.5 ± 1.3% per dry weight, respectively) (p < 0.05). The results show that goat costal fibrochondrocytes exhibit a high degree of resiliency to magnesium ion concentrations up to 20 mM in vitro.

  13. Local changes in proteoglycan synthesis during culture are different for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; van der Kraan, P. M.; van Roy, H. L.; Vitters, E. L.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van den Berg, W. B.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Proteoglycan synthesis of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritic human knee cartilage was compared with that of normal cartilage of the same donor. Immediately after cartilage was obtained, the synthesis rate of proteoglycans was higher for osteoarthritic cartilage than for normal cartilage. Proteoglycan

  14. Comparable Senescence Induction in Three-dimensional Human Cartilage Model by Exposure to Therapeutic Doses of X-rays or C-ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Dounia Houria; Chevalier, François; Groetz, Jean-Emmanuel; Durantel, Florent; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Mann, Carl; Saintigny, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Particle therapy using carbon ions (C-ions) has been successfully used in the treatment of tumors resistant to conventional radiation therapy. However, the potential side effects to healthy cartilage exposed to lower linear energy transfer (LET) ions in the beam track before the tumor have not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent of damage after C-ion irradiation in a 3-dimensional (3D) cartilage model close to human homeostasis. Primary human articular chondrocytes from a healthy donor were cultured in a collagen scaffold to construct a physioxic 3D cartilage model. A 2-dimensional (2D) culture was used as a reference. The cells were irradiated with a single dose of a monoenergetic C-ion beam with a LET of approximatively 30 keV/μm. This LET corresponds to the entrance channel of C-ions in the shallow healthy tissues before the spread-out Bragg peak (∼100 keV/μm) during hadron therapy protocols. The same dose of X-rays was used as a reference. Survival, cell death, and senescence assays were performed. As expected, in the 2D culture, C-ions were more efficient than X-rays in reducing cell survival with a relative biological effectiveness of 2.6. This correlated with stronger radiation-induced senescence (two-fold) but not with higher cell death induction. This differential effect was not reflected in the 3D culture. Both ionizing radiation types induced a comparable rate of senescence induction in the 3D model. The greater biological effectiveness of C-ions compared with low LET radiation when evaluated in treatment planning systems might be misevaluated using 2D culture experiments. Radiation-induced senescence is an important factor of potential cartilage attrition. The present data should encourage the scientific community to use relevant models and beams to improve the use of charged particles with better safety for patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparable Senescence Induction in Three-dimensional Human Cartilage Model by Exposure to Therapeutic Doses of X-rays or C-ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, Dounia Houria; Chevalier, François [Laboratoire d' Accueil et de Recherche avec les Ions Accélérés (LARIA), Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire (IRCM), Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale - DRF, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Caen (France); Groetz, Jean-Emmanuel [UMR6249, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon (France); Durantel, Florent [UMR6252, Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF), Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Caen (France); Thuret, Jean-Yves; Mann, Carl [FRE3377, Service de Biologie Intégrative et Génétique Moléculaire SBIGeM, Institut de Biologie et de Technologies de Saclay (iBiTec-S), Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF), Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Biologie Intégrative de la Cellule I2BC / Université Paris Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Particle therapy using carbon ions (C-ions) has been successfully used in the treatment of tumors resistant to conventional radiation therapy. However, the potential side effects to healthy cartilage exposed to lower linear energy transfer (LET) ions in the beam track before the tumor have not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent of damage after C-ion irradiation in a 3-dimensional (3D) cartilage model close to human homeostasis. Methods and Materials: Primary human articular chondrocytes from a healthy donor were cultured in a collagen scaffold to construct a physioxic 3D cartilage model. A 2-dimensional (2D) culture was used as a reference. The cells were irradiated with a single dose of a monoenergetic C-ion beam with a LET of approximatively 30 keV/μm. This LET corresponds to the entrance channel of C-ions in the shallow healthy tissues before the spread-out Bragg peak (∼100 keV/μm) during hadron therapy protocols. The same dose of X-rays was used as a reference. Survival, cell death, and senescence assays were performed. Results: As expected, in the 2D culture, C-ions were more efficient than X-rays in reducing cell survival with a relative biological effectiveness of 2.6. This correlated with stronger radiation-induced senescence (two-fold) but not with higher cell death induction. This differential effect was not reflected in the 3D culture. Both ionizing radiation types induced a comparable rate of senescence induction in the 3D model. Conclusions: The greater biological effectiveness of C-ions compared with low LET radiation when evaluated in treatment planning systems might be misevaluated using 2D culture experiments. Radiation-induced senescence is an important factor of potential cartilage attrition. The present data should encourage the scientific community to use relevant models and beams to improve the use of charged particles with better safety for patients.

  16. Magnetically targeted delivery through cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Sahar; Mair, Lamar O.; Chowdhury, Sagar; Nacev, Alek; Hilaman, Ryan; Stepanov, Pavel; Baker-McKee, James; Ijanaten, Said; Koudelka, Christian; English, Bradley; Malik, Pulkit; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we have invented a method of delivering drugs deep into articular cartilage with shaped dynamic magnetic fields acting on small metallic magnetic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coating and average diameter of 30 nm. It was shown that transport of magnetic nanoparticles through the entire thickness of bovine articular cartilage can be controlled by a combined alternating magnetic field at 100 Hz frequency and static magnetic field of 0.8 tesla (T) generated by 1" dia. x 2" thick permanent magnet. Magnetic nanoparticles transport through bovine articular cartilage samples was investigated at various settings of magnetic field and time durations. Combined application of an alternating magnetic field and the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 50 times increase in magnetic nanoparticles transport in bovine articular cartilage tissue as compared with static field conditions. This method can be applied to locally deliver therapeutic-loaded magnetic nanoparticles deep into articular cartilage to prevent cartilage degeneration and promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

  17. Magnetically targeted delivery through cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Jafari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have invented a method of delivering drugs deep into articular cartilage with shaped dynamic magnetic fields acting on small metallic magnetic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coating and average diameter of 30 nm. It was shown that transport of magnetic nanoparticles through the entire thickness of bovine articular cartilage can be controlled by a combined alternating magnetic field at 100 Hz frequency and static magnetic field of 0.8 tesla (T generated by 1" dia. x 2" thick permanent magnet. Magnetic nanoparticles transport through bovine articular cartilage samples was investigated at various settings of magnetic field and time durations. Combined application of an alternating magnetic field and the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 50 times increase in magnetic nanoparticles transport in bovine articular cartilage tissue as compared with static field conditions. This method can be applied to locally deliver therapeutic-loaded magnetic nanoparticles deep into articular cartilage to prevent cartilage degeneration and promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

  18. Predicting knee cartilage loss using adaptive partitioning of cartilage thickness maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Dan Richter; Dam, Erik Bjørnager; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether measures of knee cartilage thickness can predict future loss of knee cartilage. A slow and a rapid progressor group was determined using longitudinal data, and anatomically aligned cartilage thickness maps were extracted from MRI at baseline. A novel machine learning...... framework was then trained using these maps. Compared to measures of mean cartilage plate thickness, group separation was increased by focusing on local cartilage differences. This result is central for clinical trials where inclusion of rapid progressors may help reduce the period needed to study effects...

  19. Cartilage-selective genes identified in genome-scale analysis of non-cartilage and cartilage gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Zachary A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartilage plays a fundamental role in the development of the human skeleton. Early in embryogenesis, mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes to shape the early skeleton. Subsequently, the cartilage anlagen differentiate to form the growth plates, which are responsible for linear bone growth, and the articular chondrocytes, which facilitate joint function. However, despite the multiplicity of roles of cartilage during human fetal life, surprisingly little is known about its transcriptome. To address this, a whole genome microarray expression profile was generated using RNA isolated from 18–22 week human distal femur fetal cartilage and compared with a database of control normal human tissues aggregated at UCLA, termed Celsius. Results 161 cartilage-selective genes were identified, defined as genes significantly expressed in cartilage with low expression and little variation across a panel of 34 non-cartilage tissues. Among these 161 genes were cartilage-specific genes such as cartilage collagen genes and 25 genes which have been associated with skeletal phenotypes in humans and/or mice. Many of the other cartilage-selective genes do not have established roles in cartilage or are novel, unannotated genes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the unique pattern of gene expression observed by microarray analysis. Conclusion Defining the gene expression pattern for cartilage has identified new genes that may contribute to human skeletogenesis as well as provided further candidate genes for skeletal dysplasias. The data suggest that fetal cartilage is a complex and transcriptionally active tissue and demonstrate that the set of genes selectively expressed in the tissue has been greatly underestimated.

  20. In Vivo Tibial Cartilage Strains in Regions of Cartilage-to-Cartilage Contact and Cartilage-to-Meniscus Contact in Response to Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Betty; Lad, Nimit K; Collins, Amber T; Ganapathy, Pramodh K; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; McNulty, Amy L; Spritzer, Charles E; Moorman, Claude T; Sutter, E Grant; Garrett, William E; DeFrate, Louis E

    2017-10-01

    There are currently limited human in vivo data characterizing the role of the meniscus in load distribution within the tibiofemoral joint. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the strains experienced in regions of articular cartilage covered by the meniscus to regions of cartilage not covered by the meniscus. It was hypothesized that in response to walking, tibial cartilage covered by the meniscus would experience lower strains than uncovered tibial cartilage. Descriptive laboratory study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knees of 8 healthy volunteers was performed before and after walking on a treadmill. Using MRI-generated 3-dimensional models of the tibia, cartilage, and menisci, cartilage thickness was measured in 4 different regions based on meniscal coverage and compartment: covered medial, uncovered medial, covered lateral, and uncovered lateral. Strain was defined as the normalized change in cartilage thickness before and after activity. Within each compartment, covered cartilage before activity was significantly thinner than uncovered cartilage before activity ( P meniscus experiences lower strains than uncovered cartilage in the medial compartment. These findings provide important baseline information on the relationship between in vivo tibial compressive strain responses and meniscal coverage, which is critical to understanding normal meniscal function.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and collagen IX null mouse cartilage reveals altered extracellular matrix composition and novel components of the collagen IX interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachvogel, Bent; Zaucke, Frank; Dave, Keyur; Norris, Emma L; Stermann, Jacek; Dayakli, Münire; Koch, Manuel; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Bateman, John F; Wilson, Richard

    2013-05-10

    Collagen IX is an integral cartilage extracellular matrix component important in skeletal development and joint function. Proteomic analysis and validation studies revealed novel alterations in collagen IX null cartilage. Matrilin-4, collagen XII, thrombospondin-4, fibronectin, βig-h3, and epiphycan are components of the in vivo collagen IX interactome. We applied a proteomics approach to advance our understanding of collagen IX ablation in cartilage. The cartilage extracellular matrix is essential for endochondral bone development and joint function. In addition to the major aggrecan/collagen II framework, the interacting complex of collagen IX, matrilin-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is essential for cartilage matrix stability, as mutations in Col9a1, Col9a2, Col9a3, Comp, and Matn3 genes cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, in which patients develop early onset osteoarthritis. In mice, collagen IX ablation results in severely disturbed growth plate organization, hypocellular regions, and abnormal chondrocyte shape. This abnormal differentiation is likely to involve altered cell-matrix interactions but the mechanism is not known. To investigate the molecular basis of the collagen IX null phenotype we analyzed global differences in protein abundance between wild-type and knock-out femoral head cartilage by capillary HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 297 proteins in 3-day cartilage and 397 proteins in 21-day cartilage. Components that were differentially abundant between wild-type and collagen IX-deficient cartilage included 15 extracellular matrix proteins. Collagen IX ablation was associated with dramatically reduced COMP and matrilin-3, consistent with known interactions. Matrilin-1, matrilin-4, epiphycan, and thrombospondin-4 levels were reduced in collagen IX null cartilage, providing the first in vivo evidence for these proteins belonging to the collagen IX interactome. Thrombospondin-4 expression was reduced at the mRNA level

  2. Spider fauna in Caspian Costal region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Sahra

    2007-03-01

    The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L. Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P. Cambridge, 1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802),Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L. Koch, Theridion simile C.L. Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck

  3. Imaging of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  4. Laser-induced modification of structure and shape of cartilage in otolaryngology and orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol', E. N.; Baum, O. I.; Omel'chenko, A. I.; Soshnikova, Yu. M.; Yuzhakov, A. V.; Kas'yanenko, E. M.; Tokareva, A. V.; Baskov, A. V.; Svistushkin, V. M.; Selezneva, L. V.; Shekhter, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of basic research in laser modification of tissues in otolaryngology (correcting the shape of nasal septum and larynx cartilages), cosmetology (correcting ear and nose shape), orthopaedics and spinal surgery (treatment of diseases of spine disc and joints). The physical processes and mechanisms of laser-induced relaxation of stresses and regeneration of tissues are considered. New results of studies in this fast-developing field of laser surgery are presented, in particular, the results of laser correction of costal cartilage shape in the process of making implants for the treatment of larynx stenosis and controlled regeneration of the hyaline articular cartilage. Presented at the Fundamentals of Laser Assisted Micro- and Nanotechnologies (FLAMN-2016) International Symposium (Pushkin, Leningrad oblast, 27 June to 1 July 2016).

  5. Elastic cartilage reconstruction by transplantation of cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M; Takebe, T; Kobayashi, S; Kimura, S; Masutani, M; Lee, S; Jo, Y H; Lee, J I; Taniguchi, H

    2014-05-01

    Current surgical intervention of craniofacial defects caused by injuries or abnormalities uses reconstructive materials, such as autologous cartilage grafts. Transplantation of autologous tissues, however, places a significant invasiveness on patients, and many efforts have been made for establishing an alternative graft. Recently, we and others have shown the potential use of reconstructed elastic cartilage from ear-derived chondrocytes or progenitors with the unique elastic properties. Here, we examined the differentiation potential of canine joint cartilage-derived chondrocytes into elastic cartilage for expanding the cell sources, such as hyaline cartilage. Articular chondrocytes are isolated from canine joint, cultivated, and compared regarding characteristic differences with auricular chondrocytes, including proliferation rates, gene expression, extracellular matrix production, and cartilage reconstruction capability after transplantation. Canine articular chondrocytes proliferated less robustly than auricular chondrocytes, but there was no significant difference in the amount of sulfated glycosaminoglycan produced from redifferentiated chondrocytes. Furthermore, in vitro expanded and redifferentiated articular chondrocytes have been shown to reconstruct elastic cartilage on transplantation that has histologic characteristics distinct from hyaline cartilage. Taken together, cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes are a possible cell source for elastic cartilage reconstruction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyaline cartilage cells outperform mandibular condylar cartilage cells in a TMJ fibrocartilage tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Lazebnik, M; Detamore, M S

    2009-03-01

    To compare temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage cells in vitro to hyaline cartilage cells cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) environment for tissue engineering of mandibular condylar cartilage. Mandibular condylar cartilage and hyaline cartilage cells were harvested from pigs and cultured for 6 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds. Both types of cells were treated with glucosamine sulfate (0.4 mM), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (100 ng/ml) and their combination. At weeks 0 and 6, cell number, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content were determined, types I and II collagen were visualized by immunohistochemistry and GAGs were visualized by histology. Hyaline cartilage cells produced from half an order to a full order of magnitude more GAGs and collagen than mandibular condylar cartilage cells in 3D culture. IGF-I was a highly effective signal for biosynthesis with hyaline cartilage cells, while glucosamine sulfate decreased cell proliferation and biosynthesis with both types of cells. In vitro culture of TMJ condylar cartilage cells produced a fibrous tissue with predominantly type I collagen, while hyaline cartilage cells formed a fibrocartilage-like tissue with types I and II collagen. The combination of IGF and glucosamine had a synergistic effect on maintaining the phenotype of TMJ condylar cells to generate both types I and II collagen. Given the superior biosynthetic activity by hyaline cartilage cells and the practical surgical limitations of harvesting cells from the TMJ of a patient requiring TMJ reconstruction, cartilage cells from elsewhere in the body may be a potentially better alternative to cells harvested from the TMJ for TMJ tissue engineering. This finding may also apply to other fibrocartilages such as the intervertebral disc and knee meniscus in applications where a mature cartilage cell source is desired.

  7. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hakil; Lee, Hyun Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  8. Which cartilage is regenerated, hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage? Non-invasive ultrasonic evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K; Takakura, Y; Ohgushi, H; Habata, T; Uematsu, K; Takenaka, M; Ikeuchi, K

    2004-09-01

    To investigate ultrasonic evaluation methods for detecting whether the repair tissue is hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in new cartilage regeneration therapy. We examined four experimental rabbit models: a spontaneous repair model (group S), a large cartilage defect model (group L), a periosteal graft model (group P) and a tissue-engineered cartilage regeneration model (group T). From the resulting ultrasonic evaluation, we used %MM (the maximum magnitude of the measurement area divided by that of the intact cartilage) as a quantitative index of cartilage regeneration. The results of the ultrasonic evaluation were compared with the histological findings and histological score. The %MM values were 61.1 +/- 16.5% in group S, 29.8 +/- 15.1% in group L, 36.3 +/- 18.3% in group P and 76.5 +/- 18.7% in group T. The results showed a strong similarity to the histological scoring. The ultrasonic examination showed that all the hyaline-like cartilage in groups S and T had a high %MM (more than 60%). Therefore, we could define the borderline between the two types of regenerated cartilage by the %MM.

  9. MRI evaluation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Wu Zhenhua; Fan Guoguang; Pan Shinong; Guo Qiyong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the MRI manifestation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee for evaluating the extension and degree of the injury and guiding treatment. Methods: MRI of 34 patients with acute articular cartilage injury of knee within one day to fifteen days confirmed by arthroscopy and arthrotomy was reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on articular cartilage and subchondral lesion. And every manifestation on MRI and that of arthroscopy and operation was compared. Results: The articular cartilage injury was diagnosed on MRI in 29 of 34 cases. Cartilage signal changes were found only in 4. The changes of cartilage shape were variable. Thinning of focal cartilage was showed in 3, osteochondral impaction in 3, creases of cartilage in 3, disrupted cartilage with fissuring in 13, cracks cartilage in 2, and cracks cartilage with displaced fragment in 1. Bone bruise and occult fracture were found only on MRI. Conclusion: The assessment of MRI and arthroscopy in acute articular cartilage injury are consistent. Combined with arthroscopy, MRI can succeed in assessing the extension and degree of acute articular injury and allowing treatment planning

  10. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  11. The costal landslide from analogue experiments: perspectives and limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ventisette, C.; Nolesini, T.; Moretti, S.; Fanti, R.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the triggering mechanism of coastal landslides (triggered and/or developed at air-water interface) and their evolution is fundamental to evaluate their hazard and, predicting the energy, the associated tsunami risk. The aim of this work is to verify the suitability of analogue modelling to understand the triggering mechanism and the evolution of landslide along the costal line. As a starting case study the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF), northwest flank of the volcanic island of Stromboli (Italy), was chosen. The analogue modelling technique has been proven to represent an useful tool to understand many geological processes, as it allows studying the progressive deformation, providing also useful indications about the role of distinct factors controlling the final deformation pattern. The models simulated at a first approximation the geological geometries observed at Stromboli, a composite volcano forming the northernmost island of the Aeolian Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea). The activity of Stromboli volcano is characterized by a persistent mild explosive activity at the summit craters sporadically interrupted by episodes of lava effusion and violent paroxysmal explosions as in 2002-2003 and in 2007. During the 2002 effusion a large landslide occurred on the SdF. The landslide caused a tsunami, which produced severe damages along the island shores. A series of analogue models was performed to investigate the influence of two different types of triggering mechanism and the behaviour of landslides both in air and air-water interface: 1) surface bulging due to the intrusion of a dike; 2) accumulation of material due to an uppermost landslide or due to opening of a new vent. The models, constructed in a Plexiglas tank, were scaled to the natural prototype following the geometrical, rheological, kinematical and dynamical similarities (e.g. Hubbert, 1937; Ramberg, 1981). The modelling material (Fontainbleau sand and rice) was sieved on a slope, inclination of which

  12. Midbrain and medullary control of postinspiratory activity of the crural and costal diaphragm in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert

    Subramanian HH, Holstege G. Midbrain and medullary control of postinspiratory activity of the crural and costal diaphragm in vivo. J Neurophysiol 105: 2852-2862, 2011. First published March 30, 2011; doi:10.1152/jn.00168.2011.-Studies on brain stem respiratory neurons suggest that eupnea consists of

  13. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The urinary level of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to estrogen holds true for other type...... II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...... rats receiving estrogen or not. Levels of PIIANP, a marker of type II collagen synthesis, were also measured in rats. Rat knee cartilage was analyzed for immunoreactivity of CTX-II and PIIANP and for type II collagen expression. RESULTS: As expected, urinary levels of CTX-II are significantly increased...

  14. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation and functional cartilage microtissue formation for in vivo cartilage regeneration by cartilage extracellular matrix-derived particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Heyong; Wang, Yu; Sun, Zhen; Sun, Xun; Xu, Yichi; Li, Pan; Meng, Haoye; Yu, Xiaoming; Xiao, Bo; Fan, Tian; Wang, Yiguo; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Aiyuan; Guo, Quanyi; Peng, Jiang; Lu, Shibi

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method of preparing a novel cell carrier derived from natural cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), designated cartilage ECM-derived particles (CEDPs). Through a series of processes involving pulverization, sieving, and decellularization, fresh cartilage was made into CEDPs with a median diameter of 263 ± 48 μm. Under microgravity culture conditions in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can proliferate rapidly on the surface of CEDPs with high viability. Histological evaluation and gene expression analysis indicated that BMSCs were differentiated into mature chondrocytes after 21 days of culture without the use of exogenous growth factors. Functional cartilage microtissue aggregates of BMSC-laden CEDPs formed as time in culture increased. Further, the microtissue aggregates were directly implanted into trochlear cartilage defects in a rat model (CEDP+MSC group). Gait analysis and histological results indicated that the CEDP+MSC group obtained better and more rapid joint function recovery and superior cartilage repair compared to the control groups, in which defects were treated with CEDPs alone or only fibrin glue, at both 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. In conclusion, the innovative cell carrier derived from cartilage ECM could promote chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and the direct use of functional cartilage microtissue facilitated cartilage regeneration. This strategy for cell culture, stem cell differentiation and one-step surgery using cartilage microtissue for cartilage repair provides novel prospects for cartilage tissue engineering and may have further broad clinical applications. We proposed a method to prepare a novel cell carrier derived from natural cartilage ECM, termed cartilage ECM-derived particles (CEDPs), which can support proliferation of MSCs and facilitate their chondrogenic differentiation. Further, the direct use of functional cartilage microtissue of MSC-laden CEDP aggregates for

  15. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung-Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung-Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hakil [INHA University, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Young [Ajou University Medical Center, Regional Clinical Trial Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwack, Kyu-Sung [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  16. Degeneration of osteoarthritis cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Dan Richter

    of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring disease progression. This thesis investigates how subregional measures of cartilage thickness can be used to improve upon current imaging biomarkers. The first part of this investigation aims to discover discriminative areas in the cartilage using machine......-learning techniques specifically developed to take advantage of the spatial nature of the problem. The methods were evaluated on data from a longitudinal study where detailed cartilage thickness maps were quantified from magnetic resonance images. The results showed that focal differences in cartilage thickness may...... be relevant for both OA diagnosis and for prediction of future cartilage loss. The second part of the thesis investigates spatial patterns of longitudinal cartilage thickness changes in healthy and OA knees. Based on our findings, we propose a new, conceptually simple biomarker that embraces the heterogeneous...

  17. A novel nano-structured porous polycaprolactone scaffold improves hyaline cartilage repair in a rabbit model compared to a collagen type I/III scaffold: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hansen, Ole Møller; Kristiansen, Asger Albæk; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Nielsen, Agnete Desirée; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Bünger, Cody Erik; Lind, Martin

    2012-06-01

    To develop a nano-structured porous polycaprolactone (NSP-PCL) scaffold and compare the articular cartilage repair potential with that of a commercially available collagen type I/III (Chondro-Gide) scaffold. By combining rapid prototyping and thermally induced phase separation, the NSP-PCL scaffold was produced for matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation. Lyophilizing a water-dioxane-PCL solution created micro and nano-pores. In vitro: The scaffolds were seeded with rabbit chondrocytes and cultured in hypoxia for 6 days. qRT-PCR was performed using primers for sox9, aggrecan, collagen type 1 and 2. In vivo: 15 New Zealand White Rabbits received bilateral osteochondral defects in the femoral intercondylar grooves. Autologous chondrocytes were harvested 4 weeks prior to surgery. There were 3 treatment groups: (1) NSP-PCL scaffold without cells. (2) The Chondro-Gide scaffold with autologous chondrocytes and (3) NSP-PCL scaffold with autologous chondrocytes. Observation period was 13 weeks. Histological evaluation was made using the O'Driscoll score. In vitro: The expressions of sox9 and aggrecan were higher in the NSP-PCL scaffold, while expression of collagen 1 was lower compared to the Chondro-Gide scaffold. In vivo: Both NSP-PCL scaffolds with and without cells scored significantly higher than the Chondro-Gide scaffold when looking at the structural integrity and the surface regularity of the repair tissue. No differences were found between the NSP-PCL scaffold with and without cells. The NSP-PCL scaffold demonstrated higher in vitro expression of chondrogenic markers and had higher in vivo histological scores compared to the Chondro-Gide scaffold. The improved chondrocytic differentiation can potentially produce more hyaline cartilage during clinical cartilage repair. It appears to be a suitable cell-free implant for hyaline cartilage repair and could provide a less costly and more effective treatment option than the Chondro-Gide scaffold with cells.

  18. Imaging diagnosis of the articular cartilage disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sirun; Zhu Tianyuan; Huang Li; Leng Xiaoming

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis among the chronic osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic cartilage lesions on the plain films and MR images. Methods: Eighty-nine cases, including 115 joints, underwent plain film and MRI examination, and enhanced MRI scan was performed on 32 of them, including 44 joints. MRI scan sequences consisted of T 1 WI, T 2 WI + PDWI, STIR, and 3D FS SPGR. There were 90 knee joints in this group and each of the articular cartilage was divided into four parts: patella, femoral medial condyle, femoral lateral condyle, and tibia facet on MR images. The cartilage disorders were classified according to the outerbridge method. In addition, 61 cases including 75 joints were observed as a control group on the plain films and MR images. Results: 115 cartilage lesions were found on MR images, in which thinness of the cartilage (58 cases, 50.4%), bone changes under the cartilage (22 cases, 19.7%), medullar edema (22 cases, 19.7%), and synovial hyperplasia (52 cases, 45.2%) were seen. The patella cartilage was the most likely affected part (81/90, 90%). So the patellar cartilage lesions were divided as group 1 (grade I-II) and group 2 (grade III-IV) on MR images, which were compared with the plain film signs. The narrowing of the joint space and saccules under the articular surface were statistically significant with each other, and χ 2 values were 9.349 and 9.885, respectively (P=0.002). Conclusion: No constant signs could be seen on the plain films with grade I-II cartilage disorders. While the narrowing joint space and saccules under the joint surface could be seen on them with grade III-IV cartilage disorders, which were mainly correlated with the cartilage disorders and bone changes under the articular cartilages. A combination of the plain films and MR images is the best imaging method for examining the joints and joint cartilages. Enhanced MRI scan is very helpful on the diagnosis and differential

  19. The response to oestrogen deprivation of the cartilage collagen degradation marker, CTX-II, is unique compared with other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine C B; Sondergaard, Lene V

    2009-01-01

    The urinary level of the type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomised rats, suggesting that oestrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to oestrogen is also true for other type II collagen tu...

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savkovic, Vuk; Li, Hanluo; Seon, Jong-Keun; Hacker, Michael; Franz, Sandra; Simon, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage provides life-long weight-bearing and mechanical lubrication with extraordinary biomechanical performance and simple structure. However, articular cartilage is apparently vulnerable to multifactorial damage and insufficient to self-repair, isolated in articular capsule without nerves or blood vessels. Osteoarthritis (OA) is known as a degenerative articular cartilage deficiency progressively affecting large proportion of the world population, and restoration of hyaline cartilage is clinical challenge to repair articular cartilage lesion and recreate normal functionality over long period. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are highly proliferative and multipotent somatic cells that are able to differentiate mesoderm-derived cells including chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Continuous endeavors in basic research and preclinical trial have achieved promising outcomes in cartilage regeneration using MSCs. This review focuses on rationale and technologies of MSC-based hyaline cartilage repair involving tissue engineering, 3D biomaterials and growth factors. By comparing conventional treatment and current research progress, we describe insights of advantage and challenge in translation and application of MSC-based chondrogenesis for OA treatment.

  1. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  2. Magnetization transfer analysis of cartilage repair tissue: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, F.; Keyzer, F. de; Maes, F.; Breuseghem, I. van

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) after two different cartilage repair procedures, and to compare these data with the MTR of normal cartilage. Twenty-seven patients with a proven cartilage defect were recruited: 13 were treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and 14 were treated with the microfracture technique (MFR). All patients underwent MRI examinations with MT-sequences before the surgical treatment, after 12 months (26 patients) and after 24 months (11 patients). Eleven patients received a complete follow-up study at all three time points (five of the ACI group and six of the MFR group). All images were transferred to a workstation to calculate MTR images. For every MT image set, different ROIs were delineated by two radiologists. Means were calculated per ROI type in the different time frames and in both groups of cartilage repair. The data were analyzed with unpaired t- and ANOVA tests, and by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant differences were found in the MTR of fatty bone marrow, muscle and normal cartilage in the different time frames. There was a significant but small difference between the MTR of normal cartilage and the cartilage repair area after 12 months for both procedures. After 24 months, the MTR of ACI repaired cartilage (0.31±0.07) was not significantly different from normal cartilage MTR (0.34±0.05). The MTR of MFR repaired cartilage (0.28±0.02), still showed a significant difference from normal cartilage. The differences between damaged and repaired cartilage MTR are too small to enable MT-imaging to be a useful tool for postoperative follow-up of cartilage repair procedures. There is, however, an evolution towards normal MTR-values in the cartilage repair tissue (especially after ACI repair). (orig.)

  3. Free Diced Cartilage: A New Application of Diced Cartilage Grafts in Primary and Secondary Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Christian; Hoehne, Julius; Gubisch, Wolfgang; Rezaeian, Farid; Haack, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Irregularities or deformities of the nasal dorsum after hump reduction account for a significant number of revision rhinoplasties. The authors therefore developed a technique of meticulously dicing and exactly placing free diced cartilage grafts, harvested from septum, rib, or ear cartilage. The cartilage paste is used for smoothening, augmentation, or camouflaging of the nasal dorsum in primary or revision rhinoplasties. A retrospective analysis of multisurgeon consecutive open approach rhinoplasties from January to December of 2014 was conducted at a single center. The authors compared the outcome of three different techniques to augment or cover the nasal dorsum after an observation period of 7 months. In group I, 325 patients with free diced cartilage grafts as the only onlay were included. In group II, consisting of 73 patients, the dorsal onlay was either fascia alone or in combination with free diced cartilage grafts. Forty-eight patients in group III received a dorsal augmentation with the classic diced cartilage in fascia technique. Four hundred forty-six patients undergoing primary and secondary rhinoplasties in which one of the above-mentioned diced cartilage techniques was used were included in the study. The authors found revision rates for dorsal irregularities within the 7-month postoperative observation period of 5.2, 8.2, and 25 percent for groups I, II, and III, respectively. The authors' findings strongly support their clinical experience that the free diced cartilage graft technique presents an effective and easily reproducible method for camouflage and augmentation in aesthetic and reconstructive rhinoplasty.

  4. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  5. Determination of cartilage thickness in the ankle joint. MRT (1,5 T) comparative anatomical study; Bestimmung der Knorpeldicke am oberen Sprunggelenk. Eine MRT(1,5 T)-anatomische Vergleichsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Breitenseher, M.J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Huber, M. [Pathologisch-Bakteriologisches Inst. Baumgartner Hoehe, Wien (Austria); Zettl, R. [Orthopaedisches Krankenhaus Gersthof, Wien (Austria); Rottmann, B. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Haller, J. [Hanuschkrankenhaus, Wien (Austria). Radiologische Abt.; Imhof, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    1997-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in the measurement of cartilage thickness of the ankle joint in comparison to pathologic and histologic specimens. Patients and methods: The ankle joints of four fresh cadaver feet were imaged on a 1.5 T MR-unit in the coronal plane. Standard T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo (SE) and a T{sub 1}-weighted 3D-GE (FLASH-3D) sequence with fat saturation were applied. Following MR imaging, the talus was explanted and cut parallel to the MR images for macroscopic evaluation and histologic specimens were prepared. MRI measurements of the cartilage thickness of the talus were carried out in two ways: Without and with consideration of a transition zone of intermediate signal intensity between hyperintense cartilage and hypointense cortical bone. The data were compared with the anatomic specimens as the gold standard expressing the difference as a percentage value. On histologic specimens thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer was measured. Results: Measurements without the transition zone showed a mean underestimation of talus cartilage thickness of 46.8% (41.3-52.1) for T{sub 1}-SE and 47.5% (43.1-52.1) for fat saturated FLASH-3D images. Considering the transition zone the mean values were 25.0% (23.1-26.2) and 14.1% (6.7-21.5). The histologic specimens showed a three-fold increase of thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer. Conclusions: Measurements of the cartilage layer of the ankle joint on MR images are only accurate if the transition zone (calcified cartilage layer) is considered and the optimal pulse sequence (FLASH-3D-fat-sat) is applied. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die Frage, ob die MRT die Dicke des Knorpels exakt bestimmen kann, wird kontrovers diskutiert. Ziel der Studie war die Bestimmung der Knorpeldicke am oberen Sprunggelenk mit der MRT im Vergleich zum anatomischen Praeparat. Material und Methode: Sprunggelenke von 4 Leichen wurden auf einem 1,5 Tesla MR-Geraet mittels T{sub 1}-betonter Spin

  6. Un caso de osteocondritis costal tífica tratado con vacunas y antivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Lleras Acosta, F.; Rueda H., Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Por considerala de importancia práctica, presentamos la historiaclínica de una enferma afectada de osteocondritis costal de origen Eberthiano, tratada con éxito completo por las autovacunas y antivirus, Debemos esta interesante observación al Dr. Juan N. Carpas y al interno de su servicio de mujeres, Sr. Azuero, quienes galantemente nos suministraron los datos clínicos y las observaciones relativas a los efectos producidos por las vacunas.

  7. Un caso de Osteocondritis costal tífica tratado con vacunas y antivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lleras Acosta

    1932-05-01

    Full Text Available Por considerala de importancia práctica, presentamos la historia clínica de una enferma afectada de osteocondritis costal de origen Eberthiano, tratada con éxito completo por las autovacunas y antivirus, Debemos esta interesante observación al Dr. Juan N. Carpas y al interno de su servicio de mujeres, Sr. Azuero, quienes galantemente nos suministraron los datos clínicos y las observaciones relativas a los efectos producidos por las vacunas.

  8. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages Técnica modificada para aumentar a área seccional externa da narina após o uso de enxerto cartilaginoso de costela e septo sob as cartilagens alares nasais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. METHODS: A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad®; 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage. Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance for the variable "area". RESULTS: There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica modificada para se aumentar a área seccional externa da narina com cartilagem septal e costal acima das cartilagens alares nasais. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se uma técnica cirúrgica modificada para obter, esculpir e inserir enxertos de cartilagem sobre as cartilagens alares. Realizou-se fotos padronizadas e mensuração de 90 áreas seccionais externas de narina em cadáveres com Autocad®; 30 antes sem procedimento; 60 após a inclusão de enxertos sob a cruz lateral (30 usando cartilagem costal e 30 usando cartilagem septal. A análise estatística foi feita com um modelo de medidas repetidas e ANOVA para a variável "área" RESULTADOS: Existe evidência estatística de que o enxerto de

  9. Comparison of Regenerative Tissue Quality following Matrix-Associated Cell Implantation Using Amplified Chondrocytes Compared to Synovium-Derived Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model for Cartilage Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Kowal, Justyna M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2018-01-01

    Known problems of the autologous chondrocyte implantation motivate the search for cellular alternatives. The aim of the study was to test the potential of synovium-derived stem cells (SMSC) to regenerate cartilage using a matrix-associated implantation. In an osteochondral defect model of the med......Known problems of the autologous chondrocyte implantation motivate the search for cellular alternatives. The aim of the study was to test the potential of synovium-derived stem cells (SMSC) to regenerate cartilage using a matrix-associated implantation. In an osteochondral defect model...... of the medial femoral condyle in a rabbit, a collagen membrane was seeded with either culture-expanded allogenic chondrocytes or SMSC and then transplanted into the lesion. A tailored piece synovium served as a control. Rabbit SMSC formed typical cartilage in vitro. Macroscopic evaluation of defect healing...... and the thickness of the regenerated tissue did not reveal a significant difference between the intervention groups. However, instantaneous and shear modulus, reflecting the biomechanical strength of the repair tissue, was superior in the implantation group using allogenic chondrocytes (p

  10. Mechanical properties of hyaline and repair cartilage studied by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, O; Durst, K; Maier, V; Göken, M; Birkholz, T; Schneider, H; Hennig, F; Gelse, K

    2007-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue that is well adapted to the functional demands in joints but difficult to replicate via tissue engineering or regeneration. Its viscoelastic properties allow cartilage to adapt to both slow and rapid mechanical loading. Several cartilage repair strategies that aim to restore tissue and protect it from further degeneration have been introduced. The key to their success is the quality of the newly formed tissue. In this study, periosteal cells loaded on a scaffold were used to repair large partial-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint of miniature pigs. The repair cartilage was analyzed 26 weeks after surgery and compared both morphologically and mechanically with healthy hyaline cartilage. Contact stiffness, reduced modulus and hardness as key mechanical properties were examined in vitro by nanoindentation in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature. In addition, the influence of tissue fixation with paraformaldehyde on the biomechanical properties was investigated. Although the repair process resulted in the formation of a stable fibrocartilaginous tissue, its contact stiffness was lower than that of hyaline cartilage by a factor of 10. Fixation with paraformaldehyde significantly increased the stiffness of cartilaginous tissue by one order of magnitude, and therefore, should not be used when studying biomechanical properties of cartilage. Our study suggests a sensitive method for measuring the contact stiffness of articular cartilage and demonstrates the importance of mechanical analysis for proper evaluation of the success of cartilage repair strategies.

  11. Modern cartilage imaging of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Wuennemann, Felix; Rehnitz, Christoph; Jungmann, Pia M.; Kuni, Benita

    2017-01-01

    Talar osteochondral lesions are an important risk factor for the development of talar osteoarthritis. Furthermore, osteochondral lesions might explain persistent ankle pain. Early diagnosis of accompanying chondral defects is important to establish the optimal therapy strategy and thereby delaying or preventing the onset of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this review is to explain modern cartilage imaging with emphasis of MR imaging as well as the discussion of more sophisticated imaging studies like CT-arthrography or functional MR imaging. Pubmed literature search concerning: osteochondral lesions, cartilage damage, ankle joint, talus, 2 D MR imaging, 3 D MR imaging, cartilage MR imaging, CT-arthrography, cartilage repair, microfracture, OATS, MACT. Dedicated MR imaging protocols to delineate talar cartilage and the appearance of acute and chronic osteochondral lesions were discussed. Recent developments of MR imaging, such as isotropic 3 D imaging that has a higher signal-to noise ratio when compared to 2 D imaging, and specialized imaging methods such as CT-arthrography as well as functional MR imaging were introduced. Several classifications schemes and imaging findings of osteochondral lesions that influence the conservative or surgical therapy strategy were discussed. MRI enables after surgery the non-invasive assessment of the repair tissue and the success of implantation. Key points: Modern MRI allows for highly resolved visualization of the articular cartilage of the ankle joint and of subchondral pathologies. Recent advances in MRI include 3 D isotropic ankle joint imaging, which deliver higher signal-to-noise ratios of the cartilage and less partial volume artifacts when compared with standard 2 D sequences. In case of osteochondral lesions MRI is beneficial for assessing the stability of the osteochondral fragment and for this discontinuity of the cartilage layer is an important factor. CT-arthrography can be used in case of contraindications of MRI and

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of hyaline cartilage regeneration in neocartilage graft implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C F; Ng, K K; Ng, S H; Cheung, Y C

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of hyaline cartilage in a neocartilage graft implant with the aid of MR cartilage imaging using a rabbit model. Surgical osteochondral defects were created in the femoral condyles of 30 mature New Zealand rabbits. The findings of neocartilage in autologous cartilage grafts packed into osteochondral defects were compared with control group of no implant to the osteochondral defect. The outcome of the implantations was correlated with histologic and MR cartilage imaging findings over a 3-month interval. Neocartilage grafts packed into osteochondral defects showed regeneration of hyaline cartilage at the outer layer of the implant using MR cartilage imaging. Fibrosis of fibrocartilage developed at the outer layer of the autologous cartilage graft together with an inflammatory reaction within the osteochondral defect. This animal study provides evidence of the regenerative ability of hyaline cartilage in neocartilage transplants to repair articular cartilage.

  13. MRI of the cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Krestan, C.; Gahleitner, A.; Marlovits, S.; Trattnig, S. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH-Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Pathologie Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-11-01

    With the introduction of fat-suppressed gradient-echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences in clinical routine MR visualization of the hyaline articular cartilage is routinely possible in the larger joints. While 3D gradient-echo with fat suppression allows exact depiction of the thickness and surface of cartilage, FSE outlines the normal and abnormal internal structures of the hyaline cartilage; therefore, both sequences seem to be necessary in a standard MRI protocol for cartilage visualization. In diagnostically ambiguous cases, in which important therapeutic decisions are required, direct MR arthrography is the established imaging standard as an add-on procedure. Despite the social impact and prevalence, until recent years there was a paucity of knowledge about the pathogenesis of cartilage damage. With the introduction of high-resolution MRI with powerful surface coils and fat-suppression techniques, visualization of the articular cartilage is now routinely possible in many joints. After a short summary of the anatomy and physiology of the hyaline cartilage, the different MR imaging methods are discussed and recommended standards are suggested. (orig.)

