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Sample records for costal cartilage calcification

  1. The effect of calcification on the structural mechanics of the costal cartilage.

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    Forman, Jason L; Kent, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    The costal cartilage often undergoes progressive calcification with age. This study sought to investigate the effects of calcification on the structural mechanics of whole costal cartilage segments. Models were developed for five costal cartilage specimens, including representations of the cartilage, the perichondrium, calcification, and segments of the rib and sternum. The material properties of the cartilage were determined through indentation testing; the properties of the perichondrium were determined through optimisation against structural experiments. The calcified regions were then expanded or shrunk to develop five different sensitivity analysis models for each. Increasing the relative volume of calcification from 0% to 24% of the cartilage volume increased the stiffness of the costal cartilage segments by a factor of 2.3-3.8. These results suggest that calcification may have a substantial effect on the stiffness of the costal cartilage which should be considered when modelling the chest, especially if age is a factor.

  2. Shear loading of costal cartilage

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    Subit, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

  3. MULTIPLE OSSIFIED COSTAL CARTILAGES FOR 1ST RIB

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    Raghavendra D.R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Costal cartilages are flattened bars of hyaline cartilages. All ribs except the last two, join with the sternum through their respective costal cartilages directly or indirectly. During dissection for 1st MBBS students in the Department of Anatomy, JJMMC, Davangere, variation was found in a male cadaver aged 45 –50 years. Multiple ossified costal cartilages for 1st rib were present on left side. There were 3 costal cartilages connecting 1st rib to manubrium. There were two small intercostal spaces between them. The lower two small costal cartilages fused together to form a common segment which in turn fused with large upper costal cartilage. The large upper costal cartilage forms costochondral joint with 1st rib. All costal cartilages showed features of calcification. The present variation of multiple ossified costal cartilages are due to bifurcation of costal cartilage. It may cause musculoskeletal pain, intercostal nerve entrapment or vascular compression. Awareness of these anomalies are important for radiologists for diagnostic purpose and for surgeons for performing various clinical and surgical procedures.

  4. Thermogravimetry of irradiated human costal cartilage

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    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci D.B.; Dias, Djalma B.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: antonio_carlos_martinho@msn.com; lmachado@ipen.br; dbdias@ipen.br; mathor@ipen.br; Herson, Marisa R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Banco de Tecidos do Instituto Central]. E-mail: marisah@vifm.org; Meumann, Nilton F.; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Verificacao de Obitos]. E-mail: svoc@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Costal cartilage has been sterilized with gamma radiation using {sup 60}Co sources at two different doses, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, for storage in tissue banks. Samples of costal cartilage were deep-freezing as method of preservation. Thermogravimetry (Shimadzu TGA-50) was used to verify the water release of costal cartilage before and after irradiation. The TG tests were carried out at heating rate of 10 deg C/min from room temperature to 600 deg C under a flow rate of 50 mL/min of compressed air. Samples of costal cartilage were divided in 2 parts. One part of them was kept as reference material; the other part was irradiated. This procedure assures better homogeneity of the sample and reproducibility of the experimental results. The obtained data have shown that the TG curves have the same pattern, independently of the sample. Non-irradiated samples showed great variability of thermogravimetric curves among different donors and for the same donor. Further experimental work is being carried out on human cartilage preserved in glycerol in high concentration (> 98%) to compare with those deep freezing. (author)

  5. Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty

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    Lefkovits, G. (Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal cartilage in augmentation rhinoplasty. Twenty-seven dorsal nasal augmentations were performed in 24 patients between 16 and 49 years of age with a follow-up ranging from 1 to 27 months. Good-to-excellent results were achieved in 83.3% (20 of 24). Poor results requiring revision were found in 16.7% (4 of 24). Complication rates included 7.4% infection (2 of 27) and 14.8% warping (4 of 27). The resorption rate was zero. These results compare favorably with other forms of nasal augmentation. Advantages and disadvantages of irradiated homologous costal cartilage are discussed.

  6. Harvesting split thickness costal cartilage graft

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    Sunil Gaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are few complications associated with harvesting of full thickness coastal cartilage grafts i.e., pneumothorax (0.9%, contour deformities and prolonged post-operative pain. To address these issues, authors devised special scalpel to harvest split-thickness costal cartilage grafts. Materials and Methods: Standard inframammary incision was used for harvesting rib. Incision was made directly over the desired rib. Specially designed scalpel was used to cut through the rib cartilage to the half of the thickness. The study was conducted in two parts – cadaveric and clinical. Results: There was significantly less pain and no pneumothorax in the patients in whom the split thickness graft was harvested. Wounds healed without any complication. Discussion: Thus, newly devised angulated scalpel used in the current study, showed the potential to supply the reconstructive surgeon with split thickness rib graft without risk of complications such as pneumothorax or warping contour deformities and post-operative pain.

  7. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

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    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  8. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

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    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  9. [Relationship between PMI and ATR-FTIR Spectral Changes in Swine Costal Cartilages and Ribs].

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    Yao, Yao; Wang, Qi; Jing, Xiao-li; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yin-ming; Wang, Zhi-jun; Li, Cheng-zhi; Lin, Han-cheng; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-yuan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postmortem chemical changes in Landrace costal cartilages and ribs using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and to provide a novel technique for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The swines were sacrificed by hemorrhage and their costal cartilages and ribs were kept in 20 degrees C. The chemical analysis of the costal cartilages and ribs were performed using ATR-FTIR every 72 h. The correlation between the certain spectral parameters and PMI was also analyzed. The time-dependent changes of costal cartilages were more significant than ribs. There were no obvious changes for the main absorbance bands position, and some absorbance band ratios showed time-dependent changes and significant correlations with the PMI. ATR-FTIR has the ability to analyze postmortem chemical changes of the swine costal cartilages and ribs, and it can be a new method to estimate PMI based on spectroscopy.

  10. Vascular-pedicled costal cartilage graft for the treatment of subglottic and upper tracheal stenosis.

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    Hashizume, K; Kanamori, Y; Sugiyama, M; Tomonaga, T; Nakanishi, H

    2004-12-01

    Free costal cartilage graft for the treatment of subglottic and tracheal stenosis is widely used, but postoperative granulation formation is a problem. To reduce the risk of granulation formation after free costal graft, a new operation of costal cartilage graft with vascular pedicle was introduced. A vascular pedicled fifth costal cartilage graft is prepared using internal thoracic artery and vein and intercostal artery and vein as a vascular pedicle. The prepared graft is brought to the upper trachea. The anterior wall of cricoid is split, and the costal cartilage graft is implanted to the split part and tracheostomy. Extubation on the next day is possible if the general condition of the patient permits. In 3 cases of subglottic or upper tracheal stenosis, this operation was performed. All the patients had tracheostomy made during early infancy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and all the patients were extubated soon after the operation. No granulation tissue was observed by postoperative bronchoscopic examinations. Costal cartilage graft with vascular pedicle is a safe and useful new operation for the treatment of subglottic and upper tracheal stenosis. There also is a possibility of using this procedure for the treatment of long segment tracheal stenosis.

  11. Quantitative geometric analysis of rib, costal cartilage and sternum from childhood to teenagehood.

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    Sandoz, Baptiste; Badina, Alina; Laporte, Sébastien; Lambot, Karene; Mitton, David; Skalli, Wafa

    2013-09-01

    Better understanding of the effects of growth on children's bones and cartilage is necessary for clinical and biomechanical purposes. The aim of this study is to define the 3D geometry of children's rib cages: including sternum, ribs and costal cartilage. Three-dimensional reconstructions of 960 ribs, 518 costal cartilages and 113 sternebrae were performed on thoracic CT scans of 48 children, aged 4 months to 15 years. The geometry of the sternum was detailed and nine parameters were used to describe the ribs and rib cages. A "costal index" was defined as the ratio between cartilage length and whole rib length to evaluate the cartilage ratio for each rib level. For all children, the costal index decreased from rib level 1 to 3 and increased from level 3 to 7. For all levels, the cartilage accounted for 45-60 % of the rib length, and was longer for the first years of life. The mean costal index decreased by 21 % for subjects over 3-year old compared to those under three (p < 10(-4)). The volume of the sternebrae was found to be highly age dependent. Such data could be useful to define the standard geometry of the pediatric thorax and help to detect clinical abnormalities.

  12. Estimation of eighth costal cartilage in surgical timing of microtia reconstruction.

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    Moon, Il Yung; Oh, Kap Sung; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2015-01-01

    There is controversy over the optimal timing of microtia reconstruction. The eighth costal cartilage, which is used to shape the helix framework, can be one of the key factors determining surgical timing of microtia reconstruction. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the length of the eighth costal cartilage preoperatively. The aim of the present study was to suggest clinical predictors of the length of the eighth cartilage by assessing the correlation between the actual length of the eighth cartilage and preoperative measurements of the cartilage length using three-dimensional rib-cage computed tomography (3D rib-cage CT). A retrospective analysis was performed on a total of 97 patients who underwent preoperative 3D rib-cage CT and auricular reconstruction using a rib cartilage graft between January 2010 and February 2013. The length of the eighth costal cartilage on 3D rib-cage CT was measured preoperatively, and the length of the harvested eighth rib cartilage was measured intraoperatively. We analyzed the association between the preoperative and intraoperative measured length of the eighth rib, with patient age, height, weight, and body mass index. Preoperative measurement using 3D rib-cage CT showed a high correlation with actual cartilage length. Height and weight correlated more strongly with length than with age. This study describes the usefulness of 3D rib-cage CT for preoperative measurement of the length of the eighth costal cartilage. The measurement of the eighth rib cartilage on 3D rib-cage CT could be a useful aid for reconstructive surgeons in planning microtia reconstruction.