  14. Content and synthesis of nucleic acids in the cartilage in chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, F; Telhag, H

    1978-12-01

    The content and the synthesis of nucleic acids in chondromalacian, osteoarthritis and normal cartilage was compared. The chondromalacian cartilage differed from osteoarthritis in that the content of nucleic acids was less. Also, the cell density was less in chondromalacian than in normal cartilage as opposed to previous findings in osteoarthritis. The synthesis of DNA was greater in chondromalacian than in normal cartilage but less than in osteoarthritis. With regard to the RNA synthesis, however, the chondromalacian cartilage showed a higher rate than both normal and osteoarthritic cartilage.

  15. Repair of articular cartilage defects in the knee with autologous iliac crest cartilage in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lizhong; Zhang, Jiying; Leng, Huijie; Guo, Qinwei; Hu, Yuelin

    2015-04-01

    To demonstrate that iliac crest cartilage may be used to repair articular cartilage defects in the knees of rabbits. Full-thickness cartilage defects were created in the medial femoral condyle on both knees of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The 72 defects were randomly assigned to be repaired with ipsilateral iliac crest cartilage (Group I), osteochondral tissues removed at defect creation (Group II), or no treatment (negative control, Group III). Animals were killed at 6, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively. The repaired tissues were harvested for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological studies (haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining), and mechanical testing. At 6 weeks, the iliac crest cartilage graft was not yet well integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage, but at 12 weeks, the graft deep zone had partial ossification. By 24 weeks, the hyaline cartilage-like tissue was completely integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage. Osteochondral autografts showed more rapid healing than Group I at 6 weeks and complete healing at 12 weeks. Untreated defects were concave or partly filled with fibrous tissue throughout the study. MRI showed that Group I had slower integration with surrounding normal cartilage compared with Group II. The mechanical properties of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II at 12 weeks, but this difference was not significant at 24 weeks. Iliac crest cartilage autografts were able to repair knee cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage and showed comparable results with osteochondral autografts in the rabbit model.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and cartilage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, K.L.; Almqvist, F.; Verdonk, P.; Vanderschueren, G.; Huysse, W.; Verdonk, R.; Verbrugge, G.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular cartilage has assumed increased importance because of the prevalence of cartilage injury and degeneration, as well as the development of new surgical and pharmacological techniques to treat damaged cartilage. This article will review relevant aspects of the structure and biochemistry of cartilage that are important for understanding MR imaging of cartilage, describe optimal MR pulse sequences for its evaluation, and review the role of experimental quantitative MR techniques. These MR aspects are applied to clinical scenarios, including traumatic chondral injury, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, and cartilage repair procedures

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and cartilage repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K.L. E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Almqvist, F.; Verdonk, P.; Vanderschueren, G.; Huysse, W.; Verdonk, R.; Verbrugge, G

    2004-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular cartilage has assumed increased importance because of the prevalence of cartilage injury and degeneration, as well as the development of new surgical and pharmacological techniques to treat damaged cartilage. This article will review relevant aspects of the structure and biochemistry of cartilage that are important for understanding MR imaging of cartilage, describe optimal MR pulse sequences for its evaluation, and review the role of experimental quantitative MR techniques. These MR aspects are applied to clinical scenarios, including traumatic chondral injury, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, and cartilage repair procedures.

  18. Effects of growth factors and glucosamine on porcine mandibular condylar cartilage cells and hyaline cartilage cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Detamore, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage is a distinct cartilage that has both fibrocartilaginous and hyaline-like character, with a thin proliferative zone that separates the fibrocartilaginous fibrous zone at the surface from the hyaline-like mature and hypertrophic zones below. In this study, we compared the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and glucosamine sulphate on porcine TMJ condylar cartilage and ankle cartilage cells in monolayer culture. In general, TMJ condylar cartilage cells proliferated faster than ankle cartilage cells, while ankle cells produced significantly greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen than TMJ condylar cartilage cells. IGF-I and bFGF were potent stimulators of TMJ cell proliferation, while no signals statistically outperformed controls for ankle cell proliferation. IGF-I was the most effective signal for GAG production with ankle cells, and the most potent upregulator of collagen synthesis for both cell types. Glucosamine sulphate promoted cell proliferation and biosynthesis at specific concentrations and outperformed growth factors in certain instances. In conclusion, hyaline cartilage cells had lower cell numbers and superior biosynthesis compared to TMJ condylar cartilage cells, and we have found IGF-I at 100 ng/mL and glucosamine sulphate at 100 microg/mL to be the most effective signals for these cells under the prescribed conditions.

  19. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, A.; Yang, Z.; Engstrom, C.; Xia, Y.; Strudwick, M. W.; Chandra, S. S.; Crozier, S.; Fripp, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from MR imaging is not at the same level compared to the weight-bearing knee and hip joint cartilages despite the potential applications with respect to clinical investigation of shoulder disorders. In this work, the authors present a fully automated segmentation method for the glenohumeral cartilages using MR images of healthy shoulders. Methods: The method involves automated segmentation of the humerus and scapula bones using 3D active shape models, the extraction of the expected bone–cartilage interface, and cartilage segmentation using a graph-based method. The cartilage segmentation uses localization, patient specific tissue estimation, and a model of the cartilage thickness variation. The accuracy of this method was experimentally validated using a leave-one-out scheme on a database of MR images acquired from 44 asymptomatic subjects with a true fast imaging with steady state precession sequence on a 3 T scanner (Siemens Trio) using a dedicated shoulder coil. The automated results were compared to manual segmentations from two experts (an experienced radiographer and an experienced musculoskeletal anatomist) using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean absolute surface distance (MASD) metrics. Results: Accurate and precise bone segmentations were achieved with mean DSC of 0.98 and 0.93 for the humeral head

  20. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, A., E-mail: ales.neubert@csiro.au [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia and The Australian E-Health Research Centre, CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Brisbane 4029 (Australia); Yang, Z. [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia and Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Engstrom, C. [School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Xia, Y.; Strudwick, M. W.; Chandra, S. S.; Crozier, S. [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Fripp, J. [The Australian E-Health Research Centre, CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Brisbane, 4029 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from MR imaging is not at the same level compared to the weight-bearing knee and hip joint cartilages despite the potential applications with respect to clinical investigation of shoulder disorders. In this work, the authors present a fully automated segmentation method for the glenohumeral cartilages using MR images of healthy shoulders. Methods: The method involves automated segmentation of the humerus and scapula bones using 3D active shape models, the extraction of the expected bone–cartilage interface, and cartilage segmentation using a graph-based method. The cartilage segmentation uses localization, patient specific tissue estimation, and a model of the cartilage thickness variation. The accuracy of this method was experimentally validated using a leave-one-out scheme on a database of MR images acquired from 44 asymptomatic subjects with a true fast imaging with steady state precession sequence on a 3 T scanner (Siemens Trio) using a dedicated shoulder coil. The automated results were compared to manual segmentations from two experts (an experienced radiographer and an experienced musculoskeletal anatomist) using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean absolute surface distance (MASD) metrics. Results: Accurate and precise bone segmentations were achieved with mean DSC of 0.98 and 0.93 for the humeral head

  1. Semiquantitative assessment of focal cartilage damage at 3 T MRI: A comparative study of dual echo at steady state (DESS) and intermediate-weighted (IW) fat suppressed fast spin echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, Frank W., E-mail: froemer@bu.edu [Quantitative Imaging Center (QIC), Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Kwoh, C. Kent [Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (United States); VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System (United States); Hannon, Michael J. [Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (United States); Crema, Michel D. [Quantitative Imaging Center (QIC), Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Moore, Carolyn E. [Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Woman' s University (United States); Jakicic, John M. [Department of Health and Physical Activity, University of Pittsburgh (United States); Green, Stephanie M. [Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Quantitative Imaging Center (QIC), Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare semiquantitative assessment of focal cartilage damage using the dual echo at steady state (DESS)- and intermediate-weighted (IW) fat suppressed (fs) sequences at 3 T MRI. Methods: Included were 201 subjects aged 35-65 with frequent knee pain. MRI was performed with the same sequence protocol as in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI): sagittal IW fs, triplanar DESS and coronal IW sequences. Cartilage status was scored according to the WORMS system using all five sequences. A total of 243 focal defects were detected. In an additional consensus reading, the lesions were evaluated side-by-side using only the sagittal DESS and IW fs sequences. Lesion conspicuity was graded from 0 to 3, intrachondral signal changes adjacent to the defect were recorded and the sequence that depicted the lesion with larger diameter was noted. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, controlled for clustering by person, were used to examine differences between the sequences. Results: 37 (17.5%) of the scorable lesions were located in the medial tibio-femoral (TF), 48 (22.7%) in the lateral TF and 126 (59.7%) in the patello-femoral compartment. 82.5% were superficial and 17.5% full-thickness defects. Conspicuity was superior for the IW sequence (p < 0.001). The DESS sequence showed more associated intrachondral signal changes (p < 0.001). In 103 (48.8%) cases, the IW fs sequence depicted the lesions as being larger (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The IW fs sequence detected more and larger focal cartilage defects than the DESS. More intrachondral signal changes were observed with the DESS.

  2. Empirical analysis on impact of FDI on the level of urbanization in costal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Can-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a close relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization. the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces in costal areas.Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the modern econometric methods by panel unit root test, cointegration test, random effects models and fixed effects models, and the data of FDI (2000-2012, urbanization rate, industrial structure and regional GDP of Nanjing, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi and other 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other 19 cities in Guangdong province, researches the relationship between FDI and urbanization rate.Findings: Models show, FDI was closely correlated with urbanization rate in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, the highly correlated with industrial structure, while it negatively correlated with the growth of GDP, and the degree of correlation is not high in Jiangsu province, but the high negative correlation in Guangdong province. The results shows the industrial structure and the urbanization rate mainly cause FDI growth.Research limitations/implications: There are many provinces in costal areas of China, this paper just research the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, there are some limitations in the study areas and results.Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply on random effects model and fixed effects model to study the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in coastal areas by competitive analysis. Guangdong and Jiangsu province are the most developed regions, they are the most representative provinces in costal areas of China. Taking these two province as an example, we can analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in central and western regions.

  3. An ex vivo human cartilage repair model to evaluate the potency of a cartilage cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Christoph; Meixner, Miriam; Giesemann, Petra; Roël, Giulietta; Bulwin, Grit-Carsta; Smink, Jeske J

    2016-11-15

    Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed as quality assessment tool for potency and applied to co.don's chondrosphere product, a matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implant (chondrocyte spheroids) that is in clinical use in Germany. Chondrocyte spheroids were generated from 14 donors, and implanted into a subchondral cartilage defect that was manually generated in human articular cartilage tissue. Implanted spheroids and cartilage tissue were co-cultured ex vivo for 12 weeks to allow regeneration processes to form new tissue within the cartilage defect. Before implantation, spheroid characteristics like glycosaminoglycan production and gene and protein expression of chondrogenic markers were assessed for each donor sample and compared to determine donor-dependent variation. After the co-cultivation, histological analyses showed the formation of repair tissue within the cartilage defect, which varied in amount for the different donors. In the repair tissue, aggrecan protein was expressed and extra-cellular matrix cartilage fibers were present, both indicative for a cartilage hyaline-like character of the repair tissue. The amount of formed repair tissue was used as a read-out for regeneration capacity and was correlated with the spheroid characteristics determined before implantation. A positive correlation was found between high level of aggrecan protein expression in spheroids before implantation and a higher regeneration potential

  4. An ex vivo human cartilage repair model to evaluate the potency of a cartilage cell transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed as quality assessment tool for potency and applied to co.don’s chondrosphere product, a matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implant (chondrocyte spheroids that is in clinical use in Germany. Methods Chondrocyte spheroids were generated from 14 donors, and implanted into a subchondral cartilage defect that was manually generated in human articular cartilage tissue. Implanted spheroids and cartilage tissue were co-cultured ex vivo for 12 weeks to allow regeneration processes to form new tissue within the cartilage defect. Before implantation, spheroid characteristics like glycosaminoglycan production and gene and protein expression of chondrogenic markers were assessed for each donor sample and compared to determine donor-dependent variation. Results After the co-cultivation, histological analyses showed the formation of repair tissue within the cartilage defect, which varied in amount for the different donors. In the repair tissue, aggrecan protein was expressed and extra-cellular matrix cartilage fibers were present, both indicative for a cartilage hyaline-like character of the repair tissue. The amount of formed repair tissue was used as a read-out for regeneration capacity and was correlated with the spheroid characteristics determined before implantation. A positive correlation was found between high level of aggrecan protein expression in spheroids

  5. The identification of CD163 expressing phagocytic chondrocytes in joint cartilage and its novel scavenger role in cartilage degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation. METHODS: Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163(+ chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated. RESULTS: In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P0.05. CD163(+ chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II(+ chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163(+ chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (P<0.05. Mid-zone distribution of CD163(+ cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a

  6. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  7. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

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    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  8. A retinaculum-sparing surgical approach preserves porcine stifle joint cartilage in an experimental animal model of cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, Marcelo B; Friedman, James M; Sennett, Mackenzie L; Mauck, Robert L; Dodge, George R; Madry, Henning

    2017-12-01

    This study compares a traditional parapatellar retinaculum-sacrificing arthrotomy to a retinaculum-sparing arthrotomy in a porcine stifle joint as a cartilage repair model. Surgical exposure of the femoral trochlea of ten Yucatan pigs stifle joint was performed using either a traditional medial parapatellar approach with retinaculum incision and luxation of the patella (n = 5) or a minimally invasive (MIS) approach which spared the patellar retinaculum (n = 5). Both classical and MIS approaches provided adequate access to the trochlea, enabling the creation of cartilage defects without difficulties. Four full thickness, 4 mm circular full-thickness cartilage defects were created in each trochlea. There were no intraoperative complications observed in either surgical approach. All pigs were allowed full weight-bearing and full range of motion immediately postoperatively and were euthanized between 2 and 3 weeks. The traditional approach was associated with increased cartilage wear compared to the MIS approach. Two blinded raters performed gross evaluation of the trochlea cartilage surrounding the defects according to the modified ICRS cartilage injury classification. The traditional approach cartilage received a significantly worse score than the MIS approach group from both scorers (3.2 vs 0.8, p = 0.01 and 2.8 vs 0, p = 0.005 respectively). The MIS approach results in less damage to the trochlear cartilage and faster return to load bearing activities. As an arthrotomy approach in the porcine model, MIS is superior to the traditional approach.

  9. Principles of cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Erggelet, Christoph; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage defects affect patients of all age groups. Surgeons, teamdoctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists alike are expected to provide adequate care. Only individual treatment plans combining a well balanced choice of various options will be successful. Background knowledge, operative and non-operative therapies are described in concise chapters: Articular cartilage biology - Diagnostics - Surgical techniques - Symptomatic and alternative medications - Physiotherapy. Diagnostic findings and surgical procedures are generously illustrated by aquarelles and colour photographs. Recommendations for additional reading, description of important clinical scoring systems and a listing of analytic tools are added for further information.

  10. High-resolution MR imaging of wrist cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rominger, M.B.; Bernreuter, W.K.; Listinsky, J.J.; Lee, D.H.; Kenney, P.J.; Colgin, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that cartilage is an important prognostic factor in arthritis. MR imaging can demonstrate both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Our purpose was to compare various sequences, for wrist cartilage imaging and determine how extensive damage must be before it is detectable with MR imaging. Six cadaver wrists were imaged before and after arthroscopic cartilage injury (coronal and axial T1- and T2-weighted SE sequences, 3-mm sections; SPGR 45 degrees flip angle volume images with fat saturation. 1.2-mm sections; plus T1-weighted coronal images with fat saturation after injury; General Electric Signa, 1.5 T, with transmit-receive extremity coil). Twenty-two defects were created arthroscopically. Five normal volunteers were imaged for comparison. The greatest contrast among bone, cartilage, and synovial fluid was achieved with T1-weighted fat-suppressed SE image and SPGR. Gradient-recalled volume sequences generated very thin sections but were susceptible to artifact

  11. Endogenous Cartilage Repair by Recruitment of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for repair after injury. The adult body has a pool of stem cells that are mobilized during injury or disease. These cells exist inside niches in bone marrow, muscle, adipose tissue, synovium, and other connective tissues. A method that mobilizes this endogenous pool of stem cells will provide a less costly and less invasive alternative if these cells successfully regenerate defective cartilage. Traditional microfracture procedures employ the concept of bone marrow stimulation to regenerate cartilage. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has very poor mechanical properties compared to those of normal hyaline cartilage. A method that directs the migration of a large number of autologous mesenchymal stem cells toward injury sites, retains these cells around the defects, and induces chondrogenic differentiation that would enhance success of endogenous cartilage repair. This review briefly summarizes chemokines and growth factors that induce recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells, endogenous cell sources for regenerating cartilage, scaffolds for delivery of bioactive factors, and bioadhesive materials that are necessary to bring about endogenous cartilage repair.

  12. Stem Cells and Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage defects represent a common problem in orthopaedic practice. Predisposing factors include traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. Conservative management of cartilage defects often fails, and patients with this lesions may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgery has been proved to be predictably effective. Usually, in focal cartilage defects without a stable fibrocartilaginous repair tissue formed, surgeons try to promote a natural fibrocartilaginous response by using marrow stimulating techniques, such as microfracture, abrasion arthroplasty, and Pridie drilling, with the aim of reducing swelling and pain and improving joint function of the patients. These procedures have demonstrated to be clinically useful and are usually considered as first-line treatment for focal cartilage defects. However, fibrocartilage presents inferior mechanical and biochemical properties compared to normal hyaline articular cartilage, characterized by poor organization, significant amounts of collagen type I, and an increased susceptibility to injury, which ultimately leads to premature osteoarthritis (OA. Therefore, the aim of future therapeutic strategies for articular cartilage regeneration is to obtain a hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue by transplantation of tissues or cells. Further studies are required to clarify the role of gene therapy and mesenchimal stem cells for management of cartilage lesions.

  13. MR imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Brossmann, J.

    2001-01-01

    MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T 1 weighted gradient echo and T 2 -weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Lubrication and cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, V; Dowson, D

    1976-02-01

    Mechanisms of lubrication of human synovial joints have been analysed in terms of the operating conditions of the joint, the synovial fluid and articular cartilage. In the hip and knee during a walking cycle the load may rise up to four times body weight. In the knee on dropping one metre the load may go up to 25 time body weight. The elastic modulus of cartilage is similar to that of the synthetic rubber of a car tyre. The cartilage surface is rough and in elderly specimens the centre line average is 2-75 mum. The friction force generated in reciprocating tests shows that both cartilage and synovial fluid are important in lubrication. The viscosity-shear rate relationships of normal synovial fluid show that it is non-Newtonian. Osteoarthrosic fluid is less so and rheumatoid fluid is more nearly Newtonian. Experiments with hip joints in a pendulum machine show that fluid film lubrication obtains at some phases of joint action. Boundary lubrication prevails under certain conditions and has been examined with a reciprocating friction machine. Digestion of hyaluronate does not alter the boundary lubrication, but trypsin digestion does. Surface active substances (lauryl sulphate and cetyl 3-ammonium bromide) give a lubricating ability similar to that of synovial fluid. The effectiveness of the two substances varies with pH.

  15. Chondroptosis in Alkaptonuric Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millucci, Lia; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Viti, Cecilia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Gambassi, Silvia; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Paffetti, Alessandro; Lupetti, Pietro; Bernardini, Giulia; Orlandini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease that affects the entire joint. Current standard of treatment is palliative and little is known about AKU physiopathology. Chondroptosis, a peculiar type of cell death in cartilage, has been so far reported to occur in osteoarthritis, a rheumatic disease that shares some features with AKU. In the present work, we wanted to assess if chondroptosis might also occur in AKU. Electron microscopy was used to detect the morphological changes of chondrocytes in damaged cartilage distinguishing apoptosis from its variant termed chondroptosis. We adopted histological observation together with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to evaluate morphological cell changes in AKU chondrocytes. Lipid peroxidation in AKU cartilage was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Using the above‐mentioned techniques, we performed a morphological analysis and assessed that AKU chondrocytes undergo phenotypic changes and lipid oxidation, resulting in a progressive loss of articular cartilage structure and function, showing typical features of chondroptosis. To the best of our knowledge, AKU is the second chronic pathology, following osteoarthritis, where chondroptosis has been documented. Our results indicate that Golgi complex plays an important role in the apoptotic process of AKU chondrocytes and suggest a contribution of chondroptosis in AKU pathogenesis. These findings also confirm a similarity between osteoarthritis and AKU. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1148–1157, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25336110

  16. INJURED ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Barlič

    2008-02-01

    Surveys show that the most frequently used surgical methods are mosaicplasty and bonemarrow stimulation with microfracturing. The efficacy of the autologous chondrocyte implantationmethod should be superior to microfracturing on a long run. Especially when(regeneration of the hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue (fibrocartilage is concerned.However, it has not been scientifically proved yet

  17. Cartilage extracellular matrix as a biomaterial for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Emi A; Beck, Emily C; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature. As this research area of cartilage matrix-based biomaterials emerged, investigators facing similar challenges consequently developed convergent solutions in constructing robust and bioactive scaffolds. This review discusses the challenges, emerging trends, and future directions of cartilage ECM scaffolds, including a comparison between two different forms of cartilage matrix: decellularized cartilage (DCC) and devitalized cartilage (DVC). To overcome the low permeability of cartilage matrix, physical fragmentation greatly enhances decellularization, although the process itself may reduce the chondroinductivity of fabricated scaffolds. The less complex processing of a scaffold composed of DVC, which has not been decellularized, appears to have translational advantages and potential chondroinductive and mechanical advantages over DCC, without detrimental immunogenicity, to ultimately enhance cartilage repair in a clinically relevant way. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage: ex vivo study on normal cartilage correlated with magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M.; Frezza, F.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Dalla-Palma, L.; Toffanin, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, M.; Mlynarik, V.; Vittur, F.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to compare the MR appearance of normal articular cartilage in ex vivo MR imaging (MRI) and MR microscopy (MRM) images of disarticulated human femoral heads, (b) to evaluate by MRM the topographic variations in articular cartilage of disarticulated human femoral heads, and subsequently, (c) to compare MRM images with histology. Ten disarticulated femoral heads were examined. Magnetic resonance images were obtained using spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences. Microimages were acquired on cartilage-bone cylindrical plugs excised from four regions (superior, inferior, anterior, posterior) of one femoral head, using a modified SE sequence. Both MRI and MRM images were obtained before and after a 90 rotation of the specimen, around the axis perpendicular to the examined cartilage surface. Finally, MRM images were correlated with histology. A trilaminar appearance of articular cartilage was observed with MRI and with a greater detail with MRM. A good correlation between MRI and MRM features was demonstrated. Both MRI and MRM showed a loss of the trilaminar cartilage appearance after specimen rotation, with greater evidence on MRM images. Cartilage excised from the four regions of the femoral head showed a different thickness, being thickest in the samples excised from the superior site. The MRM technique confirms the trilaminar MRI appearance of human articular cartilage, showing good correlation with histology. The loss of the trilaminar appearance of articular cartilage induced by specimen rotation suggests that this feature is partially related to the collagen-fiber orientation within the different layers. The MRM technique also shows topographic variations in thickness of human articular cartilage. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of focal cartilage lesions of the knee using MRI T2 mapping and delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årøen, Asbjørn; Brøgger, Helga; Røtterud, Jan Harald; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna

    2016-02-11

    Assessment of degenerative changes of the cartilage is important in knee cartilage repair surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 mapping and delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) are able to detect early degenerative changes. The hypothesis of the study was that cartilage surrounding a focal cartilage lesion in the knee does not possess degenerative changes. Twenty-eight consecutive patients included in a randomized controlled trial on cartilage repair were evaluated using MRI T2 mapping and dGEMRIC before cartilage treatment was initiated. Inclusion was based on disabling knee problems (Lysholm score of ≤ 75) due to an arthroscopically verified focal femoral condyle cartilage lesion. Furthermore, no major malalignments or knee ligament injuries were accepted. Mean patient age was 33 ± 9.6 years, and the mean duration of knee symptoms was 49 ± 60 months. The MRI T2 mapping and the dGEMRIC measurements were performed at three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) at the medial and lateral femoral condyle, avoiding the cartilage lesion The MRI T2 mapping of the cartilage did not demonstrate significant differences between condyles with or without cartilage lesions. The dGEMRIC results did not show significantly lower values of the affected condyle compared with the opposite condyle and the contra-lateral knee in any of the ROIs. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the dGEMRIC readings was 0.882. The MRI T2 mapping and the dGEMRIC confirmed the arthroscopic findings that normal articular cartilage surrounded the cartilage lesion, reflecting normal variation in articular cartilage quality. NCT00885729 , registered April 17 2009.

  20. Costal bone abnormalities: an unusual cause of spontaneous bilateral breast implant deflation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Jack E.; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Augmentation mammoplasty is the most common aesthetic surgical procedure performed in the USA. Prosthetic failure is a major reason for surgical reintervention. A number of causes for this have been documented, but costal bone abnormalities leading to perforation of the prosthesis are very unusual. We present the case of a woman who experienced spontaneous deflation of both saline implants in close succession, and who was found to have sharp bony spicules on both sides of her chest. Pathology examination reported reactive changes, suggestive of heterotopic bone. Examination of the implants showed no defects besides small punctures on the back wall, which coincided with the position of the spicules of bone. There are a number of possible causes for these bony growths which we examine in turn. The chest wall should be examined in all cases where unexplained implant deflation has occurred. PMID:25535321

  1. Photoactivated methods for enabling cartilage-to-cartilage tissue fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitterle, Valerie B.; Roberts, David W.

    2003-06-01

    The present study investigates whether photoactivated attachment of cartilage can provide a viable method for more effective repair of damaged articular surfaces by providing an alternative to sutures, barbs, or fibrin glues for initial fixation. Unlike artificial materials, biological constructs do not possess the initial strength for press-fitting and are instead sutured or pinned in place, typically inducing even more tissue trauma. A possible alternative involves the application of a photosensitive material, which is then photoactivated with a laser source to attach the implant and host tissues together in either a photothermal or photochemical process. The photothermal version of this method shows potential, but has been almost entirely applied to vascularized tissues. Cartilage, however, exhibits several characteristics that produce appreciable differences between applying and refining these techniques when compared to previous efforts involving vascularized tissues. Preliminary investigations involving photochemical photosensitizers based on singlet oxygen and electron transfer mechanisms are discussed, and characterization of the photodynamic effects on bulk collagen gels as a simplified model system using FTIR is performed. Previous efforts using photothermal welding applied to cartilaginous tissues are reviewed.

  2. Cartilage immunoprivilege depends on donor source and lesion location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, B; DuRaine, G D; Lee, C A; Huey, D J; Borjesson, D L; Murphy, B G; Hu, J C Y; Baumgarth, N; Athanasiou, K A

    2015-09-01

    The ability to repair damaged cartilage is a major goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Allogeneic (same species, different individual) or xenogeneic (different species) sources can provide an attractive source of chondrocytes for cartilage tissue engineering, since autologous (same individual) cells are scarce. Immune rejection of non-autologous hyaline articular cartilage has seldom been considered due to the popular notion of "cartilage immunoprivilege". The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of allogeneic and xenogeneic engineered neocartilage tissue for cartilage repair. To address this, scaffold-free tissue engineered articular cartilage of syngeneic (same genetic background), allogeneic, and xenogeneic origin were implanted into two different locations of the rabbit knee (n=3 per group/location). Xenogeneic engineered cartilage and control xenogeneic chondral explants provoked profound innate inflammatory and adaptive cellular responses, regardless of transplant location. Cytological quantification of immune cells showed that, while allogeneic neocartilage elicited an immune response in the patella, negligible responses were observed when implanted into the trochlea; instead the responses were comparable to microfracture-treated empty defect controls. Allogeneic neocartilage survived within the trochlea implant site and demonstrated graft integration into the underlying bone. In conclusion, the knee joint cartilage does not represent an immune privileged site, strongly rejecting xenogeneic but not allogeneic chondrocytes in a location-dependent fashion. This difference in location-dependent survival of allogeneic tissue may be associated with proximity to the synovium. Through a series of in vivo studies this research demonstrates that articular cartilage is not fully immunoprivileged. In addition, we now show that anatomical location of the defect, even within the same joint compartment, strongly influences the degree of the

  3. Advances in cartilage tissue engineering : in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Mandl (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWithin the body three subtypes of cartilage can be distinguished: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. Hyaline cartilage is the predominant subtype and is mainly located in articular joints and in less extent in the nasal septum and cricoid. Elastic cartilage can be

  4. Quantification of collagen distributions in rat hyaline and fibro cartilages based on second harmonic generation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Liao, Chenxi; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Liu, Wenge; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Hyaline cartilage is a semitransparent tissue composed of proteoglycan and thicker type II collagen fibers, while fibro cartilage large bundles of type I collagen besides other territorial matrix and chondrocytes. It is reported that the meniscus (fibro cartilage) has a greater capacity to regenerate and close a wound compared to articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage). And fibro cartilage often replaces the type II collagen-rich hyaline following trauma, leading to scar tissue that is composed of rigid type I collagen. The visualization and quantification of the collagen fibrillar meshwork is important for understanding the role of fibril reorganization during the healing process and how different types of cartilage contribute to wound closure. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope was applied to image the articular and meniscus cartilage, and textural analysis were developed to quantify the collagen distribution. High-resolution images were achieved based on the SHG signal from collagen within fresh specimens, and detailed observations of tissue morphology and microstructural distribution were obtained without shrinkage or distortion. Textural analysis of SHG images was performed to confirm that collagen in fibrocartilage showed significantly coarser compared to collagen in hyaline cartilage (p < 0.01). Our results show that each type of cartilage has different structural features, which may significantly contribute to pathology when damaged. Our findings demonstrate that SHG microscopy holds potential as a clinically relevant diagnostic tool for imaging degenerative tissues or assessing wound repair following cartilage injury.

  5. Equivalence and precision of knee cartilage morphometry between different segmentation teams, cartilage regions, and MR acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Nevitt, M; McCulloch, C; Cicuttini, FM; Duryea, J; Eckstein, F; Tamez-Pena, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare precision and evaluate equivalence of femorotibial cartilage volume (VC) and mean cartilage thickness (ThCtAB.Me) from independent segmentation teams using identical MR images from three series: sagittal 3D Dual Echo in the Steady State (DESS), coronal multi-planar reformat (DESS-MPR) of DESS and coronal 3D Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH). Design 19 subjects underwent test-retest MR imaging at 3 Tesla. Four teams segmented the cartilage using prospectively defined plate regions and rules. Mixed models analysis of the pooled data were used to evaluate the effect of acquisition, team and plate on precision and Pearson correlations and mixed models to evaluate equivalence. Results Segmentation team differences dominated measurement variability in most cartilage regions for all image series. Precision of VC and ThCtAB.Me differed significantly by team and cartilage plate, but not between FLASH and DESS. Mean values of VC and ThCtAB.Me differed by team (P<0.05) for DESS, FLASH and DESS-MPR, FLASH VC was 4–6% larger than DESS in the medial tibia and lateral central femur, and FLASH ThCtAB.Me was 5–6% larger in the medial tibia, but 4–8% smaller in the medial central femur. Correlations betweenDESS and FLASH for VC and ThCtAB.Me were high (r=0.90–0.97), except for DESS versus FLASH medial central femur ThCtAB.Me (r=0.81–0.83). Conclusions Cartilage morphology metrics from different image contrasts had similar precision, were generally equivalent, and may be combined for cross-sectional analyses if potential systematic offsets are accounted for. Data from different teams should not be pooled unless equivalence is demonstrated for cartilage metrics of interest. PMID:22521758

  6. Composite cervical skin and cartilage flap provides a novel large airway substitute after long-segment tracheal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Dominique; Singhal, Sunil; De Montpreville, Vincent; Decante, Benoit; Mussot, Sacha; Chataigner, Olivier; Mercier, Olaf; Kolb, Frederic; Dartevelle, Philippe G; Fadel, Elie

    2009-07-01

    Airway replacement after long-segment tracheal resection for benign and malignant disease remains a challenging problem because of the lack of a substitute conduit. Ideally, an airway substitute should be well vascularized, rigid, and autologous to avoid infections, airway stenosis, and the need for immunosuppression. We report the development of an autologous tracheal substitute for long-segment tracheal resection that satisfies these criteria and demonstrates excellent short-term functional results in a large-animal study. Twelve adult pigs underwent long-segment (6 cm, 60% of total length) tracheal resection. Autologous costal cartilage strips measuring 6 cm x 2 mm were harvested from the chest wall and inserted at regular 0.5-cm intervals between dermal layers of a cervical skin flap. The neotrachea was then scaffolded by rotating the composite cartilage skin flap around a silicone stent measuring 6 cm in length and 1.4 cm in diameter. The neotrachea replaced the long segment of tracheal resection, and the donor flap site was closed with a double-Z plasty. Animals were killed at 1 week (group I, n = 4), 2 weeks (group II, n = 4), and 5 weeks (group III, n = 4). In group III the stent was removed 1 week before death. Viability of the neotrachea was monitored by means of daily flexible bronchoscopy and histologic examination at autopsy. Long-term morbidity and mortality were determined by monitoring weight gain, respiratory distress, and survival. There was no mortality during the study period. Weight gain was appropriate in all animals. Daily bronchoscopy and postmortem histologic evaluation confirmed excellent viability of the neotrachea. There was no evidence of suture-line dehiscence. Five animals had distal granulomas that were removed by using rigid bronchoscopy. In group III 1 animal had tracheomalacia, which was successfully managed by means of insertion of a silicon stent. Airway reconstruction with autologous cervical skin flaps scaffolded with costal

  7. Articulation of Native Cartilage Against Different Femoral Component Materials. Oxidized Zirconium Damages Cartilage Less Than Cobalt-Chrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlommel, Jan; De Corte, Ronny; Luyckx, Jean Philippe; Anderson, Melissa; Labey, Luc; Bellemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is produced by thermally driven oxidization creating an oxidized surface with the properties of a ceramic at the top of the Zr metal substrate. OxZr is much harder and has a lower coefficient of friction than cobalt-chrome (CoCr), both leading to better wear characteristics. We evaluated and compared damage to the cartilage of porcine patella plugs, articulating against OxZr vs CoCr. Our hypothesis was that, owing to its better wear properties, OxZr would damage cartilage less than CoCr. If this is true, OxZr might be a better material for the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty if the patella is not resurfaced. Twenty-one plugs from porcine patellae were prepared and tested in a reciprocating pin-on-disk machine while lubricated with bovine serum and under a constant load. Three different configurations were tested: cartilage-cartilage as the control group, cartilage-OxZr, and cartilage-CoCr. Macroscopic appearance, cartilage thickness, and the modified Mankin score were evaluated after 400,000 wear cycles. The control group showed statistically significant less damage than plugs articulating against both other materials. Cartilage plugs articulating against OxZr were statistically significantly less damaged than those articulating against CoCr. Although replacing cartilage by an implant always leads to deterioration of the cartilage counterface, OxZr results in less damage than CoCr. The use of OxZr might thus be preferable to CoCr in case of total knee arthroplasty without patella resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reviewing subchondral cartilage surgery: considerations for standardised and outcome predictable cartilage remodelling: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, Jan P; Behrens, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The potential of subchondral mesenchymal stem cell stimulation (MSS) for cartilage repair has led to the widespread use of microfracture as a first line treatment for full thickness articular cartilage defects. Recent focus on the effects of subchondral bone during cartilage injury and repair has expanded the understanding of the strengths and limitations in MSS and opened new pathways for potential improvement. Comparative studies have shown that bone marrow access has positive implications for pluripotential cell recruitment, repair quality and quantity, i.e. deeper channels elicited better cartilage fill, more hyaline cartilage character with higher type II collagen content and lower type I collagen content compared to shallow marrow access. A subchondral needling procedure using standardised and thin subchondral perforations deep into the subarticular bone marrow making the MSS more consistent with the latest developments in subchondral cartilage remodelling is proposed. As this is a novel method clinical studies have been initiated to evaluate the procedure especially compared to microfracturing. However, the first case studies and follow-ups indicate that specific drills facilitate reaching the subchondral bone marrow while the needle size makes perforation of the subchondral bone easier and more predictable. Clinical results of the first group of patients seem to compare well to microfracturing. The authors suggest a new method for a standardised procedure using a new perforating device. Advances in MSS by subchondral bone marrow perforation are discussed. It remains to be determined by clinical studies how this method compares to microfracturing. The subchondral needling offers the surgeon and the investigator a method that facilitates comparison studies because of its defined depth of subchondral penetration and needle size.

  9. Cartilage tissue engineering: Role of mesenchymal stem cells along with growth factors & scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Gugjoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage injury poses a major challenge for both the patient and orthopaedician. Articular cartilage defects once formed do not regenerate spontaneously, rather replaced by fibrocartilage which is weaker in mechanical competence than the normal hyaline cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs along with different growth factors and scaffolds are currently incorporated in tissue engineering to overcome the deficiencies associated with currently available surgical methods and to facilitate cartilage healing. MSCs, being readily available with a potential to differentiate into chondrocytes which are enhanced by the application of different growth factors, are considered for effective repair of articular cartilage after injury. However, therapeutic application of MSCs and growth factors for cartilage repair remains in its infancy, with no comparative clinical study to that of the other surgical techniques. The present review covers the role of MSCs, growth factors and scaffolds for the repair of articular cartilage injury.

  10. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage by real-time elastosonography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek, Ali; Unal, Ozlem; Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Arslan, Halil; Isik, Cetin; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage using real-time elastosonography. Twenty-five patients with femoral cartilage pathology on MRI (study group) were prospectively compared with 25 subjects with normal findings on MRI (control group) using real-time elastosonography. Strain ratio measurements of pathologic and normal cartilage were performed and compared, both within the study group and between the two groups. Elastosonography colour-scale coding showed a colour change from blue to red in pathologic cartilage and only blue colour-coding in normal cartilage. In the study group, the median strain ratio was higher in pathologic cartilage areas compared to normal areas (median, 1.49 [interquartile range, 0.80-2.53] vs. median, 0.01 [interquartile range, 0.01-0.01], p < 0.001, respectively). The median strain ratio of the control group was 0.01 (interquartile range, 0.01-0.01), and there was no significant difference compared to normal areas of the study group. There was, however, a significant difference between the control group cartilage and pathologic cartilage of the study group (p < 0.001). Elastosonography may be an effective, easily accessible, and relatively simple tool to demonstrate pathologic cartilage and to differentiate it from normal cartilage in the absence of advanced imaging facility such as MRI. (orig.)

  12. Towards Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Ohta, Yoichi; Larmour, Colleen; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage is classified into permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage is originated from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, it establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracerllular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier’s groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Further, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. PMID:24078496

  13. Peculiarities in Ankle Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Kaenkumchorn, Tanyaporn; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Wimmer, Markus A; Chubinskaya, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is the most common form of osteoarthritis (OA) of the ankle joint. PTOA occurs as a result of several factors, including the poor regenerative capacity of hyaline articular cartilage as well as increased contact stresses following trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and potential targets for treatment of PTOA in the ankle joint. Previous reviews primarily addressed clinical approaches to ankle PTOA, while the focus of the current article will be specifically on the newly acquired knowledge of the cellular mechanisms that drive PTOA in the ankle joint and means for potential targeted therapeutics that might halt the progression of cartilage degeneration and/or improve the outcome of surgical interventions. Three experimental treatment strategies are discussed in this review: (1) increasing the anabolic potential of chondrocytes through treatment with growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-7; (2) limiting chondrocyte cell death either through the protection of cell membrane with poloxamer 188 or inhibiting activity of intracellular proteases, caspases, which are responsible for cell death by apoptosis; and (3) inhibiting catabolic/inflammatory responses of chondrocytes by treating them with anti-inflammatory agents such as tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists. Future studies should focus on identifying the appropriate timing for treatment and an appropriate combination of anti-inflammatory, chondro- and matrix-protective biologics to limit the progression of trauma-induced cartilage degeneration and prevent the development of PTOA in the ankle joint.

  14. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  15. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  16. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  17. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams VII. Culture studies on the taxonomic relevance of costal anatomy in the Campylopus leucognodes-subconcolor complex and in Campylopus pittieri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florschütz-de Waard, J.; Worrell-Schets, M.

    1980-01-01

    Observations on costal anatomy in Colombian material of the Campylopus leucognodessubconcolor complex revealed a correlation between habitat humidity and degree of cell wall thickness. Cultivation experiments confirmed the assumption that the presence or absence of pseudostereids in this group is

  18. Patellofemoral instability in children: T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage in patients with and without patellofemoral instability and correlation with morphological grading of cartilage damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, Ppatellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage.

  19. The Role of Cartilage Stress in Patellofemoral Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, Thor F.; Pal, Saikat; Draper, Christine E.; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E.; Delp, Scott L.; Beaupré, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Elevated cartilage stress has been identified as a potential mechanism for retropatellar pain; however, there are limited data in the literature to support this mechanism. Females are more likely to develop patellofemoral pain than males, yet the causes of this dimorphism are unclear. We used experimental data and computational modeling to determine whether patients with patellofemoral pain had elevated cartilage stress compared to pain-free controls and test the hypothesis that females exhibit greater cartilage stress than males. Methods We created finite element models of 24 patients with patellofemoral pain (11 males; 13 females) and 16 pain-free controls (8 males; 8 females) to estimate peak patellar cartilage stress (strain energy density) during a stair climb activity. Simulations took into account cartilage morphology from MRI, joint posture from weight-bearing MRI, and muscle forces from an EMG-driven model. Results We found no difference in peak patellar strain energy density between patellofemoral pain (1.9 ± 1.23 J/m3) and control subjects (1.66 ± 0.75 J/m3, p=0.52). Females exhibited greater cartilage stress compared to males (2.2 vs 1.3 J/m3, respectively, p=0.0075), with large quadriceps muscle forces (3.7BW females vs 3.3BW males) and 23% smaller joint contact area (females: 467 ± 59 mm2 vs males: 608 ± 95mm2). Conclusion Patellofemoral pain patients did not display significantly greater patellar cartilage stress compared to pain-free controls; however, there was a great deal of subject variation. Females exhibited greater peak cartilage stress compared to males, which might explain the greater prevalence of patellofemoral pain in females compared to males but other mechanical and biological factors are clearly involved in this complex pathway to pain. PMID:25899103

  20. Progenitor cells in auricular cartilage demonstrate cartilage-forming capacity in 3D hydrogel culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Otto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paramount for the generation of auricular structures of clinically-relevant size is the acquisition of a large number of cells maintaining an elastic cartilage phenotype, which is the key in producing a tissue capable of withstanding forces subjected to the auricle. Current regenerative medicine strategies utilize chondrocytes from various locations or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. However, the quality of neo-tissues resulting from these cell types is inadequate due to inefficient chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification, respectively. Recently, a subpopulation of stem/progenitor cells has been identified within the auricular cartilage tissue, with similarities to MSCs in terms of proliferative capacity and cell surface biomarkers, but their potential for tissue engineering has not yet been explored. This study compared the in vitro cartilage-forming ability of equine auricular cartilage progenitor cells (AuCPCs, bone marrow-derived MSCs and auricular chondrocytes in gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA-based hydrogels over a period of 56 d, by assessing their ability to undergo chondrogenic differentiation. Neocartilage formation was assessed through gene expression profiling, compression testing, biochemical composition and histology. Similar to MSCs and chondrocytes, AuCPCs displayed a marked ability to generate cartilaginous matrix, although, under the applied culture conditions, MSCs outperformed both cartilage-derived cell types in terms of matrix production and mechanical properties. AuCPCs demonstrated upregulated mRNA expression of elastin, low expression of collagen type X and similar levels of proteoglycan production and mechanical properties as compared to chondrocytes. These results underscored the AuCPCs’ tissue-specific differentiation potential, making them an interesting cell source for the next generation of elastic cartilage tissue-engineered constructs.