  13. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap combined with vascularized costal cartilages in reconstructive craniofacial surgery.

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    Yamamoto, Y; Minakawa, H; Kokubu, I; Kawashima, K; Sugihara, T; Satoh, N; Fukuda, S

    1997-08-01

    The efficacy of osteocutaneous or vascularized bone flaps for reconstruction of massive skeletal and soft-tissue defects has been supported by recent descriptions in the literature. In this article we presented an alternative technique, which is the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap combined with vascularized eighth and ninth costal cartilages, for reconstruction of midfacial composite defects. The vascular pedicle of the composite flap is the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. The costal cartilages are supplied by the perichondrial vascular network through the anterior intercostal vessels connecting with the deep epigastric vascular system. Vascularized costal cartilages are considered to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and resorption of this material. This technique is a useful tool for restoration of craniofacial contour in reconstructive head and neck surgery.

  14. Precision carving of costal cartilage graft for contour fill in aesthetic and reconstructive rhinoplasty

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    Uday Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autogenous costal cartilage is a good option for large volume requirements in rhinoplasty, when septal or conchal cartilages do not suffice. Reluctance to use costal cartilage is due to apprehension of warping. However, warping can be avoided if we follow the principle of balanced section as advocated by Gibson and Davis. "Warping" can also be utilized to change the curvature of the graft. Materials and Methods: We have used 69 costal cartilage grafts as a solid piece for contour fill in rhinoplasty in 31 patients over the last 10 years. Principle of balanced section as advocated by Gibson and Davis was adhered to while carving the grafts, however some grafts were allowed to warp to get different sizes and shapes. Results: All the procedures were uneventful. Aesthetic appearance of all patients was satisfactory and acceptable to all the patients. In two cases, the dorsal graft minimally shifted to one side, but remained straight. In one patient, there was late appearance of distortion. Conclusion: The mode of cartilage warping is predictable and it can be used to advantage. Apprehension to use costal cartilage graft is unjustified, as with precision carving a desired shape can be obtained.

  15. Semi-automatic 3D segmentation of costal cartilage in CT data from Pectus Excavatum patients

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    Barbosa, Daniel; Queirós, Sandro; Rodrigues, Nuno; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, J.

    2015-03-01

    One of the current frontiers in the clinical management of Pectus Excavatum (PE) patients is the prediction of the surgical outcome prior to the intervention. This can be done through computerized simulation of the Nuss procedure, which requires an anatomically correct representation of the costal cartilage. To this end, we take advantage of the costal cartilage tubular structure to detect it through multi-scale vesselness filtering. This information is then used in an interactive 2D initialization procedure which uses anatomical maximum intensity projections of 3D vesselness feature images to efficiently initialize the 3D segmentation process. We identify the cartilage tissue centerlines in these projected 2D images using a livewire approach. We finally refine the 3D cartilage surface through region-based sparse field level-sets. We have tested the proposed algorithm in 6 noncontrast CT datasets from PE patients. A good segmentation performance was found against reference manual contouring, with an average Dice coefficient of 0.75±0.04 and an average mean surface distance of 1.69+/-0.30mm. The proposed method requires roughly 1 minute for the interactive initialization step, which can positively contribute to an extended use of this tool in clinical practice, since current manual delineation of the costal cartilage can take up to an hour.

  16. Reliability of cut mark analysis in human costal cartilage: the effects of blade penetration angle and intra- and inter-individual differences.

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    Puentes, K; Cardoso, H F V

    2013-09-10

    Identification of tool class characteristics from cut marks in either bone or cartilage is a valuable source of data for the forensic scientist. Various animal models have been used in experimental studies for the analysis of individual and class characteristics. However, human tissue has seldom been used and it is likely to differ from that of non-humans in key aspects. This study wishes to assess how the knife's blade angle, and both intra- and inter-individual variation in cartilage samples affect the ability of costal cartilage to retain the original class characteristics of the knife, as measured microscopically by the distance between consecutive striations. The 120 cartilaginous samples used in this study originated from the ribcage of 6 male cadavers which were submitted to autopsy at the North Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in Portugal. Three different serrated knives were purchased from a large department store, and were used in the experimental cuts. Samples of costal cartilage from 2 individuals were assigned to each knife. Each individual provided 20 cartilage samples. Cartilage samples were manually cut using each of the three knives, following two motions: one straight up-and-down cutting motion and parallel and one perpendicular to the blade's teeth long axis forward cutting motion. Casts of the samples were made with Mikrosil(®). Image capture and processing were performed with an Olympus stereomicroscope and its software. The blade's penetration angle and inter-individual variation were shown to affect the identification of the tool class characteristics from the striation pattern observed in a kerf wall, although this seems to be related only to the degree of calcification of the costal cartilage. Intra-individual variation does not seem to significantly affect the identification of the tool class characteristics from the striation pattern observed in a kerf wall, for the same knife following the same motion. Although this

  17. Anteroposterior cricoid split interposition costal cartilage grafts for laryngotracheal stenosis in children

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    RUAN Yan-yan; CHEN Wen-xian; CUI Peng-cheng; GAO Peng-fei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of anteroposterior cricoid spliting interposition costal grafting for moderate and severe laryngotracheal stenosis in children. Methods: From 1995 to 2005, 87 children (aged 1.2 to 14 years) with moderate and severe glottic and subglottic stenosis were retrospectively studied. They were operated with cricoid spliting laryngotracheal reconstruction in our hospital. All of 87 patients were tracheostomy-dependent before surgery. Results: Eighty-five patients (95%) were successfully decannnulated and got an effective phonation. The follow-up time was more than 5 years. The effect of operation was satisfactory and the growth and development of children was normal. Conclusion: Anteroposterior cricoid split interposition costal cartilage graft is a safe and effective treatment method formoderate and severe glottic and subglottic stenosis in children.

  18. Modifying the collagen framework of costal cartilage under the impact of UV and a flavin mononucleotide

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    Ignat'eva, N. Yu.; Zakharkina, O. L.; Semchishen, V. A.; Molchanov, M. D.; Lunin, V. V.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    Modifications of the matrix of the tissue of costal cartilage under the impact of UV (λ = 365 nm) and a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is studied. The changes in the macroscopic properties of the tissue are detected by means of differential scanning calorimetry and under the conditions of uniaxial compression during mechanical testing. The endothermic effects of the denaturation of the collagen framework of the tissue and the Young's modulus are determined. It is shown that the presence of a flavin mononucleotide in the interstitial fluid leads lowers the temperature of collagen denaturation by 2.5°C and doubles the Young's modulus. It is found that the temperature of denaturation and the Young's modulus grow gradually after treating the tissue with the UV radiation, and their values ultimately exceed by far the corresponding values for intact samples. It is concluded that the obtained data indicate the possibility of stabilizing the framework of the matrix of costal cartilage under the impact of UV radiation and a flavin mononucleotide.

  19. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

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    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  20. Additional circular intercostal space created by bifurcation of the left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage: a case report.

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    Kumar, Naveen; Guru, Anitha; Patil, Jyothsna; Ravindra, Swamy; Badagabettu, Satheesha Nayak

    2013-01-08

    In the thorax there are normally 11 pairs of intercostal spaces: the spaces between adjacent ribs. The intercostal spaces contain intercostal muscles, intercostal nerves and vessels. During a routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed a variation involving the left 3rd rib and 3rd costal cartilage in the cadaver of a man of Indian ethnicity aged about 65 years. The left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage were bifurcated at their costochondral junction enclosing a small circular additional intercostal space. Muscle tissue covered by deep fascia was present in this circular intercostal space. The muscle in the circular intercostal space received its nerve supply from a branch of the 2nd intercostal nerve. Knowledge of such variations is helpful to surgeons operating on the anterior thoracic wall involving ribs and intercostal spaces. Knowing the possibility of the presence of an additional space between normal intercostal spaces can guide a surgeon through to a successful surgery.

  1. Imaging of irradiated human costal cartilage birefringence by PS-OCT

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    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Santin, Stefany P.; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Bringel, Fabiana A.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: freitas.az@ipen.b, E-mail: rmosca@usp.b, E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sterilization by ionizing radiation is a technique used for tissue banks around the world to avoid transmission of infectious diseases by human allografts. However, high doses of ionizing radiation may cause undesirable changes in tissue structure, decreasing its mechanical properties, for example. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non destructive, non ionizing and real time method to investigate biological tissues without promote any change in tissue structure. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an OCT technique that combines polarimetry with low coherence reflectometry to provide depth resolved measurements from birefringent structures as collagen. Costal cartilages from 15 cadaveric donors were preserved in high concentration glycerol and each individual sample was divided in 6 fragments. One of them was kept as a control group and the others were irradiated with gamma radiation from a Co-60 source with doses of 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy. OCT and PS-OCT images of the same region of the samples were obtained from a device OCS 1300 SS (Thorlabs, USA) with a coupling polarization module PSOCT 1300 (Thorlabs, USA). According with our results, birefringence may be visualized in all test groups as well in the control group, suggesting that sterilization by ionizing radiation does not affect the collagen structure significantly to cause total loss of birefringence, even if high doses as 75 and 100 kGy are used. The next step of our work is to develop a new method to quantify the birefringence using the optical properties of the tissue. (author)

  2. Preserved costal cartilage homograft application for the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis.

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    Demir, Z; Velidedeoğlu, H; Sahin, U; Kurtay, A; Coşkunfirat, O K

    2001-07-01

    temporomandibular joint. In this article, a description of the surgical technique, a review of all cases, and recommendations for the use of this type of graft material are discussed. Our clinical experience over the past 4 years with the use of preserved homologous costal cartilage grafts as interpositional material has been encouraging.