  1. Fibrous cartilage of human menisci is less shock-absorbing and energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Mario; Wirz, Dieter; Ronken, Sarah; Hafner, Mirjam; Göpfert, Beat; Friederich, Niklaus F; Elke, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    To test meniscal mechanical properties such as the dynamic modulus of elasticity E* and the loss angle δ at two loading frequencies ω at different locations of the menisci and compare it to E* and δ of hyaline cartilage in indentation mode with spherical indenters. On nine pairs of human menisci, the dynamic E*-modulus and loss angle δ (as a measure of the energy dissipation) were determined. The measurements were performed at two different strain rates (slow sinusoidal and fast single impact) to show the strain rate dependence of the material. The measurements were compared to previous similar measurements with the same equipment on human hyaline cartilage. The resultant E* at fast indentation (median 1.16 MPa) was significantly higher, and the loss angle was significantly lower (median 10.2°) compared to slow-loading mode's E* and δ (median 0.18 MPa and 16.9°, respectively). Further, significant differences for different locations are shown. On the medial meniscus, the anterior horn shows the highest resultant dynamic modulus. In dynamic measurements with a spherical indenter, the menisci are much softer and less energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage. Further, the menisci are stiffer and less energy-dissipating in the middle, intermediate part compared to the meniscal base. In compression, the energy dissipation of meniscus cartilage plays a minor role compared to hyaline cartilage. At high impacts, energy dissipation is less than on low impacts, similar to cartilage.

  2. Treatment of costal osteochondroma causing spinal cord compression by costotransversectomy: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus D. Mazur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In laminectomies for costal osteochondroma causing spinal cord compression, visualization of the extraforaminal part of the tumor is limited. The authors describe using a costotransversectomy to resolve spinal cord compression by a costal osteochondroma invading through the neural foramen. A 21-year-old woman with hereditary multiple exostoses presented with hand numbness and progressive neck and upper back pain. Plain radiographs identified a large lesion of the T2 and T3 pedicles, with encroachment on the T2-3 neural foramen causing ~50% spinal canal stenosis. Costotransversectomy was performed to resect the cartilaginous portions of the osteochondroma, debulk the mass, and decompress the spinal canal. A mass of mature bone was left, but no appreciable cartilaginous tumor. At five-year follow- up, the patient had improvement of neck pain, no new neurological deficits. a stable residual mass, and no new osteochondromas, indicating that appropriate surgical management can yield good results and no evidence of recurrence.

  3. Regulators of articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of hypertrophic differentiation is essential for successful cartilage repair strategies. Although this process is essential for longitudinal growth, it also is part of degenerative cartilage diseases such as osteoarthiritis. Moreover, it limits the use of cell types prone to this process

  4. [Individual Identification of Cartilage by Direct Amplification in Mass Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C H; Xu, C; Li, X Q; Wu, Y; Du, Z

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effectiveness of direct amplification for the STR analysis of cartilage, and to accelerate the effectiveness of disaster victim identification. Eighty-eight cartilage samples were directly amplified by PowerPle® 21 kit, and the results of genotyping were compared with that obtained by the magnetic beads method. In 88 cartilage samples, the STR genotypes were successfully detected from 84 samples by direct amplification and magnetic beads method, and both the results of genotyping by two method were consistent. Direct amplification with PowerPlex® 21 kit can be used for STR genotyping of cartilages. This method is operated easily and promptly, which has a potential application in the individual identification of mass disasters. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  5. Tailored PVA/ECM Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Stocco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine due to cartilage low self-ability repair in case of damage. Hence, a significant goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering is the development of suitable structures in virtue of their matrix composition and biomechanical properties. The objective of our study was to design in vitro a supporting structure for autologous chondrocyte growth. We realized a biohybrid composite scaffold combining a novel and nonspecific extracellular matrix (ECM, which is decellularized Wharton’s jelly ECM, with the biomechanical properties of the synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Wharton’s jelly ECM was tested for its ability in promoting scaffold colonization by chondrocytes and compared with polyvinyl alcohol itself and the more specific decellularized cartilage matrix. Our preliminary evidences highlighted the chance of using Wharton’s jelly ECM in combination with PVA hydrogels as an innovative and easily available scaffold for cartilage restoration.

  6. Analysis and design of Cubesat constellation for the Mediterranean south costal monitoring against illegal immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazreg, Nissen; Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel

    2018-02-01

    Costal monitoring is focused on fast response to illegal immigration and illegal ship traffic. Especially, the illegal ship traffic has been present in media since April 2015, as the number of reported deaths of immigrants crossing the Mediterranean significantly increased. Satellite images provide a possibility to at least partially control both types of events. This paper defines the principal criteria to select the best satellite constellation architecture for maritime and coastal monitoring, filling the gaps of imagery techniques in term of real-time control. The primary purpose of a constellation is to obtain global measurement improving the temporal resolution. The small size and low-cost are the main factors, which make CubeSats ideal for use in constellations. We propose a constellation of 9 Cubesats distributed evenly in 3 different planes. This reduces the revisit time enhancing the coverage duration. In addition, it also allows observing fire, damage on building and similar disasters. In this analysis, the performance criteria were reported such as the revisit time, the vision duration and the area coverage.

  7. Resection of costal exostosis using piezosurgery associated with uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Mario; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Santagata, Mario; Tartaro, Gian Paolo

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman affected by costal exostosis, originating from the posterior arc of the left fifth rib, who complained of a persistent intractable neuralgia in the left T5 dermatome. Both pain and the risk of visceral injury led us to resect exostosis. The procedure was performed using a uniportal videothoracoscopic approach without additional incisions. For bone resection, we used Piezosurgery, a soft tissue-sparing system based on ultrasound vibrations. Piezosurgery allowed the complete resection of exostosis without injuring the intercostal nerve and vessels. The histologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma and showed no sign of malignancy. The patient was discharged 2 days after the operation. Considering the lack of symptoms, the low risk of degeneration, and the absence of recurrence at 12-month follow-up, the simple resection of exostosis without performing a more extensive rib resection was judged to be optimal. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi and Triatoma dimidiata in costal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yim Yan; Sornosa Macias, Karen Jeniffer; Guale Martínez, Doris; Solorzano, Luis F; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In Ecuador, Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis are the main vector species, responsible for over half of the cases of T. cruzi infection in the country. T. dimidiata is believed to have been introduced in Ecuador during colonial times, and its elimination from the country is thus believed to be feasible. We investigated here the molecular ecology of T. dimidiata and T. cruzi in costal Ecuador to further guide control efforts. Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) of 23 specimens from Progreso, Guayas, unambiguously supported the likely importation of T. dimidiata from Central America to Ecuador. The observation of a very high parasite infection rate (54%) and frequent feeding on humans (3/5) confirmed a continued risk of transmission to humans. All genotyped parasites corresponded to TcI DTU and Trypanosoma rangeli was not detected in T. dimidiata. TcI subgroups corresponded to TcIa (25%), and mixed infections with TcIa and TcId (75%). Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi genetic structure in the country, and the possible impact of the introduction of T. dimidiata on the circulating parasite strains. The elevated risk posed by this species warrants continuing efforts for its control, but its apparent mobility between peridomestic and domestic habitats may favor reinfestation following insecticide spraying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-culture systems-based strategies for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Weimin; Wang, Mingjie; Hao, Chunxiang; Lu, Liang; Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Xu; Chen, Mingxue; Li, Penghao; Jiang, Peng; Lu, Shibi; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2018-03-01

    Cartilage engineering facilitates repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage using engineered tissue that restores the functional properties of the impaired joint. The seed cells used most frequently in tissue engineering, are chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Seed cells activity plays a key role in the regeneration of functional cartilage tissue. However, seed cells undergo undesirable changes after in vitro processing procedures, such as degeneration of cartilage cells and induced hypertrophy of mesenchymal stem cells, which hinder cartilage tissue engineering. Compared to monoculture, which does not mimic the in vivo cellular environment, co-culture technology provides a more realistic microenvironment in terms of various physical, chemical, and biological factors. Co-culture technology is used in cartilage tissue engineering to overcome obstacles related to the degeneration of seed cells, and shows promise for cartilage regeneration and repair. In this review, we focus first on existing co-culture systems for cartilage tissue engineering and related fields, and discuss the conditions and mechanisms thereof. This is followed by methods for optimizing seed cell co-culture conditions to generate functional neo-cartilage tissue, which will lead to a new era in cartilage tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mechanical testing of hydrogels in cartilage tissue engineering: beyond the compressive modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghua; Friis, Elizabeth A; Gehrke, Stevin H; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Injuries to articular cartilage result in significant pain to patients and high medical costs. Unfortunately, cartilage repair strategies have been notoriously unreliable and/or complex. Biomaterial-based tissue-engineering strategies offer great promise, including the use of hydrogels to regenerate articular cartilage. Mechanical integrity is arguably the most important functional outcome of engineered cartilage, although mechanical testing of hydrogel-based constructs to date has focused primarily on deformation rather than failure properties. In addition to deformation testing, as the field of cartilage tissue engineering matures, this community will benefit from the addition of mechanical failure testing to outcome analyses, given the crucial clinical importance of the success of engineered constructs. However, there is a tremendous disparity in the methods used to evaluate mechanical failure of hydrogels and articular cartilage. In an effort to bridge the gap in mechanical testing methods of articular cartilage and hydrogels in cartilage regeneration, this review classifies the different toughness measurements for each. The urgency for identifying the common ground between these two disparate fields is high, as mechanical failure is ready to stand alongside stiffness as a functional design requirement. In comparing toughness measurement methods between hydrogels and cartilage, we recommend that the best option for evaluating mechanical failure of hydrogel-based constructs for cartilage tissue engineering may be tensile testing based on the single edge notch test, in part because specimen preparation is more straightforward and a related American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard can be adopted in a fracture mechanics context.

  11. The role of calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in the initiation and progression of ochronotic arthropathy in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A M; Boyde, A; Wilson, P J M; Jarvis, J C; Davidson, J S; Hunt, J A; Ranganath, L R; Gallagher, J A

    2011-12-01

    Alkaptonuria is a genetic disorder of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in elevated circulating concentrations of homogentisic acid. Homogentisic acid is deposited as a polymer, termed ochronotic pigment, in collagenous tissues, especially cartilages of weight-bearing joints, leading to a severe osteoarthropathy. We undertook this study to investigate the initiation and progression of ochronosis from the earliest detection of pigment through complete joint failure. Nine joint samples with varying severities of ochronosis were obtained from alkaptonuria patients undergoing surgery and compared to joint samples obtained from osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Samples were analyzed by light and fluorescence microscopy, 3-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the quantitative backscattered electron mode of SEM. Cartilage samples were mechanically tested by compression to determine Young's modulus of pigmented, nonpigmented, and OA cartilage samples. In alkaptonuria samples with the least advanced ochronosis, pigment was observed intracellularly and in the territorial matrix of individual chondrocytes at the boundary of the subchondral bone and calcified cartilage. In more advanced ochronosis, pigmentation was widespread throughout the hyaline cartilage in either granular composition or as blanket pigmentation in which there is complete and homogenous pigmentation of cartilage matrix. Once hyaline cartilage was extensively pigmented, there was aggressive osteoclastic resorption of the subchondral plate. Pigmented cartilage became impacted on less highly mineralized trabeculae and embedded in the marrow space. Pigmented cartilage samples were much stiffer than nonpigmented or OA cartilage as revealed by a significant difference in Young's modulus. Using alkaptonuria cartilage specimens with a wide spectrum of pigmentation, we have characterized the progression of ochronosis. Intact cartilage appears to be resistant to pigmentation but becomes susceptible following

  12. Cartilage quantification using contrast-enhanced MRI in the wrist of rheumatoid arthritis: cartilage loss is associated with bone marrow edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Motoshi; Nakamura, Satoko; Hasegawa, Kiminori; Ikeno, Kunihiro; Ichikawa, Shota; Sutherland, Kenneth; Kamishima, Tamotsu

    2017-08-01

    To quantify wrist cartilage using contrast MRI and compare with the extent of adjacent synovitis and bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 18 patients with RA underwent post-contrast fat-suppressed T 1 weighted coronal imaging. Cartilage area at the centre of the scaphoid-capitate and radius-scaphoid joints was measured by in-house developed software. We defined cartilage as the pixels with signal intensity between two thresholds (lower: 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 times the muscle signal, upper: 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 times the muscle signal). We investigated the association of cartilage loss with synovitis and BME score derived from RA MRI scoring system. Cartilage area was correlated with BME score when thresholds were adequately set with lower threshold at 0.6 times the muscle signal and upper threshold at 1.2 times the muscle signal for both SC (r s =-0.469, p cartilage in the wrist and BME associated with cartilage loss in patients with RA. Advances in knowledge: Our software can quantify cartilage using conventional MR images of the wrist. BME is associated with cartilage loss in RA patients.

  13. Modern cartilage imaging of the ankle; Moderne Knorpelbildgebung des Sprunggelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Wuennemann, Felix; Rehnitz, Christoph [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Jungmann, Pia M. [Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Radiology; Kuni, Benita [Ortho-Zentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery

    2017-10-15

    Talar osteochondral lesions are an important risk factor for the development of talar osteoarthritis. Furthermore, osteochondral lesions might explain persistent ankle pain. Early diagnosis of accompanying chondral defects is important to establish the optimal therapy strategy and thereby delaying or preventing the onset of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this review is to explain modern cartilage imaging with emphasis of MR imaging as well as the discussion of more sophisticated imaging studies like CT-arthrography or functional MR imaging. Pubmed literature search concerning: osteochondral lesions, cartilage damage, ankle joint, talus, 2 D MR imaging, 3 D MR imaging, cartilage MR imaging, CT-arthrography, cartilage repair, microfracture, OATS, MACT. Dedicated MR imaging protocols to delineate talar cartilage and the appearance of acute and chronic osteochondral lesions were discussed. Recent developments of MR imaging, such as isotropic 3 D imaging that has a higher signal-to noise ratio when compared to 2 D imaging, and specialized imaging methods such as CT-arthrography as well as functional MR imaging were introduced. Several classifications schemes and imaging findings of osteochondral lesions that influence the conservative or surgical therapy strategy were discussed. MRI enables after surgery the non-invasive assessment of the repair tissue and the success of implantation. Key points: Modern MRI allows for highly resolved visualization of the articular cartilage of the ankle joint and of subchondral pathologies. Recent advances in MRI include 3 D isotropic ankle joint imaging, which deliver higher signal-to-noise ratios of the cartilage and less partial volume artifacts when compared with standard 2 D sequences. In case of osteochondral lesions MRI is beneficial for assessing the stability of the osteochondral fragment and for this discontinuity of the cartilage layer is an important factor. CT-arthrography can be used in case of contraindications of MRI and

  14. Using Cartilage MRI T2-Mapping to Analyze Early Cartilage Degeneration in the Knee Joint of Young Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenmeier, Leonie; Evers, Christoph; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf; Hennig, Frank Friedrich; Pachowsky, Milena Liese; Welsch, Götz Hannes

    2018-02-01

    Objective To evaluate and characterize the appearance of articular cartilage in the tibiofemoral joint of young professional soccer players using T2-relaxation time evaluation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design In this study, we included 57 male adolescents from the youth academy of a professional soccer team. The MRI scans were acquired of the knee joint of the supporting leg. An "early unloading" (minute 0) and "late unloading" (minute 28) T2-sequence was included in the set of images. Quantitative T2-analysis was performed in the femorotibial joint cartilage in 4 slices with each 10 regions of interest (ROIs). Statistical evaluation, using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, was primarily performed to compare the T2 values of the "early unloading" and "late unloading." Results When comparing "early unloading" with "late unloading," our findings showed a significant increase of T2-relaxation times in the weightbearing femoral cartilage of the medial ( P cartilage of the medial compartment ( P cartilage were found with a maximum in the medial condyle where the biomechanical load of the knee joint is highest, as well as where most of the chronic cartilage lesions occur. To avoid chronic damage, special focus should be laid on this region.

  15. Brief report: reconstruction of joint hyaline cartilage by autologous progenitor cells derived from ear elastic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Shinji; Takebe, Takanori; Kan, Hiroomi; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Ik, Lee Jeong; Maegawa, Jiro; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    In healthy joints, hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of bones provides cushioning due to its unique mechanical properties. However, because of its limited regenerative capacity, age- and sports-related injuries to this tissue may lead to degenerative arthropathies, prompting researchers to investigate a variety of cell sources. We recently succeeded in isolating human cartilage progenitor cells from ear elastic cartilage. Human cartilage progenitor cells have high chondrogenic and proliferative potential to form elastic cartilage with long-term tissue maintenance. However, it is unknown whether ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells can be used to reconstruct hyaline cartilage, which has different mechanical and histological properties from elastic cartilage. In our efforts to develop foundational technologies for joint hyaline cartilage repair and reconstruction, we conducted this study to obtain an answer to this question. We created an experimental canine model of knee joint cartilage damage, transplanted ear-derived autologous cartilage progenitor cells. The reconstructed cartilage was rich in proteoglycans and showed unique histological characteristics similar to joint hyaline cartilage. In addition, mechanical properties of the reconstructed tissues were higher than those of ear cartilage and equal to those of joint hyaline cartilage. This study suggested that joint hyaline cartilage was reconstructed from ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells. It also demonstrated that ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells, which can be harvested by a minimally invasive method, would be useful for reconstructing joint hyaline cartilage in patients with degenerative arthropathies. © AlphaMed Press.

  16. Toward understanding the role of cartilage particulates in synovial inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, A M; Stefani, R M; Sobczak, E; Tong, E L; Attur, M G; Shah, R P; Bulinski, J C; Ateshian, G A; Hung, C T

    2017-08-01

    Arthroscopy with lavage and synovectomy can remove tissue debris from the joint space and the synovial lining to provide pain relief to patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we developed an in vitro model to study the interaction of cartilage wear particles with fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) to better understand the interplay of cartilage particulates with cytokines on cells of the synovium. In this study sub-10 μm cartilage particles or 1 μm latex particles were co-cultured with FLS ±10 ng/mL interleukin-1α (IL-1α) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Samples were analyzed for DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and collagen, and media samples were analyzed for media GAG, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2). The nature of the physical interaction between the particles and FLS was determined by microscopy. Both latex and cartilage particles could be phagocytosed by FLS. Cartilage particles were internalized and attached to the surface of both dense monolayers and individual cells. Co-culture of FLS with cartilage particulates resulted in a significant increase in cell sheet DNA and collagen content as well as NO and PGE2 synthesis compared to control and latex treated groups. The proliferative response of FLS to cartilage wear particles resulted in an overall increase in extracellular matrix (ECM) content, analogous to the thickening of the synovial lining observed in OA patients. Understanding how cartilage particles interface with the synovium may provide insight into how this interaction contributes to OA progression and may guide the role of lavage and synovectomy for degenerative disease. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  18. Histological comparison of patellar cartilage degeneration between chondromalacia in youth and osteoarthritis in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y; Kubo, M; Okumo, H; Kuroki, Y

    1995-01-01

    The histological findings of the patellar cartilage were compared between cases of chondromalacia, which occurs predominantly in young persons (22 patients, average age 19.8 years) and cases of osteoarthritis, which is common among the elderly (21 patients, average age 65.4 years). The histological findings of cartilage in the chondromalacia were characterized by increased density and vigorous fibrous metaplasia of chondrocytes. These findings may be considered to represent a reactive change in the chondrocyte. Cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis, by contrast, is regressive and presents a clearly different histological picture from that of chondromalacia patellae. We conclude that chondromalacia does not easily lead to osteoarthritis. On the other hand, the cartilage was characteristically softened, as observed by gross inspection, and showed rarefaction of the cartilage matrix. It should be noted that the change was not observed in aging, but showed a pattern of cartilage degeneration peculiar to young patients with chondromalacia patellae.

  19. Quantitative imaging of excised osteoarthritic cartilage using spectral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Kishore; Bateman, Christopher J.; Younis, Raja Aamir; De Ruiter, Niels J.A.; Ramyar, Mohsen; Anderson, Nigel G. [University of Otago - Christchurch, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Loebker, Caroline [University of Otago, Christchurch Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Twente, Department of Developmental BioEngineering, Enschede (Netherlands); Schon, Benjamin S.; Hooper, Gary J.; Woodfield, Tim B.F. [University of Otago, Christchurch Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Chernoglazov, Alex I. [University of Canterbury, Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, Anthony P.H. [University of Otago - Christchurch, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); MARS Bioimaging, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2017-01-15

    To quantify iodine uptake in articular cartilage as a marker of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content using multi-energy spectral CT. We incubated a 25-mm strip of excised osteoarthritic human tibial plateau in 50 % ionic iodine contrast and imaged it using a small-animal spectral scanner with a cadmium telluride photon-processing detector to quantify the iodine through the thickness of the articular cartilage. We imaged both spectroscopic phantoms and osteoarthritic tibial plateau samples. The iodine distribution as an inverse marker of GAG content was presented in the form of 2D and 3D images after applying a basis material decomposition technique to separate iodine in cartilage from bone. We compared this result with a histological section stained for GAG. The iodine in cartilage could be distinguished from subchondral bone and quantified using multi-energy CT. The articular cartilage showed variation in iodine concentration throughout its thickness which appeared to be inversely related to GAG distribution observed in histological sections. Multi-energy CT can quantify ionic iodine contrast (as a marker of GAG content) within articular cartilage and distinguish it from bone by exploiting the energy-specific attenuation profiles of the associated materials. (orig.)

  20. El Rey Costales, personaje de la narrativa oral de Zumpahuacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urdapilleta Muñoz, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the King of Sacks (Rey Costales, a mythical character in Zumpahuacan’s oral narrative. This so difficult to grasp character, and its protean condition, oriented the research into determining its identity. According the stories, King of Sacks is kind of a «spirit» or «Banshee », but its behavior is that of an «Air”, a Mesoamerican supernatural being. However, its high degree of individualization —as manifested in the consciousness of its pagan status as well as in the lack of links with the atmospheric phenomena affecting crops— required some clarifications. As expected, there is a conflict or symbolic-religious adjustment between Christian beliefs and vernacular beliefs, but above all, a larger cultural realignment revealing the process of looking for balance in collective imagination as a result of a community’s new circumstances, no longer mainly agrarian and indigenous. Beyond this adjustment, the narrative shows the creativity of Zumpahuacan’s inhabitants, projecting their ability to shape their experiences anchored in pre- Hispanic past, but in the light of present experiences and circumstances.

    El propósito de este artículo es el estudio del Rey Costales, un personaje mítico de la narrativa oral de Zumpahuacán. Su identidad múltiple, proteica, difícil de asir, orientó la investigación hacia el establecimiento de la identidad del personaje. En los relatos se le refiere como un «espíritu» o «alma en pena», pero su conducta permitió tipificarlo como «aire», un género de seres sobrenaturales mesoamericanos Sin embargo, su alto grado de individualización, manifiesto en la conciencia de su condición pagana, así como la falta de vínculos con los fenómenos atmosféricos que inciden en el cultivo hicieron necesarias algunas precisiones. Éstas mostraron que hay un conflicto o ajuste simbólico-religioso entre las creencias cristianas y las vernáculas, y ante todo un reacomodo

  1. The effect of fixed charge density and cartilage swelling on mechanics of knee joint cartilage during simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Lasse P; Tanska, Petri; Zbýň, Štefan; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C; Trattnig, Siegfried; Nieminen, Miika T; Korhonen, Rami K

    2017-08-16

    The effect of swelling of articular cartilage, caused by the fixed charge density (FCD) of proteoglycans, has not been demonstrated on knee joint mechanics during simulated walking before. In this study, the influence of the depth-wise variation of FCD was investigated on the internal collagen fibril strains and the mechanical response of the knee joint cartilage during gait using finite element (FE) analysis. The FCD distribution of tibial cartilage was implemented from sodium ( 23 Na) MRI into a 3-D FE-model of the knee joint ("Healthy model"). For comparison, models with decreased FCD values were created according to the decrease in FCD associated with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) ("Early OA" and "Advanced OA" models). In addition, a model without FCD was created ("No FCD" model). The effect of FCD was studied with five different collagen fibril network moduli of cartilage. Using the reference fibril network moduli, the decrease in FCD from "Healthy model" to "Early OA" and "Advanced OA" models resulted in increased axial strains (by +2 and +6%) and decreased fibril strains (by -3 and -13%) throughout the stance, respectively, calculated as mean values through cartilage depth in the tibiofemoral contact regions. Correspondingly, compared to the "Healthy model", the removal of the FCD altogether in "NoFCD model" resulted in increased mean axial strains by +16% and decreased mean fibril strains by -24%. This effect was amplified as the fibril network moduli were decreased by 80% from the reference. Then mean axial strains increased by +6, +19 and +49% and mean fibril strains decreased by -9, -20 and -32%, respectively. Our results suggest that the FCD in articular cartilage has influence on cartilage responses in the knee during walking. Furthermore, the FCD is suggested to have larger impact on cartilage function as the collagen network degenerates e.g. in OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  3. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong (Dept. of Radiology, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea)); Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun (Cartilage Regeneration Center, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea))

    2009-11-15

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  4. Efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on viability of diced cartilage grafts in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, İsmail; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Kocatürk, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the viability of cartilage grafts embedded in platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) wrapped with no material (bare diced cartilage grafts), oxidized methylcellulose (Surgicel), or acellular dermal tissue (AlloDerm). Experimental study. In this study, six New Zealand rabbits were used. Cartilage grafts including perichondrium were excised from each ear and diced into 2-mm-by 2-mm pieces. There were four comparison groups: 1) group A, diced cartilage (not wrapped with any material); 2) group B, diced cartilage wrapped with AlloDerm; 3) group C, diced cartilage grafts wrapped with Surgicel; and 4) group D, diced cartilage wrapped with PRFM. Four cartilage grafts were implanted under the skin at the back of each rabbit. All rabbits were sacrificed at the end of 10 weeks. The cartilages were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Orcein. After that, they were evaluated for the viability of chondrocytes, collagen content, fibrillar structure of matrix, and changes in peripheral tissues. When the viability of chondrocytes, the content of fiber in matrix, and changes in peripheral tissues were compared, the cartilage embedded in the PRFM group was statistically significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). We concluded that PRFM has significant advantages in ensuring the chondrocyte viability of diced cartilage grafts. It is also biocompatible, with relatively lesser inflammation and fibrosis. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Polymer Formulations for Cartilage Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowska, Anna; Jasionowski, Marek; Morris, J. E.; Chrisler, William B.; An, Yuehuei H.; Mironov, V.

    2001-05-15

    Regeneration of destroyed articular cartilage can be induced by transplantation of cartilage cells into a defect. The best results are obtained with the use of autologus cells. However, obtaining large amounts of autologus cartilage cells causes a problem of creating a large cartilage defect in a donor site. Techniques are currently being developed to harvest a small number of cells and propagate them in vitro. It is a challenging task, however, due to the fact that ordinarily, in a cell culture on flat surfaces, chondrocytes do not maintain their in vivo phenotype and irreversibly diminish or cease the synthesis of aggregating proteoglycans. Therefore, the research is continuing to develop culture conditions for chondrocytes with the preserved phenotype.

  6. Cartilage biomarkers in the osteoarthropathy of alkaptonuria reveal low turnover and accelerated ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M; Hsueh, Ming-Feng; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Gallagher, James A; Dillon, Jane P; Huebner, Janet L; Catterall, Jon B; Kraus, Virginia B

    2017-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare autosomal recessive disease resulting from a single enzyme deficiency in tyrosine metabolism. As a result, homogentisic acid cannot be metabolized, causing systemic increases. Over time, homogentisic acid polymerizes and deposits in collagenous tissues, leading to ochronosis. Typically, this occurs in joint cartilages, leading to an early onset, rapidly progressing osteoarthropathy. The aim of this study was to examine tissue turnover in cartilage affected by ochronosis and its role in disease initiation and progression. With informed patient consent, hip and knee cartilages were obtained at surgery for arthropathy due to AKU (n = 6; 2 knees/4 hips) and OA (n = 12; 5 knees/7 hips); healthy non-arthritic (non-OA n = 6; 1 knee/5 hips) cartilages were obtained as waste from trauma surgery. We measured cartilage concentrations (normalized to dry weight) of racemized aspartate, GAG, COMP and deamidated COMP (D-COMP). Unpaired AKU, OA and non-OA samples were compared by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Despite more extractable total protein being obtained from AKU cartilage than from OA or non-OA cartilage, there was significantly less extractable GAG, COMP and D-COMP in AKU samples compared with OA and non-OA comparators. Racemized Asx (aspartate and asparagine) was significantly enriched in AKU cartilage compared with in OA cartilage. These novel data represent the first examination of cartilage matrix components in a sample of patients with AKU, representing almost 10% of the known UK alkaptonuric population. Compared with OA and non-OA, AKU cartilage demonstrates a very low turnover state and has low levels of extractable matrix proteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Study of MR sequence in detecting hyaline cartilage defects of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songbai; He Cuiju; Sun Wenge; Li Chunkui; Qi Xixun; Li Yanliang; Xu Ke; Bai Xizhuang; Wu Zhenhua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of various MR imaging sequences for detecting hyaline cartilage defects. Methods: Ten animal models of cartilage defect were established in 5 pig knees. 5 knees were examined with nine different MR sequences. The signal noise ratio of cartilage and contrast noise ratio were calculated and compared between cartilage and adjacent tissue. Measurement of the defect depth and width on the imaging was correlated with the actual measurement before imaging. 23 patients with hyaline cartilage defects of the knee were evaluated with MR imaging. All these patients underwent subsequent arthroscopy. MR imaging protocol included the selected sequences in the experimental study. Results: The cartilage SNR was better in FSE PD, FS 3D FSPGR, and FS FSE PD sequences. CNR between cartilage and subcartilaginous bone was best in FS 3D FSPGR and FS FSE PD sequences. CNR between cartilage and joint fluid was best in FS 3D FSPGR and FS FSE T 2 WI sequences. CNR between cartilage and meniscus and ligament was best in FS 3D FSPGR, FS FSE PD, SE T 1 WI, and IR TI700 sequences. CNR between cartilage and fat was best in FS 3D FSPGR and SE T 1 WI sequences. The width and depth correlation was best in IR TI700 sequence, which showed the statistical significance (P 2 WI sequence, 68%, 99%, and 0.74, respectively with IR TI700 sequence. Conclusion: The sensitivity of FS 3D FSPGR sequence in detecting hyaline cartilage defect is the highest. T 1 WI of spin echo sequence and T 2 WI/PDWI of fast spin-echo with fat saturation should be the standard sequence in the examination of knee joint. T 1 WI of IR sequence has potential clinical value for cartilage examination

  8. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Destrucción costal: una rara forma de presentación de la nocardiosis pulmonar

    OpenAIRE

    Julve Pardo, R.; Carrión Valero, F.; Gonzalvo Bellver, F.; Prat Fornells, J.; Pascual Izuel, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Clásicamente, la infección por Nocardia spp. se asocia a estados de depresión inmunológica, procesos neoplásicos y tratamientos prolongados con inmunosupresores y glucocorticoides. La afectación pulmonar es la más característica, siendo infrecuente la diseminación del proceso por extensión local a la pared costal y el tejido celular subcutáneo. Presentamos un caso de nocardiosis pulmonar por Nocardia asteroides en una paciente diabética sin otros factores de riesgo conocidos, que se manifestó...

  10. Application of a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method for biomechanical modeling of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liukkonen, Mimmi K; Mononen, Mika E; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T; Korhonen, Rami K

    2017-10-01

    Manual segmentation of articular cartilage from knee joint 3D magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a time consuming and laborious task. Thus, automatic methods are needed for faster and reproducible segmentations. In the present study, we developed a semi-automatic segmentation method based on radial intensity profiles to generate 3D geometries of knee joint cartilage which were then used in computational biomechanical models of the knee joint. Six healthy volunteers were imaged with a 3T MRI device and their knee cartilages were segmented both manually and semi-automatically. The values of cartilage thicknesses and volumes produced by these two methods were compared. Furthermore, the influences of possible geometrical differences on cartilage stresses and strains in the knee were evaluated with finite element modeling. The semi-automatic segmentation and 3D geometry construction of one knee joint (menisci, femoral and tibial cartilages) was approximately two times faster than with manual segmentation. Differences in cartilage thicknesses, volumes, contact pressures, stresses, and strains between segmentation methods in femoral and tibial cartilage were mostly insignificant (p > 0.05) and random, i.e. there were no systematic differences between the methods. In conclusion, the devised semi-automatic segmentation method is a quick and accurate way to determine cartilage geometries; it may become a valuable tool for biomechanical modeling applications with large patient groups.

  11. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defect using stem cell-encapsulated thermogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Jin; Chang, Fei; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun

    2018-07-01

    Cartilage defect repair by hydrogel-based tissue engineering is becoming one of the most potential treatment strategies. In this work, a thermogel of triblock copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) was prepared as scaffold of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) for repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defect. At first, the copolymer solution showed a reversible sol-gel transition at physiological temperature range, and the mechanical properties of such thermogel were high enough to support the repair of cartilage. Additionally, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility of the thermogel were demonstrated. By implanting the BMMSC-encapsulated thermogel into the full-thickness articular cartilage defect (5.0 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in depth) in the rabbit, it was found that the regenerated cartilage integrated well with the surrounding normal cartilage and subchondral bone at 12 weeks post-surgery. The upregulated expression of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen in the repaired cartilage, and the comparable biomechanical properties with normal cartilage suggested that the cell-encapsulated PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel had great potential in serving as the promising scaffold for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    and age-related degenerative diseases can all lead to cartilage loss; however, the low cell density and very limited self-renewal capacity of cartilage necessitate the development of effective therapeutic repair strategies for this tissue. The ontogeny of the chondrocyte, which is the cell that provides...... the biosynthetic machinery for all the component parts of cartilage, is discussed, since an understanding of cartilage development is central to the maintenance of a chondrocytic phenotype in any strategy aiming to produce a replacement cartilage. A plethora of matrices have been developed for cartilage...

  13. Research studies of aging changes of hyaline cartilage surface by using Raman-scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Dolgushkin, D. A.; Volova, L. T.; Lazarev, V. A.; Tyumchenkova, A. S.; Markova, M. D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis by the method of Raman spectroscopy of the joint hyaline cartilage of adults and children. Differences in the spectral characteristics of the surface of articular cartilage are shown. New optical coefficients have been introduced, which make it possible to evaluate the age-related changes in cartilaginous tissue.

  14. A decreased subchondral trabecular bone tissue elastic modulus is associated with pre-arthritic cartilage damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; van der Linden, JC

    2001-01-01

    determined using a combination of finite element models and mechanical testing. The bone tissue modulus was reduced by 60% in the medial condyle of the cases with cartilage damage compared to the control specimens. Neither the presence of cartilage damage nor the anatomic site (medial vs. lateral) affected...

  15. Wind Energy Potential at Badin and Pasni Costal Line of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Sarwar Kaloi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, Pakistan is facing an acute energy crisis since the past decade due to the increasing population growth and is heavily dependent on imports of fossil fuels. The shortage of the electricity is 14-18 hours in rural areas and 8-10 hours in urban areas. This situation has been significantly affecting the residential, industrial and commercial sectors in the country. At this time, it is immense challenges for the government to keep the power supply provision continue in the future for the country. In this situation, it has been the increased research to explore renewable energy resources in the country to fulfill the deficit scenario in the state. The renewable energy sector has not penetrated in the energy mix, currently in the upcoming markets. This paper highlights the steps taken by the country in the past and is taking steps at the present time to get rid of from the existing energy crisis when most urban areas are suffering from power outages for 12 hours on regular basis. Until 2009, no single grid interconnected wind established, but now the circumstances are changing significantly and wind farms are contributing to the national grid is the reality now. The initiation of the three wind farms interconnection network and many others in the pipeline are going to be operational soon. The federal policy on wind energy system has recently changed. Surprisingly, the continuing schemes of the wind farm are getting slow. This paper reviews developments in the wind energy sector in the country and lists some suggestions that can contribute to improving the penetration of wind energy in the national energy sector. Keywords: Wind energy, evolution of wind resource, Wind sites of Pakistan Article History: Received Dec 16th 2016; Received in revised form May 15th 2017; Accepted June 18th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Kaloi,G.S., Wang, J., Baloch, M.H and Tahir, S. (2017 Wind Energy Potential at Badin and Pasni Costal Line

  16. When is cartilage repair successful?; Wann ist eine Knorpelreparatur erfolgreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-MR, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Schreiner, M.M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie fokaler Knorpelschaeden ist weiterhin eine klinische Herausforderung. Nach erfolgter Sanierung gilt es daher besonders, Erfolg und Misserfolg zu evaluieren und den Verlauf standardisiert und somit reproduzierbar zu beurteilen. Dieser Artikel bietet einen Ueberblick ueber gaengige Reparaturverfahren und deren Charakteristika in der Magnetresonanztomographie. Nach einer erfolgreichen Knorpelreparatur ist eine vollstaendige, aber nicht hypertrophe Fuellung des Knorpeldefekts das primaere Kriterium. Zum umgebenden Nativknorpel ist ausserdem eine durchgehende Integration des Transplantats vordergruendig. Im weiteren postoperativen Verlauf sollte das Transplantat ausserdem ein im Vergleich zu nativem Knorpel isointenses Signalverhalten zeigen. Haeufig beobachtete Komplikationen sind zentrale Osteophyten, subchondrale Defekte, Zysten, chronifizierte Knochenmarksoedeme, Gelenkserguesse oder Adhaesionen. Die radiologische Beurteilung dieser

  17. Osteoarthritic cartilage is more homogeneous than healthy cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qazi, Arish A; Dam, Erik B; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-01-01

    it evolves as a consequence to disease and thereby can be used as a progression biomarker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 283 right and left knees from 159 subjects aged 21 to 81 years were scanned using a Turbo 3D T1 sequence on a 0.18-T MRI Esaote scanner. The medial compartment of the tibial cartilage...... sheet was segmented using a fully automatic voxel classification scheme based on supervised learning. From the segmented cartilage sheet, homogeneity was quantified by measuring entropy from the distribution of signal intensities inside the compartment. Each knee was examined by radiography...... of the region was evaluated by testing for overfitting. Three different regularization techniques were evaluated for reducing overfitting errors. RESULTS: The P values for separating the different groups based on cartilage homogeneity were 2 x 10(-5) (KL 0 versus KL 1) and 1 x 10(-7) (KL 0 versus KL >0). Using...

  18. Transcriptomic signatures in cartilage ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Age is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. Microarray studies provide insight into cartilage aging but do not reveal the full transcriptomic phenotype of chondrocytes such as small noncoding RNAs, pseudogenes, and microRNAs. RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the interrogation of large numbers of transcripts including nonprotein coding RNAs. The aim of the study was to characterise molecular mechanisms associated with age-related changes in gene signatures. Methods RNA for gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis was isolated from macroscopically normal cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joints of eight horses; four young donors (4 years old) and four old donors (>15 years old). RNA sequence libraries were prepared following ribosomal RNA depletion and sequencing was undertaken using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes were defined using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction with a generalised linear model likelihood ratio test (P ageing cartilage. Conclusion There was an age-related dysregulation of matrix, anabolic and catabolic cartilage factors. This study has increased our knowledge of transcriptional networks in cartilage ageing by providing a global view of the transcriptome. PMID:23971731

  19. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts

  20. Synovium-derived stem cells: a tissue-specific stem cell for cartilage engineering and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendan A; Pei, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Articular cartilage is difficult to heal once injury or disease occurs. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation is a biological treatment with good prognosis, but donor site morbidity and limited cell source are disadvantages. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising approach for cartilage regeneration. Despite there being various sources, the best candidate for cartilage regeneration is the one with the greatest chondrogenic potential and the least hypertrophic differentiation. These properties are able to insure that the regenerated tissue is hyaline cartilage of high quality. This review article will summarize relevant literature to justify synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) as a tissue-specific stem cell for chondrogenesis by comparing synovium and cartilage with respect to anatomical location and functional structure, comparing the growth characterization and chondrogenic capacity of SDSCs and MSCs, evaluating the application of SDSCs in regenerative medicine and diseases, and discussing potential future directions.

  1. MR Imaging of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Uetani, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    MR imaging is still an evolving technique for the diagnosis of joint cartilage lesions. Early morphologic changes in the degenerative cartilage are not reliably diagnosed even with use of tailored MR imaging techniques. The detection of the biochemical changes of cartilage or high-resolution MRI will serve as an important tool for the early diagnosis of cartilage degeneration in near future. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the role of MR imaging in clinical use.

  2. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K. E.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.; Thomsen, C.; Oestergaard, M.; Bliddal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. Material and Methods: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58 years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol/l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. Results: Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images ( P <0.002). I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA ( P <0.01). Furthermore, a better delineation of the cartilage in the synovial/cartilage zone and of the chondral/subchondral border was observed. Conclusion: The dGEMRIC MRI method markedly improved delineation of hip joint cartilage compared to non-enhanced MRI. The i.a. Gd-DTPA provided the best cartilage delineation. dGEMRIC is a clinically applicable MRI method that may improve identification of early subtle cartilage damage and the accuracy of volume measurements of hip joint cartilage

  3. Mastication markedly affects mandibular condylar cartilage growth, gene expression, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Akiko; Watahiki, Junichi; Nampo, Tomoki; Irie, Tarou; Ichikawa, Yuuta; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Maki, Koutaro

    2014-09-01

    Mandibular growth is believed to be strongly related to mastication. Furthermore, mandibular condylar cartilage is known to be derived from neural crest cells. We examined whether the degree of chewing affects condylar cartilage growth of the mandible. Mice were fed diets with varying hardness. Genes specific to neural crest-derived cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the expression changes between the mandibular and tibia cartilages. The mandibular condylar cartilage was then evaluated histologically, and proliferation was evaluated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Immunostaining was conducted for osteopontin, type X collagen, and Musashi1, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression levels of osteopontin and type X collagen. Markers including P75, Wnt-1, Musashi1, and Nestin were upregulated in the mandibular condylar cartilage as compared with the tibial cartilage. Histologic assessment of the mandibular cartilage showed that the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone was statistically significantly thicker in mice fed a hard diet. Chondrocyte proliferation and Musashi1 expression were lower in mice fed a hard diet. After 4 weeks, numerous osteopontin and type X collagen-positive cells were observed in mice fed a mixed diet. Mastication affects the balance between differentiation and proliferation in the mandibular condylar cartilage. This phenomenon might be attributed to the presence of neural crest-derived cells. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrast Agent-Enhanced Computed Tomography of Articular Cartilage: Association with Tissue Composition and Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvast, T. S.; Jurvelin, J.S.; Aula, A.S.; Lammi, M.J.; Toeyraes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography may enable the noninvasive quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of articular cartilage. It has been reported that penetration of the negatively charged contrast agent ioxaglate (Hexabrix) increases significantly after enzymatic degradation of GAGs. However, it is not known whether spontaneous degradation of articular cartilage can be quantitatively detected with this technique. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic potential of contrast agent-enhanced cartilage tomography (CECT) in quantification of GAG concentration in normal and spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage by means of clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Material and Methods: In this in vitro study, normal and spontaneously degenerated adult bovine cartilage (n=32) was used. Bovine patellar cartilage samples were immersed in 21 mM contrast agent (Hexabrix) solution for 24 hours at room temperature. After immersion, the samples were scanned with a clinical pQCT instrument. From pQCT images, the contrast agent concentration in superficial as well as in full-thickness cartilage was calculated. Histological and functional integrity of the samples was quantified with histochemical and mechanical reference measurements extracted from our earlier study. Results: Full diffusion of contrast agent into the deep cartilage was found to take over 8 hours. As compared to normal cartilage, a significant increase (11%, P 0.5, P<0.01). Further, pQCT could be used to measure the thickness of patellar cartilage. Conclusion: The present results suggest that CECT can be used to diagnose proteoglycan depletion in spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage with a clinical pQCT scanner. Possibly, the in vivo use of clinical pQCT for CECT arthrography of human joints is feasible

  5. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic

  6. Modeling the development of tissue engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    The limited healing capacity of articular cartilage forms a major clinical problem. In general, current treatments of cartilage damage temporarily reliefs symptoms, but fail in the long term. Tissue engineering (TE) has been proposed as a more permanent repair strategy. Cartilage TE aims at

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Jayne Peffers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older donors. Here we describe the contents and quality controls in detail for the gene expression and related results published by Peffers and colleagues in Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 associated with the data uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-1386.

  8. Early Articular Cartilage MRI T2 Changes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Correlate With Later Changes in T2 and Cartilage Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley; Winalski, Carl S.; Chu, Constance R.

    2018-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a known risk factor for future development of osteoarthritis (OA). This human clinical study seeks to determine if early changes to cartilage MRI T2 maps between baseline and 6 months following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are associated with changes to cartilage T2 and cartilage thickness between baseline and 2 years after ACLR. Changes to T2 texture metrics and T2 mean values in medial knee cartilage of 17 human subjects 6 months after ACLR were compared to 2-year changes in T2 and in cartilage thickness of the same areas. T2 texture and mean assessments were also compared to that of 11 uninjured controls. In ACLR subjects, six-month changes in mean T2 correlated to 2-year changes in mean T2 (R = 0.80, p = 0.0001), and 6-month changes to T2 texture metrics, but not T2 mean, correlated with 2-year changes in medial femoral cartilage thickness in 9 of the 20 texture features assessed (R = 0.48–0.72, p ≤ 0.05). Both mean T2 and texture differed (p evaluation of T2 map and textural changes may provide early warning of cartilage at risk for progressive degeneration after ACL injury and reconstruction. PMID:27381512

  9. Patellofemoral instability in children: T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage in patients with and without patellofemoral instability and correlation with morphological grading of cartilage damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, P<0.05) with the longest time at the central area. Positive correlation was seen between mean T2 relaxation time and morphological grading (Pearson correlation coefficiency, P<0.001). T2 increased with severity of morphological grading from 0 to 3 (mixed model, P<0.001), but no statistical difference was seen between grades 3 and 4. In patellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage. (orig.)

  10. MR-based water content estimation in cartilage: design and validation of a method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sophie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    Purpose: Design and validation of an MR-based method that allows the calculation of the water content in cartilage tissue. Methods and Materials: Cartilage tissue T1 map based water content MR sequences were used on a 37 Celsius degree stable system. The T1 map intensity signal was analyzed on 6...... cartilage samples from living animals (pig) and on 8 gelatin samples which water content was already known. For the data analysis a T1 intensity signal map software analyzer used. Finally, the method was validated after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained...... map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed using a T1-map analysis software, can be interpreted as the water contained inside a cartilage tissue. The amount of water estimated using this method was similar to the one obtained at the dry-freeze procedure...

  11. Articular cartilage damage with intramedullary lesion (bone bruise) in anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shuya; Ohdera, Toshihiro; Tokunaga, Masami; Hiroshima, Shiro; Yoshimoto, Eiji

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the intramedullary lesion on MRI and cartilage damage in patients associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Thirty-two cases documented by MRI and arthroscopy within one month from injury underwent ACL reconstruction using ST-G, and arthroscopy was performed again after surgery. The mean term between reconstruction and postoperative arthroscopy was twelve months. The cartilage damage on arthroscopy was compared with the intramedullary lesion on MRI. Cartilage damage was observed in 9 cases (28.1%) during the initial arthroscopy and in 16 cases (50.0%) during the second arthroscopy. Intramedullary lesion was detected in all 32 cases (total: 73 lesions) on MRI. Intramedullary lesion leading to cartilage damage was common in the geographic-type lateral femoral condyle. There was significant difference between the lateral meniscus tear and the cartilage damage of the lateral compartment. (author)

  12. Articular Cartilage Thickness Measured with US is Not as Easy as It Appears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Bartels, E. M.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2011-01-01

    insonation. If US measurements are compared to measurements with other techniques, they should be corrected for the higher sound speed in cartilage. Purpose: To study whether investigators correctly identify the articular cartilage, whether they insonate orthogonally, and whether they correct for sound speed....... Materials and Methods: A literature search limited to the last 10 years of studies applying US to measure cartilage thickness. Results: 15 studies were identified and they referred to another 8 studies describing methods of thickness measurement. 11 of the 15 studies identified the superficial cartilage...... border incorrectly, and 6 applied oblique insonation. 2 of the 15 studies corrected for sound speed. Of the further 8 studies, one might correctly identify the superficial cartilage border, 4 applied oblique insonation, and none corrected for sound speed. Conclusion: We found that the majority of studies...

  13. Inhibition of oncostatin M in osteoarthritic synovial fluid enhances GAG production in osteoarthritic cartilage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Beekhuizen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediators in the synovial fluid are thought to play a major role in osteoarthritic cartilage turnover. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of oncostatin M (OSM in osteoarthritis (OA by evaluating the presence of the cytokine and its receptors in the OA joint and interfering with its activity in synovial fluid co-cultured with cartilage explants. OSM levels were increased in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic patients compared to healthy donors. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of both the leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF and OSM receptors for OSM throughout the whole depth of osteoarthritic cartilage and synovial tissue, whereas in healthy cartilage their presence seemed more restricted to the superficial zone. Blocking OSM activity, using an activity inhibiting antibody, in 25 % osteoarthritic synovial fluid added to OA cartilage explant cultures increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG content from 18.6 mg/g to 24.3 mg/g (P < 0.03 and total production from 7.0 mg/g to 11.9 mg/g (P < 0.003. However, OSM exogenously added to cartilage explant cultures reflecting low and high concentrations in the synovial fluid (5 and 50 pg/mL did not affect cartilage matrix turnover, suggesting that factors present in the synovial fluid act in concert with OSM to inhibit GAG production. The current study indicates the potential to enhance cartilage repair in osteoarthritis by modulating the joint environment by interfering with OSM activity.

  14. Current status of imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, J.; Resnick, D.

    1996-01-01

    Various imaging methods have been applied to assessment of articular cartilage. These include standard radiography, arthrography, CT, CT arthrography, ultrasonography, and MR imaging. Radiography remains the initial musculoskeletal imaging method. However, it is insensitive to early stages of cartilage abnormalities. MR imaging has great potential in the assessment of articular cartilage, although high-quality scans are required because imaging signs of cartilage abnormalities may be subtle. The potential and limitations of various sequences and techniques are discussed, including MR arthrography. The role of the other imaging methods in assessment of articular cartilage appears to be limited. (orig.). With 8 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  16. [Current overview of cartilage regeneration procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, H; Wild, M; Rath, B; Tingart, M; Driessen, A; Quack, V; Betsch, M

    2017-11-01

    Cartilage is an avascular, alymphatic and non-innervated tissue with limited intrinsic repair potential. The high prevalence of cartilage defects and their tremendous clinical importance are a challenge for all treating physicians. This article provides the reader with an overview about current cartilage treatment options and their clinical outcome. Microfracture is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of small cartilage lesions. Small osteochondral defects can be effectively treated with the autologous osteochondral transplantation system. Larger cartilage defects are successfully treated by autologous membrane-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) or by membrane-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI). Despite limitations of current cartilage repair strategies, such procedures can result in short- and mid-term clinical improvement of the patients. Further developments and clinical studies are necessary to improve the long-term outcome following cartilage repair.

  17. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  18. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on ...

  19. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a

  20. Strategies for Stratified Cartilage Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939322

    2012-01-01

    Multiple materials, cells and growth factors can be combined into one construct by the use of a state–of-the-art bioprinter. This technique may in the future make the fabrication of complete tissues or organs possible. In this thesis the feasibility of the bioprinting of cartilage and the

  1. Chondroma of the cricoid cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo, Giulianno Molina de

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The larynx cartilaginous tumors are uncommon and comprise 1% of all cartilaginous tumors. The chondroma is the most common benign tumor affecting the larynx cricoid cartilage (75%, and manifests normally in the male gender with dysphonia, progressive dyspnea and dysphagy in some cases. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of cricoid cartilage chondroma, in a patient with the symptom of a nodular lesion in the frontal cervical region of slow and progressive growth. Case Report: The treatment was the modified partial laryngectomy with resection of the lower hemisegment of the thyroid cartilage, cricoid hemicartilage and the first tracheal ring with free margins and reconstruction with a pericondrium and muscular prethyroidean piece. The anatomopathological exam showed a chondroma of 1.1 cm, of atypical low cellularity and low figures of mitosis in the frontal region of the cricoid cartilage. Conclusion: In this report we agreed with the literature for the primarily extensive surgical treatment depending on the location and the size of the cricoid chondroma; however, other modalities of treatment may be adopted in cases where the tumor extension appoints a total laryngectomy or when this is not possible to carry out, aiming at the preservation of the larynx. For the suitable treatment of cricoid chondromas, the understanding of the disease natural evolution and more case reports are still necessary.

  2. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun; Chen, Chongwei; Cao, Kun; Li, Yongping; Jiao, Qiang; Ding, Juan; Zhou, Jingming; Fleming, Braden C.; Chen, Qian; Shang, Xianwen; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA) group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions. PMID:24786088

  3. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh in synovial fluid (SF and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001; however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions.

  4. Articular Cartilage of the Human Knee Joint: In Vivo Multicomponent T2 Analysis at 3.0 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Won; Samsonov, Alexey; Spencer, Richard G.; Wilson, John J.; Block, Walter F.; Kijowski, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare multicomponent T2 parameters of the articular cartilage of the knee joint measured by using multicomponent driven equilibrium single-shot observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed with institutional review board approval and with written informed consent from all subjects. The mcDESPOT sequence was performed in the knee joint of 13 asymptomatic volunteers and 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-component T2 (T2Single), T2 of the fast-relaxing water component (T2F) and of the slow-relaxing water component (T2S), and the fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) of cartilage were measured. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and multivariate linear regression models were used to compare mcDESPOT parameters between volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess diagnostic performance with mcDESPOT parameters for distinguishing morphologically normal cartilage from morphologically degenerative cartilage identified at magnetic resonance imaging in eight cartilage subsections of the knee joint. Results Higher cartilage T2Single (P cartilage FF (P cartilage T2F (P = .079) and T2S (P = .124) values were seen in patients with osteoarthritis compared with those in asymptomatic volunteers. Differences in T2Single and FF remained significant (P cartilage (P cartilage T2Single and significantly lower cartilage FF than did asymptomatic volunteers, and receiver operating characteristic analysis results suggested that FF may allow greater diagnostic performance than that with T2Single for distinguishing between normal and degenerative cartilage. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26024307

  5. Association between patellar cartilage defects and patellofemoral geometry: a matched-pair MRI comparison of patients with and without isolated patellar cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Julian; Feucht, Matthias J; Bode, Gerrit; Dovi-Akue, David; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    To compare the geometry of the patellofemoral joint on magnetic resonance images (MRI) between patients with isolated cartilage defects of the patella and a gender- and age-matched control group of patients without patellar cartilage defects. A total of 43 patients (17 female, 26 male) with arthroscopically verified grade III and IV patellar cartilage defects (defect group) were compared with a matched-pair control group of patients with isolated traumatic rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament without cartilage defects of the patellofemoral joint. Preoperative MRI images were analysed retrospectively with regard to patellar geometry (width, thickness, facet angle), trochlear geometry (dysplasia according to Dejour, sulcus angle, sulcus depth, lateral condyle index, trochlea facet asymmetry, lateral trochlea inclination) and patellofemoral alignment (tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, patella height, lateral patella displacement, lateral patellofemoral angle, patella tilt, congruence angle). In addition to the comparison of group values, the measured values were compared to normal values reported in the literature, and the frequency of patients with pathologic findings was compared between both groups. The defect group demonstrated a significantly higher proximal chondral sulcus angle (p patellofemoral joint. In particular, a flat and shallow trochlea, trochlea dysplasia and patella alta seem to contribute to the development of patellar cartilage defects, which must be taken into consideration when planning to do surgical cartilage repair at the patella. III.

  6. Hyaline cartilage thickness in radiographically normal cadaveric hips: comparison of spiral CT arthrographic and macroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, Annabelle; Bousson, Valérie; Bergot, Catherine; Polivka, Marc; Leveque, Eric; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2007-02-01

    To assess spiral multidetector computed tomographic (CT) arthrography for the depiction of cartilage thickness in hips without cartilage loss, with evaluation of anatomic slices as the reference standard. Permission to perform imaging studies in cadaveric specimens of individuals who had willed their bodies to science was obtained from the institutional review board. Two independent observers measured the femoral and acetabular hyaline cartilage thickness of 12 radiographically normal cadaveric hips (from six women and five men; age range at death, 52-98 years; mean, 76.5 years) on spiral multidetector CT arthrographic reformations and on coronal anatomic slices. Regions of cartilage loss at gross or histologic examination were excluded. CT arthrographic and anatomic measurements in the coronal plane were compared by using Bland-Altman representation and a paired t test. Differences between mean cartilage thicknesses at the points of measurement were tested by means of analysis of variance. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. At CT arthrography, mean cartilage thickness ranged from 0.32 to 2.53 mm on the femoral head and from 0.95 to 3.13 mm on the acetabulum. Observers underestimated cartilage thickness in the coronal plane by 0.30 mm +/- 0.52 (mean +/- standard error) at CT arthrography (P cartilage thicknesses at the different measurement points was significant for coronal spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement of the femoral head and acetabulum and for sagittal and transverse CT arthrography of the femoral head (P cartilage thickness from the periphery to the center of the joint ("gradients") were found by means of spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement. Spiral multidetector CT arthrography depicts cartilage thickness gradients in radiographically normal cadaveric hips. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  7. Gender differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, S.C.; Reiser, M.; Englmeier, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cartilage thickness, volume, and articular surface areas of the knee joint between young healthy, non-athletic female and male individuals. Subjects and design. MR imaging was performed in 18 healthy subjects without local or systemic joints disease (9 female, age 22.3±2.4 years, and 9 male, age 22.2.±1.9 years), using a fat-suppressed FLASH 3D pulse sequence (TR=41 ms, TE=11 ms, FA=30 ) with sagittal orientation and a spatial resolution of 2x0.31x0.31 mm 3 . After three-dimensional reconstruction and triangulation of the knee joint cartilage plates, the cartilage thickness (mean and maximal), volume, and size of the articular surface area were quantified, independent of the original section orientation. Results and conclusions: Women displayed smaller cartilage volumes than men, the percentage difference ranging from 19.9% in the patella, to 46.6% in the medial tibia. The gender differences of the cartilage thickness were smaller, ranging from 2.0% in the femoral trochlea to 13.3% in the medial tibia for the mean thickness, and from 4.3% in the medial femoral condyle to 18.3% in the medial tibia for the maximal cartilage thickness. The differences between the cartilage surface areas were similar to those of the volumes, with values ranging from 21.0% in the femur to 33.4% in the lateral tibia. Gender differences could be reduced for cartilage volume and surface area when normalized to body weight and body weight x body height. The study demonstrates significant gender differences in cartilage volume and surface area of men and women, which need to be taken into account when retrospectively estimating articular cartilage loss in patients with symptoms of degenerative joint disease. Differences in cartilage volume are primarily due to differences in joint surface areas (epiphyseal bone size), not to differences in cartilage thickness. (orig.)

  8. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  9. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  10. Feasibility of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Li, Zhiyong; Pei, Xuan; Wang, Liming

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) materials are widely used in cartilage tissue engineering. However, the current ECM materials are unsatisfactory for clinical practice as most of them are derived from allogenous or xenogenous tissue. This study was designed to develop a novel autologous ECM scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. The autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived ECM (aBMSC-dECM) membrane was collected and fabricated into a three-dimensional porous scaffold via cross-linking and freeze-drying techniques. Articular chondrocytes were seeded into the aBMSC-dECM scaffold and atelocollagen scaffold, respectively. An in vitro culture and an in vivo implantation in nude mice model were performed to evaluate the influence on engineered cartilage. The current results showed that the aBMSC-dECM scaffold had a good microstructure and biocompatibility. After 4 weeks in vitro culture, the engineered cartilage in the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group formed thicker cartilage tissue with more homogeneous structure and higher expressions of cartilaginous gene and protein compared with the atelocollagen scaffold group. Furthermore, the engineered cartilage based on the aBMSC-dECM scaffold showed better cartilage formation in terms of volume and homogeneity, cartilage matrix content, and compressive modulus after 3 weeks in vivo implantation. These results indicated that the aBMSC-dECM scaffold could be a successful novel candidate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  11. A composite scaffold of MSC affinity peptide-modified demineralized bone matrix particles and chitosan hydrogel for cartilage regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyang; Man, Zhentao; Dai, Linghui; Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Shao, Zhenxing; Zhu, Jingxian; Zhang, Jiying; Fu, Xin; Duan, Xiaoning; Ao, Yingfang

    2015-12-01

    Articular cartilage injury is still a significant challenge because of the poor intrinsic healing potential of cartilage. Stem cell-based tissue engineering is a promising technique for cartilage repair. As cartilage defects are usually irregular in clinical settings, scaffolds with moldability that can fill any shape of cartilage defects and closely integrate with the host cartilage are desirable. In this study, we constructed a composite scaffold combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) E7 affinity peptide-modified demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles and chitosan (CS) hydrogel for cartilage engineering. This solid-supported composite scaffold exhibited appropriate porosity, which provided a 3D microenvironment that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. Cell proliferation and DNA content analysis indicated that the DBM-E7/CS scaffold promoted better rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) survival than the CS or DBM/CS groups. Meanwhile, the DBM-E7/CS scaffold increased matrix production and improved chondrogenic differentiation ability of BMMSCs in vitro. Furthermore, after implantation in vivo for four weeks, compared to those in control groups, the regenerated issue in the DBM-E7/CS group exhibited translucent and superior cartilage-like structures, as indicated by gross observation, histological examination, and assessment of matrix staining. Overall, the functional composite scaffold of DBM-E7/CS is a promising option for repairing irregularly shaped cartilage defects.

  12. [3T magnetic resonance T2 mapping for evaluation of cartilage repair after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xu, Xian; Li, Xue; Chen, Min; Dong, Tian-Ming; Zuo, Pan-Li; An, Ning-Yu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair following matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Six patients (with 9 plug cartilages) following MACT underwent MRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR scan system at 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery. The full-thickness and zonal areas (deep and superficial layers) T2 values were calculated for the repaired cartilage and control cartilage. The mean T2 values of the repaired cartilage after MACT were significantly higher than that of the control cartilages at 3 and 6 months (PT2 values of the superficial layers were significantly higher than those of the deep layers in the repaired cartilages (PT2 values of the repaired cartilages decreased significantly over time at 6 and 12 months as compared to those at 3 months after the surgery (PT2 mapping can serve as an important modality for assessing the repair of the articular cartilage following MACT.

  13. A technique for visualization and mapping of local cartilage thickness changes in MR images of osteoarthritic knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Quanxu, E-mail: gequanxu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Cheng, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yzcheng@hitwh.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bi, Kesen, E-mail: whbks@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Guo, Changyong, E-mail: hit_gcy@163.com [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bai, Jing, E-mail: deabj@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, China B209, Medical School Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tamura, Shinichi, E-mail: tamuras@nblmt.jp [Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, D11, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to describe a technique for the visualization and mapping of focal, local cartilage thickness changes over time in magnetic resonance images of osteoarthritic knee. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 fresh frozen pig knee joints and 15 knees of patients with borderline to mild osteoarthritis (51.2 {+-} 6.3 years). Cartilage and corresponding bone structures were extracted by semi-automatic segmentation. Each point in the bone surface which was part of the bone-cartilage interface was assigned a cartilage thickness value. Cartilage thicknesses were computed for each point in the bone-cartilage interfaces and transferred to the bone surfaces. Moreover, we developed a three dimensional registration method for the identification of anatomically corresponding points of the bone surface to quantify local cartilage thickness changes. One of the main advantages of our method compared to other studies in the field of registration is a global optimization algorithm that does not require any initialization. Results and conclusion: The registration accuracy was 0.93 {+-} 0.05 mm (less than a voxel of magnetic resonance data). Local cartilage thickness changes were seen as having follow-up clinical study for detecting local changes in cartilage thickness. Experiment results suggest that our method was sufficiently accurate and effective for monitoring knee joint diseases.

  14. 1. 5 MRT of the hyaline articular cartilage of the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, G.; Bohndorf, K.; Krasny, R.; Guenther, R.W.; Prescher, A.

    1988-06-01

    MRI is a new method for imaging the knee joint. There is still some uncertainty regarding the extent and the signal from hyaline articular cartilage. MRI images were therefore compared with anatomical and histological preparations of the knee joint and the difference between MRI and the anatomical sections have been determined. It was shown that demonstration of hyaline cartilage was obscured by an artifact. Further investigations are required to determine the cause of this artifact and to achieve accurate imaging of hyaline cartilage by MRI.

  15. Preclinical Studies for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Mark B.; Buschmann, Michael D.; Fortier, Lisa A.; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Hunziker, Ernst B.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Sah, Robert L.; Whiteside, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Investigational devices for articular cartilage repair or replacement are considered to be significant risk devices by regulatory bodies. Therefore animal models are needed to provide proof of efficacy and safety prior to clinical testing. The financial commitment and regulatory steps needed to bring a new technology to clinical use can be major obstacles, so the implementation of highly predictive animal models is a pressing issue. Until recently, a reductionist approach using acute chondral defects in immature laboratory species, particularly the rabbit, was considered adequate; however, if successful and timely translation from animal models to regulatory approval and clinical use is the goal, a step-wise development using laboratory animals for screening and early development work followed by larger species such as the goat, sheep and horse for late development and pivotal studies is recommended. Such animals must have fully organized and mature cartilage. Both acute and chronic chondral defects can be used but the later are more like the lesions found in patients and may be more predictive. Quantitative and qualitative outcome measures such as macroscopic appearance, histology, biochemistry, functional imaging, and biomechanical testing of cartilage, provide reliable data to support investment decisions and subsequent applications to regulatory bodies for clinical trials. No one model or species can be considered ideal for pivotal studies, but the larger animal species are recommended for pivotal studies. Larger species such as the horse, goat and pig also allow arthroscopic delivery, and press-fit or sutured implant fixation in thick cartilage as well as second look arthroscopies and biopsy procedures. PMID:26069576

  16. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Daedzinski, Bernard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kim, Dong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component.

  17. Tribological changes in the articular cartilage of a human femoral head with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Min; Shrestha, Suman K; Duong, Cong-Truyen; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Kim, Tae-Woo; Vijayachandra, Ayyappan; Thompson, Mark S; Cho, Myung Guk; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Kwanghoon; Park, Seonghun; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2015-06-29

    The present study evaluated the tribological properties of the articular cartilage surface of the human femoral head with postcollapse stage avascular necrosis (AVN) using atomic force microscopy. The cartilage surface in the postcollapse stage AVN of the femoral head was reported to resemble those of disuse conditions, which suggests that the damage could be reversible and offers the possibilities of success of head-sparing surgeries. By comparing the tribological properties of articular cartilage in AVN with that of osteoarthritis, the authors intended to understand the cartilage degeneration mechanism and reversibility of AVN. Human femoral heads with AVN were explanted from the hip replacement surgery of four patients (60-83 years old). Nine cylindrical cartilage samples (diameter, 5 mm and height, 0.5 mm) were sectioned from the weight-bearing areas of the femoral head with AVN, and the cartilage surface was classified according to the Outerbridge Classification System (AVN0, normal; AVN1, softening and swelling; and AVN2, partial thickness defect and fissuring). Tribological properties including surface roughness and frictional coefficients and histochemistry including Safranin O and lubricin staining were compared among the three groups. The mean surface roughness Rq values of AVN cartilage increased significantly with increasing Outerbridge stages: Rq = 137 ± 26 nm in AVN0, Rq = 274 ± 49 nm in AVN1, and Rq = 452 ± 77 nm in AVN2. Significant differences in Rq were observed among different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN0, μ = 0.143 ± 0.025 in AVN1, and μ = 0.171 ± 0.039 in AVN2. Similarly to the statistical analysis of surface roughness, significant statistical differences were detected between different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN. The underlying mechanism of these results can be related to proteoglycan loss within the articular cartilage that is also observed in osteoarthritis. With regard to the tribological properties, the

  18. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal; Daedzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component

  19. Hyaline Articular Matrix Formed by Dynamic Self-Regenerating Cartilage and Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Amanda M; Zhao, Xing; Griffin, Darvin J; Erali, Richard; Gill, Thomas J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Redmond, Robert W; Randolph, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Injuries to the articular cartilage surface are challenging to repair because cartilage possesses a limited capacity for self-repair. The outcomes of current clinical procedures aimed to address these injuries are inconsistent and unsatisfactory. We have developed a novel method for generating hyaline articular cartilage to improve the outcome of joint surface repair. A suspension of 10(7) swine chondrocytes was cultured under reciprocating motion for 14 days. The resulting dynamic self-regenerating cartilage (dSRC) was placed in a cartilage ring and capped with fibrin and collagen gel. A control group consisted of chondrocytes encapsulated in fibrin gel. Constructs were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and harvested after 6 weeks. Gross, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and biomechanical analyses were performed. In swine patellar groove, dSRC was implanted into osteochondral defects capped with collagen gel and compared to defects filled with osteochondral plugs, collagen gel, or left empty after 6 weeks. In mice, the fibrin- and collagen-capped dSRC constructs showed enhanced contiguous cartilage matrix formation over the control of cells encapsulated in fibrin gel. Biochemically, the fibrin and collagen gel dSRC groups were statistically improved in glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical data between the dSRC groups and the control. The swine model also showed contiguous cartilage matrix in the dSRC group but not in the collagen gel and empty defects. These data demonstrate the survivability and successful matrix formation of dSRC under the mechanical forces experienced by normal hyaline cartilage in the knee joint. The results from this study demonstrate that dSRC capped with hydrogels successfully engineers contiguous articular cartilage matrix in both nonload-bearing and load-bearing environments.

  20. Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Ryan, Lawrence M; Masuda, Ikuko

    2002-12-01

    Excess accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) in aged human cartilage is crucial in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal formation in cartilage matrix. Two sources of ePPi are ePPi-generating ectoenzymes (NTPPPH) and extracellular transport of intracellular PPi by ANK. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of NTPPPH and ANK in ePPi elaboration, by investigating expression of NTPPPH enzymes (cartilage intermediate-layer protein [CILP] and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 [PC-1]) and ANK in human chondrocytes from osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage containing CPPD crystals and without crystals. Chondrocytes were harvested from knee cartilage at the time of arthroplasty (OA with CPPD crystals [CPPD], n = 8; OA without crystals [OA], n = 10). Normal adult human chondrocytes (n = 1) were used as a control. Chondrocytes were cultured with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), which stimulates ePPi elaboration, and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which inhibits ePPi elaboration. NTPPPH and ePPi were measured in the media at 48 hours. Media CILP, PC-1, and ANK were determined by dot-immunoblot analysis. Chondrocyte messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to study expression of mRNA for CILP, PC-1, and ANK. NTPPPH and ANK mRNA and protein were also studied in fresh frozen cartilage. Basal ePPi elaboration and NTPPPH activity in conditioned media from CPPD chondrocytes were elevated compared with normal chondrocytes, and tended to be higher compared with OA chondrocytes. Basal expression of mRNA for CILP (chondrocytes) and ANK (cartilage) was higher in both CPPD chondrocytes and CPPD cartilage extract than in OA or normal samples. PC-1 mRNA was less abundant in CPPD chondrocytes and cartilage extract than in OA chondrocytes and extract, although the difference was not significant. CILP, PC-1, and ANK protein levels were similar in CPPD, OA, and normal chondrocytes

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  2. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  3. Optical coherence tomography detection of subclinical traumatic cartilage injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, David M; Szczodry, Michal; Kramer, Scott; Coyle, Christian H; Smolinski, Patrick; Chu, Constance R

    2010-09-01

    Posttraumatic arthritis is a major cause of disability. Current clinical imaging modalities are unable to reliably evaluate articular cartilage damage before surface breakdown, when potentially reversible changes are occurring. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a nondestructive imaging technology that can detect degenerative changes in articular cartilage with an intact surface. This study tests the hypothesis that OCT detects acute articular cartilage injury after impact at energy levels resulting in chondrocyte death and microstructural changes, but insufficient to produce macroscopic surface damage. Bovine osteochondral cores underwent OCT imaging and were divided into a control with no impact or were subjected to low (0.175 J) or moderate (0.35 J) energy impact. Cores were reimaged with OCT after impact and the OCT signal intensity quantified. A ratio of the superficial to deep layer intensities was calculated and compared before and after impact. Chondrocyte viability was determined 1 day after impact followed by histology and polarized microscopy. Macroscopic changes to the articular surface were not observed after low and moderate impact. The OCT signal intensity ratio demonstrated a 27% increase (P = 0.006) after low impact and a 38% increase (P = 0.001) after moderate impact. Cell death increased by 150% (P death and microscopic matrix damage. This finding supports the use of OCT to detect microstructural subsurface cartilage damage that is poorly visualized with conventional imaging.

  4. NONINVASIVE DETERMINATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE DEFORMATION DURING JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Kosanic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to use a combination of image processing, force measurements and finite element modeling to calculate deformation of the knee cartilage during jumping. Professional athletes performed jumps analyzed using a force plate and high-speed video camera system. Image processing was performed on each frame of video using a color recognition algorithm. A simplified mass-spring-damper model was utilized for determination of global force and moment on the knee. Custom software for fitting the coupling characteristics was created. Simulated results were used as input data for the finite element calculation of cartilage deformation in the athlete's knee. Computer simulation data was compared with the average experimental ground reaction forces. The results show the three-dimensional mechanical deformation distribution inside the cartilage volume. A combination of the image recognition technology, force plate measurements and the finite element cartilage deformation in the knee may be used in the future as an effective noninvasive tool for prediction of injury during jumping

  5. Cellular and Acellular Approaches for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are several choices of cells to use for cartilage repair. Cells are used as internal or external sources and sometimes in combination. In this article, an analysis of the different cell choices and their use and potential is provided. Embryonic cartilage formation is of importance when finding more about how to be able to perfect cartilage repair. Some suggestions for near future research based on up-to-date knowledge on chondrogenic cells are given to hopefully stimulate more studies on the final goal of cartilage regeneration. PMID:27340516

  6. Optical properties of nasal septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Nodar V.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Kitai, Moishe S.

    1998-05-01

    Optical parameters (scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g) of hyaline cartilage were studied for the first time. Optical properties of human and pig nasal septum cartilage, and of bovine ear cartilage were examined using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and an Optical Multi-Channel Analyser. We measured total transmission Tt, total reflection Rt, and on-axis transmission Ta for light propagating through cartilage sample, over the visible spectral range (14000 - 28000 cm-1). It is shown that transmission and reflection spectra of human, pig and bovine cartilage are rather similar. It allows us to conclude that the pig cartilage can be used for in-vivo studies instead of human cartilage. The data obtained were treated by means of the one-dimensional diffusion approximation solution of the optical transport equation. We have found scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g by the iterative comparison of measured and calculated Tt, Rt and Ta values for human and pig cartilage. We found, in particular, that for 500 nm irradiation s equals 37,6 plus or minus 3.5 cm-1, g equals 0,56 plus or minus 0.05, k approximately equals 0,5 plus or minus 0.3 cm-1. The above data were used in Monte Carlo simulation for spatial intensity profile of light scattered by a cartilage sample. The computed profile was very similar to the profile measured using an Optical Multi-Channel Analyzer (OMA).

  7. The influence of electric charge transferred during electro-mechanical reshaping on mechanical behavior of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, Dimitry E.; Lim, Amanda; Wu, Edward C.; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2011-03-01

    Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage has been suggested as an alternative to the classical surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The method is based on exposure of mechanically deformed cartilaginous tissue to a low level electric field. Electro-chemical reactions within the tissue lead to reduction of internal stress, and establishment of a new equilibrium shape. The same reactions offset the electric charge balance between collagen and proteoglycan matrix and interstitial fluid responsible for maintenance of cartilage mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between the electric charge transferred during EMR and equilibrium elastic modulus. We used a finite element model based on the triphasic theory of cartilage mechanical properties to study how electric charges transferred in the electro-chemical reactions in cartilage can change its mechanical responses to step displacements in unconfined compression. The concentrations of the ions, the strain field and the fluid and ion velocities within the specimen subject to an applied mechanical deformation were estimated and apparent elastic modulus (the ratio of the equilibrium axial stress to the axial strain) was calculated as a function of transferred charge. The results from numerical calculations showed that the apparent elastic modulus decreases with increase in electric charge transfer. To compare numerical model with experimental observation we measured elastic modulus of cartilage as a function of electric charge transferred in electric circuit during EMR. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical data suggests that electric charge disbalance is responsible for alteration of cartilage mechanical properties.

  8. A spectroscopic approach to imaging and quantification of cartilage lesions in human knee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, A; Oeberg, P A; Sundqvist, T; Kuiper, J-H

    2011-01-01

    We have previously described a technology based on diffuse reflectance of broadband light for measuring joint articular cartilage thickness, utilizing that optical absorption is different in cartilage and subchondral bone. This study is the first evaluation of the technology in human material. We also investigated the prospects of cartilage lesion imaging, with the specific aim of arthroscopic integration. Cartilage thickness was studied ex vivo in a number of sites (n = 87) on human knee joint condyles, removed from nine patients during total knee replacement surgery. A reflectance spectrum was taken at each site and the cartilage thickness was estimated using the blue, green, red and near-infrared regions of the spectrum, respectively. Estimated values were compared with reference cartilage thickness values (taken after sample slicing) using an exponential model. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were performed in a theoretical analysis of the experimental results. The reference cartilage thickness of the investigated sites was 1.60 ± 1.30 mm (mean ± SD) in the range 0-4.2 mm. Highest correlation coefficients were seen for the calculations based on the near-infrared region after normalization to the red region (r = 0.86) and for the green region (r = 0.80).

  9. Gelatin Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structure and Mechanical Property for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of cartilage tissue in vitro using porous scaffolds and chondrocytes provides a promising approach for cartilage repair. However, nonuniform cell distribution and heterogeneous tissue formation together with weak mechanical property of in vitro engineered cartilage limit their clinical application. In this study, gelatin porous scaffolds with homogeneous and open pores were prepared using ice particulates and freeze-drying. The scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes to engineer cartilage tissue in vitro. The pore structure and mechanical property of gelatin scaffolds could be well controlled by using different ratios of ice particulates to gelatin solution and different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin scaffolds prepared from ≥70% ice particulates enabled homogeneous seeding of bovine articular chondrocytes throughout the scaffolds and formation of homogeneous cartilage extracellular matrix. While soft scaffolds underwent cellular contraction, stiff scaffolds resisted cellular contraction and had significantly higher cell proliferation and synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Compared with the gelatin scaffolds prepared without ice particulates, the gelatin scaffolds prepared with ice particulates facilitated formation of homogeneous cartilage tissue with significantly higher compressive modulus. The gelatin scaffolds with highly open pore structure and good mechanical property can be used to improve in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.

  10. Serum Metabonomics of Articular Cartilage Destruction Induced by T-2 Toxin in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Zhi Jun; Ren, Xiao Bin; Li, Qiang; Ding, Hua; Sun, Zhou; Kao, Qing Jun; Wang, Li Hua

    2018-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of T-2 toxin-induced cartilage destruction has not been fully unraveled yet. The aim of this study was to detect changes in serum metabolites in a rat anomaly model with articular cartilage destruction. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing T-2 toxin (300 ng/kg chow) for 3 months. Histopathological changes in femorotibial cartilage were characterized in terms of chondrocyte degeneration/necrosis and superficial cartilage defect, and the endogenous metabolite profile of serum was determined by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Treated rats showed extensive areas of chondrocyte necrosis and superficial cartilage defect in the articular cartilage. In addition, 8 metabolites were found to change significantly in these rats compared to the control group, including lysoPE (18:0/0:0), lysoPC(14:0), lysoPC[18:4 (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)], lysoPC[(16:1(9Z)], lysoPC(16:0), L-valine, hippuric acid, and asparaginyl-glycine. These 8 metabolites associated with cartilage injury are mainly involved in phospholipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoshop-based image analysis of canine articular cartilage after subchondral damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, A; Uhl, M; Lehr, H A; Ihling, C; Kreuz, P C; Haberstroh, J

    2004-09-01

    The validity of histopathological grading is a major problem in the assessment of articular cartilage. Calculating the cumulative strength of signal intensity of different stains gives information regarding the amount of proteoglycan, glycoproteins, etc. Using this system, we examined the medium-term effect of subchondral lesions on initially healthy articular cartilage. After cadaver studies, an animal model was created to produce pure subchondral damage without affecting the articular cartilage in 12 beagle dogs under MRI control. Quantification of the different stains was provided using a Photoshop-based image analysis (pixel analysis) with the histogram command 6 months after subchondral trauma. FLASH 3D sequences revealed intact cartilage after impact in all cases. The best detection of subchondral fractures was achieved with fat-suppressed TIRM sequences. Semiquantitative image analysis showed changes in proteoglycan and glycoprotein quantities in 9 of 12 samples that had not shown any evidence of damage during the initial examination. Correlation analysis showed a loss of the physiological distribution of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the different zones of articular cartilage. Currently available software programs can be applied for comparative analysis of histologic stains of hyaline cartilage. After subchondral fractures, significant changes in the cartilage itself occur after 6 months.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage surface damage using reflected polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Ruby N.; Nehmetallah, George; Raub, Christopher B.

    2017-06-01

    Articular surface damage occurs to cartilage during normal aging, osteoarthritis, and in trauma. A noninvasive assessment of cartilage microstructural alterations is useful for studies involving cartilage explants. This study evaluates polarized reflectance microscopy as a tool to assess surface damage to cartilage explants caused by mechanical scraping and enzymatic degradation. Adult bovine articular cartilage explants were scraped, incubated in collagenase, or underwent scrape and collagenase treatments. In an additional experiment, cartilage explants were subject to scrapes at graduated levels of severity. Polarized reflectance parameters were compared with India ink surface staining, features of histological sections, changes in explant wet weight and thickness, and chondrocyte viability. The polarized reflectance signal was sensitive to surface scrape damage and revealed individual scrape features consistent with India ink marks. Following surface treatments, the reflectance contrast parameter was elevated and correlated with image area fraction of India ink. After extensive scraping, polarized reflectance contrast and chondrocyte viability were lower than that from untreated explants. As part of this work, a mathematical model was developed and confirmed the trend in the reflectance signal due to changes in surface scattering and subsurface birefringence. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of polarized reflectance microscopy to sensitively assess surface microstructural alterations in articular cartilage explants.