  3. Maxillonasal dysplasia (Binder′s syndrome and its treatment with costal cartilage graft: A follow-up study

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    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillonasal dysplasia or Binder′s syndrome is an uncommon congenital condition characterized by a retruded mid-face with an extremely flat nose. We report here six patients with maxillonasal dysplasia whose noses were corrected with onlay costal cartilage grafts using a combined oral vestibular and external rhinoplasty approach for nasal dorsal augmentation, columellar lengthening, and premaxillary augmentation. The cartilage graft was dipped in a solution of 100 ml 0.9% NaCl and one vial (80mg gentamicin for 30 min to prevent warping. L struts made for nasal augmentation, columellar lengthening, and premaxillary augmentation were fixed to one another by slots made in the graft. This technique has been used in children, adults, and for secondary cases with promising results. All patients were of class I dental occlusion. The nasal and premaxillary augmentation which was monitored by serial photography was found to be stable over a follow-up period of three years

  4. PREVALENCE OF LARYNGEAL CARTILAGE CALCIFICATIONS IN MANGALORE POPULATION; A RADIOGRAPHIC STUDY

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    Nandita Shenoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue calcifications in the orofacial region are uncommon and are usually asymptomatic in nature. Some of the common calcifications found are Carotid artery calcifications (CAC, Triticeous cartilage, and Superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage, Tonsilloliths and lymph nodes calcifications. Disordered ossification or calcification of ligaments or cartilages may compress neurovascular structures, may be able to cause serious implications in any surgical intervention in the region, may lead to false neurological differential diagnosis or may be benign in nature without any clinical significance. Ossification and calcification of the laryngeal cartilages have been widely investigated since the original study by Chievitz in 1882 1 . The thyroid, cricoid, and greater part of the arytenoid cartilages consist of hyaline cartilage that undergoes calcification and ossification as part of the ageing process. The thyroid cartilage tends to be visible on the cephalometric and lateral neck radiograph when the ossification starts within the lamina or either of the cornua. The cricoids and arytenoid cartilages also become apparent when the ossification begins within their laminae. Radiographs of the head and neck are used to study the growth and development of skeletal structures can be used for identification of these calcifications 2 . A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilage ossification is important for all clinicians especially while interpreting head and neck radiographs of patients who exhibit anatomical or functional deviations from the normal. The lateral cephalometric radiographs are advised more commonly by an orthodontist to look for occlusion and lateral profile of the patient pre and post orthodontic treatment. They also demonstrate the posterosuperior part of the lamina, and the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. Laryngeal and related cartilages like the cricoid and triticeal

  5. Additional circular intercostal space created by bifurcation of the left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage: a case report

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    Kumar Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the thorax there are normally 11 pairs of intercostal spaces: the spaces between adjacent ribs. The intercostal spaces contain intercostal muscles, intercostal nerves and vessels. Case presentation During a routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed a variation involving the left 3rd rib and 3rd costal cartilage in the cadaver of a man of Indian ethnicity aged about 65 years. The left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage were bifurcated at their costochondral junction enclosing a small circular additional intercostal space. Muscle tissue covered by deep fascia was present in this circular intercostal space. The muscle in the circular intercostal space received its nerve supply from a branch of the 2nd intercostal nerve. Conclusions Knowledge of such variations is helpful to surgeons operating on the anterior thoracic wall involving ribs and intercostal spaces. Knowing the possibility of the presence of an additional space between normal intercostal spaces can guide a surgeon through to a successful surgery.

  6. Study of physical, chemical and structural effects caused by ionizing radiation and preservation on human costal cartilage; Estudo dos efeitos fisicos, quimicos e estruturais ocasionados pela radiacao ionizante e preservacao em cartilagem costal humana

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    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from cadaver donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues, decreasing the mechanical properties of the grafts. In this work, we evaluate physical/chemical and structural changes in deep-frozen (-70 deg C) or high concentration of glycerol (> 98%) preserved costal cartilage, before and after sterilization by ionizing radiation at 3 different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy). Samples of human costal cartilage were obtained from 20 cadaver donors ranging between 18 and 55 years old. A {sup 60}Co irradiator was used as irradiation source. Thermogravimetry (TG), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and mechanical tension and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the changes in the cartilage. Regarding the thermogravimetric results, the obtained data has shown that the TG curves have the same pattern independently of the sample irradiated or not. On the other hand, non-irradiated samples showed great variability of thermogravimetric curves among different donors and for the same donor. Concerning the mechanical tests, when cartilages were irradiated with 15 kGy, their mechanical strength to tension was increased about 24%, in both deep-froze and preserved in glycerol samples. Samples deep-frozen, when irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy, presented a decrease of their mechanical behavior smaller than those preserved in high concentrations of glycerol and irradiated with the same dose. Therefore, deep-frozen cartilages can be sterilized with doses until 50 kGy and cartilages preserved in high concentrations of glycerol can be sterilized with doses until 25 kGy without significant changes in their bio-mechanical properties.(author)

  7. The importance of costal cartilage framework stabilization in microtia reconstruction: anthropometric comparison based on 216 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Ruhong; Zhang, Qun; Xu, Feng; Li, Datao

    2014-12-01

    This study explored anthropometric changes in the reconstructed auricle and the contralateral normal ear in a series of 216 microtia patients using different stabilization methods. Our main personal modifications concerning the preparation of the framework were the following: 1. The individualized framework grafting was based on patients with different ages and different degrees of the strength and thickness of the rib cartilage. 2. The framework was stabilized as a "C" shape by using a piece of cartilage or suture to reinforce the two end points of the "C". In group A (the thickness of cartilage was more than 5 mm), a block of residual cartilage fixed by wire was added between the tragus and the base frame of the inferior crus by the modified method but was not applied in the original method. In group B (the thickness of cartilage was less than 5 mm), a 4-0 braided suture was used to reinforce the two structures but was not used in the original method. No significant differences were found in the height or width measurements of the cartilage framework and the contralateral normal side in either group at the time of implantation. At the follow-up, the height and width measurements were obviously increased in both groups operated on by the original method compared with the initial implanted or contralateral normal measurements. There were no significant differences in the height or width measurements by the modified method in either group. The authors' techniques produced acceptable results and generated some useful parameters for the growth study of the reconstructed auricle and the contralateral normal ear. The modifications in framework stabilization allow a harmonious outline of the reconstructed auricle to be attained, which is almost symmetrical to the contralateral normal auricle.

  8. [Clinical analysis on characteristics of rib cartilage calcification in congenital microtia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengfeng, Guo; Xiaobo, Yu; Bo, Pan; Lin, Lin; Haiyue, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    To explore the incidence, degree, and pattern of rib cartilage calcification in congenital microtia patients, in order to provide reference for harvesting the rib cartilage, sculpturing cartilage framework. From Jun. 2013 to Nov. 2014, 383 patients (age range, 6-45 years) underwent CT scans of the chest. 11 patients with bony diseases or traumatic history were excluded. The remaining 372 patients were divided by age into four groups as 6-15, 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 years old. Twenty patients (10 male and 10 female) were selected by the order of patient identification number in each age group, thus selecting a total of 80 patients (40 male and 40 female). Retrospective study of CT scans of the chest in 80 patients and the incidence, degree, and pattern of cartilage calcification of the sixth to eighth ribs were noted. A chi-square test is conducted to test whether there are significant difference between the variables through the SPSS 19.0 software. Overall, 40.4% (194/480) cartilage was calcified; female patients (47.50%, 114/240) showed higher frequency of calcification than male patients (33.33%, 80/240, P = 0. 025). Calcification rates of all age groups are 1.7% (2/120), 46.7% (56/ 120), 49.2% (59/120), 64.2% (77/120). Calcification rate of 6-15 years group is lowest in all groups (P 0.05). Calcification rates of the sixth and sevent rib cartilage were higher than those of the eighth rib cartilage in all age groups except 6-15 years group, who had a similar rate of all three ribs. Calcification rate of all three rib cartilage was significantly increased with age. Calcification rates of the amle's rib cartilage and the female's in all age groups are 3.3% (2/60) and 0.0% (0/60) (6-15 years): 33.3% (20/60) and 60.0% (36/60) (16-25 years): 40.0% (24/60) and 58.3% (35/60) (26-35 years), 56.7% (34/60) and 71.2% (43/60) (36-45 years). In 6-15 years group calcification rates of male and female had a similar rate, while female's rates were higher than male's rates in other

  9. THE EFFECT OF DYES ON THE CALCIFICATION OF HYPERTROPHIC RACHITIC CARTILAGE IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zelma B.; Waldman, Jerome; McLean, Franklin C.