  13. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Improves the Viability of Diced Cartilage Grafts in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göral, Ali; Aslan, Cem; Bolat Küçükzeybek, Betül; Işık, Dağhan; Hoşnuter, Mübin; Durgun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Diced cartilage may be wrapped with synthetic or biological materials before grafting to a recipient site. These materials have unique advantages and disadvantages, and a gold standard is not available. The authors investigated the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the survival of cartilage grafts in a rabbit model. In this experimental study, diced cartilage pieces from the ears of 9 male rabbits were left unwrapped or were wrapped with PRF, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or fascia. Specimens then were placed into subcutaneous pockets prepared on the backs of the rabbits. The animals were sacrificed 2 months after the procedure, and the grafts were excised for macroscopic and histopathologic examination. The cartilage graft wrapped with PRF showed superior viability compared with the cartilage graft wrapped with oxidized regenerated cellulose. No significant differences were found among the other groups. The groups were not significantly different in terms of rates of inflammation, fibrosis, or vascularization. PRF enhances the viability of diced cartilage grafts and should be considered an appropriate biological wrapping material for cartilage grafting. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  15. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo He

    Full Text Available Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  16. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Xu, Jiake; Day, Robert E; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2013-01-01

    Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  17. MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jingru; Dai Shipeng; Pang Jun; Xu Xiaokun; Wang Yuexin; Zhang Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 10 6 μg/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 10 6 μg/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

  18. Laser solder welding of articular cartilage: tensile strength and chondrocyte viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züger, B J; Ott, B; Mainil-Varlet, P; Schaffner, T; Clémence, J F; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    The surgical treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability but also on a lateral integration of the implant. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cartilage welding by using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808-nm laser diode irradiation. Conventional histology of light microscopy was compared with a viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding. Indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced albumin solder (25% albumin, 0.5% HA, 0.1% ICG) was used for articular cartilage welding. For coagulation, the solder was irradiated through the cartilage implant by 808-nm laser light and the tensile strength of the weld was measured. Viability staining revealed a thermal damage of typically 500 m in depth at an irradiance of approximately 10 W/cm(2) for 8 seconds, whereas conventional histologies showed only half of the extent found by the viability test. Heat-bath investigations revealed a threshold temperature of minimum 54 degrees C for thermal damage of chondrocytes. Efficient cartilage bonding was obtained by using bovine albumin solder as adhesive. Maximum tensile strength of more than 10 N/cm(2) was achieved. Viability tests revealed that the thermal damage is much greater (up to twice) than expected after light microscopic characterization. This study shows the feasibility to strongly laser weld cartilage on cartilage by use of a dye-enhanced albumin solder. Possibilities to reduce the range of damage are suggested. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

    2010-01-15

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  20. Effects of counteracting external valgus moment on lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions and tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriram, Duraisamy; Parween, Rizuwana; Lee, Yee Han Dave; Subburaj, Karupppasamy

    2017-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis that prevalently occurs at the medial compartment is a progressive chronic disorder affecting the articular cartilage of the knee joint, and lead to loss of joint functionality. Valgus braces have been used as a treatment procedure to unload the medial compartment for patients with medial osteoarthritis. Valgus braces through the application of counteracting external valgus moment shift the load from medial compartment towards the lateral compartment. Previous biomechanical studies focused only on the changes in varus moments before and after wearing the brace. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of opposing external valgus moment applied by knee braces on the lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions using a 3D finite element model of the knee joint. Finite element simulations were performed on the knee joint model without and with the application of opposing valgus moment to mimic the unbraced and braced conditions. Lateral tibial cartilage contact pressures and contact area, and tibial rotation (varus-valgus and internal-external) were estimated for the complete walking gait cycle. The opposing valgus moment increased the maximum contact pressure and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage compared to the normal gait moment. A peak contact pressure of 8.2 MPa and maximum cartilage loaded area of 28% (loaded cartilage nodes) on the lateral cartilage with the application of external valgus moment were induced at 50% of the gait cycle. The results show that the use of opposing valgus moment may significantly increase the maximum contact pressures and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage and increases the risk of articular cartilage damage on the lateral compartment.

  1. Imaging Bone–Cartilage Interactions in Osteoarthritis Using [18F]-NaF PET-MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Savic MSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Simultaneous positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI is an emerging technology providing both anatomical and functional images without increasing the scan time. Compared to the traditional PET/computed tomography imaging, it also exposes the patient to significantly less radiation and provides better anatomical images as MRI provides superior soft tissue characterization. Using PET-MRI, we aim to study interactions between cartilage composition and bone function simultaneously, in knee osteoarthritis (OA. Procedures: In this article, bone turnover and remodeling was studied using [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF PET data. Quantitative MR-derived T1ρ relaxation times characterized the biochemical cartilage degeneration. Sixteen participants with early signs of OA of the knee received intravenous injections of [18F]-NaF at the onset of PET-MR image acquisition. Regions of interest were identified, and kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data provided the rate of uptake (Ki and the normalized uptake (standardized uptake value of [18F]-NaF in the bone. Morphological MR images and quantitative voxel-based T1ρ maps of cartilage were obtained using an atlas-based registration technique to segment cartilage automatically. Voxel-by-voxel statistical parameter mapping was used to investigate the relationship between bone and cartilage. Results: Increases in cartilage T1ρ, indicating degenerative changes, were associated with increased turnover in the adjoining bone but reduced turnover in the nonadjoining compartments. Associations between pain and increased bone uptake were seen in the absence of morphological lesions in cartilage, but the relationship was reversed in the presence of incident cartilage lesions. Conclusion: This study shows significant cartilage and bone interactions in OA of the knee joint using simultaneous [18F]-NaF PET-MR, the first in human study. These observations highlight the complex biomechanical and

  2. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of the Cartilage Cap of Osteochondromas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition tim...

  3. The protective effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage: a systematic review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, J J; Hannink, G; van Tienen, T G; van Luijk, J; Hooijmans, C R

    2015-08-01

    Despite widespread reporting on clinical results, the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on the development of osteoarthritis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage in animals. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles concerning the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (meniscectomy) and negative (either sham or non-operated) control in healthy animals. Outcome measures related to assessment of damage to articular cartilage were divided in five principal outcome categories. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled to obtain an overall SMD and 95% confidence interval. 17 articles were identified, representing 14 original animal cohorts with an average timing of data collection of 24 weeks [range 4 weeks; 30 months]. Compared to a negative control, meniscus allograft transplantation caused gross macroscopic (1.45 [0.95; 1.95]), histological (3.43 [2.25; 4.61]) damage to articular cartilage, and osteoarthritic changes on radiographs (3.12 [1.42; 4.82]). Moreover, results on histomorphometrics and cartilage biomechanics are supportive of this detrimental effect on cartilage. On the other hand, meniscus allograft transplantation caused significantly less gross macroscopic (-1.19 [-1.84; -0.54]) and histological (-1.70 [-2.67; -0.74]) damage to articular cartilage when compared to meniscectomy. However, there was no difference in osteoarthritic changes on plain radiographs (0.04 [-0.48; 0.57]), and results on histomorphometrics and biomechanics did neither show a difference in effect between meniscus allograft transplantation and meniscectomy. In conclusion, although meniscus allograft transplantation does not protect articular cartilage from damage, it reduces the extent of it when compared with meniscectomy. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis

  4. A high throughput mechanical screening device for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Bhavana; Hou, Chieh; Meloni, Gregory R; Cosgrove, Brian D; Dodge, George R; Mauck, Robert L

    2014-06-27

    Articular cartilage enables efficient and near-frictionless load transmission, but suffers from poor inherent healing capacity. As such, cartilage tissue engineering strategies have focused on mimicking both compositional and mechanical properties of native tissue in order to provide effective repair materials for the treatment of damaged or degenerated joint surfaces. However, given the large number design parameters available (e.g. cell sources, scaffold designs, and growth factors), it is difficult to conduct combinatorial experiments of engineered cartilage. This is particularly exacerbated when mechanical properties are a primary outcome, given the long time required for testing of individual samples. High throughput screening is utilized widely in the pharmaceutical industry to rapidly and cost-effectively assess the effects of thousands of compounds for therapeutic discovery. Here we adapted this approach to develop a high throughput mechanical screening (HTMS) system capable of measuring the mechanical properties of up to 48 materials simultaneously. The HTMS device was validated by testing various biomaterials and engineered cartilage constructs and by comparing the HTMS results to those derived from conventional single sample compression tests. Further evaluation showed that the HTMS system was capable of distinguishing and identifying 'hits', or factors that influence the degree of tissue maturation. Future iterations of this device will focus on reducing data variability, increasing force sensitivity and range, as well as scaling-up to even larger (96-well) formats. This HTMS device provides a novel tool for cartilage tissue engineering, freeing experimental design from the limitations of mechanical testing throughput. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comparison of Quantitative Cartilage T2 Measurements and Qualitative MR Imaging between Professional Ballet Dancers and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Young Koo

    2015-07-01

    To compare qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images and quantitative T2 measurements of the tibiotalar cartilage between ballerinas and healthy volunteers. Institutional review board approval for this study and informed consent (from all participants) were obtained. MR examinations were performed by using a 3-T MR imaging system with 21 professional female ballet dancers and 20 healthy female volunteers. Two musculoskeletal radiologists qualitatively measured tibiotalar cartilage T2 values in the anterior zones, middle zones, and posterior zones of cartilage. MR findings were also qualitatively analyzed in both groups. The tibial cartilage T2 values measured in the anterior and posterior zones and the talar cartilage T2 values measured in all three zones were significantly higher in the ballerina group than in the control group (P The posterior zones exhibited the highest T2 values among the three tibiotalar cartilage zones in both groups (P the presence of posterior soft-tissue edema (P = .001) and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis (P The findings showed a trend toward increasing cartilage T2 values in ballerinas when compared with control subjects, indicating that quantitative T2 measurement may potentially be used as a noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of cartilage lesions in the tibiotalar joint.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  7. Hyaline cartilage degenerates after autologous osteochondral transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, C O; Szuwart, T; Kleffner, T O; Schlegel, P M; Jahn, U R; Van Aken, H; Fuchs, S

    2004-11-01

    Autologous osteochondral grafting is a well-established clinical procedure to treat focal cartilage defects in patients, although basic research on this topic remains sparse. The aim of the current study was to evaluate (1) histological changes of transplanted hyaline cartilage of osteochondral grafts and (2) the tissue that connects the transplanted cartilage with the adjacent cartilage in a sheep model. Both knee joints of four sheep were opened surgically and osteochondral grafts were harvested and simultaneously transplanted to the contralateral femoral condyle. The animals were sacrificed after three months and the received knee joints were evaluated histologically. Histological evaluation showed a complete ingrowth of the osseous part of the osteochondral grafts. A healing or ingrowth at the level of the cartilage could not be observed. Histological evaluation of the transplanted grafts according to Mankin revealed significantly more and more severe signs of degeneration than the adjacent cartilage, such as cloning of chondrocytes and irregularities of the articular surface. We found no connecting tissue between the transplanted and the adjacent cartilage and histological signs of degeneration of the transplanted hyaline cartilage. In the light of these findings, long-term results of autologous osteochondral grafts in human beings have to be followed critically.

  8. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, Michiel; Groen, Harald C; Koelewijn, Stuart J; de Blois, Erik; Sandker, Marjan; Waarsing, Jan H; Müller, Cristina; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; de Jong, Marion; Weinans, Harrie

    2014-01-29

    Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage damage, but also resulted in pronounced

  9. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. Methods sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. Results All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Conclusions Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage

  10. Biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuto; Fujihara, Yuko; Yamawaki, Takanori; Harai, Motohiro; Asawa, Yukiyo; Hikita, Atsuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Cartilage regenerative medicine has been progressed well, and it reaches the stage of clinical application. Among various techniques, tissue engineering, which incorporates elements of materials science, is investigated earnestly, driven by high clinical needs. The cartilage tissue engineering using a poly lactide scaffold has been exploratorily used in the treatment of cleft lip-nose patients, disclosing good clinical results during 3-year observation. However, to increase the reliability of this treatment, not only accumulation of clinical evidence on safety and usefulness of the tissue-engineered products, but also establishment of scientific background on biological mechanisms, are regarded essential. In this paper, we reviewed recent trends of cartilage tissue engineering in clinical practice, summarized experimental findings on cellular and matrix changes during the cartilage regeneration, and discussed the importance of further studies on biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage, especially by the histological and the morphological methods.

  11. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case-control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininia, Shahrzad; Lindberg, Lisbeth R; Dahlberg, Leif E

    2013-01-09

    It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA) joints. Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA) and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, respectively. Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP) in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at early stages of the degenerative hip OA process. Our results

  12. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case–control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininia Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA joints. Methods Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, respectively. Results Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Conclusions Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at

  13. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W., E-mail: W.kaabar@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Laklouk, A. [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli-Libya (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Baily, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Farquharson, M.J. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, David [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  14. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabar, W.; Laklouk, A.; Bunk, O.; Baily, M.; Farquharson, M.J.; Bradley, David

    2010-01-01

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  15. Thyroid cartilage invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Mario; Weiss, Daniel; Steiger, Matthias; Elges, Sandra; Rudack, Claudia; Stenner, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the accuracy of computed tomography in detecting malignant thyroid cartilage invasion. In a retrospective chart review, 120 patients with carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx underwent computed tomography before total laryngectomy. These data were compared with the histological specimens. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 76 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 69 %. The specificity of MDCT was 89 % and sensitivity was 46 %. Comparison between radiologic suspected cartilage invasion and histologic results showed a significant correlation (p < 0.02). We found no significant impact of cartilage invasion concerning survival rates (5-year overall survival p = 0.683; 5-year disease-free survival p = 0.711). Preoperative CT scan is an important instrument in detecting neoplastic cartilage invasion.

  16. Repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, D.A.; Pitman, M.I.; Peterson, L.; Menche, D.; Klein, M.

    1989-01-01

    Using the knee joints of New Zealand White rabbits, a baseline study was made to determine the intrinsic capability of cartilage for healing defects that do not fracture the subchondral plate. A second experiment examined the effect of autologous chondrocytes grown in vitro on the healing rate of these defects. To determine whether any of the reconstituted cartilage resulted from the chondrocyte graft, a third experiment was conducted involving grafts with chondrocytes that had been labeled prior to grafting with a nuclear tracer. Results were evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Macroscopic results from grafted specimens displayed a marked decrease in synovitis and other degenerative changes. In defects that had received transplants, a significant amount of cartilage was reconstituted (82%) compared to ungrafted controls (18%). Autoradiography on reconstituted cartilage showed that there were labeled cells incorporated into the repair matrix

  17. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and cathepsin K (CK) activity have been implicated in cartilage turnover. We investigated the relative contribution of MMP activity and CK activity in cartilage degradation using ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage...... explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... was measured from CK-deficient mice. RESULTS: OSM and TNF-alpha combined induced significant (Pcartilage degradation products measured by hydroxyproline and CTX-II compared to vehicle control. The cytokines potently induced MMP expression, assessed by zymography, and CK expression...

  18. The N-terminal cleavage of chondromodulin-I in growth-plate cartilage at the hypertrophic and calcified zones during bone development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Miura

    Full Text Available Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I is a 20-25 kDa anti-angiogenic glycoprotein in cartilage matrix. In the present study, we identified a novel 14-kDa species of ChM-I by immunoblotting, and purified it by immunoprecipitation with a newly raised monoclonal antibody against ChM-I. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it was an N-terminal truncated form of ChM-I generated by the proteolytic cleavage at Asp37-Asp38. This 14-kDa ChM-I was shown by the modified Boyden chamber assay to have very little inhibitory activity on the VEGF-A-induced migration of vascular endothelial cells in contrast to the intact 20-25 kDa form of ChM-I (ID50 = 8 nM. Immunohistochemistry suggested that 20-25 kDa ChM-I was exclusively localized in the avascular zones, i.e. the resting, proliferating, and prehypertrophic zones, of the cartilaginous molds of developing long bone, whereas the 14-kDa form of ChM-I was found in hypertrophic and calcified zones. Immunoblotting demonstrated that mature growth-plate chondrocytes isolated from rat costal cartilage actively secrete ChM-I almost exclusively as the intact 20-25 kDa form into the medium in primary culture. Taken together, our results suggest that intact 20-25 kDa ChM-I is stored as a component of extracellular matrix in the avascular cartilage zones, but it is inactivated by a single N-terminal proteolytic cleavage in the hypertrophic zone of growth-plate cartilage.

  19. Cartilage repair in the degenerative ageing knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittberg, Mats; Gomoll, Andreas H; Canseco, José A; Far, Jack; Lind, Martin; Hui, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists. A group of clinicians was given the task of discussing the role of tissue engineering in the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions in ageing patients. We present the outcomes of our discussions on current treatment options for such lesions, with particular emphasis on different biological repair techniques and their supporting level of evidence. Results and interpretation Based on the studies on treatment of degenerative lesions and early OA, there is low-level evidence to suggest that cartilage repair is a possible treatment for such lesions, but there are conflicting results regarding the effect of advanced age on the outcome. We concluded that further improvements are needed for direct repair of focal, purely traumatic defects before we can routinely use such repair techniques for the more challenging degenerative lesions. Furthermore, we need to identify trigger mechanisms that start generalized loss of cartilage matrix, and induce subchondral bone changes and concomitant synovial pathology, to maximize our treatment methods for biological repair in degenerative ageing joints. PMID:27910738

  20. A High Throughput Model of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis using Engineered Cartilage Tissue Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Bhavana; Meloni, Gregory R.; Mauck, Robert L.; Dodge, George R.

    2014-01-01

    (1) Objective A number of in vitro models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) have been developed to study the effect of mechanical overload on the processes that regulate cartilage degeneration. While such frameworks are critical for the identification therapeutic targets, existing technologies are limited in their throughput capacity. Here, we validate a test platform for high-throughput mechanical injury incorporating engineered cartilage. (2) Method We utilized a high throughput mechanical testing platform to apply injurious compression to engineered cartilage and determined their strain and strain rate dependent responses to injury. Next, we validated this response by applying the same injury conditions to cartilage explants. Finally, we conducted a pilot screen of putative PTOA therapeutic compounds. (3) Results Engineered cartilage response to injury was strain dependent, with a 2-fold increase in GAG loss at 75% compared to 50% strain. Extensive cell death was observed adjacent to fissures, with membrane rupture corroborated by marked increases in LDH release. Testing of established PTOA therapeutics showed that pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVF) was effective at reducing cell death, while the amphiphilic polymer (P188) and the free-radical scavenger (NAC) reduced GAG loss as compared to injury alone. (4) Conclusions The injury response in this engineered cartilage model replicated key features of the response from cartilage explants, validating this system for application of physiologically relevant injurious compression. This study establishes a novel tool for the discovery of mechanisms governing cartilage injury, as well as a screening platform for the identification of new molecules for the treatment of PTOA. PMID:24999113

  1. Engineering of hyaline cartilage with a calcified zone using bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W D; Hurtig, M B; Pilliar, R M; Stanford, W L; Kandel, R A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy joints, a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) provides the mechanical integration between articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Recapitulation of this architectural feature should serve to resist the constant shear force from the movement of the joint and prevent the delamination of tissue-engineered cartilage. Previous approaches to create the ZCC at the cartilage-substrate interface have relied on strategic use of exogenous scaffolds and adhesives, which are susceptible to failure by degradation and wear. In contrast, we report a successful scaffold-free engineering of ZCC to integrate tissue-engineered cartilage and a porous biodegradable bone substitute, using sheep bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as the cell source for both cartilaginous zones. BMSCs were predifferentiated to chondrocytes, harvested and then grown on a porous calcium polyphosphate substrate in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3). T3 was withdrawn, and additional predifferentiated chondrocytes were placed on top of the construct and grown for 21 days. This protocol yielded two distinct zones: hyaline cartilage that accumulated proteoglycans and collagen type II, and calcified cartilage adjacent to the substrate that additionally accumulated mineral and collagen type X. Constructs with the calcified interface had comparable compressive strength to native sheep osteochondral tissue and higher interfacial shear strength compared to control without a calcified zone. This protocol improves on the existing scaffold-free approaches to cartilage tissue engineering by incorporating a calcified zone. Since this protocol employs no xenogeneic material, it will be appropriate for use in preclinical large-animal studies. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering: state-of-the-art in in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Francesca; Maglio, Melania; Tschon, Matilde; Aldini, Nicolò Nicoli; Fini, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Several therapeutic approaches have been developed to address hyaline cartilage regeneration, but to date, there is no universal procedure to promote the restoration of mechanical and functional properties of native cartilage, which is one of the most important challenges in orthopedic surgery. For cartilage tissue engineering, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an alternative cell source to chondrocytes. Since little is known about adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) cartilage regeneration potential, the aim of this review was to give an overview of in vivo studies about the chondrogenic potential and regeneration ability of culture-expanded ADSCs when implanted in heterotopic sites or in osteoarthritic and osteochondral defects. The review compares the different studies in terms of number of implanted cells and animals, cell harvesting sites, in vitro expansion and chondrogenic induction conditions, length of experimental time, defect dimensions, used scaffolds and post-explant analyses of the cartilage regeneration. Despite variability of the in vivo protocols, it seems that good cartilage formation and regeneration were obtained with chondrogenically predifferentiated ADSCs (1 × 10(7) cells for heterotopic cartilage formation and 1 × 10(6) cells/scaffold for cartilage defect regeneration) and polymeric scaffolds, even if many other aspects need to be clarified in future studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cysts of the semilunar cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruessermann, M.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the studies listed in the bibliography, this dissertation reports on the pathology, clinical symptoms and radiology of cysts of the semilunar cartilage. The author analyses 118 cases of his own, with special regard to the results of pneumo-arthrographic investigations carried through according to a special technique by Schaefer. In the course of this work, measurements of the meniscal base are for the first time used as radiological criteria indicating the presence of a cyst of the semilunar cartilage. Furthermore the well-known radiological signs of cysts, such as bone defects according to Albert and Keller, light central spot in the meniscal body, as well as Rauber's sign and horizontal rupture, are investigated as to the frequency of their incidence. For that purpose all the X-ray pictures were subjected to a further dose scrutiny. A list of all the 118 cases with their clinical and radiological data is found in the annex, together with the results of the operations and patho-anatomical investigations. (orig.) [de

  4. Storing live embryonic and adult human cartilage grafts for transplantation using a joint simulating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I; Robinson, D; Cohen, N; Nevo, Z

    2000-11-01

    Cartilage transplantation as a means to replace damaged articular surfaces is of interest. A major obstacle is the long-term preservation of cartilage grafts. The commonly used technique of freezing the grafts inevitably leads to cellular death. The current study compares the technique to an innovative approach using a pulsed-pressure perfusion system termed a joint simulating device (JSD), intended to simulate intra-articular mechanical forces. Human articular cartilage explants were harvested from both embryonic epiphyseal tissue and femoral heads of elderly women (over 70 years of age) undergoing a partial joint replacement (hemi-arthroplasty) and were divided in two groups: half of the samples were incubated in the JSD while the remaining half were grown in static culture within tissue culture plates. After 10 days all samples were evaluated for: (a) cell vitality as assessed by image analysis and XTT assay; (b) biosynthetic activity as expressed by radioactive sulfate incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG's); and (c) proteoglycan content as assessed by alcian blue staining intensity. A 10-fold increase in sulfate incorporation in samples held in the JSD compared to the static culture group was observed in embryonic cartilage. In adult cartilage culture in the JSD elevated sulfate incorporation by threefold as compared to static culture. Central necrosis was observed in specimens grown in the static culture plates, while it did not occur in the samples held in the JSD. Cell vitality as assessed by XTT assay was significantly better in the JSD group as compared to static culture. The difference was more pronounced in the embryonic specimens as compared to adult cartilage. The specimens cultured within the JSD retained proteoglycans significantly better than those cultured in static culture. Maintenance of cartilage specimens in a JSD was highly effective in keeping the vitality of cartilage explants in vitro over a 10-day period. A possible future

  5. Allogenic lyophilized cartilage grafts for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pill Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    Allogenic lyophilized cartilages were made in our clinic after Sailer methods and some modification. In our clinic, we have used allogenic cartilage grafts on 102 defects of craniomaxillofacial area; 1) for defects from cyst or ameloblastoma, 2) for lack of continuity of the mandible, 3) for rhinoplasty, 4) for paranasal augmentation, 5) for augmentation genioplasty, 6) for reconstruction of orbital floor, 7) for oroantral fistula, 8) for temporal augmentation, 9) for TMJ surgery 10) for condyle defect as a costochondral graft, 11) for filling of tooth socket and alveolus augmentation,12) for correction or orbital height and 13) for guided bone regeneration in peripheral implant. The types of lyophilized cartilage used were chip, sheet and block types developed by freeze-dried methods. Some grafts showed change of ossification, in which case we could perform implant on it. We have good results on reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects. Allogenic cartilage have advantages such as 1) it has no immune reaction clinically, 2) it is more tolerable to infection than that of autogenous cartilage, 3) it has character of less resorption which require no over correction, 4) it is easy to manipulate contouring, and 5) it has possibility of undergoing ossification. Allogenic cartilage has been considered as good substitutes for bone. The author would like to report the results on 102 allogenic cartilage have

  6. The formation of human auricular cartilage from microtic tissue: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mohamad Fikeri bin; See, Goh Bee; Hui, Chua Kien; Abdullah, Asma bt; Saim, Lokman bin; Saim, Aminuddin bin; Idrus, Ruszymah bt Haji

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate, culture-expand and characterize the chondrocytes isolated from microtic cartilage and evaluate its potential as a cell source for ear cartilage reconstruction. Specific attention was to construct the auricular cartilage tissue by using fibrin as scaffold. Cell culture experiment with the use of microtic chondrocytes. Cell culture experiment with the use of microtic chondrocytes. After ear reconstructive surgery at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, chondrocytes were isolated from microtic cartilage. Chondrocytes isolated from the tissue were cultured expanded until passage 4 (P4). Upon confluency at P4, chondrocytes were harvested and tissue engineered constructs were made with human plasma polymerized to fibrin. Constructs formed later is implanted at the dorsal part of nude mice for 8 weeks, followed by post-implantation evaluation with histology staining (Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Safranin O), immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for chondrogenic associated genes expression level. Under gross assessment, the construct after 8 weeks of implantation showed similar physical characteristics that of cartilage. Histological staining showed abundant lacunae cells embedded in extracellular matrix similar to that of native cartilage. Safranin O staining showed positive staining which indicates the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the strong positive staining for collagen type II, the specific collagen type in the cartilage. Gene expression quantification showed no significant differences in the expression of chondrogenic gene used which is collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan core protein (ACP), elastin and sox9 genes when compared to construct formed from normal auricular tissue. Chondrocytes isolated from microtia cartilage has the potential to be used as an alternative cell source for external ear reconstruction in future clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  7. Cartilage regeneration by chondrogenic induced adult stem cells in osteoarthritic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Chinedu C; Sulaiman, Shamsul B; Min-Hwei, Ng; Hui-Cheng, Chen; Ahmad, Johan; Yahaya, Norhamdan M; Saim, Aminuddin B; Idrus, Ruszymah B H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model. Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus following a 3-weeks exercise regimen. Stem cells from experimental sheep were culture expanded and induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received a single dose of 2 × 10(7) autologous PKH26-labelled, chondrogenically induced ADSCs or BMSCs as 5 mls injection, while controls received 5 mls culture medium. The proliferation rate of ADSCs 34.4 ± 1.6 hr was significantly higher than that of the BMSCs 48.8 ± 5.3 hr (P = 0.008). Chondrogenic induced BMSCs had significantly higher expressions of chondrogenic specific genes (Collagen II, SOX9 and Aggrecan) compared to chondrogenic ADSCs (P = 0.031, 0.010 and 0.013). Grossly, the treated knee joints showed regenerated de novo cartilages within 6 weeks post-treatment. On the International Cartilage Repair Society grade scores, chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs groups had significantly lower scores than controls (P = 0.0001 and 0.0001). Fluorescence of the tracking dye (PKH26) in the injected cells showed that they had populated the damaged area of cartilage. Histological staining revealed loosely packed matrixes of de novo cartilages and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of cartilage specific proteins, Collagen II and SOX9. Autologous chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs could be promising cell sources for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis.

  8. Cartilage regeneration by chondrogenic induced adult stem cells in osteoarthritic sheep model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu C Ude

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC, multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus following a 3-weeks exercise regimen. Stem cells from experimental sheep were culture expanded and induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received a single dose of 2 × 10(7 autologous PKH26-labelled, chondrogenically induced ADSCs or BMSCs as 5 mls injection, while controls received 5 mls culture medium. RESULTS: The proliferation rate of ADSCs 34.4 ± 1.6 hr was significantly higher than that of the BMSCs 48.8 ± 5.3 hr (P = 0.008. Chondrogenic induced BMSCs had significantly higher expressions of chondrogenic specific genes (Collagen II, SOX9 and Aggrecan compared to chondrogenic ADSCs (P = 0.031, 0.010 and 0.013. Grossly, the treated knee joints showed regenerated de novo cartilages within 6 weeks post-treatment. On the International Cartilage Repair Society grade scores, chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs groups had significantly lower scores than controls (P = 0.0001 and 0.0001. Fluorescence of the tracking dye (PKH26 in the injected cells showed that they had populated the damaged area of cartilage. Histological staining revealed loosely packed matrixes of de novo cartilages and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of cartilage specific proteins, Collagen II and SOX9. CONCLUSION: Autologous chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs could be promising cell sources for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis.

  9. Subchondral drilling for articular cartilage repair: a systematic review of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Goebel, Lars K H; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2018-05-03

    Articular cartilage defects may initiate osteoarthritis. Subchondral drilling, a widely applied clinical technique to treat small cartilage defects, does not yield cartilage regeneration. Various translational studies aiming to improve the outcome of drilling have been performed, however, a robust systematic analysis of its translational evidence has been still lacking. Here, we performed a systematic review of the outcome of subchondral drilling for knee cartilage repair in translational animal models. A total of 12 relevant publications studying 198 animals were identified, detailed study characteristics were extracted, and methodological quality and risk of bias were analyzed. Subchondral drilling was superior to defects untreated or treated with abrasion arthroplasty for cartilage repair in multiple translational models. Considerable subchondral bone changes were observed, including subchondral bone cysts and intralesional osteophytes. Furthermore, extensive alterations of the subchondral bone microarchitecture appeared in a temporal pattern in small and large animal models, together with specific topographic aspects of repair. Moreover, variable technical aspects directly affected the outcomes of osteochondral repair. The data from this systematic review indicate that subchondral drilling yields improved short-term structural articular cartilage repair compared with spontaneous repair in multiple small and large animal models. These results have important implications for future investigations aimed at an enhanced translation into clinical settings for the treatment of cartilage defects, highlighting the importance of considering specific aspects of modifiable variables such as improvements in the design and reporting of preclinical studies, together with the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cartilage repair following subchondral drilling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Contrast enhanced cartilage imaging: Comparison of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, Edzard; Woertler, Klaus; Weirich, Gregor; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Settles, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to compare relaxation effects, dynamics and spatial distributions of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents in articular cartilage at concentrations typically used for direct MR arthrography at 1.5 T. Dynamic MR-studies over 11 h were performed in 15 bovine patella specimens. For each of the contrast agents gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, gadoteridol and mangafodipir trinatrium three patellae were placed in 2.5 mmol/L contrast solution. Simultaneous measurements of T 1 and T 2 were performed every 30 min using a high-spatial-resolution 'MIX'-sequence. T 1 , T 2 and ΔR 1 , ΔR 2 profile plots across cartilage thickness were calculated to demonstrate the spatial and temporal distributions. The charge is one of the main factors which controls the amount of the contrast media diffusing into intact cartilage, but independent of the charge, the spatial distribution across cartilage thickness remains highly inhomogeneous even after 11 h of diffusion. The absolute ΔR 2 -effect in cartilage is at least as large as the ΔR 1 -effect for all contrast agents. Maximum changes were 5-12 s -1 for ΔR 1 and 8-15 s -1 for ΔR 2 . This study indicates that for morphologically intact cartilage only the amount of contrast agents within cartilage is determined by the charge but not the spatial distribution across cartilage thickness. In addition, ΔR 2 can be considered for quantification of contrast agent concentrations, since it is of the same magnitude and less time consuming to measure than ΔR 1

  11. * Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Favorable Source for Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro-Santos, Javier; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Díaz-Prado, Silvia María

    2017-09-01

    Localized trauma-derived breakdown of the hyaline articular cartilage may progress toward osteoarthritis, a degenerative condition characterized by total loss of articular cartilage and joint function. Tissue engineering technologies encompass several promising approaches with high therapeutic potential for the treatment of these focal defects. However, most of the research in tissue engineering is focused on potential materials and structural cues, while little attention is directed to the most appropriate source of cells endowing these materials. In this study, using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as scaffold, we defined a novel static in vitro model for cartilage repair. In combination with HAM, four different cell types, human chondrocytes, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs), human amniotic epithelial cells, and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) were assessed determining their therapeutic potential. A chondral lesion was drilled in human cartilage biopsies simulating a focal defect. A pellet of different cell types was implanted inside the lesion and covered with HAM. The biopsies were maintained for 8 weeks in culture. Chondrogenic differentiation in the defect was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. HAM scaffold showed good integration and adhesion to the native cartilage in all groups. Although all cell types showed the capacity of filling the focal defect, hBMSCs and hAMSCs demonstrated higher levels of new matrix synthesis. However, only the hAMSCs-containing group presented a significant cytoplasmic content of type II collagen when compared with chondrocytes. More collagen type I was identified in the new synthesized tissue of hBMSCs. In accordance, hBMSCs and hAMSCs showed better International Cartilage Research Society scoring although without statistical significance. HAM is a useful material for articular cartilage repair in vitro when used as scaffold. In combination with hAMSCs, HAM showed better

  12. Correlation between histological outcome and surgical cartilage repair technique in the knee: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, Alex C; Everhart, Joshua S; Magnussen, Robert A; Carey, James L; Brophy, Robert H; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C

    2016-06-01

    Compare histological outcomes after microfracture (MF), autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and osteochondral autograft transfer (OATS). Literature review using PubMed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Collaboration Library. Inclusion criteria limited to English language studies International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading criteria for cartilage analysis after ACI (autologous chondrocyte implantation), MF (microfracture), or OATS (osteochondral autografting) repair techniques. Thirty-three studies investigating 1511 patients were identified. Thirty evaluated ACI or one of its subtypes, six evaluated MF, and seven evaluated OATS. There was no evidence of publication bias (Begg's p=0.48). No statistically significant correlation was found between percent change in clinical outcome and percent biopsies showing ICRS Excellent scores (R(2)=0.05, p=0.38). Percent change in clinical outcome and percent of biopsies showing only hyaline cartilage were significantly associated (R(2)=0.24, p=0.024). Mean lesion size and histological outcome were not correlated based either on percent ICRS Excellent (R(2)=0.03, p=0.50) or percent hyaline cartilage only (R(2)=0.01, p=0.67). Most common lesion location and histological outcome were not correlated based either on percent ICRS Excellent (R(2)=0.03, p=0.50) or percent hyaline cartilage only (R(2)=0.01, p=0.67). Microfracture has poorer histologic outcomes than other cartilage repair techniques. OATS repairs primarily are comprised of hyaline cartilage, followed closely by cell-based techniques, but no significant difference was found cartilage quality using ICRS grading criteria among OATS, ACI-C, MACI, and ACI-P. IV, meta-analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium in Auricular Chondrocyte Proliferation and Engineered Cartilage Formation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the effects of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS on proliferation of auricular chondrocytes and formation of engineered cartilage in vitro. Pig auricular monolayer chondrocytes and chondrocyte pellets were cultured in media containing 1% ITS at different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 10%, 6%, 2%, 0%, or 10% FBS alone as a control for four weeks. Parameters including cell proliferation in monolayer, wet weight, collagen type I/II/X (Col I, II, X and glycosaminoglycan (GAG expression, GAG content of pellets and gene expression associated with cartilage formation/dedifferentiation (lost cartilage phenotype/hypertrophy within the chondrocyte pellets were assessed. The results showed that chondrocytes proliferation rates increased when FBS concentrations increased (2%, 6%, 10% FBS in ITS supplemented groups. In addition, 1% ITS plus 10% FBS significantly promoted cell proliferation than 10% FBS alone. No chondrocytes grew in ITS alone medium. 1% ITS plus 10% FBS enhanced cartilage formation in terms of size, wet weight, cartilage specific matrices, and homogeneity, compared to 10% FBS alone group. Furthermore, ITS prevented engineered cartilage from dedifferentiation (i.e., higher index of Col II/Col I mRNA expression and expression of aggrecan and hypertrophy (i.e., lower mRNA expression of Col X and MMP13. In conclusion, our results indicated that ITS efficiently enhanced auricular chondrocytes proliferation, retained chondrogenic phenotypes, and promoted engineered cartilage formation when combined with FBS, which is potentially used as key supplementation in auricular chondrocytes and engineered cartilage culture.

  14. Middle Ear Mechanics of Cartilage Tympanoplasty Evaluated by Laser Holography and Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery J.; Hernandez-Montes, Maria S.; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Goals To assess the effects of thickness and position of cartilage used to reconstruct the tympanic membrane (TM) using a novel technique, time-averaged laser holography. Background Cartilage is commonly used in TM reconstruction to prevent formation of retraction pockets. The thickness, position, and shape of the cartilage graft may adversely affect TM motion and hearing. We sought to systematically investigate these parameters in an experimental setting. Methods Computer-assisted optoelectronic laser holography was used in 4 human cadaveric temporal bones to study sound-induced TM motion for 500 Hz to 8 kHz. Stapes velocity was measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Baseline (control) measurements were made with the TM intact. Measurements were repeated after a 0.5- or 1.0-mm-thick oval piece of conchal cartilage was placed on the medial TM surface in the posterior-superior quadrant. The cartilage was rotated so that it was either in contact with the bony tympanic rim and manubrium or not. Results At frequencies less than 4 kHz, the cartilage graft had only minor effects on the overall TM fringe patterns. The different conditions had no effects on stapes velocity. Greater than 4 kHz, TM motion was reduced over the grafted TM, both with 0.5- and 1.0-mm-thick grafts. No significant differences in stapes velocity were seen with the 2 different thicknesses of cartilage compared with control. Conclusion Computer-assisted optoelectronic laser holography is a promising technique to investigate middle ear mechanics after tympanoplasty. Such positioning may prevent postoperative TM retraction. These findings and conclusions apply to cartilage placed in the posterior-superior TM quadrant. PMID:19779389

  15. Effect of exercise on thicknesses of mature hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, and subchondral bone of equine tarsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquille, Carolyne A; Blunden, Antony S; Dyson, Sue J; Parkin, Tim D H; Goodship, Allen E; Murray, Rachel C

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To investigate effects of exercise on hyaline cartilage (HC), calcified cartilage (CC), and subchondral bone (SCB) thickness patterns of equine tarsi. SAMPLE POPULATION-30 tarsi from cadavers of horses with known exercise history. PROCEDURES-Tarsi were assigned to 3 groups according to known exercise history as follows: pasture exercise only (PE tarsi), low-intensity general-purpose riding exercise (LE tarsi), and high-intensity elite competition riding exercise (EE tarsi). Osteochondral tissue from distal tarsal joints underwent histologic preparation. Hyaline cartilage, CC, and SCB thickness were measured at standard sites at medial, midline, and lateral locations across joints with a histomorphometric technique. RESULTS-HC, CC, and SCB thickness were significantly greater at all sites in EE tarsi, compared with PE tarsi; this was also true when LE tarsi were compared with PE tarsi. At specific sites, HC, CC, and SCB were significantly thicker in EE tarsi, compared with LE tarsi. Along the articular surface of the proximal aspect of the third metatarsal bone, SCB was thickest in EE tarsi and thinnest in LE tarsi; increases were greatest at sites previously reported to undergo peak strains and osteochondral damage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Increased exercise was associated with increased HC, CC, and SCB thickness in mature horses. At sites that undergo high compressive strains, with a reported predisposition to osteoarthritic change, there was increased CC and SCB thickness. These results may provide insight into the interaction between adaptive response to exercise and pathological change.

  16. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  17. Bioprinting Cartilage Tissue from Mesenchymal Stem Cells and PEG Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guifang; Hubbell, Karen; Schilling, Arndt F; Dai, Guohao; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Bioprinting based on thermal inkjet printing is one of the most attractive enabling technologies for tissue engineering and regeneration. During the printing process, cells, scaffolds , and growth factors are rapidly deposited to the desired two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) locations. Ideally, the bioprinted tissues are able to mimic the native anatomic structures in order to restore the biological functions. In this study, a bioprinting platform for 3D cartilage tissue engineering was developed using a commercially available thermal inkjet printer with simultaneous photopolymerization . The engineered cartilage demonstrated native zonal organization, ideal extracellular matrix (ECM ) composition, and proper mechanical properties. Compared to the conventional tissue fabrication approach, which requires extended UV exposure, the viability of the printed cells with simultaneous photopolymerization was significantly higher. Printed neocartilage demonstrated excellent glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II production, which was consistent with gene expression profile. Therefore, this platform is ideal for anatomic tissue engineering with accurate cell distribution and arrangement.

  18. T1rho MRI of menisci and cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ligong, E-mail: ligong.wang@nyumc.org [Quantitative Multinuclear Musculoskeletal Imaging Group (QMMIG), Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Chang, Gregory, E-mail: gregory.chang@nyumc.org [Quantitative Multinuclear Musculoskeletal Imaging Group (QMMIG), Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Xu, Jian, E-mail: jian.xu.sz@siemens.com [Siemens HealthCare, New York, NY (United States); Vieira, Renata L.R., E-mail: Renata.Vieira@nyumc.org [Quantitative Multinuclear Musculoskeletal Imaging Group (QMMIG), Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Krasnokutsky, Svetlana, E-mail: Svetlana.Krasnokutsky@nyumc.org [Division of Rheumatology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Abramson, Steven, E-mail: StevenB.Abramson@nyumc.org [Division of Rheumatology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Regatte, Ravinder R., E-mail: Ravinder.Regatte@nyumc.org [Quantitative Multinuclear Musculoskeletal Imaging Group (QMMIG), Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To assess and compare subregional and whole T1rho values (median ± interquartile range) of femorotibial cartilage and menisci in patients with doubtful (Kellgren–Lawrence (KL) grade 1) to severe (KL4) osteoarthritis (OA) at 3T. Materials and methods: 30 subjects with varying degrees of OA (KL1–4, 13 females, 17 males, mean age ± SD = 63.9 ± 13.1 years) were evaluated on a 3T MR scanner using a spin-lock-based 3D GRE sequence for T1rho mapping. Clinical proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) images in sagittal (without fat saturation), axial, and coronal (fat-saturated) planes were acquired for cartilage and meniscus Whole-organ MR imaging score (WORMS) grading. Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences between subregional and whole T1rho values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci in subjects with doubtful to severe OA. Results: Lateral (72 ± 10 ms, median ± interquartile range) and medial (65 ± 10 ms) femoral anterior cartilage subregions in moderate–severe OA subjects had significantly higher T1rho values (P < 0.05) than cartilage subregions and whole femorotibial cartilage in doubtful–minimal OA subjects. There were statistically significant differences in meniscus T1rho values of the medial posterior subregion of subjects with moderate–severe OA and T1rho values of all subregions and the whole meniscus in subjects with doubtful–minimal OA. When evaluated based on WORMS, statistically significant differences were identified in T1rho values between the lateral femoral anterior cartilage subregion in patients with WORMS5–6 (advanced degeneration) and whole femorotibial cartilage and all cartilage subregions in patients with WORMS0–1 (normal). Conclusion: T1rho values are higher in specific meniscus and femorotibial cartilage subregions. These findings suggest that regional damage of both femorotibial hyaline cartilage and menisci may be associated with

  19. T1rho MRI of menisci and cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ligong; Chang, Gregory; Xu, Jian; Vieira, Renata L.R.; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Abramson, Steven; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare subregional and whole T1rho values (median ± interquartile range) of femorotibial cartilage and menisci in patients with doubtful (Kellgren–Lawrence (KL) grade 1) to severe (KL4) osteoarthritis (OA) at 3T. Materials and methods: 30 subjects with varying degrees of OA (KL1–4, 13 females, 17 males, mean age ± SD = 63.9 ± 13.1 years) were evaluated on a 3T MR scanner using a spin-lock-based 3D GRE sequence for T1rho mapping. Clinical proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) images in sagittal (without fat saturation), axial, and coronal (fat-saturated) planes were acquired for cartilage and meniscus Whole-organ MR imaging score (WORMS) grading. Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences between subregional and whole T1rho values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci in subjects with doubtful to severe OA. Results: Lateral (72 ± 10 ms, median ± interquartile range) and medial (65 ± 10 ms) femoral anterior cartilage subregions in moderate–severe OA subjects had significantly higher T1rho values (P < 0.05) than cartilage subregions and whole femorotibial cartilage in doubtful–minimal OA subjects. There were statistically significant differences in meniscus T1rho values of the medial posterior subregion of subjects with moderate–severe OA and T1rho values of all subregions and the whole meniscus in subjects with doubtful–minimal OA. When evaluated based on WORMS, statistically significant differences were identified in T1rho values between the lateral femoral anterior cartilage subregion in patients with WORMS5–6 (advanced degeneration) and whole femorotibial cartilage and all cartilage subregions in patients with WORMS0–1 (normal). Conclusion: T1rho values are higher in specific meniscus and femorotibial cartilage subregions. These findings suggest that regional damage of both femorotibial hyaline cartilage and menisci may be associated with

  20. Tribological properties of PVA/PVP blend hydrogels against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Yusuf; Milner, Piers; Dini, Daniele; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-02-01

    This research investigated in-vitro tribological performance of the articulation of cartilage-on- polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend hydrogels using a custom-designed multi-directional wear rig. The hydrogels were prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles at different concentrations and PVA to PVP fractions at a given concentration. PVA/PVP blend hydrogels showed low coefficient of friction (COF) values (between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.14 ± 0.02) which were closer to the cartilage-on-cartilage articulation (0.03 ± 0.01) compared to the cartilage-on-stainless steel articulation (0.46 ± 0.06). The COF increased with increasing hydrogel concentration (p = 0.03) and decreasing PVP content at a given concentration (p < 0.05). The cartilage-on-hydrogel tests showed only the surface layers of the cartilage being removed (average volume loss of the condyles was 12.5 ± 4.2mm 3 ). However, the hydrogels were found to be worn/deformed. The hydrogels prepared at a higher concentration showed lower apparent volume loss. A strong correlation (R 2 = 0.94) was found between the COF and compressive moduli of the hydrogel groups, resulting from decreasing contact congruency. It was concluded that the hydrogels were promising as hemiarthroplasty materials, but that improved mechanical behaviour was required for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Ming-Yih; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. - Highlights: • Selective laser sintered polycaprolactone scaffolds are prepared. • Scaffolds are surface modified through immersion coating with gelatin or collagen. • Collagen-scaffold is the best for cartilage tissue engineering in vitro. • Chondrocytes/collagen-scaffold reveals enhanced cartilage tissue formation in vivo

  2. Short-TE projection reconstruction MR microscopy in the evaluation of articular cartilage thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Dalla-Palma, L.; Toffanin, R.; Szomolanyi, P.; Vittur, F.; Jellus, V.; Silvestri, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of projection-reconstruction (PR) MR microscopy in the accurate measurement of cartilage thickness. Short-TE PR microimages were acquired at 7.05 T on bone-cartilage cylindrical plugs excised from four regions of two disarticulated femoral heads (i. e. superior, inferior, posterior and anterior), using an NMR instrument equipped with a microimaging accessory. The PR microimages were then correlated with conventional spin-echo (SE) microimages and with histology. On PR microimages, acquired with an echo time of 3.2 ms, the cartilage signal was increased, allowing an accurate delineation of the cartilage from the tidemark/cortical bone region. As a consequence, by the PR method a more precise measurement of cartilage thickness compared with that performed by the conventional SE approach was feasible. An excellent correlation between PR microimages and histology was also obtained (r=0.90). By the proposed method it is possible to accurately determine the cartilage thickness better than with the conventional SE sequences. (orig.)

  3. Indentation stiffness does not discriminate between normal and degraded articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cameron P; Crawford, Ross W; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2007-08-01

    Relative indentation characteristics are commonly used for distinguishing between normal healthy and degraded cartilage. The application of this parameter in surgical decision making and an appreciation of articular cartilage biomechanics has prompted us to hypothesise that it is difficult to define a reference stiffness to characterise normal articular cartilage. This hypothesis is tested for validity by carrying out biomechanical indentation of articular cartilage samples that are characterised as visually normal and degraded relative to proteoglycan depletion and collagen disruption. Compressive loading was applied at known strain rates to visually normal, artificially degraded and naturally osteoarthritic articular cartilage and observing the trends of their stress-strain and stiffness characteristics. While our results demonstrated a 25% depreciation in the stiffness of individual samples after proteoglycan depletion, they also showed that when compared to the stiffness of normal samples only 17% lie outside the range of the stress-strain behaviour of normal samples. We conclude that the extent of the variability in the properties of normal samples, and the degree of overlap (81%) of the biomechanical properties of normal and degraded matrices demonstrate that indentation data cannot form an accurate basis for distinguishing normal from abnormal articular cartilage samples with consequences for the application of this mechanical process in the clinical environment.

  4. Alteration of cartilage surface collagen fibers differs locally after immobilization of knee joints in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Momoko; Aoyama, Tomoki; Ito, Akira; Tajino, Junichi; Iijima, Hirotaka; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Zhang, Xiangkai; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ultrastructural changes of surface cartilage collagen fibers, which differ by region and the length of the experimental period in an immobilization model of rat. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into histological or macroscopic and ultrastructural assessment groups. The left knees of all the animals were surgically immobilized by external fixation for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks (n = 5/time point). Sagittal histological sections of the medial mid-condylar region of the knee were obtained and assessed in four specific regions (contact and peripheral regions of the femur and tibia) and two zones (superficial and deep). To semi-quantify the staining intensity of the collagen fibers in the cartilage, picrosirius red staining was used. The cartilage surface changes of all the assessed regions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From histological and SEM observations, the fibrillation and irregular changes of the cartilage surface were more severe in the peripheral region than in the contact region. Interestingly, at 16 weeks post-immobilization, we observed non-fibrous structures at both the contact and peripheral regions. The collagen fiber staining intensity decreased in the contact region compared with the peripheral region. In conclusion, the alteration of surface collagen fiber ultrastructure and collagen staining intensity differed by the specific cartilage regions after immobilization. These results demonstrate that the progressive degeneration of cartilage is region specific, and depends on the length of the immobilization period. PMID:25939458

  5. Synergy between Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels confers high-strain mechanosensitivity to articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whasil; Leddy, Holly A.; Chen, Yong; Lee, Suk Hee; Zelenski, Nicole A.; McNulty, Amy L.; Wu, Jason; Beicker, Kellie N.; Coles, Jeffrey; Zauscher, Stefan; Grandl, Jörg; Sachs, Frederick; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2014-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are essential for load bearing and locomotion. Physiologically, articular cartilage sustains millions of cycles of mechanical loading. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, regulate their metabolic activities in response to mechanical loading. Pathological mechanical stress can lead to maladaptive cellular responses and subsequent cartilage degeneration. We sought to deconstruct chondrocyte mechanotransduction by identifying mechanosensitive ion channels functioning at injurious levels of strain. We detected robust expression of the recently identified mechanosensitive channels, PIEZO1 and PIEZO2. Combined directed expression of Piezo1 and -2 sustained potentiated mechanically induced Ca2+ signals and electrical currents compared with single-Piezo expression. In primary articular chondrocytes, mechanically evoked Ca2+ transients produced by atomic force microscopy were inhibited by GsMTx4, a PIEZO-blocking peptide, and by Piezo1- or Piezo2-specific siRNA. We complemented the cellular approach with an explant-cartilage injury model. GsMTx4 reduced chondrocyte death after mechanical injury, suggesting a possible therapy for reducing cartilage injury and posttraumatic osteoarthritis by attenuating Piezo-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction of injurious strains. PMID:25385580

  6. Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishann, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Yih [Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishann, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-07-01

    Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. - Highlights: • Selective laser sintered polycaprolactone scaffolds are prepared. • Scaffolds are surface modified through immersion coating with gelatin or collagen. • Collagen-scaffold is the best for cartilage tissue engineering in vitro. • Chondrocytes/collagen-scaffold reveals enhanced cartilage tissue formation in vivo.

  7. No Difference on Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patellofemoral Cartilage Composition Between Patients With Patellofemoral Pain and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Rianne A; Oei, Edwin H G; Bron, Esther E; van Tiel, Jasper; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A N; Krestin, Gabriel P; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-05-01

    Retropatellar cartilage damage has been suggested as an etiological factor for patellofemoral pain (PFP), a common knee condition among young and physically active individuals. To date, there is no conclusive evidence for an association between cartilage defects and PFP. Nowadays, advanced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques enable estimation of cartilage composition. To investigate differences in patellofemoral cartilage composition between patients with PFP and healthy control subjects using quantitative MRI. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with PFP and healthy control subjects underwent 3.0-T MRI including delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage and T1ρ and T2 mapping. Differences in relaxation times of patellofemoral cartilage were compared between groups by linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, sports participation, and time of image acquisition. This case-control study included 64 patients and 70 controls. The mean (±SD) age was 23.2 ± 6.4 years and the mean body mass index was 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); 56.7% were female. For delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage, the mean T1GD relaxation times of patellar (657.8 vs 669.4 ms) and femoral cartilage (661.6 vs 659.8 ms) did not significantly differ between patients and controls. In addition, no significant difference was found in mean T1ρ relaxation times of patellar (46.9 vs 46.0 ms) and femoral cartilage (50.8 vs 50.2 ms) and mean T2 relaxation times of patellar (33.2 vs 32.9 ms) and femoral cartilage (36.7 vs 36.6 ms) between patients and controls. Analysis of prespecified medial and lateral subregions within the patellofemoral cartilage also revealed no significant differences. There was no difference in composition of the patellofemoral cartilage, estimated with multiple quantitative MRI techniques, between patients with PFP and healthy control subjects. However, clinically relevant differences could not be ruled out for T1

  8. A multi-directional in vitro investigation into friction, damage and wear of innovative chondroplasty materials against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Ewen; Fisher, John

    2007-08-01

    The wear of the biomaterial/cartilage interface is vital for the development of innovative chondroplasty therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate potential chondroplasty biomaterials when sliding against natural articular cartilage under uniaxial reciprocating and multi-directional rotation/reciprocating motions. Three biphasic hydrogels were compared to articular cartilage (negative control) and stainless steel (positive control). Friction was measured by means of a simple geometry friction and wear simulator. All tests were completed in 25% bovine serum at 20 degrees C. Mechanical alterations to the surface structure were quantified using surface topography. Articular cartilage produced a constant friction value of 0.05 (confidence interval=0.015) with and without rotation. Stainless steel against articular cartilage produced an increase in friction over time resulting in a peak value of 0.7 (confidence interval=0.02) without rotation, increasing to 0.88 (confidence interval=0.03) with rotation. All biphasic hydrogels produced peak friction values lower than the positive control and demonstrated no difference between uni- and multi-directional motion. Degradation of the opposing cartilage surface showed a significant difference between the positive and negative controls, with the greater cartilage damage when sliding against stainless steel under uni-directional motion. The lower friction and reduction of opposing cartilage surface degradation with the potential chondroplasty biomaterials can be attributed to their biphasic properties. This study illustrated the importance of biphasic properties within the tribology of cartilage substitution materials and future work will focus on the optimisation of biphasic properties such that materials more closely mimic natural cartilage.

  9. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Defined Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood for Use in Cartilage Repair Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Desancé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage engineering is a new strategy for the treatment of cartilage damage due to osteoarthritis or trauma in humans. Racehorses are exposed to the same type of cartilage damage and the anatomical, cellular, and biochemical properties of their cartilage are comparable to those of human cartilage, making the horse an excellent model for the development of cartilage engineering. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiated into chondrocytes with chondrogenic factors in a biomaterial appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for direct implantation and cartilage repair. Here, we characterized equine umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (eUCB-MSCs and evaluated their potential for chondrocyte differentiation for use in cartilage repair therapy. Our results show that isolated eUCB-MSCs had high proliferative capacity and differentiated easily into osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but not into adipocytes. A three-dimensional (3D culture approach with the chondrogenic factors BMP-2 and TGF-β1 potentiated chondrogenic differentiation with a significant increase in cartilage-specific markers at the mRNA level (Col2a1, Acan, Snorc and the protein level (type II and IIB collagen without an increase in hypertrophic chondrocyte markers (Col10a1 and Mmp13 in normoxia and in hypoxia. However, these chondrogenic factors caused an increase in type I collagen, which can be reduced using small interfering RNA targeting Col1a2. This study provides robust data on MSCs characterization and demonstrates that eUCB-MSCs have a great potential for cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. First and second order stereology of hyaline cartilage: Application on mice femoral cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Niazi, Behnam; Mohamadpour, Masoomeh; Hoseini, Leila; Hoseini, Najmeh; Owji, Ali Akbar; Rafati, Ali; Sadeghi, Yasaman; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2016-11-01

    Stereological techniques could be considered in research on cartilage to obtain quantitative data. The present study aimed to explain application of the first- and second-order stereological methods on articular cartilage of mice and the methods applied on the mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). The distal femoral articular cartilage of BALB/c mice (control and Cd-treated) was removed. Then, volume and surface area of the cartilage and number of chondrocytes were estimated using Cavalieri and optical dissector techniques on isotropic uniform random sections. Pair-correlation function [g(r)] and cross-correlation function were calculated to express the spatial arrangement of chondrocytes-chondrocytes and chondrocytes-matrix (chondrocyte clustering/dispersing), respectively. The mean±standard deviation of the cartilage volume, surface area, and thickness were 1.4±0.1mm 3 , 26.2±5.4mm 2 , and 52.8±6.7μm, respectively. Besides, the mean number of chondrocytes was 680±200 (×10 3 ). The cartilage volume, cartilage surface area, and number of chondrocytes were respectively reduced by 25%, 27%, and 27% in the Cd-treated mice in comparison to the control animals (pcartilage components carried potential advantages for investigating the cartilage in different joint conditions. Chondrocyte clustering/dispersing and cellularity can be evaluated in cartilage assessment in normal or abnormal situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The pilot study of MR T2 mapping in the cartilage evaluation of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lingling; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Zhong Jinglian; Ye Ruixin; Deng Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of MR T 2 mapping in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage of knee joint. Methods: Knees of 20 healthy adults before and after jogging and 19 osteoarthritis patients were examined with sagittal 8-echo SE sequence. The T 2 value of cartilage was selected and calculated. The T 2 values in the superficial and deep cartilage of femoral and tibial joint before and after jogging were compared, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. The source images were sent to the workstation to get T 2 mappings. The T 2 value of cartilage between before and after jogging was compared with paired-samples t test. The T 2 value between superficial and deep cartilage before jogging was compared with independent-samples t test, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. Results: The T 2 values in the superficial and the deep tibial cartilage were (48.8±6.3) ms, (44.3±5.7) ms before jogging and (43.4±5.0) ms, (40.3±6.1) ms after jogging. The T 2 values were significantly different between before and after jogging (t=6.004 and t=5.037, P 2 values in the superficial and deep femoral cartilage were (52.1±5.7) ms, (47.7±5.3) ms before jogging and (47.2±4.5) ms, (43.6±4.1) ms after jogging. The T 2 values were significantly different between before and after jogging (t=6.169 and t=5.957, P 2 mapping showed those changes. The mean T 2 value in the tibial cartilage of osteoarthritis patients was (56.0±9.1) ms and was higher than that of healthy adults. There was a significent difference between osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults (t=-3.446, P 2 mapping can be used in the research of biomechanics and function of cartilage and has a prelimilary value in the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration. (authors)

  12. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with sonographic knee cartilage thickness and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthiswary, Rajalingham; Rajalingam, Shamala; Hussein, Heselynn; Sridharan, Radhika; Asrul, Abdul Wahab

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the correlation of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels with articular cartilage damage based on sonographic knee cartilage thickness (KCT) and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 61 RA patients and 27 healthy controls were recruited in this study. Serum samples were obtained from all subjects to determine the serum COMP levels. All subjects had bilateral ultrasound scan of their knees. The KCT was based on the mean of measurements at three sites: the medial condyle, lateral condyle and intercondylar notch. Besides, the RA patients were assessed for their disease activity based on 28-joint-based Disease Activity Score (DAS 28). Serum COMP concentrations were significantly elevated in the RA patients compared to the controls (p = 0.001). The serum COMP levels had an inverse relationship with bilateral KCT in RA subjects and the healthy controls. COMP correlated significantly with disease activity based on DAS 28 (r = 0.299, p = 0.010), disease duration (r = 0.439, p = correlation between serum COMP and DAS 28 scores was comparable to the traditional markers of inflammation: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.372, p = 0.003) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.305, p = 0.017). The serum COMP is a promising biomarker in RA which reflects disease activity and damage to the articular cartilage.

  13. Prospective cohort comparison of bioactive glass implants and conchal cartilage in reconstruction of the posterior canal wall during tympanomastoidectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramovich, S.; Hannan, S. A.; Huins, C. T.; Georgalas, C.; McGuinness, J.; Vats, A.; Thompson, I.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of bioactive glass implants and conchal cartilage in reconstructing the posterior canal wall during tympanomastoidectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort clinical study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with clinically diagnosed chronic

  14. Articular cartilage changes in chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, G

    1985-11-01

    Full thickness samples of articular cartilage were removed from areas of chondromalacia on the medial and "odd" facets of the patellae of 21 adults and examined by histology, autoradiography and electron microscopy. Surface fibrillation, loss of superficial matrix staining and reduced 35SO4 labelling was seen, with little change in the deep zone. Ten cases showed "fibrous metaplasia" of the superficial cartilage with definite evidence of cell division and apparent smoothing of the surface. Scattered chondrocyte replication appeared to occur in the surrounding intact cartilage. The findings suggest that early lesions in chondromalacia patellae may heal either by cartilage or fibrous metaplasia and that this may account for the resolution of clinical symptoms.

  15. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  16. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  17. Cartilage Repair in Football (Soccer) Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players. PMID:26069606

  18. Harnessing biomechanics to develop cartilage regeneration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Responte, Donald J; Brown, Wendy E; Hu, Jerry C

    2015-02-01

    As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. This article provides a review of important steps toward regeneration of articular cartilage with suitable biomechanical properties. As a first step, biomechanical and biochemical characterization studies at the tissue level were used to provide design criteria for engineering neotissues. Extending this work to the single cell and subcellular levels has helped to develop biochemical and mechanical stimuli for tissue engineering studies. This strong mechanobiological foundation guided studies on regenerating hyaline articular cartilage, the knee meniscus, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) fibrocartilage. Initial tissue engineering efforts centered on developing biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. After many years of studying scaffold-based cartilage engineering, scaffoldless approaches were developed to address deficiencies of scaffold-based systems, resulting in the self-assembling process. This process was further improved by employing exogenous stimuli, such as hydrostatic pressure, growth factors, and matrix-modifying and catabolic agents, both singly and in synergistic combination to enhance neocartilage functional properties. Due to the high cell needs for tissue engineering and the limited supply of native articular chondrocytes, costochondral cells are emerging as a suitable cell source. Looking forward, additional cell sources are investigated to render these technologies more translatable. For example, dermis isolated adult stem (DIAS) cells show potential as a source of

  19. Materials science: Like cartilage, but simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties.......The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties....

  20. New Frontiers for Cartilage Repair and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Zaslav, Kenneth; McAdams, Timothy; Scopp, Jason; Theosadakis, Jason; Mahajan, Vivek; Gobbi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Articular cartilage injury is common after athletic injury and remains a difficult treatment conundrum both for the surgeon and athlete. Although recent treatments for damage to articular cartilage have been successful in alleviating symptoms, more durable and complete, long-term articular surface restoration remains the unattained goal. In this article, we look at both new ways to prevent damage to articular surfaces as well as new techniques to recreate biomechanically sound and ...

  1. Cartilage proteoglycans inhibit fibronectin-mediated adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, A. M.; Pearlstein, E.; Weissmann, G.; Hoffstein, S. T.

    1981-09-01

    Normal tissues and organs show, on histological examination, a pattern of cellular and acellular zones that is characteristic and unique for each organ or tissue. This pattern is maintained in health but is sometimes destroyed by disease. For example, in mobile joints, the articular surfaces consist of relatively acellular hyaline cartilage, and the joint space is enclosed by a capsule of loose connective tissue with a lining of fibroblasts and macrophages. In the normal joint these cells are confined to the synovial lining and the articular surface remains acellular. In in vitro culture, macrophages and their precursor monocytes are very adhesive, and fibroblasts can migrate and overgrow surfaces such as collagen or plastic used for tissue culture. The fibroblasts adhere to collagen by means of fibronectin, which they synthesize and secrete1. Because the collagen of cartilage is capable of binding serum fibronectin2 and fibronectin is present in cartilage during its development3, these cells should, in theory, slowly migrate from the synovial lining to the articular surface. It is their absence from the articular cartilage in normal circumstances, and then presence in such pathological states as rheumatoid arthritis, that is striking. We therefore set out to determine whether a component of cartilage could prevent fibroblast adherence in a defined adhesion assay. As normal cartilage is composed of 50% proteoglycans and 50% collagen by dry weight4, we tested the possibility that the proteoglycans in cartilage inhibit fibroblast adhesion to collagen. We present here evidence that fibroblast spreading and adhesion to collagenous substrates is inhibited by cartilage proteoglycans.

  2. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzoni

    Full Text Available In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes. Feeding preferences were assessed through a sample of 138 specimens (67 from the dry and 71 from the rainy season using the Index of Alimentary Importance (IAi. We registered five different food items (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms, Chloroficeae and Cianobacteries composing the species diet. Detritus was the most abundant one both during the rainy and dry seasons (IAirainny = 90.34 and IAidry = 96.30. No significant differences were registered for the volume of food items consumed during the rainy and dry seasons. The Frequency of Occurrence analysis showed that four (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms and Chloroficeae among the five all other consumed ones, were always frequent. Comparing our own results with those available for the study site, we suggest that the feeding habit of H. punctatus has changed according to environmental changes and that the species diet is strongly dependent upon environmental conditions.

  3. Laser biostimulation of articular cartilage: in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Guo, Zhouyi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Chang-Chun

    2004-07-01

    In the orthopaedic field, the repair of ariticular cartilage is still a difficult problem, because of the physiological characters of cartilaginous tissues and chondrocytes. To find an effective method of stimulating their regeneration, this in vitro study focuses on the biostimulation of rabbit articular chondrocytes by low-power He-Ne laser. The articular chondrocytes isolated from the cartilage of the medial condyle of the femur of the rabbit were incubated in HamF12 medium. The second passage culture were spread on 24 petri dishes and were irradiated with laser at power density of 2 - 12 mW/cm2 for 6.5 minutes, corresponding to the energy density of 1-6 J/cm2. Laser treatment was performed three times at a 24-hour interval. After lasering, incubation was continued for 24 hours. Non-irradiated cells were kept under the same conditions as the irradiated ones. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated with a XTT colorimetric method. Irradiation of 4 - 6 J/cm2 revealed a considerably higher cell proliferation activity comparing to control cultures. Thereinto, the energy density of 4 and 5 J/cm2 remarkably increased cell growth (P<0.01). The present study showed that a particular laser irradiation stimulates articular chondrocytes proliferation. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that low-power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  4. Insights from amphioxus into the evolution of vertebrate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meulemans

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Central to the story of vertebrate evolution is the origin of the vertebrate head, a problem difficult to approach using paleontology and comparative morphology due to a lack of unambiguous intermediate forms. Embryologically, much of the vertebrate head is derived from two ectodermal tissues, the neural crest and cranial placodes. Recent work in protochordates suggests the first chordates possessed migratory neural tube cells with some features of neural crest cells. However, it is unclear how and when these cells acquired the ability to form cellular cartilage, a cell type unique to vertebrates. It has been variously proposed that the neural crest acquired chondrogenic ability by recruiting proto-chondrogenic gene programs deployed in the neural tube, pharynx, and notochord. To test these hypotheses we examined the expression of 11 amphioxus orthologs of genes involved in neural crest chondrogenesis. Consistent with cellular cartilage as a vertebrate novelty, we find that no single amphioxus tissue co-expresses all or most of these genes. However, most are variously co-expressed in mesodermal derivatives. Our results suggest that neural crest-derived cartilage evolved by serial cooption of genes which functioned primitively in mesoderm.

  5. Tribology approach to the engineering and study of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Markus A; Grad, Sibylle; Kaup, Thomas; Hänni, Markus; Schneider, Erich; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study has been based on the assumption that articular motion is an important aspect of mechanotransduction in synovial joints. For this reason a new bioreactor concept, able to reproduce joint kinematics more closely, has been designed. The prototype consists of a rotating scaffold and/or cartilage pin, which is pressed onto an orthogonally rotating ball. By oscillating pin and ball in phase difference, elliptical displacement trajectories are generated that are similar to the motion paths occurring in vivo. Simultaneously, dynamic compression may be applied with a linear actuator, while two-step-motors generate the rotation of pin and ball. The whole apparatus is placed in an incubator. The control station is located outside. Preliminary investigations at the gene expression level demonstrated promising results. Compared with free-swelling control and/or simply compression-loaded samples, chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds as well as nasal cartilage explants exposed to interface motion both showed elevated levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA. The final design of the bioreactor will include four individual stations in line, which will facilitate the investigation of motion-initiated effects at the contacting surfaces in more detail.

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Sequestration Enhances In Vivo Cartilage Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Medeiros Da Cunha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for cartilage repair still has unsatisfactory clinical outcomes because of inter-donor variability and poor cartilage quality formation. Re-differentiation of monolayer-expanded human chondrocytes is not easy in the absence of potent morphogens. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF plays a master role in angiogenesis and in negatively regulating cartilage growth by stimulating vascular invasion and ossification. Therefore, we hypothesized that its sole microenvironmental blockade by either VEGF sequestration by soluble VEGF receptor-2 (Flk-1 or by antiangiogenic hyperbranched peptides could improve chondrogenesis of expanded human nasal chondrocytes (NC freshly seeded on collagen scaffolds. Chondrogenesis of several NC donors was assessed either in vitro or ectopically in nude mice. VEGF blockade appeared not to affect NC in vitro differentiation, whereas it efficiently inhibited blood vessel ingrowth in vivo. After 8 weeks, in vivo glycosaminoglycan deposition was approximately two-fold higher when antiangiogenic approaches were used, as compared to the control group. Our data indicates that the inhibition of VEGF signaling, independently of the specific implementation mode, has profound effects on in vivo NC chondrogenesis, even in the absence of chondroinductive signals during prior culture or at the implantation site.

  7. Tribological evaluation of biomedical polycarbonate urethanes against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Yusuf; Milner, Piers; Dini, Daniele; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-06-01

    This research investigated the in-vitro wear and friction performance of polycarbonate urethane (PCU) 80A as they interact with articular cartilage, using a customised multidirectional pin-on-plate tester. Condyles were articulated against PCU 80A discs (Bionate ® I and Bionate ® II) (configuration 1) and the results arising from these tests were compared to those recorded during the sliding of PCU pins against cartilage plates (configuration 2). Configuration 1 produced steadily increasing coefficient of friction (COF) (up to 0.64 ± 0.05) and had the same trend as the cartilage-on-stainless steel articulation (positive control). When synovial fluid rather than bovine calf serum was used as lubricant, average COF significantly decreased from 0.50 ± 0.02-0.38 ± 0.06 for condyle-on-Bionate ® I (80AI) and from 0.41 ± 0.02-0.24 ± 0.04 for condyle-on-Bionate ® II (80AII) test configurations (p  0.05). A good correlation (R 2 =0.84) was found between the levels of average COF and the volume of cartilage lost during testing; increasing wear was found at higher levels of COF. Configuration 2 showed low and constant COF values (0.04 ± 0.01), which were closer to the negative control (0.03 ± 0.01) and significantly lower than configuration 1 (p tribological performance, which suggests it is more favourable for use in hemiarthroplasty design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scaffold-assisted cartilage tissue engineering using infant chondrocytes from human hip cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, P C; Gentili, C; Samans, B; Martinelli, D; Krüger, J P; Mittelmeier, W; Endres, M; Cancedda, R; Kaps, C

    2013-12-01

    Studies about cartilage repair in the hip and infant chondrocytes are rare. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of infant articular hip chondrocytes for tissue engineering of scaffold-assisted cartilage grafts. Hip cartilage was obtained from five human donors (age 1-10 years). Expanded chondrocytes were cultured in polyglycolic acid (PGA)-fibrin scaffolds. De- and re-differentiation of chondrocytes were assessed by histological staining and gene expression analysis of typical chondrocytic marker genes. In vivo, cartilage matrix formation was assessed by histology after subcutaneous transplantation of chondrocyte-seeded PGA-fibrin scaffolds in immunocompromised mice. The donor tissue was heterogenous showing differentiated articular cartilage and non-differentiated tissue and considerable expression of type I and II collagens. Gene expression analysis showed repression of typical chondrocyte and/or mesenchymal marker genes during cell expansion, while markers were re-induced when expanded cells were cultured in PGA-fibrin scaffolds. Cartilage formation after subcutaneous transplantation of chondrocyte loaded PGA-fibrin scaffolds in nude mice was variable, with grafts showing resorption and host cell infiltration or formation of hyaline cartilage rich in type II collagen. Addition of human platelet rich plasma (PRP) to cartilage grafts resulted robustly in formation of hyaline-like cartilage that showed type II collagen and regions with type X collagen. These results suggest that culture of expanded and/or de-differentiated infant hip cartilage cells in PGA-fibrin scaffolds initiates chondrocyte re-differentiation. The heterogenous donor tissue containing immature chondrocytes bears the risk of cartilage repair failure in vivo, which may be possibly overcome by the addition of PRP. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matt Denning, Jason G. Winward, Michael Becker Pardo, J. Ty Hopkins, Matthew K. Seeley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW, +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP was measured immediately before (baseline and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response.

  10. Precision of hyaline cartilage thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Buckwalter, K.; Helvie, M.; Niklason, L.; Martel, W. (Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Measurement of cartilage thickness in vivo is an important indicator of the status of a joint as the various degenerative and inflammatory arthritides directly affect the condition of the cartilage. In order to assess the precision of thickness measurements of hyaline articular cartilage, we undertook a pilot study using MR imaging, plain radiography, and ultrasonography (US). We measured the cartilage of the hip and knee joints in 10 persons (4 healthy volunteers and 6 patients). The joints in each patient were examined on two separate occasions using each modality. In the hips a swell as the knee joints, the most precise measuring method was plain film radiography. For radiographs of the knees obtained in the standing position, the coefficient of variation was 6.5%; in the hips this figure was 6.34%. US of the knees and MR imaging of the hips were the second best modalities in the measurement of cartilage thickness. In addition, MR imaging enabled the most complete visualization of the joint cartilage. (orig.).

  11. Nasal chondrocyte-based engineered autologous cartilage tissue for repair of articular cartilage defects: an observational first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Marcus; Barbero, Andrea; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Feliciano, Sandra; Wolf, Francine; Asnaghi, Adelaide M; Baumhoer, Daniel; Bieri, Oliver; Kretzschmar, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Haug, Martin; Schaefer, Dirk J; Martin, Ivan; Jakob, Marcel

    2016-10-22

    Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects. In a first-in-human trial, ten patients with symptomatic, post-traumatic, full-thickness cartilage lesions (2-6 cm 2 ) on the femoral condyle or trochlea were treated at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. Chondrocytes isolated from a 6 mm nasal septum biopsy specimen were expanded and cultured onto collagen membranes to engineer cartilage grafts (30 × 40 × 2 mm). The engineered tissues were implanted into the femoral defects via mini-arthrotomy and assessed up to 24 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were feasibility and safety of the procedure. Secondary outcomes included self-assessed clinical scores and MRI-based estimation of morphological and compositional quality of the repair tissue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01605201. The study is ongoing, with an approved extension to 25 patients. For every patient, it was feasible to manufacture cartilaginous grafts with nasal chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Engineered tissues were stable through handling with forceps and could be secured in the injured joints. No adverse reactions were recorded and self-assessed clinical scores for pain, knee function, and quality of life were improved significantly from before surgery to 24 months after surgery. Radiological assessments indicated variable degrees of

  12. Light Absorptive Properties of Articular Cartilage, ECM Molecules, Synovial Fluid, and Photoinitiators as Potential Barriers to Light-Initiated Polymer Scaffolding Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Anthony J; Benson, Jamie M; Donnelly, Patrick E; Torzilli, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate. Molar extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated at wavelengths of maximum absorbance and 365 nm. Intact articular cartilage was also examined. Results The individual major biochemical components of cartilage, Irgacure 2959, and quinine did not exhibit a significant absorption at 365 nm. Riboflavin and riboflavin-5'-phosphate were more effectual light absorbers at 365 nm, compared with the individual native species. Intact cartilage absorbed a significantly greater amount of UV light in comparison with the native species. Conclusion Our results indicate that none of the individual native species in cartilage will interfere with the absorption of UV light at 365 nm by these commonly used photoinitiators. Intact cartilage slices exhibited significant light absorption at 365 nm, while also having distinct absorbance peaks at wavelengths less than 300 nm. Determining the UV absorptive properties of the biomolecules native to articular cartilage and synovial fluid will aid in optimizing scaffolding procedures to ensure sufficient scaffold polymerization at a minimum UV intensity.

  13. A Comparison of Bone Marrow and Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jamie L; Walker, Naomi J; Hu, Jerry C; Borjesson, Dori L; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2018-04-02

    Joint injury is a common cause of premature retirement for the human and equine athlete alike. Implantation of engineered cartilage offers the potential to increase the success rate of surgical intervention and hasten recovery times. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a particularly attractive cell source for cartilage engineering. While bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have been most extensively characterized for musculoskeletal tissue engineering, studies suggest that cord blood MSCs (CB-MSCs) may elicit a more robust chondrogenic phenotype. The objective of this study was to determine a superior equine MSC source for cartilage engineering. MSCs derived from bone marrow or cord blood were stimulated to undergo chondrogenesis through aggregate redifferentiation and used to generate cartilage through the self-assembling process. The resulting neocartilage produced from either BM-MSCs or CB-MSCs was compared by measuring mechanical, biochemical, and histological properties. We found that while BM constructs possessed higher tensile properties and collagen content, CB constructs had superior compressive properties comparable to that of native tissue and higher GAG content. Moreover, CB constructs had alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type X, and collagen type II on par with native tissue suggesting a more hyaline cartilage-like phenotype. In conclusion, while both BM-MSCs and CB-MSCs were able to form neocartilage, CB-MSCs resulted in tissue more closely resembling native equine articular cartilage as determined by a quantitative functionality index. Therefore, CB-MSCs are deemed a superior source for the purpose of articular cartilage self-assembly.

  14. Pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp. during bleaching events in the costal reefs of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the occurrence of seasonal changes in the pigmentation of colonies of Siderastrea spp. during bleaching events on coastal reefs in northeastern Brazil. Bleached affected almost 50% of coral colonies analyzed in Cabo Branco reefs (Paraiba state in the summer of 2005. The same phenomenon was detected along various coastal reefs in northeastern Brazil during the summer of 2007 and 2008. These events were seasonal, and began with the emergence of pale colonies that became pale-pink and then purple during the rainy months. The patterns and intensity of colonies pigmentation changes varied with the studied sites. The decrease in zooxanthellae density and chlorophyll-a content was quantified in the colonies with their pigmentation pattern altered (bleaching. Microbiological analyses revealed higher densities of bacteria in pink colonies (bleached as compared to brown colonies (normal. Environmental disturbances may lead to the pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp., but the immediate causes of this phenomenon are not clear and require further investigations.

  15. Magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and MTC-subtraction: enhancement of cartilage lesions and intracartilaginous degeneration in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Dombrowski, F.; Leutner, C.; Wagner, U.; Reiser, M.

    1994-01-01

    Human articular cartilage from 16 cadaveric or amputated knees was studied using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on-resonance magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and MTC-subtraction MRI. Results were compared with subsequent macroscopic and histopathological findings. MTC-subtraction and T2-weighted spin-echo images visualized cartilaginous surface defects with high sensitivity and specificity. MTC and T2-weighted spin-echo images revealed intra-cartilaginous signal loss without surface defects in 80% of the cases, corresponding to an increased collagen concentration. It is concluded that MTC is sensitive to early cartilage degeneration and MTC-subtraction can be helpful in detecting cartilage defects. (orig.)

  16. In vivo tibiofemoral cartilage-to-cartilage contact area of females with medial osteoarthritis under acute loading using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Choongsoo S; Souza, Richard B; Kumar, Deepak; Link, Thomas M; Wyman, Bradley T; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effect of acute loading on in vivo tibiofemoral contact area changes in both compartments, and to determine whether in vivo tibiofemoral contact area differs between subjects with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls. Ten subjects with medial knee OA (KL3) and 11 control subjects (KL0) were tested. Coronal three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (3D-SPGR) and T(2) -weighted fast spin-echo FSE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee were acquired under both unloaded and loaded conditions. Tibiofemoral cartilage contact areas were measured using image-based 3D models. Tibiofemoral contact areas in both compartments significantly increased under loading (P contact area in the medial compartment was significantly larger than in the lateral compartment (P contact area was significantly larger in KL3 subjects than KL0 subjects, both at unloaded and loaded conditions (P Contact areas measured from 3D-SPGR and T(2) -weighted FSE images were strongly correlated (r = 0.904). Females with medial OA increased tibiofemoral contact area in the medial compartment compared to healthy subjects under both unloaded and loaded conditions. The contact area data presented in this study may provide a quantitative reference for further cartilage contact biomechanics such as contact stress analysis and cartilage biomechanical function difference between osteoarthritic and healthy knees. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pathways of load-induced cartilage damage causing cartilage degeneration in the knee after meniscectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, W.; Rietbergen, van B.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Huiskes, R.

    2003-01-01

    Results of both clinical and animal studies show that meniscectomy often leads to osteoarthritic degenerative changes in articular cartilage. It is generally assumed that this process of cartilage degeneration is due to changes in mechanical loading after meniscectomy. It is, however, not known why

  18. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M.; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Link, Thomas M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair. PMID:24877139

  19. In end stage osteoarthritis, cartilage tissue pentosidine levels are inversely related to parameters of cartilage damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.A.J.M.; Mastbergen, S.C.; Huisman, A.M.; Boer, T.N.de; Groot, J.de; Polak, A.A.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Age is the most prominent predisposition for development of osteoarthritis (OA). Age-related changes of articular cartilage are likely to play a role. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in cartilage matrix with increasing age and adversely affect the biomechanical

  20. Osteoarthritic human cartilage is more sensitive to transforming growth factor beta than is normal cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; Vander Kraan, P. M.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Vanden Berg, W. B.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, characterized by the destruction of the articular cartilage. One of the first changes in the osteoarthritic articular cartilage is a reduction in proteoglycan content. In this study we demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), a

  1. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia M. Jungmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  2. The cranial cartilages of teleosts and their classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, M

    1990-01-01

    The structure and distribution of cartilages has been studied in 45 species from 24 families. The resulting data have been used as a basis for establishing a new classification. A cartilage is regarded as 'cell-rich' if its cells or their lacunae occupy more than half of the tissue volume. Five classes of cell-rich cartilage are recognised (a) hyaline-cell cartilage (common in the lips of bottom-dwelling cyprinids) and its subtypes fibro/hyaline-cell cartilage, elastic/hyaline-cell cartilage ...