    1952-01-01

    The calcification of rat hypertrophic cartilage slices in vitro is markedly inhibited by preliminary exposure to metachromatic and other basic dyes. The dyes are effective at 10–3 to 10–4 M in the absence of calcium and phosphate. This inhibition does not occur at the same low dye concentration if calcium and phosphate are present. Neither ion alone is effective in preventing the inhibition. The inhibitory action can be removed by placing slices which have been treated with basic dye in a solution which contains calcium and phosphate ions, plus an acid dye, Orange G. Most acid dyes do not inhibit calcification, except at very high concentrations. Alizarin and quinalizarin are exceptional, and produce marked inhibition at 10–3 M, an effect which is perhaps attributable to the tendency of these dyes to form lakes with calcium. Rachitic cartilage slices which no longer calcify in inorganic phosphate as a result of treatment with basic dyes show normal calcification in the presence of organic phosphate esters. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that chondroitin sulfate ester participates in normal calcification. PMID:14927802

  10. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Watanabe, Minoru; Yokomi, Izuru; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sudo, Katsuko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Tsuneo; Seki, Azusa; Amano, Hitoshi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Ryu, Kakei; Shibata, Shunichi; Nagayama, Motohiko; Tanuma, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

  11. A case of the application of autogenous costal cartilage combined with polytetralfuoroethylene in treatment of Binder syndrome%自体肋软骨联合膨体聚四氟乙烯治疗Binder综合征一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海; 王润芝; 单磊

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨应用自体肋软骨联合膨体聚四氟乙烯矫正一例Binder综合征患者的面中部后缩及鼻畸形。方法:应用自体肋软骨矫正鼻畸形,膨体聚四氟乙烯填充梨状孔周围。结果:鼻畸形及面中部后缩得到显著改善,术后效果满意。结论:应用自体肋软骨联合膨体聚四氟乙烯可以显著改善Binder综合征鼻畸形和面中部后缩。%ObjectiveTo investigate the application of autologous costal cartilage combined with polytetralfuoroethylene in correction of nasal deformity and midfacial retrusion in one case with Binder syndrome.Methods Autogenous costal cartilage was used for correcting the nasal deformity, and polytetralfuoroethylene was iflled around the piriform aperture.ResultsThe patient achieved remarkable modiifcations in nasal deformity and midfacial retrusion, with satisfactory postoperative outcome. Conclusion The nasal deformity and midfacial retrusion of Binder syndrome can be greatly improved by the combined application of autogenous cartilage and polytetralfuoroethylene.

  12. Matrix stiffness promotes cartilage endplate chondrocyte calcification in disc degeneration via miR-20a targeting ANKH expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Han; Sun, Chao; Yao, Yuan; Fan, Xin; Liu, Huan; Cui, You-Hong; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Yue

    2016-05-04

    The mechanical environment is crucial for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of cartilage endplate (CEP) calcification by altered matrix stiffness remain unclear. In this study, we found that matrix stiffness of CEP was positively correlated with the degree of IDD, and stiff matrix, which mimicked the severe degeneration of CEP, promoted inorganic phosphate-induced calcification in CEP chondrocytes. Co-expression analysis of the miRNA and mRNA profiles showed that increasing stiffness resulted in up-regulation of miR-20a and down-regulation of decreased ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH) during inorganic phosphate-induced calcification in CEP chondrocytes. Through a dual luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-20a directly targets 3'-untranslated regions of ANKH. The inhibition of miR-20a attenuated the calcium deposition and calcification-related gene expression, whereas the overexpression of miR-20a enhanced calcification in CEP chondrocytes on stiff matrix. The rescue of ANKH expression restored the decreased pyrophosphate efflux and inhibited calcification. In clinical samples, the levels of ANKH expression were inversely associated with the degeneration degree of CEP. Thus, our findings demonstrate that the miR-20a/ANKH axis mediates the stiff matrix- promoted CEP calcification, suggesting that miR-20a and ANKH are potential targets in restraining the progression of IDD.

  13. Calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, S.; Erlemann, R.

    1989-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is a rare disease in early to mid-childhood. We describe the case of a young girl who was found to have prominent soft-tissue calcifications on the preoperative chest study. The clinical and radiological symptoms of dermatomyositis are demonstrated and the differential diagnosis of this kind of calcification is discussed.

  14. Study of ionizing radiation effects in human costal cartilage by thermogravimetry and optical coherence tomography; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em cartilagem costal humana por meio de termogravimetria e tomografia por coerencia optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from post mortem donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to identify possible structural modifications caused by both preservation methods of cartilage and gamma irradiation doses. Cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -70 deg C or preserved in glycerol. Irradiation was performed by {sup 60}Co source with doses of 15, 25 and 50 kGy. Our TGA results showed that glycerolized cartilages irradiated with different doses of radiation does not presented statistical differences when compared to the control group for the dehydration rate. However, the same was not observed for deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 15 kGy. The results of OCT associated to total optical attenuation coefficient showed that doses of 15 kGy promote cross-link between collagen fibrils, corroborating the results obtained from TGA. Moreover, total optical attenuation coefficient values are proportional to stress at break of cartilages, what will be very useful in a near future to predict the quality of the allografts, without unnecessary loss of biological tissue, once OCT is a nondestructive technique. By PS-OCT images, we found that high doses of ionizing radiation does not promote sufficient impairments to promote complete loss of tissue birefringence. Thus, TGA and OCT are techniques that can be used for tissue banks to verify tissue quality before its transplant. (author)

  15. An optimized DNA extraction method for costal cartilage by using protinase K and chelex-100%蛋白酶K-Chelex100法提取肋软骨DNA技术的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会品; 王孝力; 杨巍; 谢云铁; 王晓伟; 谢波

    2012-01-01

    目的 优化蛋白酶K的用量和消化时间,用于提取肋软骨DNA.方法 30份肋软骨样本各取大小为0.2cm×0.3cm×0.4cm的软骨块5份,分别编为A~E组.采用不同蛋白酶K用量和消化时间的Chelexl00方法,提取5组各30份软骨块DNA,进行DNA定量、采用Sinofiler试剂盒扩增后进行电泳检测,采用非参数检验法比较检验成功率.结果 A~E组样本中采用加入2μL蛋白酶K并消化30min的D组方法成功率最高(96.7%),组间差异具有统计学意义.结论 采用蛋白酶K-Chelexl00方法,选择加入2μL蛋白酶K,消化30min可有效提高肋软骨DNA分型检验成功率.%Objective To establish an optimized DNA extraction method for costal cartilage by adjusting the volume of proteinase K and digestion time. Methods DNA was isolated from 30 costal cartilages (0.2cm x 0. 3cm ×0. 4cm) of each group (A ~ E) with different volume of proteinase K and sample digestion time. The extracted DNA was quantified, and then amplified with the Sinofiler kit followed by electrophorese. Statistical analysis was carried out for different extraction methods. Results Compared with other treatments, it showed the highest successful rate (96. 7% ) with 2μ,L proteinase K and 30 mins' digestion time at 56℃ (group D). Differences between different groups were significant. Conclusion Proteinase K DNA extraction protocol, with 2jjlL proteinase K and 30 mins' digestion time at 56℃, can isolate DNA from costal cartilage with higher efficiency.

  16. A morphometric study of age-related changes in adult human epiglottis using quantitative digital analysis of cartilage calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Okayama, Keisuke; Igari, Toshirou; Kikuchi, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    males compared to females. Diameter of chondrocytes significantly increased in group III (p<0.05) and was larger in males than in females in group III (p<0.05). Epiglottic cartilage exhibited marked sex-related differences and progression of calcification with age. Calcification of epiglottic cartilage in elderly individuals may affect movement patterns in deglutition.

  17. 鼻整形术中微创小切口自体肋软骨切取术%Self Costal Cartilage for Surgery with Minimal Invasive Minimal Cutting in Rhinoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉丽; 王廷金

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the minimal cutting,the minimal and injury,and get costicartilage farthest without the influence of thorax shape and significant scar,etc. Methods 60 cases with corrective rhinoplasty of cutting costal cartilage from 2010 to 2013 were selected with 15 male cases and 45 female cases,and from eighteen-years old to thirty-two years old. 40 cases got successful operation for the first time,and 20 cases had repair. Costicartilage cutting places were all on the right side. Costicartilage was got through the seventh costicartilage photography incision,with 1.5~3cm incision cut. Operational part can be removed through drag hook removing up and down,with 7cm as the longest distance. During the operation,the released cartilage debris left by carving cartilage was transplanted back into perichondrium. Perichondrium was sutured firmly,and organizations were sutured hierarchically. Reliable fixation was used. Result 60 cases had the primary healing cutting with no complication of hematoma. In six month and one year’s flow- up,there were no visible scars,and no visible trasformation of the struction. Conclusion Self costal cartilage for surgery with minimal invasive minimal cutting in rhinoplasty is worthy of promotion with less pain,no obvious scar and no influence of thorax shape.%目的:探索一种尽可能小的切口,尽可能小的损伤,最大限度获取肋软骨,且不影响胸廓形状,不遗留明显瘢痕等并发症的方法。方法:选择2010年7月~2013年7月行鼻整形术供区肋软骨切取患者共60例,男性15列,女性45例;年龄18~32岁;初次手术者40例,二次修复者20例。肋软骨切取均为右侧。取肋软骨取平行于第七肋软骨体表投影切口,切口长度在1.5~3cm之间.借助于拉钩上下移动暴露手术野,最长可获得长达7cm的软骨量。术中将雕刻软骨剩余的软骨碎片回植到封闭的软骨膜内,坚实缝合软骨膜,分层缝合组织。并

  18. Spondylo-costal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.

    1984-02-01

    Fourteen patients with spondylo-costal dysplasia were analysed. 3 of them presented without obvious associated anomalies ''pure'' spondylo-costal dysplasias; 2 had several components consistent with Vater (Vacterl)-Association; 2 showed malformations which are often encountered in Vater (Vacterl)-Association; 4 presented with minor malformations; 3 had major associated malformations rarely seen in Vater (Vacterl)-Association. Thoracic spine and costal malsegmentation can be sporadically observed in other ''errors in septation complex'' (axial mesodermal dysplasia) including severe myelomeningocoele and diastematomyelia.

  19. Investigation of Engineered Cartilage Formed from Coculture of Costal Chondrocytes and Dental Pulp Cells:a Preliminary Study%牙髓细胞和肋软骨细胞共培养形成组织工程软骨的胶原类型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷鹏; 袁冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究牙髓细胞和肋软骨细胞共培养形成的组织工程软骨的胶原类型。方法:人肋软骨细胞和牙髓细胞按1∶1的比例用微团法共培养来促进其向软骨细胞分化。应用苦味酸天狼猩红染色,偏正光检测法研究形成的组织工程软骨胶原类型,并与颅颌面区域软骨进行比较。结果:肋软骨细胞和牙髓细胞微团法共培养形成的组织工程软骨中以I型胶原为主,同时包括II和III 型胶原纤维,其纤维结构组成与肋软骨、髁突软骨增殖层及颞下颌关节盘的纤维结构相似。结论:肋软骨细胞和牙髓细胞共培养可形成的组织工程软骨,其组织结构与纤维软骨相似。%Objective:This preliminary study aimed to explore the collagen types of engineered cartilage formed from co-culturing costal chondrocytes (CCs) and dental pulp cells (DPCs). Methods: Human CCs and human DPCs were mixed at a ratio of 1∶1 to form pellets, and were co-cultured in chondrogenic medium to promote chondrogenic differentiation of DPCs. Then the picric acid/sirius red staining and polarization microscopy were used to explore the collagen types of the engineered cartilage. Results: The formed engineered cartilage was mainly composed of type I collagen, simultaneously including type II and type III collagen. The histological structure of engineered cartilage was similar to that of costal cartilage, temporomandibular joint disc cartilage, and the proliferation layer of condylar cartilage. Conclusion: The engineered cartilage formed from co-culturing CCs and DPCs was similar with fibrous cartilage.

  20. Hyaline cartilage calcification of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is associated with osteoarthritis but independent of age and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Hawellek, Thelonius; Hischke, Sandra; Bertrand, Jessica; Krause, Matthias; Püschel, Klaus; Rüther, Wolfgang; Niemeier, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    Hyaline cartilage calcification (CC) is associated with osteoarthritis (OA) in hip and knee joints. The first metatarsophalangeal joint (1(st)MTPJ) is frequently affected by OA, but it is unclear if CC occurs in the 1(st)MTPJ. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of CC of the 1(st)MTPJ in the general population by high-resolution digital contact radiography (DCR) and to determine its association with histological OA severity, age and body mass index (BMI). 168 metatarsal heads of 84 donors (n = 47 male, n = 37 female; mean age 62.73 years, SD ±18.8, range 20-93) were analyzed by DCR for the presence of CC. Histological OA grade (hOA) by OARSI was analyzed in the central load-bearing zone of the first metatarsal head (1(st) MH). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to analyze the interrelationship between CC, hOA, age and BMI. The prevalence of CC of 1(st)MH was 48.8 % (41/84) (95 %-CI [37.7 %, 60.0 %]), independent of the affected side (p = 0.42), gender (p = 0.41) and BMI (p = 0.51). The mean amount of CC of one MH correlated significantly with that of the contralateral side (rs = 0.4, 95 %-CI [0.26, 0.52], p cartilage area) of the MH correlated significantly with the severity of hOA (rs = 0.51, 95 %-CI [0.32, 0.65], p < 0.001). SEM revealed significant associations between CC and hOA (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) and between hOA and age (β = 0.62, p = 0.001), but not between CC and age (p = 0.15). There was no significant influence of BMI on either CC (p = 0.37) or hOA (p = 0.16). The observation that CC of the 1(st)MH is significantly associated with the severity of OA but independent of age and BMI, suggests an intimate relationship between CC and the pathogenesis of OA, the exact nature of which will have to be explored by future studies.

  1. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  2. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered.

  3. 漏斗胸肋软骨基质的形态学与组织化学研究%The morphological and histochemical properties of costal cartilage matrix in children with pectus excavatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杰雄; 胡廷泽; 刘文英

    2001-01-01

    目的了解漏斗胸肋软骨基质形态学与组织化学特征。方法对19例漏斗胸和14例同年龄儿童肋软骨基质的胶原进行电镜观察并对II型胶原进行免疫组化染色,对基质中蛋白多糖进行PAS和Safranin-O染色。将所有染色结果进行图像分析。结果与对照组相比,电镜下病变组肋软骨基质中胶原分布不均、排列紊乱;II型胶原免疫组化染色发现肋软骨深层II型胶原分布不均,但浅、深层II型胶原的染色强度没有明显改变;PAS和Safranin-O染色发现基质中蛋白多糖的含量与分布均无明显改变。结论漏斗胸肋软骨基质中蛋白多糖含量与分布及II型胶原的含量无明显改变,而基质中的胶原分布与排列异常,后者可能与漏斗胸肋软骨生物力学性能降低有关。%Objective: To evaluate the omrphological and histochemical properties of cartilage matrix of children with pectus excavatum(PE). Methods: The collagen of cartialge matrix of 19 PE and of 14 age-matched children was examined by transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and immunohistochemical staining examination. Meanwhile, the proteoglycan was studied by PAS and Safranin-O staining examination. All of the results of stanining were also analysed by the GT-2 model of image analysis software. Results: Compared with control group, although the intensity of type II collagen was intact, unequally distribution of collagen had been found by the TEM and immunohistochemical staining examination. The intensity and distribution of proteoglycan of PE group remained normal found by the PAS and Safranin-O staining examination. Conclusion: Although the intensity and distribution of proteoglycan was intact, as well as intensity of collagen, the distribution of collagen in PE was abnormal, and this change may possibly be related to the defectiveness of costal cartialge of PE.

  4. The junction between hyaline cartilage and engineered cartilage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Makoto; Komura, Hiroko; Otani, Yushi; Kanamori, Yutaka; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Tsuyoshi, Takato; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Tracheoplasty using costal cartilage grafts to enlarge the tracheal lumen was performed to treat congenital tracheal stenosis. Fibrotic granulomatous tissue was observed at the edge of grafted costal cartilage. We investigated the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the engineered cartilage plates that were generated by auricular chondrocytes for fabricating the airway. Controlled, prospecive study. In group 1, costal cartilage from New Zealand white rabbits was collected and implanted into a space created in the cervical trachea. In group 2, chondrocytes from auricular cartilages were seeded on absorbable scaffolds. These constructs were implanted in the subcutaneous space. Engineered cartilage plates were then implanted into the trachea after 3 weeks of implantation of the constructs. The grafts in group 1 and 2 were retrieved after 4 weeks. In group 1, histological studies of the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the implanted costal cartilage demonstrated chondrogenic tissue in four anastomoses sides out of the 10 examined. In group 2, the junction between the native trachea and the engineered cartilage showed neocartilage tissue in nine anastomoses sides out of 10. Engineered cartilage may be beneficial for engineered airways, based on the findings of the junction between the native and engineered grafts. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Treatment of flaring of the costal arch after the minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgraaf, R.P.; Aronson, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Flaring of the costal arch may be part of the pectus excavatum deformity. This aspect will in rare cases be even worsen after the Nuss repair. This remaining deformity can be treated with a minimal subperichondral partial resection of the costal arch cartilage. In 5 patients, this additional techniq

  6. The effect of diode laser treatment for hair removal of post-auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap%半导体激光治疗耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术后耳廓多毛疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子涵; 李高峰; 谭军; 丁卫; 张帆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察半导体激光对耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术后耳廓多毛的治疗效果。方法:使用美国科医人(Lumenis)公司Lightsheer 800 nm半导体激光进行治疗。耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术III期手术后1~3个月开始行激光脱毛治疗。结果:19例患者通过1~7次的脱毛治疗,均取得了良好的效果,治疗期间无严重的不良反应。结论:Lightsheer 800 nm半导体激光对耳后延迟皮瓣加自体肋软骨立体支架法耳再造术后耳廓多毛的治疗效果良好,使再造耳的形态更美观。%Objective To observe the effect of diode laser treatment for hair removal of post-auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap. Methods To use Lightsheer,800nm diode laser to perform the treatment.Hair removal treatment was performed after the third phase operation of auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap. Results All of 19 patients got good result after hair removal treatment after 1 to 7 times.No serious complications occur during treatment. Conclusion Lightsheer,800nm diode laser is a safe and effective treatment of hair removal after auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage grafts and delaying postauricular skin flap. That makes the shape of reconstructive ear preferable.

  7. Multiple Division of Costal Cartilages and Steel Strut Internal Fixation in the Treatment of Congenital Pectus Excavatum%肋软骨多段切断、钢支撑架固定术治疗先天性漏斗胸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范铮

    1989-01-01

    我院自1986年11月~1988年5月用自制不锈钢支撑架做钢支撑架固定术治疗先天性漏斗胸12例,取得较好的疗效.本法手术操作简便,对小儿打击小,出血很少,手术时间短,安全,无1例反常呼吸,也无胸骨感染等合并症.本文着重介绍手术方法,并结合文献对漏斗胸的手术方法进行探讨.%Twelve cases of congenital pectus excava rum were trcated by means of multiple division of costal cartilages and internal fixation using a self-made stainless steel strut in 1986.11-1988.5.The operative Procedure is simple and easy.Its advantages are time-saving,less bleeding,least traumatic striking and rarely demaging the pleura.Postoperative complications,such as,paradoxical respiration,sternal infection and necrosis,or sternomalasia never octurred,and patients never needed intensive care.A comparative study of various operations for congenital pectus excavatum is discussed in this paper.