  3. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  4. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2012-09-28

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  5. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Evaluation of native hyaline cartilage and repair tissue after two cartilage repair surgery techniques with 23Na MR imaging at 7 T: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbýň, S; Stelzeneder, D; Welsch, G H; Negrin, L L; Juras, V; Mayerhoefer, M E; Szomolanyi, P; Bogner, W; Domayer, S E; Weber, M; Trattnig, S

    2012-08-01

    To compare the sodium normalized mean signal intensity (NMSI) values between patients after bone marrow stimulation (BMS) and matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) cartilage repair procedures. Nine BMS and nine MACT patients were included. Each BMS patient was matched with one MACT patient according to age [BMS 36.7 ± 10.7 (mean ± standard deviation) years; MACT 36.9 ± 10.0 years], postoperative interval (BMS 33.5 ± 25.3 months; MACT 33.2 ± 25.7 months), and defect location. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements were performed on a 7 T system. Proton images served for morphological evaluation of repair tissue using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring system. Sodium NMSI values in the repair area and morphologically normal cartilage were calculated. Clinical outcome was assessed right after MRI. Analysis of covariance, t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients were evaluated. Sodium NMSI was significantly lower in BMS (P = 0.004) and MACT (P = 0.006) repair tissue, compared to reference cartilage. Sodium NMSI was not different between the reference cartilage in MACT and BMS patients (P = 0.664), however it was significantly higher in MACT than in BMS repair tissue (P = 0.028). Better clinical outcome was observed in BMS than in MACT patients. There was no difference between MOCART scores for MACT and BMS patients (P = 0.915). We did not observe any significant correlation between MOCART score and sodium repair tissue NMSI (r = -0.001; P = 0.996). Our results suggest higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and therefore, repair tissue of better quality in MACT than in BMS patients. Sodium imaging might be beneficial in non-invasive evaluation of cartilage repair surgery efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion of the tympanic membrane after cartilage tympanoplasty determined by stroboscopic holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnisalo, Antti A; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Ravicz, Michael E; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N; Rosowski, John J

    2010-05-01

    Stroboscopic holography was used to quantify dynamic deformations of the tympanic membrane (TM) of the entire surface of the TM before and after cartilage tympanoplasty of the posterior or posterior-superior part of the TM. Cartilage is widely used in tympanoplasties to provide mechanical stability for the TM. Three human cadaveric temporal bones were used. A 6 mm x 3 mm oval cartilage graft was placed through the widely opened facial recess onto the medial surface of the posterior or posterior-superior part of the TM. The graft was either in contact with the bony tympanic rim and manubrium or not. Graft thickness was either 0.5 or 1.0mm. Stroboscopic holography produced displacement amplitude and phase maps of the TM surface in response to stimulus sound. Sound stimuli were 0.5, 1, 4 and 7 (or 8)kHz tones. Middle-ear impedance was measured from the motion of the entire TM. Cartilage placement generally produced reductions in the motion of the TM apposed to the cartilage, especially at 4 kHz and 7 or 8 kHz. Some parts of the TM showed altered motion compared to the control in all three cases. In general, middle-ear impedance was either unchanged or increased somewhat after cartilage reconstruction both at low (0.5 and 1 kHz) and high (4 and 7 kHz) frequencies. At 4 kHz, with the 1.0mm thick graft that was in contact with the bony tympanic rim, the impedance slightly decreased. While our earlier work with time-averaged holography allowed us to observe differences in the pattern of TM motion caused by application of cartilage to the TM, stroboscopic holography is more sensitive to TM motions and allowed us to quantify the magnitude and phase of motion of each point on the TM surface. Nonetheless, our results are similar to those of our earlier work: The placement of cartilage on the medial surface of TM reduces the motion of the TM that apposes the cartilage. These obvious local changes occur even though the cartilage had little effect on the sound-induced motion of

  8. An Experimental and Finite Element Protocol to Investigate the Transport of Neutral and Charged Solutes across Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2017-04-23

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that is associated with degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Degeneration of articular cartilage impairs its load-bearing function substantially as it experiences tremendous chemical degradation, i.e. proteoglycan loss and collagen fibril disruption. One promising way to investigate chemical damage mechanisms during OA is to expose the cartilage specimens to an external solute and monitor the diffusion of the molecules. The degree of cartilage damage (i.e. concentration and configuration of essential macromolecules) is associated with collisional energy loss of external solutes while moving across articular cartilage creates different diffusion characteristics compared to healthy cartilage. In this study, we introduce a protocol, which consists of several steps and is based on previously developed experimental micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) and finite element modeling. The transport of charged and uncharged iodinated molecules is first recorded using micro-CT, which is followed by applying biphasic-solute and multiphasic finite element models to obtain diffusion coefficients and fixed charge densities across cartilage zones.

  9. Fetal mesenchymal stromal cells differentiating towards chondrocytes acquire a gene expression profile resembling human growth plate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy A van Gool

    Full Text Available We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP. Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether chondrocytes derived from hfMSCs are a suitable model for studying the development and maturation of the GP. hfMSCs efficiently formed hyaline cartilage in a pellet culture in the presence of TGFβ3 and BMP6. Microarray and principal component analysis were applied to study gene expression profiles during chondrogenic differentiation. A set of 232 genes was found to correlate with in vitro cartilage formation. Several identified genes are known to be involved in cartilage formation and validate the robustness of the differentiating hfMSC model. KEGG pathway analysis using the 232 genes revealed 9 significant signaling pathways correlated with cartilage formation. To determine the progression of growth plate cartilage formation, we compared the gene expression profile of differentiating hfMSCs with previously established expression profiles of epiphyseal GP cartilage. As differentiation towards chondrocytes proceeds, hfMSCs gradually obtain a gene expression profile resembling epiphyseal GP cartilage. We visualized the differences in gene expression profiles as protein interaction clusters and identified many protein clusters that are activated during the early chondrogenic differentiation of hfMSCs showing the potential of this system to study GP development.

  10. Cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint: diagnostic effectiveness of multidetector spiral CT arthrography and comparison with arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Dorzee, Benjamin; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Malghem, Jacques [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Dubuc, Jean E. [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brussels (Belgium); Jamart, Jacques [Mont Godinne University Hospital, Center of Biostatistics, Yvoir (Belgium)

    2007-07-15

    This study assessed the diagnostic effectiveness of multidetector spiral CT arthrography (MDCTa) in detecting hyaline cartilage abnormalities of the shoulder joint, with correlation to arthroscopy. Shoulder MDCTa images prospectively obtained in 22 consecutive patients (mean age, 50 years; age range, 23-74 years; 12 female, 10 male) were evaluated for glenohumeral cartilage lesions. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently analysed the cartilage surfaces of the humeral head and of the glenoid fossa in nine anatomical surface areas. Observations of MDCTa were compared to arthroscopic findings. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCTa for grade 2 (substance loss <50%) or higher and grade 3 (substance loss {>=}50%) or higher cartilage lesions, the Spearman correlation coefficient between arthrographic and arthroscopic grading, and K statistics for assessing Intra and Interobserver reproducibility were determined. At MDCTa, sensitivities and specificities ranged between 80% and 94% for the detection of grade 2 or higher cartilage lesions, and between 88% and 98% for the detection of grade 3 or higher cartilage lesions. Spearman correlation coefficients between MDCTa and arthroscopic grading of articular surfaces ranged between 0.532 and 0.651. Interobserver agreement was moderate for grading all articular surfaces ({kappa} = 0.457), but substantial to almost perfect for detecting lesions with substance loss ({kappa}, 0.618-0.876). In conclusion, MDCTa is accurate for the study of cartilage surface in the entire shoulder joint. This technique may beneficially impact patient's management by means of selecting the proper treatment approach. (orig.)

  11. A preclinical evaluation of an autologous living hyaline-like cartilaginous graft for articular cartilage repair: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Yvonne; He, Pengfei; Chilla, Geetha Soujanya V N; Poh, Chueh Loo; Wang, Dong-An

    2015-11-09

    In this pilot study, an autologous synthetic scaffold-free construct with hyaline quality, termed living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG), was applied for treating cartilage lesions. Implantation of autologous LhCG was done at load-bearing regions of the knees in skeletally mature mini-pigs for 6 months. Over the course of this study, significant radiographical improvement in LhCG treated sites was observed via magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, macroscopic repair was effected by LhCG at endpoint. Microscopic inspection revealed that LhCG engraftment restored cartilage thickness, promoted integration with surrounding native cartilage, produced abundant cartilage-specific matrix molecules, and re-established an intact superficial tangential zone. Importantly, the repair efficacy of LhCG was quantitatively shown to be comparable to native, unaffected cartilage in terms of biochemical composition and biomechanical properties. There were no complications related to the donor site of cartilage biopsy. Collectively, these results imply that LhCG engraftment may be a viable approach for articular cartilage repair.

  12. Quantitative assessment of morphology, T_1_ρ, and T_2 of shoulder cartilage using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Tang, Solomon; Lai, Andrew; Krug, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of quantifying shoulder cartilage morphology and relaxometry in a clinically feasible scan time comparing different pulse sequences and assessing their reproducibility at 3 Tesla. Three pulse sequences were compared for morphological assessments of shoulder cartilage thickness and volume (SPGR, MERGE, FIESTA), while a combined T1ρ-T2 sequence was optimized for relaxometry measurements. The shoulders of six healthy subjects were scanned twice with repositioning, and the cartilage was segmented and quantified. The degree of agreement between the three morphological sequences was assessed using Bland-Altman plots, while the morphological and relaxometry reproducibility were assessed with root-mean-square coefficients of variation (RMS-CVs) Bland-Altman plots indicated good levels of agreement between the morphological assessments of the three sequences. The reproducibility of morphological assessments yielded RMS-CVs between 4.0 and 17.7 %. All sequences correlated highly (R > 0.9) for morphologic assessments with no statistically significant differences. For relaxometry assessments of humeral cartilage, RMS-CVs of 6.4 and 10.6 % were found for T1ρ and T2, respectively. The assessment of both cartilage morphology and relaxometry is feasible in the shoulder with SPGR, humeral head, and T1ρ being the more reproducible morphological sequence, anatomic region, and quantitative sequence, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Precision of tibial cartilage morphometry with a coronal water-excitation MR sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Sportorthopaedie der Technischen Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Faber, S.; Reiser, M. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Sportorthopaedie der Technischen Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Burgkart, R. [Institut fuer Medizinische Informatik und Systemforschung (MEDIS), GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Stammberger, T.; Englmeier, K.H. [Institut fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Maag, K.P. [Institut fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Eckstein, F. [Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the precision of tibial cartilage morphometry, by using a fast, coronal water-excitation sequence with high spatial resolution, to compare the reproducibility of 3D thickness vs volume estimates, and to test the technique in patients with severe osteoarthritis. The tibiae of 8 healthy volunteers and 3 patients selected for total knee arthroplasty were imaged repeatedly with a water-excitation sequence (image time 6 h 19 min, resolution 1.2 x 0.31 x 0.31 mm{sup 3}), with the knee being repositioned between each replicate acquisition. After 3D reconstruction, the cartilage volume, the mean, and the maximal tibial cartilage thickness were determined by 3D Euclidean distance transformation. In the volunteers, the precision of the volume measurements was 2.3 % (CV%) in the medial and 2.6 % in the lateral tibia. The reproducibility of the mean cartilage thickness was similar (2.6 and 2.5 %, respectively), and that of the maximal thickness lower (6.5 and 4.4 %). The patients showed a considerable reduction in volume and thickness, the precision being comparable with that in the volunteers. We find that, using a new imaging protocol and computational algorithm, it is possible to determine tibial cartilage morphometry with high precision in healthy individuals as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  14. Small-Diameter Awls Improve Articular Cartilage Repair After Microfracture Treatment in a Translational Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Patrick; Duffner, Julia; Zurakowski, David; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Microfracture is the most commonly applied arthroscopic marrow stimulation procedure. Articular cartilage repair is improved when the subchondral bone is perforated by small-diameter microfracture awls compared with larger awls. Controlled laboratory study. Standardized rectangular (4 × 8 mm) full-thickness chondral defects (N = 24) were created in the medial femoral condyle of 16 adult sheep and debrided down to the subchondral bone plate. Three treatment groups (n = 8 defects each) were tested: 6 microfracture perforations using small-diameter awls (1.0 mm; group 1), large-diameter awls (1.2 mm; group 2), or without perforations (debridement control; group 3). Osteochondral repair was assessed at 6 months in vivo using established macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and micro-computed tomography analyses. Compared with control defects, histological cartilage repair was always improved after both microfracture techniques (P Subchondral bone cysts and intralesional osteophytes were frequently observed after either microfracture treatment. Macroscopic grading, DNA, proteoglycan, and type I and type II collagen contents as well as degenerative changes within the adjacent cartilage remained unaffected by the awl diameter. Small-diameter microfracture awls improve articular cartilage repair in the translational sheep model more effectively than do larger awls. These data support the use of small microfracture instruments for the surgical treatment of cartilage defects and warrant prolonged clinical investigations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Patellofemoral Instability in Children: Correlation Between Risk Factors, Injury Patterns, and Severity of Cartilage Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Kang, Chang Ho; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare MRI findings between groups with and without patellofemoral instability and to correlate the MRI findings with the severity of patellar cartilage damage. Fifty-three children with patellofemoral instability and 53 age- and sex-matched children without patellofemoral instability (15.9 ± 2.4 years) were included. Knee MRI with T2-weighted mapping was performed. On MR images, femoral trochlear dysplasia, patellofemoral malalignment, medial retinaculum injury, and bone marrow edema were documented. The degree of patellar cartilage damage was evaluated on MR images by use of a morphologic grading scale (0-4) and on T2 maps with mean T2 values at the medial, central, and lateral facets. MRI findings were compared between the two groups. In cases of patellofemoral instability, MRI findings were correlated with the severity of cartilage damage at each region. Trochlear structure and alignment were significantly different between the two groups (Wilcoxon p patellofemoral instability, a high-riding patella was associated with central patellar cartilage damage with a higher morphologic grade and T2 value (Spearman p patellofemoral instability have significantly different trochlear structure and alignment than those who do not, and these differences are known risk factors for patellofemoral instability. However, the only risk factors or injury patterns that directly correlated with the severity of patellar cartilage damage were patella alta, medial stabilizer injury, and bone marrow edema.

  16. Comparison of MRI-based estimates of articular cartilage contact area in the tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christopher E; Higginson, Jill S; Barrance, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) detrimentally impacts the lives of millions of older Americans through pain and decreased functional ability. Unfortunately, the pathomechanics and associated deviations from joint homeostasis that OA patients experience are not well understood. Alterations in mechanical stress in the knee joint may play an essential role in OA; however, existing literature in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of an existing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling method to estimate articular cartilage contact area in vivo. Imaging data of both knees were collected on a single subject with no history of knee pathology at three knee flexion angles. Intra-observer reliability and sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the role of operator-influenced elements of the data processing on the results. The method's articular cartilage contact area estimates were compared with existing contact area estimates in the literature. The method demonstrated an intra-observer reliability of 0.95 when assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and was found to be most sensitive to changes in the cartilage tracings on the peripheries of the compartment. The articular cartilage contact area estimates at full extension were similar to those reported in the literature. The relationships between tibiofemoral articular cartilage contact area and knee flexion were also qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported. The MRI-based knee modeling method was found to have high intra-observer reliability, sensitivity to peripheral articular cartilage tracings, and agreeability with previous investigations when using data from a single healthy adult. Future studies will implement this modeling method to investigate the role that mechanical stress may play in progression of knee OA through estimation of articular cartilage contact area.

  17. Fractional calculus model of articular cartilage based on experimental stress-relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P. A.; Green, I.

    2015-05-01

    Articular cartilage is a unique substance that protects joints from damage and wear. Many decades of research have led to detailed biphasic and triphasic models for the intricate structure and behavior of cartilage. However, the models contain many assumptions on boundary conditions, permeability, viscosity, model size, loading, etc., that complicate the description of cartilage. For impact studies or biomimetic applications, cartilage can be studied phenomenologically to reduce modeling complexity. This work reports experimental results on the stress-relaxation of equine articular cartilage in unconfined loading. The response is described by a fractional calculus viscoelastic model, which gives storage and loss moduli as functions of frequency, rendering multiple advantages: (1) the fractional calculus model is robust, meaning that fewer constants are needed to accurately capture a wide spectrum of viscoelastic behavior compared to other viscoelastic models (e.g., Prony series), (2) in the special case where the fractional derivative is 1/2, it is shown that there is a straightforward time-domain representation, (3) the eigenvalue problem is simplified in subsequent dynamic studies, and (4) cartilage stress-relaxation can be described with as few as three constants, giving an advantage for large-scale dynamic studies that account for joint motion or impact. Moreover, the resulting storage and loss moduli can quantify healthy, damaged, or cultured cartilage, as well as artificial joints. The proposed characterization is suited for high-level analysis of multiphase materials, where the separate contribution of each phase is not desired. Potential uses of this analysis include biomimetic dampers and bearings, or artificial joints where the effective stiffness and damping are fundamental parameters.

  18. Activation of Indian Hedgehog Promotes Chondrocyte Hypertrophy and Upregulation of MMP-13 in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fangyuan; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Juntao; Fleming, Braden C.; Terek, Richard; Pei, Ming; Chen, Qian; Liu, Tao; Wei, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the correlation between osteoarthritis (OA) and Ihh expression, and 2) establish the effects of Ihh on expression of markers of chondrocyte hypertrophy and MMP-13 in human OA cartilage. Design OA cartilage and synovial fluid samples were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Normal cartilage samples were obtained from intra-articular tumor resections, and normal synovial fluid samples were obtained from healthy volunteers and the contralateral uninjured knee of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. OA was graded using the Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in synovial fluid was determined by western blot. Ihh, type X collagen and MMP-13 mRNA were determined by real time PCR. Protein expression of type X collagen and MMP-13 in cartilage samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry. Chondrocyte size was measured using image analysis. Results Ihh expression was increased 2.6 fold in OA cartilage and 37% in OA synovial fluid when compared to normal control samples. Increased expression of Ihh was associated with the severity of OA and expression of markers of chondrocyte hypertrophy: type X collagen and MMP-13, and chondocyte size. Chondrocytes were more spherical with increasing severity of OA. There was a significant correlation between Mankin score and cell size (r2= 0.80) and Ihh intensity (r2 = 0.89). Exogenous Ihh induced a 6.8 fold increase of type X collagen and 2.8 fold increase of MMP-13 mRNA expression in cultured chondrocytes. Conversely, knockdown of Ihh by siRNA and Hh inhibitor Cyclopamine had the opposite effect. Conclusions Ihh expression correlates with OA progression and changes in chondrocyte morphology and gene expression consistent with chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage degradation seen in OA cartilage. Thus, Ihh may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent OA progression. PMID:22469853

  19. Aggrecan structure in amphibian cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covizi D.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the large proteoglycan present in the bullfrog epiphyseal cartilage was studied by immunochemical and biochemical methods. The isolated monomer showed a polydisperse behavior on Sepharose CL2B, with a peak at Kav = 0.14. Chondroitin sulfate chains were identified by HPLC analysis of the products formed by chondroitinase digestion and mercuric acetate treatment. These chains have approximately 38 disaccharides, a Di45:Di68 ratio of 1.6 and GalNAc4S + GalNAc4,6S are the main non-reducing terminals. Keratan sulfate was identified by the use of two monoclonal antibodies in Western blots after chondroitinase ABC treatment. A keratan sulfate-rich region (~110 kDa was isolated by sequential treatment with chondroitinase ABC and proteases. We also employed antibodies in Western blotting experiments and showed that the full length deglycosylated core protein is about 300 kDa after SDS-PAGE. Domain-specific antibodies revealed the presence of immunoreactive sites corresponding to G1/G2 and G3 globular domains and the characterization of this large proteoglycan as aggrecan. The results indicate the high conservation of the aggrecan domain structure in this lower vertebrate.

  20. Characterization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Tadashi; Pickarski, Maureen; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Rodan, Gideon A; Duong, Le T

    2006-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Subchondral bone stiffness has been proposed to initiate and/or contribute to cartilage deterioration in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize subchondral bone remodeling, cartilage damage, and osteophytosis during the disease progression in two models of surgically induced OA. Rat knee joints were subjected either to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) alone or in combination with resection of medial menisci (ACLT + MMx). Histopathological changes in the surgical joints were compared with sham at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks post-surgery. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we demonstrate that articular cartilage damage occurs within 2 weeks post-surgery in both surgical models. Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were observed as early as 1 week post-surgery. These were followed by the increases in vascular invasion into cartilage, in loss of chondrocyte number and in cell clustering. Histomorphometric analysis revealed subchondral bone loss in both models within 2 weeks post-surgery followed by significant increases in subchondral bone volume relative to sham up to 10 weeks post-surgery. Incidence of osteophyte formation was optimally observed in ACLT joints at 10 weeks and in ACLT + MMx joints at 6 weeks post-surgery. In summary, the two surgically induced rat OA models share many characteristics seen in human and other animal models of OA, including progressive articular cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Moreover, increased subchondral bone resorption is associated with early development of cartilage lesions, which precedes significant cartilage thinning and subchondral bone sclerosis. Together, these findings support a role for bone remodeling in OA pathogenesis and suggest that these rat models are suitable for evaluating bone

  1. Mycobacterial antigens stimulate rheumatoid mononuclear cells to cartilage proteoglycan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, B.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.

    1990-01-01

    In a coculture with porcine articular cartilage explants unstimulated blood mononuclear cells (BMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not from healthy controls, induced proteoglycan depletion of dead cartilage. Specific stimulation of the RA BMC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT),

  2. Can Glucosamine Supplements Protect My Knee Cartilage from Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cartilage in osteoarthritis? Can glucosamine supplements protect my knee cartilage from osteoarthritis? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Study results on this question have been mixed, with some suggesting possible ...

  3. Repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits with ectopically produced cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Hulsbosch, M; Wetzels, GMR; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    2005-01-01

    Cartilage has poor regenerative capacity. Donor site morbidity and interference with joint homeostasis should be considered when applying the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique. The use of ectopically produced cartilage, derived from periosteum, might be a novel method to heal

  4. Properties of Cartilage on Micro- and Nanolevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Chizhik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigation of the elastic modulus for cartilage tissue using a technique of micro- and nanoindentation performed with help of an atomic force microscope are presented. SEM and AFM methods were applied to visualize a topography of surface layers of the entire cartilage and as well as its slices and thus to reveal features of the collagen fibers orientation. The technique used for a quantitative evaluation of the elastic modulus under compression against a ball microindenter (curvature radius - 350 micron and a nanoindenter (30 nm is described. It was shown that the cartilage behavior is highly stabile under the load if the entire composite structure of cartilage tissue is engaged into the deformation process. Tribological characteristics were investigated using the ball indenter oscillated by a tuning fork. Dependence of the friction coefficient from applied loads was obtained that revealed strong influence of an interstitial fluid on friction properties. Friction coefficient of a rat cartilage tissue as 0.08 was obtained using a developed plant prototype for tribological measurements based on the AFM construction.

  5. New Frontiers for Cartilage Repair and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslav, Kenneth; McAdams, Timothy; Scopp, Jason; Theosadakis, Jason; Mahajan, Vivek; Gobbi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury is common after athletic injury and remains a difficult treatment conundrum both for the surgeon and athlete. Although recent treatments for damage to articular cartilage have been successful in alleviating symptoms, more durable and complete, long-term articular surface restoration remains the unattained goal. In this article, we look at both new ways to prevent damage to articular surfaces as well as new techniques to recreate biomechanically sound and biochemically true articular surfaces once an athlete injures this surface. This goal should include reproducing hyaline cartilage with a well-integrated and flexible subchondral base and the normal zonal variability in the articular matrix. A number of nonoperative interventions have shown early promise in mitigating cartilage symptoms and in preclinical studies have shown evidence of chondroprotection. These include the use of glucosamine, chondroitin, and other neutraceuticals, viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma, and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Newer surgical techniques, some already in clinical study, and others on the horizon offer opportunities to improve the surgical restoration of the hyaline matrix often disrupted in athletic injury. These include new scaffolds, single-stage cell techniques, the use of mesenchymal stem cells, and gene therapy. Although many of these treatments are in the preclinical and early clinical study phase, they offer the promise of better options to mitigate the sequelae of athletically induced cartilage.

  6. Articular cartilage: from formation to tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2016-05-26

    Hyaline cartilage is the nonlinear, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, poro-viscoelastic connective tissue that serves as friction-reducing and load-bearing cushion in synovial joints and is vital for mammalian skeletal movements. Due to its avascular nature, low cell density, low proliferative activity and the tendency of chondrocytes to de-differentiate, cartilage cannot regenerate after injury, wear and tear, or degeneration through common diseases such as osteoarthritis. Therefore severe damage usually requires surgical intervention. Current clinical strategies to generate new tissue include debridement, microfracture, autologous chondrocyte transplantation, and mosaicplasty. While articular cartilage was predicted to be one of the first tissues to be successfully engineered, it proved to be challenging to reproduce the complex architecture and biomechanical properties of the native tissue. Despite significant research efforts, only a limited number of studies have evolved up to the clinical trial stage. This review article summarizes the current state of cartilage tissue engineering in the context of relevant biological aspects, such as the formation and growth of hyaline cartilage, its composition, structure and biomechanical properties. Special attention is given to materials development, scaffold designs, fabrication methods, and template-cell interactions, which are of great importance to the structure and functionality of the engineered tissue.

  7. Magneto-therapy of human joint cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof; Miszczak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The topic of the present paper concerns the human joint cartilage therapy performed by the magnetic induction field. There is proved the thesis that the applied magnetic field for concrete cartilage illness should depend on the proper relative and concrete values of applied magnetic induction, intensity as well the time of treatment duration. Additionally, very important are frequencies and amplitudes of magnetic field as well as magnetic permeability of the synovial fluid. The research methods used in this paper include: magnetic induction field produced by a new Polish and German magneto electronic devices for the therapy of human joint cartilage diseases, stationary and movable magnetic applicators, magnetic bandage, ferrofluid injections, author's experience gained in Germany research institutes and practical results after measurements and information from patients. The results of this paper concern concrete parameters of time dependent electro-magnetic field administration during the joint cartilage therapy duration and additionally concern the corollaries which are implied from reading values gained on the magnetic induction devices. The main conclusions obtained in this paper are as follows: Time dependent magnetic induction field increases the dynamic viscosity of movable synovial fluid and decreases symptoms of cartilage illness for concrete intensity of magnetic field and concrete field line architecture. The ferrofluid therapy and phospholipids bilayer simultaneously with the administrated external electromagnetic field, increases the dynamic viscosity of movable synovial fluid.

  8. Preparation and characterization of a decellularized cartilage scaffold for ear cartilage reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utomo, Lizette; Pleumeekers, Mieke M; Van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Nimeskern, Luc; Stok, Kathryn S; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Hildner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds are widely used to reconstruct cartilage. Yet, the fabrication of a scaffold with a highly organized microenvironment that closely resembles native cartilage remains a major challenge. Scaffolds derived from acellular extracellular matrices are able to provide such a microenvironment. Currently, no report specifically on decellularization of full thickness ear cartilage has been published. In this study, decellularized ear cartilage scaffolds were prepared and extensively characterized. Cartilage decellularization was optimized to remove cells and cell remnants from elastic cartilage. Following removal of nuclear material, the obtained scaffolds retained their native collagen and elastin contents as well as their architecture and shape. High magnification scanning electron microscopy showed no obvious difference in matrix density after decellularization. However, glycosaminoglycan content was significantly reduced, resulting in a loss of viscoelastic properties. Additionally, in contact with the scaffolds, human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells remained viable and are able to differentiate toward the chondrogenic lineage when cultured in vitro. These results, including the ability to decellularize whole human ears, highlight the clinical potential of decellularization as an improved cartilage reconstruction strategy. (paper)

  9. Cartilage Integration: Evaluation of the reasons for failure of integration during cartilage repair. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Khan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a challenging tissue to reconstruct or replace principally because of its avascular nature; large chondral lesions in the tissue do not spontaneously heal. Where lesions do penetrate the bony subchondral plate, formation of hematomas and the migration of mesenchymal stem cells provide an inferior and transient fibrocartilagenous replacement for hyaline cartilage. To circumvent the poor intrinsic reparative response of articular cartilage several surgical techniques based on tissue transplantation have emerged. One characteristic shared by intrinsic reparative processes and the new surgical therapies is an apparent lack of lateral integration of repair or graft tissue with the host cartilage that can lead to poor prognosis. Many factors have been cited as impeding cartilage:cartilage integration including; chondrocyte cell death, chondrocyte dedifferentiation, the nature of the collagenous and proteoglycan networks that constitute the extracellular matrix, the type of biomaterial scaffold employed in repair and the origin of the cells used to repopulate the defect or lesion. This review addresses the principal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impede integration and describe how manipulation of these factors using a host of strategies can positively influence cartilage integration.

  10. Comparison of MRI T2 Relaxation Changes of Knee Articular Cartilage before and after Running between Young and Old Amateur Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Jeon, Chan Hong; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyun Joo; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Yong Dai

    2012-01-01

    To compare changes in T2 relaxation on magnetic resonance (MR) images of knee articular cartilage in younger and older amateur athletes before and after running. By using a 3.0-T MR imager, quantitative T2 maps of weight-bearing femoral and tibial articular cartilages in 10 younger and 10 older amateur athletes were acquired before, immediately after, and 2 hours after 30 minutes of running. Changes in global cartilage T2 signals of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and tibia and regional cartilage T2 signals in the medial condyles of femoral and tibia in response to exercise were compared between the two age groups. Changes in global cartilage T2 values after running did not differ significantly between the age groups. In terms of the depth variation, relatively higher T2 values in the older group than in the younger group were observed mainly in the superficial layers of the femoral and tibial cartilage (p < 0.05). Age-related cartilage changes may occur mainly in the superficial layer of cartilage where collagen matrix degeneration is primarily initiated. However, no trend is observed regarding a global T2 changes between the younger and older age groups in response to exercise.

  11. Aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 expressions in the temporo-mandibular joint condylar cartilage after an experimentally induced osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juan-hong; Ma, Xu-chen; Li, Zhi-min; Wu, Deng-cheng

    2007-12-20

    Over 70% of the total tissue weight in the cartilage matrix consists of water, and the early-stage osteoarthritic cartilage is characterized by swelling. Water transport in the cartilage matrix and across the membranes of chondrocytes may be important in normal and pathological conditions of cartilage. The purpose of this study was to identify aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expressions in the mandibular condylar cartilage after experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. An experimental temporomandibular joint OA was induced by partial discectomy in rats. The pathological characteristics of the normal, early-stage, and late-stage osteoarthritic TMJ cartilages were verified by histological techniques. The AQP1 and AQP3 gene expressions in the normal and osteoarthritic cartilages were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis. The cartilage sections were incubated in primary polyclonal antibodies to AQP3; immunofluorescent microscopy was used to examine the AQP3 expression shown by its protein level. The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3, analyzed using quantitative PCR, revealed that AQP3 mRNA was highly up-regulated in the OA cartilage, which was considered significant. There was no notable difference in the expression of AQP1 mRNA between OA and normal controls. With the progressing of the OA, the localization of the AQP3 protein was quite different from that of the normal cartilage. Compared to the normal cartilage, the expressions of AQP3 protein were observed mainly in the proliferative zone and the upper mid-zone chondrocytes at the early-stage of OA, and were observed to appear frequently throughout the mid- and deep zone during the late-stage of OA. The high expression of AQP3 mRNA in the OA cartilage and the different localization of the AQP3 protein suggest that it may play a particular role in OA pathogenesis. Further study of AQP3 function may provide new insight into the understanding of the

  12. Comparison of friction and wear of articular cartilage on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sandra; Boettcher, Kathrin; Wiegleb, Lorenz; Urban, Joanna; Burgkart, Rainer; Lieleg, Oliver; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-09-18

    The exceptional tribological properties of articular cartilage are still far from being fully understood. Articular cartilage is able to withstand high loads and provide exceptionally low friction. Although the regeneration abilities of the tissue are very limited, it can last for many decades. These biomechanical properties are realized by an interplay of different lubrication and wear protection mechanisms. The deterioration of cartilage due to aging or injury leads to the development of osteoarthritis. A current treatment strategy focuses on supplementing the intra-articular fluid with a saline solution containing hyaluronic acid. In the work presented here, we investigated how changing the lubricating fluid affects friction and wear of articular cartilage, focusing on the boundary and mixed lubrication as well as interstitial fluid pressurization mechanisms. Different length and time scales were probed by atomic force microscopy, tribology and profilometry. We compared aqueous solutions with different NaCl concentrations to a viscosupplement containing hyaluronic acid (HA). In particular, we found that the presence of ions changes the frictional behavior and the wear resistance. In contrast, hyaluronic acid showed no significant impact on the friction coefficient, but considerably reduced wear. This study confirms the previous notion that friction and wear are not necessarily correlated in articular cartilage tribology and that the main role of HA might be to provide wear protection for the articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wear and damage of articular cartilage with friction against orthopedic implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R; Durney, Krista M; Jones, Brian K; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-07-16

    The objective of this study was to measure the wear response of immature bovine articular cartilage tested against glass or alloys used in hemiarthroplasties. Two cobalt chromium alloys and a stainless steel alloy were selected for these investigations. The surface roughness of one of the cobalt chromium alloys was also varied within the range considered acceptable by regulatory agencies. Cartilage disks were tested in a configuration that promoted loss of interstitial fluid pressurization to accelerate conditions believed to occur in hemiarthroplasties. Results showed that considerably more damage occurred in cartilage samples tested against stainless steel (10 nm roughness) and low carbon cobalt chromium alloy (27 nm roughness) compared to glass (10 nm) and smoother low or high carbon cobalt chromium (10 nm). The two materials producing the greatest damage also exhibited higher equilibrium friction coefficients. Cartilage damage occurred primarily in the form of delamination at the interface between the superficial tangential zone and the transitional middle zone, with much less evidence of abrasive wear at the articular surface. These results suggest that cartilage damage from frictional loading occurs as a result of subsurface fatigue failure leading to the delamination. Surface chemistry and surface roughness of implant materials can have a significant influence on tissue damage, even when using materials and roughness values that satisfy regulatory requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wear and Damage of Articular Cartilage with Friction Against Orthopaedic Implant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R.; Durney, Krista M.; Jones, Brian K.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the wear response of immature bovine articular cartilage tested against glass or alloys used in hemiarthroplasties. Two cobalt chromium alloys and a stainless steel alloy were selected for these investigations. The surface roughness of one of the cobalt chromium alloys was also varied within the range considered acceptable by regulatory agencies. Cartilage disks were tested in a configuration that promoted loss of interstitial fluid pressurization to accelerate conditions believed to occur in hemiarthroplasties. Results showed that considerably more damage occurred in cartilage samples tested against stainless steel (10 nm roughness) and low carbon cobalt chromium alloy (27 nm roughness) compared to glass (10 nm) and smoother low or high carbon cobalt chromium (10 nm). The two materials producing the greatest damage also exhibited higher equilibrium friction coefficients. Cartilage damage occurred primarily in the form of delamination at the interface between the superficial tangential zone and the transitional middle zone, with much less evidence of abrasive wear at the articular surface. These results suggest that cartilage damage from frictional loading occurs as a result of subsurface fatigue failure leading to the delamination. Surface chemistry and surface roughness of implant materials can have a significant influence on tissue damage, even when using materials and roughness values that satisfy regulatory requirements. PMID:25912663

  15. The effect of antiangiogenesis proteins, isolated from shark cartilage, on chick chorioallantoic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozra Rabbani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shark cartilage has been considered as a natural anti-angiogenesis material in traditional medicine since long ago, and a broad range of biological functions such as inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and digestion of the extracellular matrix has been reported for it. Because of its widespread therapeutic usage in controlling angiogenesis, we have investigated the antiangiogenesis activity of the shark cartilage proteins, in the present study. Methods: Cartilage proteins were extracted in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH=4.8 containing 4M guanidinium hydrochloride in the presence of protease inhibitors. The extract was then chromatographed on cation and anion exchange columns and the fractions were characterized for angiogenesis properties (like number and thickness of blood vessels, number and severity of bends in accessory vessels and abnormal colour of membrane using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and gel electrophoresis techniques. Results: The results showed high antiangiogenesis activity of protein fraction A1 extracted from shark cartilage comparing to the controls and other trial groups. Survey on the active protein fraction A1 on gel electrophoresis showed existence of low molecular weight proteins between 14-16 kDa. Conclusion: Shark cartilage has an antiangiogenesis effect. Therefore, considering the importance and increasing needs of novel drugs for angiogenesis-based diseases, further molecular surveys on these angiogenesis proteins are recommended.

  16. One-stage vs two-stage cartilage repair: a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyerkort

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Meyerkort, David Wood, Ming-Hao ZhengCenter for Orthopaedic Research, School of Surgery and Pathology, University of Western Australia, Perth, AustraliaIntroduction: Articular cartilage has a poor capacity for regeneration if damaged. Various methods have been used to restore the articular surface, improve pain, function, and slow progression to osteoarthritis.Method: A PubMed review was performed on 18 March, 2010. Search terms included “autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI” and “microfracture” or “mosaicplasty”. The aim of this review was to determine if 1-stage or 2-stage procedures for cartilage repair produced different functional outcomes.Results: The main procedures currently used are ACI and microfracture. Both first-generation ACI and microfracture result in clinical and functional improvement with no significant differences. A significant increase in functional outcome has been observed in second-generation procedures such as Hyalograft C, matrix-induced ACI, and ChondroCelect compared with microfracture. ACI results in a higher percentage of patients with clinical improvement than mosaicplasty; however, these results may take longer to achieve.Conclusion: Clinical and functional improvements have been demonstrated with ACI, microfracture, mosaicplasty, and synthetic cartilage constructs. Heterogeneous products and lack of good-quality randomized-control trials make product comparison difficult. Future developments involve scaffolds, gene therapy, growth factors, and stem cells to create a single-stage procedure that results in hyaline articular cartilage.Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, microfracture, cartilage repair

  17. Evolution of Autologous Chondrocyte Repair and Comparison to Other Cartilage Repair Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin K. Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects have been addressed using microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, or osteochondral grafting, but these strategies do not generate tissue that adequately recapitulates native cartilage. During the past 25 years, promising new strategies using assorted scaffolds and cell sources to induce chondrocyte expansion have emerged. We reviewed the evolution of autologous chondrocyte implantation and compared it to other cartilage repair techniques. Methods. We searched PubMed from 1949 to 2014 for the keywords “autologous chondrocyte implantation” (ACI and “cartilage repair” in clinical trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. We analyzed these articles, their bibliographies, our experience, and cartilage regeneration textbooks. Results. Microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, osteochondral grafting, ACI, and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis are distinguishable by cell source (including chondrocytes and stem cells and associated scaffolds (natural or synthetic, hydrogels or membranes. ACI seems to be as good as, if not better than, microfracture for repairing large chondral defects in a young patient’s knee as evaluated by multiple clinical indices and the quality of regenerated tissue. Conclusion. Although there is not enough evidence to determine the best repair technique, ACI is the most established cell-based treatment for full-thickness chondral defects in young patients.

  18. Biochemical characterisation of navicular hyaline cartilage, navicular fibrocartilage and the deep digital flexor tendon in horses with navicular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, M; Bird, J; Smith, R; Tulamo, R-M; May, S A

    2003-10-01

    The study hypothesis was that navicular disease is a process analogous to degenerative joint disease, which leads to changes in navicular fibrocartilage and in deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) matrix composition and that the process extends to the adjacent distal interphalangeal joint. The objectives were to compare the biochemical composition of the navicular articular and palmar cartilages from 18 horses with navicular disease with 49 horses with no history of front limb lameness, and to compare navicular fibrocartilage with medial meniscus of the stifle and collateral cartilage of the hoof. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), total glycosaminoglycan (GAG), metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and water content in tissues were measured. Hyaline cartilage had the highest content of COMP and COMP content in hyaline cartilage and tendon was higher in lame horses than in sound horses (phyaline cartilage was higher in lame horses than in sound horses. The MMP-2 amounts were significantly higher in tendons compared to other tissue types. Overall, 79% of the lame horses with lesions had MMP-9 in their tendons and the amount was higher than in sound horses (phyaline and fibrocartilage as well as the DDFT with potential implications for the pathogenesis and management of the condition.

  19. Stem Cells and Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Berton, Alessandra; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cartilage defects represent a common problem in orthopaedic practice. Predisposing factors include traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. Conservative management of cartilage defects often fails, and patients with this lesions may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgery has been proved to be predictably effective. Usually, in focal cartilage defects without a stable fibrocartilaginous repair tissue formed, sur...

  20. Joint homeostasis in tissue engineering for cartilage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saris, D.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic joint damage, articular cartilage and the research into methods of restoring the articulation are not new topics of interest. For centuries, clinicians have recognized the importance of cartilage damage and sought ways of learning about the normal form and function of hyaline cartilage as

  1. Augmented cartilage regeneration by implantation of cellular versus acellular implants after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel W. Pot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stimulation may be applied to regenerate focal cartilage defects, but generally results in transient clinical improvement and formation of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to develop new solutions to regenerate hyaline cartilage tissue. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview of current literature and assesses the efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by implantation of cell-laden versus cell-free biomaterials in the knee and ankle joint in animals after bone marrow stimulation. PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP were systematically searched using tissue engineering, cartilage and animals search strategies. Included were primary studies in which cellular and acellular biomaterials were implanted after applying bone marrow stimulation in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals. Study characteristics were tabulated and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis for studies applying semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure (117 studies. Cartilage regeneration was expressed on an absolute 0–100% scale and random effects meta-analyses were performed. Implantation of cellular biomaterials significantly improved cartilage regeneration by 18.6% compared to acellular biomaterials. No significant differences were found between biomaterials loaded with stem cells and those loaded with somatic cells. Culture conditions of cells did not affect cartilage regeneration. Cartilage formation was reduced with adipose-derived stem cells compared to other cell types, but still improved compared to acellular scaffolds. Assessment of the risk of bias was impaired due to incomplete reporting for most studies. Implantation of cellular biomaterials improves cartilage regeneration compared to acellular biomaterials.

  2. Augmented cartilage regeneration by implantation of cellular versus acellular implants after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Michiel W; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Gonzales, Veronica K; Buma, Pieter; IntHout, Joanna; de Vries, Rob B M; Daamen, Willeke F

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow stimulation may be applied to regenerate focal cartilage defects, but generally results in transient clinical improvement and formation of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to develop new solutions to regenerate hyaline cartilage tissue. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview of current literature and assesses the efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by implantation of cell-laden versus cell-free biomaterials in the knee and ankle joint in animals after bone marrow stimulation. PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP) were systematically searched using tissue engineering, cartilage and animals search strategies. Included were primary studies in which cellular and acellular biomaterials were implanted after applying bone marrow stimulation in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals. Study characteristics were tabulated and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis for studies applying semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure (117 studies). Cartilage regeneration was expressed on an absolute 0-100% scale and random effects meta-analyses were performed. Implantation of cellular biomaterials significantly improved cartilage regeneration by 18.6% compared to acellular biomaterials. No significant differences were found between biomaterials loaded with stem cells and those loaded with somatic cells. Culture conditions of cells did not affect cartilage regeneration. Cartilage formation was reduced with adipose-derived stem cells compared to other cell types, but still improved compared to acellular scaffolds. Assessment of the risk of bias was impaired due to incomplete reporting for most studies. Implantation of cellular biomaterials improves cartilage regeneration compared to acellular biomaterials.