  8. Calcific tendonitis : a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohr, Claudia M; Fahey, Mark; Rosenthal, Ann K

    2007-01-01

    Calcific tendonitis is a common clinical condition associated with high rates of tendon rupture, prolonged symptoms, and poor response to therapy. Little is known about the pathogenesis of calcifications in tendons and consequently few effective therapies are available. We hypothesized that tendon calcification, like pathologic calcification in other sites, was generated by extracellular organelles known as matrix vesicles and that isolated matrix vesicles would constitute the basis for a useful model of this process. Tendon matrix vesicles were isolated from adult porcine patellar tendons using enzymatic digestion and differential centrifugation. Vesicle morphology was examined with electron microscopy. Levels of calcium, phosphate, pyrophosphate, ATP, and mineralization-associated enzymes were measured and compared with articular cartilage vesicles from porcine articular cartilage. Vesicles were embedded in agarose gels with or without type I collagen or dermatan sulfate and incubated in calcifying salt solution trace labeled with (45)calcium. (45)Calcium in the vesicle fraction was measured after 5-7 days. The type of mineral formed was determined by micro-x-ray diffraction. Matrix vesicles isolated from adult porcine tendon were similar morphologically to those obtained from articular cartilage. They contained mineralization-related enzymes and formed hydroxyapatite mineral in vitro. Mineralization was suppressed by levamisole and modulated by extracellular matrix components. Matrix vesicles isolated from tendons mineralize in vitro. This model may aid in the study of the pathogenesis of calcific tendonitis as well as serve as a means to identify effective therapies for this common disorder.

  9. [Ectopic calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    Calcium deposition can be observed in many tissues in addition to bones and teeth which physiologically calcify. This unphysiological calcification can damage several organs. It has been shown that vascular calcification which is a risk factor for cardiovascular events develops through similar mechanisms to physiological calcification. Further studies to clarify detailed mechanisms of calcification are necessary to develop measures that inhibit unphysiological ectopic calcification without affecting physiological calcification in bones and teeth.

  10. Management of chest deformity caused by microtia reconstruction: Comparison of autogenous diced cartilage versus cadaver cartilage graft partial filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ju Young; Kang, Bo Young; Hwang, Jin Hee; Oh, Kap Sung

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent chest wall deformity after costal cartilage graft are ongoing. In this study, we introduce a new method to prevent donor site deformation using irradiated cadaver cartilage (ICC) and compare this method to the autogenous diced cartilage (ADC) technique. Forty-two pediatric patients comprised the ADC group (n = 24) and the ICC group (n = 18). After harvesting costal cartilage, the empty perichondrial space was filled with autologous diced cartilage in the ADC group and cadaver cartilage in the ICC group. Digital photographs and rib cartilage three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed to compare the preventive effect of donor site deformity. We compared the pre- and postoperative costal cartilage volumes using 3D-CT and graded the volumes (grade I: 0%-25%, grade II: 25%-50%, grade III: 50%-75%, and grade IV: 75%-100%). The average follow-up period was 20 and 24 months in the ADC and ICC groups, respectively. Grade IV maintenance of previous costal cartilage volume was evident postoperatively in 22% of patients in the ADC group and 82% of patients in the ICC group. Intercostal space narrowing and chest wall depression were less in the ICC group. There were no complications or severe resorption of cadaver cartilage. ICC support transected costal ring and prevented stability loss by acting as a spacer. The ICC technique is more effective in preventing intercostal space narrowing and chest wall depression than the ADC technique. Samsung Medical Center Institution Review Board, Unique protocol ID: 2009-10-006-008. This study is also registered on PRS (ClinicalTrials.gov Record 2009-10-006). Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatocellular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claus; Frifelt, J J

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy of a twenty year old girl dying from complications of renal and cardiac failure demonstrated severe hepatocellular calcification, a rare finding. The pathogenesis is thought to be a combination of dystrophic calcification caused by severe centrilobular necrosis and metastatic calcification...

  12. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  13. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldes, K. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Lenchik, L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Clopton, P. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkan, Marcelo; Sá, Alvaro Julio de Andrade; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2012-10-01

    Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad(®); 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage). Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) for the variable "area". There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%). The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.

  15. Techniques for diced cartilage with deep temporalis fascia graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Jay; Kwon, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Diced cartilage with deep temporalis fascia (DC-F) graft has become a popular technique for reconstruction of the nasal dorsum. Cartilage can be obtained from the septum, ear, or costal cartilage when employing the DC-F technique. The complications seen with DC-F grafts tend to occur early in the surgeon's implementation of this technique. Management of the complications varies depending on the severity of the problem. This article gives an overview of both the technique and the complications commonly encountered.

  16. Cartilage Calcification Mimics Polychondritis in Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 58 year-old male patient with sternal pain was referred to our Nuclear Medicine Clinic for bone scintigraphy for 2.5 months. Markedly increased activity accumulation in the first bilateral sternocostal junction and increased activity accumulations in 3rd, 4th, 5th sternocostal junctions and lateral portion of inferior part of corpus sterni were seen in late static images without increased perfusion and hyperemia. Soft tissue density and lytic lesions were seen bilaterally in bilateral first costa, sternocostal joints and in right side of xiphoid in his 3D computed tomography (CT. Sternocostal lesions that were seen in bone scintigraphy and CT, was reported as normal in biopsy.

  17. [Osteomuscular serrato-costal free flap: application to mandibular reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, P; Henry, J F; Crezoit, E; Souchere, B; Freidel, M

    1992-06-01

    The serrato-costal free flap provides a large costal flap vascularized by a digitation of the serratus anterior muscle supplied by the dorsal thoracic artery. The flap is easy and rapid to raise with low morbidity. The repair obtained is functionally very satisfactory, but does not allow insertion of an implant. Six cases are reported. The indications of this technique of mandibular reconstruction are discussed.

  18. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF TOURIST SEASON IN COSTAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Corluka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism seasonality is the major characteristic of tourism industry, a well know but less understood phenomenon. Seasonal fluctuations of tourism demand are implying numerous negative implications affecting tourist destination, tourist operators and tourist demand. Almost every tourist destination is facing seasonality, but the most pronounced seasonal concentration of tourist activities have costal destinations which attract tourist demand motivated primary by the 3S – sun, sand and sea concept. Seasonality in business operation is the most challenging in tourist companies with a large share of fixed capacity, as the hotel accommodating sector. Former research of causes of seasonality, implications of seasonality and potential strategies to combat seasonality had methodological flaw. Tourism product, as a product with seasonal characteristic, requires analysis of performance by season. The objective of this paper is to classify tourist season in coastal tourist destinations regarding hotel occupancy rates. This is the first attempt to empirically classify tourist season. Sample surveys are 218 hotels located in Dalmatia, Croatia. Cluster analysis on hotel occupancy rate date was conducted, whereby the statistical significance between seasons were testes by Friedman test and the statistical significance between destinations were tested by F-test and ANOVA. Further, factor analysis was conducted to test the achieved results. Regarding the research result tourist season can be divided into three seasons: low, medium and high. Low season as the longest consisting of five months: January, February, March, November and December, middle season as the shortest consisting of three months: April, May and October and high season consisting of four months: June, July, August and September. Research findings are a significant contribution to tourism theory and practice.

  20. Semiquantitative correction of posttraumatic enophthalmos with sliced cartilage grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Hirose, T; Furuta, S; Hayashi, M; Watanabe, T

    1989-03-01

    A simple surgical technique for correcting posttraumatic enophthalmos is described. The steps are as follows: (1) a plaster mold is obtained of the patient's face, (2) wax is added to the enophthalmic eye of the plaster mold until it becomes symmetrical, (3) the quantity of wax is measured, and (4) the same amount of sliced costal cartilage is implanted beneath the periosteum of the extended orbital wall behind the vertical axis of the globe. Using this technique, we have successfully treated six patients with traumatic orbital floor defects without complication. This approach is useful for decreasing the orbital volume using a semiquantitative procedure to estimate the amount of graft material required. In this respect, costal cartilage demonstrates a marked advantage, with stability and cosmetic appearance verified over 12 months of follow-up.

  1. Inhibitory role of Notch1 in calcific aortic valve disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Acharya

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs. We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism.

  2. Diced Cartilage Grafts Wrapped in Rectus Abdominis Fascia for Nasal Dorsum Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkes, Nazim; Basaran, Karaca

    2016-01-01

    Dorsum augmentation is one of the most delicate components of rhinoplasty. Although various solid grafts have been used in the past for this purpose, diced cartilage grafts wrapped in fascia have become popular in recent decades. In this study, the authors analyze and discuss the results of using diced cartilage grafts wrapped in rectus abdominis muscle fascia for dorsal augmentation. Nasal dorsum augmentation using the diced cartilage wrapped in rectus abdominis fascia technique was performed on 109 patients between 2008 and 2014. Six patients were primary cases, 69 patients were secondary, and 18 were tertiary. Sixteen patients had previously undergone more than three operations. In all patients, the rectus abdominis fascia was harvested with the described technique and wrapped around the diced cartilages obtained from the costal cartilage. The average follow-up period was 19.6 months (range, 6 to 47 months). Satisfactory results were obtained with acceptable complications and revision rates. Three patients underwent reoperation because of overcorrection. Insufficient augmentation was seen in five patients. In four patients, infection developed after postoperative day 5. One patient complained of a hypertrophic scar on the donor site. None of the patients showed any symptoms indicating an abdominal hernia. Techniques using diced cartilage grafts wrapped in fascia have now become the gold standard for dorsal augmentations. When it is considered that secondary cases requiring dorsal augmentation are usually those also needing costal cartilage grafts, rectus abdominis fascia becomes a useful carrier for diced cartilages, which is in the same donor area. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. Fracturas costales múltiples asociadas a tos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Bosio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La tos es un frecuente motivo de consulta en la práctica ambulatoria. Aunque generalmente es autolimitada, cuando es crónica e intensa puede ser causa de complicaciones como síncope, neumotórax o más raramente fracturas costales. Presentamos un paciente con fracturas costales múltiples inducidas por la tos. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por un centellograma solicitado luego de la sospecha clínica debida a la intensidad y persistencia del dolor y a pesar de no mostrar alteraciones en las radiografías convencionales. Un centellograma de control a los 5 meses mostró desaparición de los focos hipercaptantes. Las fracturas costales múltiples son una complicación infrecuente de la tos que debería considerarse cuando el dolor torácico es intenso y persistente aun con radiografía de tórax o parrilla costal normal.Multiple rib fractures associated with cough

  4. 血液透析患者血清软骨寡聚基质蛋白浓度与血管钙化及心血管事件关系的探讨%The correlation of plasma cartilage oligomeric matrix protein with vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 戈艳蕾; 王田力; 孔炜; 王悦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血液透析患者血清软骨寡聚基质蛋白(cartilage oligomeric matrix protein,COMP)浓度与血管钙化及心血管事件的关系.方法 比较血液透析患者与正常对照组血清COMP浓度的差异,且根据患者血清COMP水平,将北京大学第三医院血液净化中心54例维持性血液透析患者分成高、低浓度2组,胸片法评估2组间基线血管钙化情况,并随访20个月,观察2组间心血管事件的发生情况.结果 低浓度组和高浓度组的基线血管钙化发生率分别是64.5%(20/31)和91.3%(21/23),差异有统计学意义(x2=5.184,P=0.023),相应的随访过程中心血管事件的发生率分别是10.4%(3/29)和40.9%(9/22),差异有统计学意义(x2=6.495,P=0.011).回归分析提示高浓度血清COMP是维持性血液透析患者发生严重心血管事件的预测因素之一.结论 血液透析患者血清COMP浓度可能是血管钙化及心血管事件的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the correlation of plasma cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)with vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. Methods Plasma COMP levels in hemodialysis patients and normal controls were determined and analyzed. Fifty-four hemodialysis patients were divided into two groups based on plasma COMP level, and they were followed up for 20 months. Vascular calcification of thoracic aorta was evaluated by chest X-ray examination at the beginning. Cardiovascular events were analyzed at the end of the follow-up period. Results At the beginning of the follow-up period, vascular calcification was detected in 20/31 and 21/23 patients in the low COMP group and the high COMP group, respectively (64.5% vs. 91.3%, P =0.023). During the follow-up period, cardiovascular events were found in 3/29 and 9/22 patients in the low COMP group and the high COMP group, respectively (10.4% vs. 40.9%, p=0.011). Regression analysis showed that higher plasma COMP level was one of risk

  5. Analysis of transient saltwater intrusion in costal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Yeh, H.

    2009-12-01

    In a costal aquifer, the seawater intrusion is a classic environmental and economical problem in groundwater hydrology. For modeling this phenomenon, the Henry’s formulation was usually adopted to describe the coupled system of flow and transport equations with variable density. However, it is an arduous task to solve such a problem due to the complexity of the coupled governing equations. For practical applicability, the mixed boundary condition which differs from the Dirichlet boundary condition at the coastal side in Henry’s problem is considered in this study. A depth of interface between freshwater and seawater is specified at the coast boundary and the Neumann and Dirichlet conditions are used, respectively, to describe the costal boundary. The perturbation method with a small parameter is used to decouple the groundwater flow and transport equations and derive the solution for the transient saltwater intrusion model. The model will be compared with some results obtained from finite element simulations.

  6. Purification of matrix Gla protein from a marine teleost fish, Argyrosomus regius: calcified cartilage and not bone as the primary site of MGP accumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, D C; Williamson, M K; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Viegas, C S B; Price, P A; Cancela, M L

    2003-02-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K-dependent, Gla-containing proteins, and in mammals, birds, and Xenopus, its mRNA was previously detected in extracts of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues (mainly heart and kidney), whereas the protein was found to accumulate mainly in bone. However, at that time, it was not evaluated if this accumulation originated from protein synthesized in cartilage or in bone cells because both coexist in skeletal structures of higher vertebrates and Xenopus. Later reports showed that MGP also accumulated in costal calcified cartilage as well as at sites of heart valves and arterial calcification. Interestingly, MGP was also found to accumulate in vertebra of shark, a cartilaginous fish. However, to date, no information is available on sites of MGP expression or accumulation in teleost fishes, the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates, who have in their skeleton mineralized structures with both bone and calcified cartilage. To analyze MGP structure and function in bony fish, MGP was acid-extracted from the mineralized matrix of either bone tissue (vertebra) or calcified cartilage (branchial arches) from the bony fish, Argyrosomus regius, separated from the mineral phase by dialysis, and purified by Sephacryl S-100 chromatography. No MGP was recovered from bone tissue, whereas a protein peak corresponding to the MGP position in this type of gel filtration was obtained from an extract of branchial arches, rich in calcified cartilage. MGP was identified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, and the resulting protein sequence was used to design specific oligonucleotides suitable to amplify the corresponding DNA by a mixture of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5'rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE)-PCR. In parallel, ArBGP (bone Gla protein, osteocalcin) was also identified in the same fish, and its complementary DNA cloned by an identical procedure. Tissue distribution/accumulation was

  7. Shark cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sarcoma, that is more common in people with HIV infection. Shark cartilage is also used for arthritis, psoriasis, ... Neovastat) by mouth seems to increase survival in patients with advanced kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma). This product has FDA “Orphan Drug ...

  8. Setup of Columellar Height with Costal Cartilage Graft Modification in a Patient with Binder Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Uygur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Binder syndrome is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the nose and maxilla and altered morphology of the associated soft tissue. We present a surgical technique for setting up the columellar height in a patient with Binder syndrome.

  9. Long-term use and follow-up of autologous and homologous cartilage graft in rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemali Khorasani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cartilage grafting is used in rhinoplasty and reconstructive surgeries. Autologous rib and nasal septum cartilage (auto graft is the preferred source of graft material in rhinoplasty, however, homologous cartilage (allograft has been extensively used to correct the nasal framework in nasal deformities. Autologous cartilage graft usage is restricted with complication of operation and limiting availability of tissue for extensive deformities. Alternatively, preserved costal cartilage allograft represents a readily available and easily contoured material. The current study was a formal systematic review of complications associated with autologous versus homologous cartilage grafting in rhinoplasty patients. Methods: In this cohort retrospective study, a total of 124 patients undergone primary or revision rhinoplasty using homologous or autologus grafts with postoperative follow-up ranging from 6 to 60 months were studied. The types of grafts and complications related to the grafts were evaluated. This included evaluation for warping, infection, resorption, mobility and fracture. Results: The total complications related to the cartilage grafts were 7 cases, which included 1 warped in auto graft group, three cases of graft displacement (two in allograft group and one in auto graft group and three fractures in allograft group. No infection and resorption was recorded. Complication rate (confidence interval 0.95 in autologous and homologous group were 1.25(0.4-3.88 and 2.08(0.78-5.55 in 1000 months follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between autologous and homologous group complications. Onset of complication in autologous and homologous group were 51.23(49.27-53.19 and 58.7(54.51-62.91 month respectively (P=0.81. Conclusion: The allograft cartilage has the advantage of avoiding donor-site scar. Moreover, it provides the same benefits as autologous costal cartilage with comparable complication rate. Therefore, it

  10. Calcification of multipotent prostate tumor endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Andrew C; Khan, Zia A; Shih, Shou-Ching; Kang, Soo-Young; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Bischoff, Joyce; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Solid tumors require new blood vessels for growth and metastasis, yet the biology of tumor-specific endothelial cells is poorly understood. We have isolated tumor endothelial cells from mice that spontaneously develop prostate tumors. Clonal populations of tumor endothelial cells expressed hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiated to form cartilage- and bone-like tissues. Chondrogenic differentiation was accompanied by an upregulation of cartilage-specific col2a1 and sox9, whereas osteocalcin and the metastasis marker osteopontin were upregulated during osteogenic differentiation. In human and mouse prostate tumors, ectopic vascular calcification was predominately luminal and colocalized with the endothelial marker CD31. Thus, prostate tumor endothelial cells are atypically multipotent and can undergo a mesenchymal-like transition.

  11. Transplantation of rib cartilage reshaped with 1.56 μm laser radiation in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, E.; Baum, O.; Alexandrovskaya, Yu.; Shekhter, A.; Selezneva, L.; Svistuskin, V.

    2017-02-01

    As cartilage is an ideal natural material for transplantation, its use in the ENT surgery is limited by a difficulty to get proper shape of cartilage implants. Aim of the work is to make ring-shaped cartilage implants, to check their stability after laser reshaping and to perform transplantation into rabbits in vivo. We experimented with costal cartilages of 1-2 mm in thickness obtained from 3rd and 4rd ribs of a rabbit. 1.56 μm laser (Arcuo Medical Inc.) was used for cartilage reshaping. The laser settings were established taking into account anisotropy of cartilage structure for different orientation of the implants. The reshaped cartilage implants were surgically sewn to rib cartilages of the other rabbits. The rabbits were slaughtered in 3.5-4 months after surgery. The results have shown that (1) all reshaped implants kept circular form, and (2) the implants were adhered to the native rabbit cartilage sites (3) pronounced signs of regeneration in the intermediate zones were observed. The prospects of the cartilage implants use in larynx stenosis surgery are discussed.