  3. Asporin stably expressed in the surface layer of mandibular condylar cartilage and augmented in the deeper layer with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yutaka; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Satoshi; Tsuruoka, Sari; Itohiya, Kanako; Kumagai, Kenichi; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-12-01

    Mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) exhibits dual roles both articular cartilage and growth center. Of many growth factors, TGF-β has been implicated in the growth of articular cartilage including MCC. Recently, Asporin, decoy to TGF-β, was discovered and it blocks TGF-β signaling. Asporin is expressed in a variety of tissues including osteoarthritic articular cartilage, though there was no report of Asporin expression in MCC. In the present study, we investigated the temporal and spatial expression of Asporin in MCC. Gene expression profile of MCC and epiphyseal cartilage in tibia of 5 weeks old ICR mice were firstly compared with microarray analysis using the laser capture microdissected samples. Variance of gene expression was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining at 1,3,10, and 20 weeks old. TGF-β and its signaling molecule, phosphorylated Smad-2/3 (p-Smad2/3), were also examined by immunohistochemical staining. Microarray analysis revealed that Asporin was highly expressed in MCC. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the fibrous layer of MCC exhibited stable higher Asporin expression at any time points as compared to epiphyseal cartilage. This was also observed in immunohistochemical staining. Deeper layer in MCC augmented Asporin expression with age. Whereas, TGF-β was stably highly observed in the layer. The fibrous layer of MCC exhibited weak staining of p-Smad2/3, though the proliferating layer of MCC was strongly stained as compared to epiphyseal cartilage of tibia at early time point. Consistent with the increase of Asporin expression in the deeper layer of MCC, the intensity of p-Smad-2/3 staining was decreased with age. In conclusion, we discovered that Asporin was stably expressed at the fibrous layer of MCC, which makes it possible to manage both articular cartilage and growth center at the same time.

  4. [Evidence-based therapy for cartilage lesions in the knee - regenerative treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffen, B; von Keudell, A; Vavken, P

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of cartilage defects has seen a shift from replacement to regeneration in the last few years. The rationale behind this development is the improvement in the quality-of-care for the growing segment of young patients who are prone to arthroplasty complications because of their specific characteristics - young age, high level of activity, high demand for functionality. These days, two of the most popular regenerative treatments are microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Although these new options show promising results, no final algorithm for the treatment of cartilage lesions has been established as yet. The objective of this review is to describe and compare these two treatment options and to present an evidence-based treatment algorithm for focal cartilage defects. Microfracture is a cost-effective, arthroscopic one-stage procedure, in which by drilling of the subchondral plate, mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow migrate into the defect and rebuild the cartilage. ACI is a two-stage procedure in which first chondrocytes are harvested, expanded in cell culture and in a second open procedure reimplanted into the cartilage defect. Microfracture is usually used for focal cartilage defects osteophyte, and for the ACI patient, periosteal hypertrophy and the need for two procedures in ACI. Only a few studies provide detailed and evidence-based information on a comparative assessment. These studies, however, are showing widely similar clinical outcomes but better histological results for ACI, which are likely to translate into better long-term outcomes. Although evidence-based studies comparing microfracture and ACI have not found significant differences in the clinical outcome, the literature does show that choosing the treatment based on the size and characteristics of the osteochondral lesion might be beneficial. The American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons suggest that contained lesions < 4 cm2 should be treated by

  5. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575 (Japan); Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Lang, Philipp [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  6. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi; Lang, Philipp

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  7. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Articular Cartilage: A Systematic Review on Preclinical and Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perdisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the current therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage, none has yet proven to offer results comparable to those of native hyaline cartilage. Recently, it has been claimed that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs provides greater regenerative potential than differentiated cells, such as chondrocytes. Among the different kinds of MSCs available, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs are emerging due to their abundancy and easiness to harvest. However, their mechanism of action and potential for cartilage regeneration are still under investigation, and many other aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of in vivo studies dealing with ADSCs, by summarizing the main evidence for the treatment of cartilage disease of the knee.

  8. Evaluation using MRI T2 mapping of the articular cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament injury in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Kohei; Ohdera, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Shusaku

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage coexisting in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in young athletes is not rare. We evaluated the conditions of the articular cartilage using MRI T2 mapping method and compared the vesults with the findings of arthroscopy. From June to August in 2010, we performed ACL reconstruction in 31 patients. We selected 17 cases (eleven men and six women, mean age 19.1 years old), all of whom were athletes and the under 29 years old. Articular cartilage damage was observed in six out of 10 cases, and their T2 values were high on MRI T2 mapping. On the other hand, damage was observed only in one out of seven cases, and T2 values were in the normal level of the mapping. Using MRI T2 mapping, we can evaluate the articular cartilage at an early phase noninvasively. MRI T2 mapping is useful and effective for athletes. (author)

  9. In vivo deformation of thin cartilage layers: Feasibility and applicability of T2* mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ginckel, Ans; Witvrouw, Erik E

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to assess segmentation consistency and scan precision of T2* mapping of human tibio-talar cartilage, and (ii) to monitor changes in T2* relaxation times of ankle cartilage immediately following a clinically relevant in vivo exercise and during recovery. Using multi-echo gradient recalled echo sequences, averaged T2* values were calculated for tibio-talar cartilage layers in 10 healthy volunteers. Segmentation consistency and scan precision were determined from two repeated segmentations and two repeated acquisitions with repositioning, respectively. Subsequently, acute in vivo cartilage loading responses were monitored by calculating averaged tibio-talar T2* values at rest, immediately after (i.e., deformation) and at 15 min (i.e., recovery) following a 30-repetition knee bending exercise. Precision errors attained 4-6% with excellent segmentation consistency point estimates (i.e., intra-rater ICC of 0.95) and acceptable limits of confidence. At deformation, T2* values were increased in both layers [+16.1 (10.7)%, p = 0.004 and +17.3 (15.3)%, p = 0.023, for the talus and tibia, respectively] whereas during recovery no significant changes could be established when comparing to baseline [talar cartilage: +5.2 (8.2)%, p = 0.26 and tibial cartilage: +6.6 (10.4)%, p = 0.23]. T2* mapping is a viable method to monitor deformational behavior in thin cartilage layers such as ankle cartilage. Longitudinal changes in T2* can be reliably appraised and require at least 4-6% differences to ascertain statistical significance. The ability to detect considerable change even after non-strenuous loading events, endorses T2* mapping as an innovative method to evaluate the effects of therapeutic exercise on thin cartilage layers. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:771-778, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Knee cartilage segmentation using active shape models and local binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Segmentation of knee cartilage has been useful for opportune diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation technique based on Active Shape Models (ASM) combined with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and its approaches to describe the surrounding texture of femoral cartilage. The proposed technique is tested on a 16-image database of different patients and it is validated through Leave- One-Out method. We compare different segmentation techniques: ASM-LBP, ASM-medianLBP, and ASM proposed by Cootes. The ASM-LBP approaches are tested with different ratios to decide which of them describes the cartilage texture better. The results show that ASM-medianLBP has better performance than ASM-LBP and ASM. Furthermore, we add a routine which improves the robustness versus two principal problems: oversegmentation and initialization.

  11. MR-based Water Content Estimation in Cartilage: Design and Validation of a Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Design and validation of an MR-based method that allows the calculation of the water content in cartilage tissue. Material and Methods We modified and adapted to cartilage tissue T1 map based water content MR sequences commonly used in the neurology field. Using a 37 Celsius degree stable...... was costumed and programmed. Finally, we validated the method after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained data was analyzed and the water content calculated. Then, the same samples were freeze-dried (this technique allows to take out all the water that a tissue...... contains) and we measured the water they contained. Results We could reproduce twice the 37 Celsius degree system and could perform the measurements in a similar way. We found that the MR T1 map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed with a special software, can...

  12. Overexpression of hsa-miR-148a promotes cartilage production and inhibits cartilage degradation by osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, L A; Kragten, A H M; Dhert, W J A; Saris, D B F; Creemers, L B

    OBJECTIVE: Hsa-miR-148a expression is decreased in Osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage, but its functional role in cartilage has never been studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of overexpressing hsa-miR-148a on cartilage metabolism of OA chondrocytes. DESIGN: OA chondrocytes were

  13. Overexpression of hsa-miR-148a promotes cartilage production and inhibits cartilage degradation by osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Lucienne A.; Kragten, Angela H.M.; Dhert, Wouter J.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Creemers, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hsa-miR-148a expression is decreased in OA cartilage, but its functional role in cartilage has never been studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of overexpressing hsa-miR-148a on cartilage metabolism of OA chondrocytes. Design OA chondrocytes were transfected with a

  14. A comparison between platelet-rich plasma (PRP and hyaluronate acid on the healing of cartilage defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has offered great promise for the treatment of cartilage degradation, and has been proved to have positive effects on the restoration of cartilage lesions. But no comparative work has been done between PRP and hyaluronate acid (HA concerning their restoring effect on cartilage defect, especially by means of animal experiments and histologic assessments. The purpose of the study was to compare the therapeutic effects of P-PRP and HA on osteoarthritis in rabbit knees. Thirty rabbits were used to establish the animal models by creating a cartilage defect of 5 mm in diameter on the condyles of the femurs, and were randomly divided into three groups: the P-PRP group, HA group and the control group. Then each group was treated with P-PRP, HA or saline solution, respectively. Six and twelve weeks later the rabbits were sacrificed and the samples were collected. The platelet number, the concentrations of growth factors of P-PRP and whole blood, and the IL-1β concentration in the joint fluid were investigated, and the histological assessment of the cartilage were performed according to Mankin's scoring system. Micro-CT was also used to evaluate the restoration of subchondral bone. The platelet concentration in P-PRP is 6.8 fold of that in the whole blood. The IL-1β level in the P-PRP group was lower than in the HA group (p<0.01 and in the control group (p<0.01. The restoration of the defected cartilage as well as the subchondral bone was better in the P-PRP group than in the HA group or the control group (P<0.05. Our data showed that P-PRP is better than HA in promoting the restoration of the cartilage and alleviating the arthritis caused by cartilage damage.

  15. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  16. Biomimetically Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based Hybrid Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan D. Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has a very limited regeneration capacity. Therefore, injury or degeneration of articular cartilage results in an inferior mechanical stability, load-bearing capacity, and lubrication capability. Here, we developed a biomimetic scaffold consisting of macroporous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA sponges as a platform material for the incorporation of cell-embedded photocrosslinkable poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA, PEGDA-methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (PEGDA-MeCS; PCS, or PEGDA-methacrylated hyaluronic acid (PEGDA-MeHA; PHA within its pores to improve in vitro chondrocyte functions and subsequent in vivo ectopic cartilage tissue formation. Our findings demonstrated that chondrocytes encapsulated in PCS or PHA and loaded into macroporous PVA hybrid scaffolds maintained their physiological phenotypes during in vitro culture, as shown by the upregulation of various chondrogenic genes. Further, the cell-secreted extracellular matrix (ECM improved the mechanical properties of the PVA-PCS and PVA-PHA hybrid scaffolds by 83.30% and 73.76%, respectively, compared to their acellular counterparts. After subcutaneous transplantation in vivo, chondrocytes on both PVA-PCS and PVA-PHA hybrid scaffolds significantly promoted ectopic cartilage tissue formation, which was confirmed by detecting cells positively stained with Safranin-O and for type II collagen. Consequently, the mechanical properties of the hybrid scaffolds were biomimetically reinforced by 80.53% and 210.74%, respectively, compared to their acellular counterparts. By enabling the recapitulation of biomimetically relevant structural and functional properties of articular cartilage and the regulation of in vivo mechanical reinforcement mediated by cell–matrix interactions, this biomimetic material offers an opportunity to control the desired mechanical properties of cell-laden scaffolds for cartilage tissue regeneration.

  17. Relationship between patellar mobility and patellofemoral joint cartilage degeneration after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Susumu; Kurokouchi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Shigeo; Yoda, Masaki; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Sakai, Tadahiro

    2017-11-01

    Patellofemoral cartilage degeneration is a potential complication of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery. Hypomobility of the patella in the coronal plane is often observed after ACLR. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between cartilage degeneration in the patellofemoral joint and mobility after ACLR. The present study investigated 1) the coronal mobility of the patella after ACLR, 2) the relationship between patellar mobility and cartilage degeneration of the patellofemoral joint, and 3) the relationship between patellar mobility and knee joint function after ACLR. Forty patients who underwent medial hamstring-based ACLR participated in the study. Lateral and medial patellar displacements were assessed with a modified patellofemoral arthrometer, and the absolute values of the displacements were normalized to patient height. The International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) cartilage injury classification of the patellar and femoral (trochlear) surfaces, and the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale were used to evaluate knee function. Lateral and medial patellar displacements were reduced compared with the non-operated knee at the second-look arthroscopy and bone staple extraction operation (second operation; 24.4 ± 7.9 months after ACLR, Ppatellofemoral joint (patella and trochlea) were significantly worse than those pre-ACLR. Neither lateral nor medial patellar mobility, however, were significantly correlated with the ICRS grade or the Lysholm score. Although patellar mobility at approximately 2 years after ACLR was decreased compared to the non-operated knee, small displacement of the patella was not related to cartilage degeneration or knee joint function at the time of the second operation.

  18. A comparison of different bioinks for 3D bioprinting of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Andrew C; Critchley, Susan E; Rencsok, Emily M; Kelly, Daniel J

    2016-10-07

    Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair capabilities. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden hydrogels are commonly used for fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue engineering, however they typically lack the mechanical integrity for implantation into high load bearing environments. This has led to increased interested in 3D bioprinting of cell laden hydrogel bioinks reinforced with stiffer polymer fibres. The objective of this study was to compare a range of commonly used hydrogel bioinks (agarose, alginate, GelMA and BioINK™) for their printing properties and capacity to support the development of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in vitro. Each hydrogel was seeded with MSCs, cultured for 28 days in the presence of TGF-β3 and then analysed for markers indicative of differentiation towards either a fibrocartilaginous or hyaline cartilage-like phenotype. Alginate and agarose hydrogels best supported the development of hyaline-like cartilage, as evident by the development of a tissue staining predominantly for type II collagen. In contrast, GelMA and BioINK ™ (a PEGMA based hydrogel) supported the development of a more fibrocartilage-like tissue, as evident by the development of a tissue containing both type I and type II collagen. GelMA demonstrated superior printability, generating structures with greater fidelity, followed by the alginate and agarose bioinks. High levels of MSC viability were observed in all bioinks post-printing (∼80%). Finally we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer mechanically reinforced hydrogels with high cell viability by co-depositing a hydrogel bioink with polycaprolactone filaments, generating composites with bulk compressive moduli comparable to articular cartilage. This study demonstrates the importance of the choice of bioink when bioprinting different cartilaginous tissues for musculoskeletal applications.

  19. Iodoacetate and allogenous cartilage particles as models for arthritis induction in equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elmesiry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA have been widely developed in different animal species, because of the high incidence of osteoarthritis diseases in humans and animals. To date, no ideal OA animal model has been reported. The present study compare different osteoarthritis models to determine which one is suitable for inducing experimental equine OA. Fifteen donkeys were divided into three equal groups (n = 5. The radio carpal joints of the right forelimb of 15 donkeys were injected with 25 mg monoiodoacetate (MIA (group A, 50 mg allogenous cartilage particles (ACP (group B, or vehicle solution (group C over a period of 70 days. Osteoarthritis induction was evaluated weekly through lameness score, carpal circumference, joint flexion angel, synovial fluid analysis (total protein and WBC count, and radiology. Animal were euthanized and joints histopathology were performed at 70 days. Lameness score and joint circumference was increased in both group A and B however joint flexion angel was decreased compared to group C (p < 0.05. Osteophytes were observed in MIA injected joints only accompanied with subchondral bone sclerosis. Cartilage damage was observed grossly and histologically in Group A together with synovial membrane fibrosis. Group B had on cartilage damage grossly however histological examination revealed some cartilage surface discontinuity with synovial membrane edema. Injection of monoiodoacetate in the donkey is a successful model to create the acute clinical signs of joint disease as well as cartilage damage. However, allogenous cartilage particles injection need more investigation to be applied.

  20. Peptide-Based Materials for Cartilage Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastar, Nurcan; Arslan, Elif; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-01-01

    Cartilaginous tissue requires structural and metabolic support after traumatic or chronic injuries because of its limited capacity for regeneration. However, current techniques for cartilage regeneration are either invasive or ineffective for long-term repair. Developing alternative approaches to regenerate cartilage tissue is needed. Therefore, versatile scaffolds formed by biomaterials are promising tools for cartilage regeneration. Bioactive scaffolds further enhance the utility in a broad range of applications including the treatment of major cartilage defects. This chapter provides an overview of cartilage tissue, tissue defects, and the methods used for regeneration, with emphasis on peptide scaffold materials that can be used to supplement or replace current medical treatment options.

  1. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Blumenkrantz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1Ρ are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

  2. Osteoarthritis: Control of human cartilage hypertrophic differentiation. Research highlight van: Gremlin1, frizzled-related protein, and Dkk-1 are key regulators of human articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckland, J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of articular cartilage homeostasis is important in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, key to which is activation of articular chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Healthy articular cartilage is resistant to hypertrophic differentiation, whereas growth-plate cartilage is destined to

  3. Papain-induced changes in rabbit cartilage; alterations in the chemical structure of the cartilage matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSALTAS, T T

    1958-10-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S(35) content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S(35) in the serum and an increase of S(35) and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery.

  4. Role of Cartilage Forming Cells in Regenerative Medicine for Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lin; Reagan, Michaela R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Lin Sun1, Michaela R Reagan2, David L Kaplan1,21Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USAAbstract: Currently, cartilage repair remains a major challenge for researchers and physicians due to its limited healing capacity. Cartilage regeneration requires suitable cells; these must be easily obtained and expanded, able to produce hyaline matrix with proper mechanical properties, and demonstrate sustained integrati...

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Degenerative Cartilage and Subchondral Bony Lesions in a Preserved Cadaveric Knee: Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast CT Versus Conventional MRI and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geith, Tobias; Brun, Emmanuel; Mittone, Alberto; Gasilov, Sergei; Weber, Loriane; Adam-Neumair, Silvia; Bravin, Alberto; Reiser, Maximilian; Coan, Paola; Horng, Annie

    2018-04-09

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone conditions in a fully preserved cadaveric human knee joint using high-resolution x-ray propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PBI) CT and to compare the performance of the new technique with conventional CT and MRI. A cadaveric human knee was examined using an x-ray beam of 60 keV, a detector with a 90-mm 2 FOV, and a pixel size of 46 × 46 μm 2 . PBI CT images were reconstructed with both the filtered back projection algorithm and the equally sloped tomography method. Conventional 3-T MRI and CT were also performed. Measurements of cartilage thickness, cartilage lesions, International Cartilage Repair Society scoring, and detection of subchondral bone changes were evaluated. Visual inspection of the specimen akin to arthroscopy was conducted and served as a standard of reference for lesion detection. Loss of cartilage height was visible on PBI CT and MRI. Quantification of cartilage thickness showed a strong correlation between the two modalities. Cartilage lesions appeared darker than the adjacent cartilage on PBI CT. PBI CT showed similar agreement to MRI for depicting cartilage substance defects or lesions compared with the visual inspection. The assessment of subchondral bone cysts showed moderate to strong agreement between PBI CT and CT. In contrast to the standard clinical methods of MRI and CT, PBI CT is able to simultaneously depict cartilage and bony changes at high resolution. Though still an experimental technique, PBI CT is a promising high-resolution imaging method to evaluate comprehensive changes of osteoarthritic disease in a clinical setting.

  6. Zn deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in equine articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: D.A.Bradley@surrey.ac.uk; Moger, C.J.; Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    In articular cartilage metalloproteinases, a family of enzymes whose function relies on the presence of divalent cations such as Zn and Ca plays a central role in the normal processes of growth and remodelling and in the degenerative and inflammatory processes of arthritis. Another important enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, involved in cartilage mineralisation also relies on metallic cofactors. The local concentration of divalent cations is therefore of considerable interest in cartilage pathophysiology and several authors have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to map metal ion distributions in bone and cartilage. We report use of a bench-top XRF analytical microscope, providing spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and applicable to histological sections, facilitating correlation of the distribution with structural features. The study seeks to establish the elemental distribution in normal tissue as a precursor to investigation of changes in disease. For six samples prepared from equine metacarpophalangeal joint, we observed increased concentration of Zn and Sr ions around the tidemark between normal and mineralised cartilage. This is believed to be an active site of remodelling but its composition has hitherto lacked detailed characterization. We also report preliminary results on two of the samples using Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). This confirms our previous observations using synchrotron-based XRF of enhanced deposition of Sr and Zn at the surface of the subchondral bone and in articular cartilage.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of hyaline articular cartilage T2 maps of knee and determine the relationship of cartilage T2 values with age, gender, articular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, E; Şahin, G; Oğur, T; Aktaş, E

    2014-11-01

    To identify changes in knee joint cartilage transverse relaxation values depending on the patient's age and gender and to investigate the relationship between knee joint pathologies and the transverse relaxation time. Knee MRI images of 107 symptomatic patients with various pathologic knee conditions were analyzed retrospectively. T2 values were measured at patellar cartilage, posteromedial and posterolateral femoral cartilage adjacent to the central horn of posterior meniscus. 963 measurements were done for 107 knees MRI. Relationship of T2 values with seven features including subarticular bone marrow edema, subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, anterior-posterior cruciate and collateral ligament tears, posterior medial and posterior lateral meniscal tears, synovial thickening and effusion were analyzed. T2 values in all three compartments were evaluated according to age and gender. A T2 value increase correlated with age was present in all three compartments measured in the subgroup with no knee joint pathology and in all patient groups. According to the ROC curve, an increase showing a statistically significant difference was present in the patient group aged over 40 compared to the patient group aged 40 and below in all patient groups. There is a statistically difference at T2 values with and without subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, synovial thickening and effusion. T2 relaxation time showed a statistically significant increase in the patients with a medial meniscus tear compared to those without a tear and no statistically significant difference was found in T2 relaxation times of patients with and without a posterior lateral meniscus tear. T2 cartilage mapping on MRI provides opportunity to exhibit biochemical and structural changes related with cartilage extracellular matrix without using invasive diagnostic methods.

  8. The potential application of LIPUS and PEMF on cartilage and chondrogenic differentiation : An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    In chapter 2 a review is presented of the scientific literature on the use and mechanism of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) applied on articular cartilage, chondrocytes and chondrogenesis in order to compare these two non-invasive procedures regarding

  9. Alteration of Cartilage Degeneration and Inflammation Markers in Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis Occurs Proportionally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Lukas M.; Kuijer, Roel; Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing interest in markers for cartilage degradation in synovial joints because of their potential diagnostic and prognostic value. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify valuable degradation markers for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing

  10. MRI versus CT for detecting cartilage invasion in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Inge; Hooft, Lotty; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Pameijer, Frank A.; de Bree, Remco; Stegeman, Inge

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative conventional MRI and conventional CT for detecting cartilage invasion in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, who

  11. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlovits, Stefan; Zeller, Philip; Singer, Philipp; Resinger, Christoph; Vecsei, Vilmos

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation

  12. Birth injuries to the epiphyseal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekengren, K.; Bergdahl, S.; Ekstroem, G.

    1978-01-01

    A birth injury in the vicinity of a joint might lead to a fracture through the epiphyseal cartilage. The criteria for diagnosing such a fracture at radiography are considered and the continued remodelling of the bone demonstrated. The history of 2 cases with late diagnosis and serious long-term sequelae are described, in order to emphasize the necessity of early radiography. (Auth.)

  13. Molecular modulation of articular cartilage degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage homeostasis is maintained due to a balance between anabolic and catabolic processes, that are regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways. Disturbance of one or more of these pathways disrupts this balance, resulting in excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix and

  14. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  15. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  16. Prefabrication of 3D cartilage contructs: towards a tissue engineered auricle--a model tested in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE three-dimensional (3D cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15 × 8 cm and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps

  17. Macroscopic assessment of cartilage shear: effects of counter-surface roughness, synovial fluid lubricant, and compression offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Wong, Benjamin L; Chun, June; Yoon, Yeoung C; Talke, Frank E; Sah, Robert L

    2010-06-18

    During joint articulation, cartilage is subjected to compression, shear, and sliding, mechanical factors that regulate and affect cartilage metabolism. The objective of this study was to use an in vitro material-on-cartilage shear test to elucidate the effects of counter-surface roughness (Polished, Mildly rough, and Rough), lubricants (phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and bovine synovial fluid (bSF)), and compression offset on the shearing and sliding of normal human talar cartilage under dynamic lateral displacement. Peak shear stress (sigma(xz,m)) and strain (E(xz,m)) increased with increasing platen roughness and compression offset, and were 30% higher with PBS than with bSF. Compared to PBS, bSF was more effective as a lubricant for P than for M and R platens as indicated by the higher reduction in kinetic friction coefficient (-60% vs. -20% and -19%, respectively), sigma(xz,m) (-50% vs. -14% and -17%) and E(xz,m) (-54% vs. -19% and -17%). Cartilage shear and sliding were evident for all counter-surfaces either at low compression offset (10%) or with high lateral displacement (70%), regardless of lubricant. An increase in tissue shear occurred with either increased compression offset or increased surface roughness. This material and biomechanical test system allow control of cartilage sigma(xz,m) and E(xz,m), and hence, sliding magnitude, for an imposed lateral displacement. It therefore can facilitate study of cartilage mechanobiological responses to distinct regimes of cartilage loading and articulation, such as shear with variable amounts of sliding. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The promotion of cartilage defect repair using adenovirus mediated Sox9 gene transfer of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Yang, Fei; Liu, Guangwang; Yu, Degang; Li, Huiwu; Fan, Qiming; Gan, Yaokai; Tang, Tingting; Dai, Kerong

    2011-06-01

    Although Sox9 is essential for chondrogenic differentiation and matrix production, its application in cartilage tissue engineering has been rarely reported. In this study, the chondrogenic effect of Sox9 on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro and its application in articular cartilage repair in vivo were evaluated. Rabbit BMSCs were transduced with adenoviral vector containing Sox9. Toluidine blue, safranin O staining and real-time PCR were performed to check chondrogenic differentiation. The results showed that Sox9 could induce chondrogenesis of BMSCs both in monolayer and on PGA scaffold effectively. The rabbit model with full-thickness cartilage defects was established and then repaired by PGA scaffold and rabbit BMSCs with or without Sox9 transduction. HE, safranin O staining and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the repair of defects by the complex. Better repair, including more newly-formed cartilage tissue and hyaline cartilage-specific extracellular matrix and greater expression of several chondrogenesis marker genes were observed in PGA scaffold and BMSCs with Sox9 transduction, compared to that without transduction. Our findings defined the important role of Sox9 in the repair of cartilage defects in vivo and provided evidence that Sox9 had the potential and advantage in the application of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma of the arytenoid cartilage presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Xu, Wen; Liu, Honggang; Chen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    To describe an atypical case of laryngeal chondrosarcoma of arytenoid cartilage presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility and to avoid potential missed diagnosis. Our case study included a detail history, physical and radiological examination, laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and surgical treatment and pathology analysis. We compared it with the previously discussed cases of chondrosarcoma of arytenoid cartilage in the literature. Chondrosarcomas of the arytenoid cartilage is rare, and to date only approximately 10 cases have been reported. We reported a case of a 51-year-old man with 1 month of persistent dyspnea presenting with bilateral vocal fold immobility without neoplasms in larynx. The LEMG showed no obvious abnormality. The cervical-enhanced computed tomography (CT) found no significant signs of a mass except for localized high-density areas in arytenoid cartilage. Right arytenoidectomy and biopsy were performed under general anesthesia with CO2 laser with the pathological diagnosis of chondroma. A total laryngectomy was performed 2 years later, and low-grade chondrosarcoma was the final diagnosis. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas of the arytenoid cartilage are rare. It is easily neglected, especially in those cases presenting with idiopathic vocal fold immobility without any obvious signs of neoplasms. The LEMG and laryngeal CT are necessary. Sometimes, a biopsy of the arytenoid cartilage is essential. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cartilage regeneration using a porous scaffold, a collagen sponge incorporating a hydroxyapatite/chondroitinsulfate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Yohimi; Adegawa, Takuro; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Uemura, Toshimasa; Tanaka, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    Because cartilage has limited potential for self-repair, tissue engineering is expected to replace the present therapies for damaged cartilage, such as total knee arthroplasty. However, scaffolds suitable for cartilage tissue engineering have not been established. We synthesized a novel porous scaffold, a collagen sponge incorporating a hydroxyapatite/chondroitinsulfate composite (pCol-HAp/ChS), containing materials which resemble extracellular matrices in bone and cartilage tissues, which needs high compressive strength for clinical use. HAp/ChS had smaller crystals and a larger total surface area than HAp. SEM images showed pCol-HAp/ChS to have the roughest surface compared with pCol and pCol-HAp. The mechanical properties suggest that pCol-HAp/ChS and pCol/HAp are similar, and superior to pCol. Seeding experiments showed a uniform distribution of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in pCol-HAp/ChS and pCol/HAp. Safranin O, Toluidine blue and Alcian blue staining after 2 weeks of culture revealed pCol-HAp/ChS to be the most chondrogenic in each case. In addition, MSCs in pCol-HAp/ChS produced more glycosaminoglycans, a cartilage matrix, than those in pCol-HAp. Further, pCol-HAp/ChS regenerated 15 times more cartilaginous tissue than pCol. From these results, pCol-HAp/ChS is expected to be a candidate for a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in place of collagen sponge.

  2. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junichi; Aizawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Dai; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Mishima, Kenji; Aiba, Atsu; Maki, Koutaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 "f"l"/"f"l; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 "f"l"/"f"l) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  3. Cartilage regeneration using a porous scaffold, a collagen sponge incorporating a hydroxyapatite/chondroitinsulfate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyabu, Yohimi, E-mail: ooyabu.yoshimi@aist.go.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S7-5 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central-4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566 (Japan); Adegawa, Takuro; Yoshioka, Tomohiko [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S7-5 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ikoma, Toshiyuki [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047 (Japan); Uemura, Toshimasa [Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central-4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566 (Japan); Tanaka, Junzo [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S7-5 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Because cartilage has limited potential for self-repair, tissue engineering is expected to replace the present therapies for damaged cartilage, such as total knee arthroplasty. However, scaffolds suitable for cartilage tissue engineering have not been established. We synthesized a novel porous scaffold, a collagen sponge incorporating a hydroxyapatite/chondroitinsulfate composite (pCol-HAp/ChS), containing materials which resemble extracellular matrices in bone and cartilage tissues, which needs high compressive strength for clinical use. HAp/ChS had smaller crystals and a larger total surface area than HAp. SEM images showed pCol-HAp/ChS to have the roughest surface compared with pCol and pCol-HAp. The mechanical properties suggest that pCol-HAp/ChS and pCol/HAp are similar, and superior to pCol. Seeding experiments showed a uniform distribution of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in pCol-HAp/ChS and pCol/HAp. Safranin O, Toluidine blue and Alcian blue staining after 2 weeks of culture revealed pCol-HAp/ChS to be the most chondrogenic in each case. In addition, MSCs in pCol-HAp/ChS produced more glycosaminoglycans, a cartilage matrix, than those in pCol-HAp. Further, pCol-HAp/ChS regenerated 15 times more cartilaginous tissue than pCol. From these results, pCol-HAp/ChS is expected to be a candidate for a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in place of collagen sponge.

  4. Altered osmotic swelling behavior of proteoglycan-depleted bovine articular cartilage using high frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Zheng, Y P; Leung, G; Mak, A F T; Lam, W L; Guo, X; Lu, H B; Qin, L

    2008-01-01

    Swelling behavior is an electrochemical mechanical property of articular cartilage. It plays an important role in weight bearing and joint lubrication. In this study, the altered transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage was observed and quantified in situ using ultrasound. Three groups of bovine patellar articular cartilage samples (n = 10 x 3) were obtained and digested by trypsin for 10, 20 and 30 min respectively to mimic different levels of degeneration. The osmotic-free shrinkage and swelling behavior induced by changing the concentration of the bathing saline solution from 0.15 M to 2 M and then back to 0.15 M were characterized using high-frequency ultrasound (central frequency = 35 MHz) before and after digestion. It was found that the degenerated cartilage specimens showed a weaker shrinkage-swelling behavior compared with the normal cartilage samples. However, no significant differences in the peak shrinkage or swelling strains were observed between different groups. The absolute values of the peak shrinkage strain significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 45.4%, 42.1% and 50.6% respectively after the trypsin digestion for 10, 20 and 30 min, but such significance was not demonstrated for the peak swelling strains. Due to the potential alterations in the collagen-PG matrix during trypsin digestion, the correlation between the swelling strain and the shrinkage strain of the degenerated samples changed slightly in comparison with the normal samples. The proposed ultrasound method has been successfully used to measure the transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage and has the potential for the characterization of osteoarthritis

  5. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahama, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Junichi [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kassai, Hidetoshi [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, Kenji [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aiba, Atsu [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  6. Permeability of cartilage to neutral and charged polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselton, F.R.; Fishman, A.P.; Sampson, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigated macromolecular transport through a negatively charged membrane made from articular cartilage. Sections (150-1000 μ) of cartilage obtained at autopsy from a horse fetlock were clamped between two 15 ml chambers containing .15 M sodium chloride in pH 7.4, .004 M phosphate. Tracers were introduced into chamber A and transport was determined by radiolabel transferred to chamber B over time. Structural integrity was preserved as shown by histological staining. In three experiments, size selectivity was measured using polydisperse uncharged 3 H-dextran. The authors determined the elution patterns from a calibrated Sephadex S300 column of samples from each chamber. The relative transport of molecules over the size range of 1.0 to 10.0 nm was determined by comparing the two elution patterns. They found a sharp cutoff at an effective molecular radius of 2.5 nm. In an additional three experiments, charge selectivity was investigated by comparing the simultaneous transport of 3 H-inulin and 14 C-carboxy inulin. Both tracers have an effective molecular radius of 1.1 nm. The negatively charged carboxy inulin was transferred 15% faster than the uncharged inulin. They conclude: a) there is a maximum effective radius for uncharged dextrans that can be transferred across this membrane which is smaller than that reported for proteins and b) negatively charged cartilagenous membranes do not retard the transport of negatively charged inulin

  7. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, C., E-mail: c.behzadi@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Welsch, G.H. [Department of Sports Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Schoen, G. [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  8. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, C.; Welsch, G.H.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G.; Schoen, G.; Adam, G.; Regier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  9. Advances of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of cartilage defects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Kaliappan; Amirhamed, Haji Alizadeh; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies represent a new option for treating damaged cartilage. However, the outcomes following its clinical application have seldom been previously compared. The present paper presents the systematic review of current literatures on MSC-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinical applications. Ovid, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar online databases were searched using several keywords, which include "cartilage" and "stem cells". Only studies using bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) to treat cartilage defects clinically were included in this review. The clinical outcomes were compared, and the quality of the tissue repair was analysed where possible. Of the 996 articles, only six (n = 6) clinical studies have described the use of BM-MSC in clinical applications. Two studies were cohort observational trials, three were case series, and one was a case report. In the two comparative trials, BM-MSCs produced superior repair to cartilage treatment without cells and have comparable outcomes to autologous chondrocyte implantation. The case series and case-control studies have demonstrated that use of BM-MSCs resulted in better short- to long-term clinical outcomes with minimal complications. In addition, histological analyses in two studies have resulted in good repair tissue formation at the damaged site, composed mainly of hyaline-like cartilage. Although results of the respective studies are highly indicative that BM-MSC-based therapy is superior, due to the differences in methods and selection criteria used, it was not possible to make direct comparison between the studies. In conclusion, published studies do suggest that BM-MSCs could provide superior cartilage repair. However, due to limited number of reports, more robust studies might be required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn.

  10. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K.E.; Quistgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol......PURPOSE: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58......) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images (P I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA (P

  11. Induction of spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration using a double-network gel: efficacy of a novel therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ogawa, Munehiro; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kai, Shuken; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-06-01

    A double-network (DN) gel, which was composed of poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N,N'-dimetyl acrylamide) (PAMPS/PDMAAm), has the potential to induce chondrogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To establish the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect using a DN gel. Controlled laboratory study. A 4.3-mm-diameter osteochondral defect was created in rabbit trochlea. A DN gel plug was implanted into the defect of the right knee so that a defect 2 mm in depth remained after surgery. An untreated defect of the left knee provided control data. The osteochondral defects created were examined by histological and immunohistochemical evaluations, surface assessment using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis at 4 and 12 weeks. Samples were quantitatively evaluated with 2 scoring systems reported by Wayne et al and O'Driscoll et al. The DN gel-implanted defect was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type 2 collagen. Quantitative evaluation using the grading scales revealed a significantly higher score in the DN gel-implanted defects compared with the untreated control at each period (P cartilage at 12 weeks (P = .0106), while there was no statistical difference between the DN gel-implanted and normal knees. This study using the mature rabbit femoral trochlea osteochondral defect model demonstrated that DN gel implantation is an effective treatment to induce cartilage regeneration in vivo without any cultured cells or mammalian-derived scaffolds. This study has prompted us to develop a potential innovative strategy to repair cartilage lesions in the field of joint surgery.

  12. Quantitative T2* assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesper, Tobias; Miese, Falk R.; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Behringer, Michael; Zilkens, Christoph; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2 ** relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2 ** mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2 ** after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2 ** values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2 * assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2 * mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2 * values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2 * after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2 * values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2 * values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2 * values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2 * values in the medial tibial plateau may be related

  13. Quantitative T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk R. [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Behringer, Michael [German Sport University, Cologne (Germany); Zilkens, Christoph [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Krauspe, Rüdiger [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd, E-mail: bbittersohl@partners.org [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup **} relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2{sup **} mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2{sup **} after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2{sup **} values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2{sup *} mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2{sup *} values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2{sup *} after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2{sup *} values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2{sup *} values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2{sup *} values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2

  14. In vitro of quantitative MR imaging of early degenerative changes in human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Wha; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Sung Suk; Hwa, Ryu Ji

    2004-01-01

    To assess the applicability of quantitative MR microscopy for the detection of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) depletion as an early sign of degeneration in the articular cartilage of humans treated by trypsin. Four cartilage-bone blocks were obtained from the patient who had suffered from osteoarthritis of the knee and underwent a total knee replacement arthroscopy. Each articular cartilage segment was resected as to a round disk shape (8 mm in diameter) with a remnant of subchondral bone 1 mm in thickness. Four different culture solutions were prepared, and these solutions were 0.2 mg/ml of trypsin solution (group 1), 1 mM of Gd (DTPA) 2-mixed trypsin solution (group 2), phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (group 3), and 1 mM of Gd (DTPA) 2-mixed PBS (group 4). The cartilages were cultured and then MR imagings were performed every hour for 5 hrs, and we continued the additional cultures of 24 hrs, 36 hrs and 48 hrs. Three imaging sequences were used: T1-weighted spin echo (TR/TE, 450/22), proton density turbo spin echo with fat suppression (TR/TE, 3000/25), and CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) (TR/TE/TI, 760/21-168, 360). MR imaging data were analyzed with pixel-by-pixel comparisons in all groups. The GAG loss in the articular cartilage was increased proportionately to the culture duration. Mean changes of T1 relaxation time were 1.2% for group 1, -1.9% for group 3, -54.7% for group 2 and -64.2% for group 4 (p< 0.05). When comparing by linear profile on the T1-weighted images, SNR increased and T1 relaxation time decreased for group 2 and 4, as the culture duration increased (p< 0.05). On the correlation analysis, there is significant correlation between GAG loss and Gd (DTPA) 2-enhancement for group 2 (p=0.0431), but there was no significant difference for group 4 (p=0.0918). More enhancement with Gd (DTPA) 2-was noted for group 2 than for group 4. Group 2 showed a diffuse enhancement in all the layers of cartilage, but for group 4, prominent enhancement was noted only in

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan–gelatin scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whu, Shu Wen [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hung, Kun-Che; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Hwa [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ching-Lin, E-mail: tsaicl@ntuh.gov.tw [Department of Orthopaedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shan-hui, E-mail: shhsu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Chitosan–gelatin polyelectrolyte complexes were fabricated and evaluated as tissue engineering scaffolds for cartilage regeneration in vitro and in vivo. The crosslinker for the gelatin component was selected among glutaraldehyde, bisepoxy, and a water-soluble carbodiimide (WSC) based upon the proliferation of chondrocytes on the crosslinked gelatin. WSC was found to be the most suitable crosslinker. Complex scaffolds made from chitosan and gelatin with a component ratio equal to one possessed the proper degradation rate and mechanical stability in vitro. Chondrocytes were able to proliferate well and secrete abundant extracellular matrix in the chitosan–gelatin (1:1) complex scaffolds crosslinked by WSC (C1G1{sub WSC}) compared to the non-crosslinked scaffolds. Implantation of chondrocytes-seeded scaffolds in the defects of rabbit articular cartilage confirmed that C1G1{sub WSC} promoted the cartilage regeneration. The neotissue formed the histological feature of tide line and lacunae in 6.5 months. The amount of glycosaminoglycans in C1G1{sub WSC} constructs (0.187 ± 0.095 μg/mg tissue) harvested from the animals after 6.5 months was 14 wt.% of that in normal cartilage (1.329 ± 0.660 μg/mg tissue). The average compressive modulus of regenerated tissue at 6.5 months was about 0.539 MPa, which approached to that of normal cartilage (0.735 MPa), while that in the blank control (3.881 MPa) was much higher and typical for fibrous tissue. Type II collagen expression in C1G1{sub WSC} constructs was similarly intense as that in the normal hyaline cartilage. According to the above results, the use of C1G1{sub WSC} scaffolds may enhance the cartilage regeneration in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We developed a chitosan–gelatin scaffold crosslinked with carbodiimide. • Neocartilage formation was more evident in crosslinked vs. non-crosslinked scaffolds. • Histological features of tide line and lacunae were observed in vivo at 6.5 months. • Compressive

  16. Development of a computational technique to measure cartilage contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan; Lapner, Michael; Lalone, Emily A; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2014-03-21

    Computational measurement of joint contact distributions offers the benefit of non-invasive measurements of joint contact without the use of interpositional sensors or casting materials. This paper describes a technique for indirectly measuring joint contact based on overlapping of articular