  12. Physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keberle, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Robinson, S. [DiagnoseZentrumUrania, Wien (Austria)

    2007-08-15

    The aim was to give a systematic presentation of physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck with a special emphasis on clinical relevance. In a sometimes subacute setting one should recognize specific calcifications which often lead to important diagnoses such as fungal sinusitis or sclerosing labyrinthitis. In a more chronic situation intraocular calcifications in small children are pathognomonic for retinoblastoma. Juxtatumoral sclerosis of the laryngeal cartilage in laryngopharyngeal carcinoma is usually caused by tumor infiltration of the cartilage resulting in a higher tumor stage and, this way, has a major impact on the therapeutical strategy. Calcified lymph nodes are mainly unspecific but can be the result of tuberculosis or metastases of thyroid cancer. Cross-sectional imaging methods, most of all computed tomography, are ideally suited to reveal head and neck calcifications and ossifications, especially those which are clinically relevant. (orig.)

  13. Distribution and ultrastructure of the stomata connecting the pleural cavity with lymphatics in the rat costal pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q X; Ohtani, O; Saitoh, M; Ohtani, Y

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the detailed distribution and ultrastructure of the stomata connecting the pleural cavity and the lymphatics in the rat costal pleura by scanning electron, transmission electron and light microscopy. The mesothelial cells lining the costal pleura appeared as both flattened and thick cell bodies. The thick cells possessed more rough endoplasmic reticula, Golgi complexes, mitochondria, and free ribosomes than the flattened cells. The thick cells were distributed in the intercostal regions each cephalic to the junction of the costal cartilage and bone, and in the band-like regions along the cephalic and caudal sides of each rib in the lateral and dorsal thoracic walls. In the regions lined with thick cells, there were stomata [12.9 +/- 10.3 microns2 (mean +/- SD) in area] consisting of prolongations of thick mesothelial cells and funnel-like projections of lymphatic endothelial cells that came up along the rims of the pores (5.9 +/- 3.2 microns2 in average area) in the submesothelial collagen fiber network. At the stomata, the basal lamina of the mesothelium was continuous with that of the endothelium. The mesothelial cells forming the stomata were mostly in close contact with the endothelial cells, but some gaps also existed between them. Valve-like endothelial flaps were frequently observed wherever endothelial cells constituting the stomata merged into the submesothelial lymphatics. Also present were lymphatic bulges that were either in close contact with the base of the thick mesothelial cells or exposed through the mesothelial pores. The lymphatic network was especially well developed in the submesothelial layer at and around the thick-cell regions. The initial lymphatics drained into the intercostal collecting lymphatics, which in turn led into either the parasternal or paravertebral lymphatic trunk. Our results suggest that the stomata play a major role in absorbing fluids and particulates in the pleural cavity. The thick mesothelial cells

  14. Growth Pattern of Atherosclerotic Calcifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lene Lillemark; Ganz, Melanie; Dam, Erik

    2008-01-01

    of the calcifications are matched longitudinally using thin plate spline registration and area overlap calculations. The growth of the calcifications is measured by the distribution of the geometry statistics of the calcifications. The method was evaluated on 135 subjects with a total number of 611 calcifications. Our...

  15. Fijador externo para el tratamiento del Volet Costal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navarro Milián

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el tratamiento definitivo del volet costal hemos realizado una innovación técnica para la confección de un fijador externo, a fin de lograr una estabilización torácica por tracción mediante apoyo externo. Para su construcción sólo se utilizan accesorios quirúrgicos baratos y elementos materiales fácilmente asequibles. En su colocación y retirada sólo es necesaria la realización de un procedimiento de penetración corporal de acceso mínimo. Son presentados 40 pacientes tratados con el dispositivo, y se obtuvo una tracción esquelética efectiva, bajo índice de complicaciones y una definitiva resolución del movimiento paradójico de la pared costal. Tubos plásticos multiperforados para el apoyo externo, alambres de Kirschner que penetran supraperiósticamente la pared torácica inestable, varillas de Steiman que mantienen la estabilidad estructural del conjunto, así como 50 cm de goma elástica tubular que garantiza una tracción ajustable accesoria, configuran un sencillo modelo biomecánico con el que se obtiene la fuerza de tracción deseadaFor the definitive treatment of flail chest we have introduced a technical innovation to make an external fixative aimed at attaining a thoracic stabilization by traction through external support. Only cheap surgical accesories and easily available materials are used for its construction. To place and withdraw it, it is only necessary a procedure of corporal penetration of minimun access. 40 patients treated with the device were presented. An effective skeletal traction, a low index of complications and a definitive resolution of the paradoxical movement of the costal wall were obtained. Multiperforated plastic tubes for external support, Kirschner's wires penetrating supraperiostically into the unstable thoracic wall, Steiman's pins maintaining the structural stability of aggregate, as well as 50 cm of tubular elastic gum guaranteeing an adjustable accesory traction, form a single

  16. Intracranial calcifications. A pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, R; Grech, S; Mizzi, A

    2012-09-01

    Brain calcifications are a common radiographic finding. The pathogenesis is diverse and ranges from benign physiological calcifications to a variety of pathological disorders. Whereas certain calcifications are considered an incidental finding, their presence can sometimes be crucial in making a specific diagnosis. Several pathological conditions affecting the brain parenchyma are associated with calcifications and their recognition and location might help in narrowing the differential. Knowledge of physiological calcifications is essential to avoid misinterpretation. This review illustrates a broad spectrum of CNS disorders associated with calcifications, and tries to highlight the salient radiological findings.

  17. [Autologous rib cartilage harvesting: operative procedure and postoperative pain reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasp, G; Staudenmaier, R; Ledderose, H; Kastenbauer, E

    2000-03-01

    In reconstructive surgery there is a growing demand for cartilage grafts. For small amounts of autologous tissue, cartilage from the nasal septum or ear concha is a sufficient and reliable tissue, but in cases of extensive defects or higher mechanical load autologous rib cartilage is a commonly used transplant. Nevertheless, a serious donor-site morbidity, especially postoperative pain, has to be taken into consideration. We present a modified technique for harvesting rib cartilage with a consecutive local pain therapy. In contrast to the commonly used incision through all layers of tissue the described technique follows the anatomical structures of skin tension-lines, the fascial and muscle fibers and tissue sliding-planes. Starting with a transversal skin incisions 1.5 cm above the costal arch, longitudinal splitting of the rectus abdominis fascia and muscle, the rib cartilage of the ribs 6 to 8 can be exposed. Grafts in the size of at least 3 to 8 cm can be harvested under preservation of the perichondrium. This technique causes a high degree of stability and good function of the abdominal wall. POSTOPERATIVE PAIN THERAPY: After harvesting rib cartilage most patients complain about extensive postoperative pain. For adequate treatment the local application of a long-lasting anesthetic substance close to the intercostal nerves is helpful. The introduction of a peridural catheter opens the feasibility of continuously applying a local anesthetic for 3 to 4 days directly into the donor-site. This procedure reduces the need for general anesthetics dramatically and prevents further complications. This modified technique for harvesting rib cartilage diminishes the donor-site morbidity by reducing the risk of pneumothorax, hernias and functional deficits. Moreover, the local pain therapy assures postoperative wellness and mobility.

  18. Imaging of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  19. PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF BORON ON DAMAGE TO CARTILAGE OF RATS WITH INTAKE EXCESSIVE FLUORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Peng; Guo Xiong; Cao Hui; Kang Longli; Du Xiaoyang; Zhang Zengtie; Geng Dong

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the preventive effect of boron on the cartilage damage in rats with intake excessive fluoride. Methods Fifty-ix Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the control group (C, intake distilled water), the excessive fluoride dose group (EF, intake distilled water with 100 ppm F-) and the boron prevention group (P, intake distilled water with 100 ppm F- as well as the supplemental boron dietary). 3 to 5 months later, fluorine contents in serum, RNA contents in costal cartilage were assayed. The morphological changes in tibia growth plate cartilage (GPC) in rats were observed. Results Although exposed to the same dose of fluoride, the fluorine contents in serum in rats of P group decreased notably compared with those of EF group, the damage of tibia GPC under optical and electron microscope lessened significantly, and RNA contents in costal cartilage increased obviously in the 3rd month. Conclusion Boron added could decrease the fluorine level in the body and relieve the toxic symptom of excess fluoride, and thus boron has a preventive effect on skeletal fluorosis.

  20. KIF27 is one of orthologs for Drosophila Costal-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2004-12-01

    Signals of Hedgehog family proteins (SHH, IHH and DHH) are transduced through Patched family receptors (PTCH1 and PTCH2) and Smoothened (SMO) to GLI family transcription factors (GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3). SHH plays a key role in development and progression of pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and brain tumors. Drosophila Costal-2 (Cos2) is implicated in the Hedgehog pathway through the interaction with Smoothened (Smo), Cubitus interruptus (Ci), Fused (Fu), and microtubule; however, mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 remained to be identified. Here we identified and characterized human ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 by using bioinformatics. Full-length Drosophila Cos2 was most homologous to human KIF27, followed by mouse Kif7, and other KIF family members. KIF27 gene at human chromosome 9q22.1 and KIF7 gene at human chromosome 15q26.1 were paralogs within the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KIF27, Kif7, KIF4A, KIF4B and KIF21A constitute the KIF27 subfamily among mammalian Kinesin family. Drosophila Cos2 protein consists of Kinesin motor (KISc) domain, Ci-binding domain, and Smo-binding domain. KIF27 itself shared the common domain structure with Drosophila Cos2, while other members of KIF27 subfamily shared partial domain structure with Drosophila Cos2. These facts indicate that KIF27 is one of mammalian orthologs for Drosophila Cos2.

  1. Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Alexander; Jeffery, Caroline C; Ansari, Khalid; Naik, Sandeep

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of neck pain in a middle-aged woman, initially attributed to a retropharyngeal infection and treated with urgent intubation. With the help of computed tomography, the diagnosis was later revised to acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis, a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscles. It is critical to differentiate between these two disease entities due to dramatic differences in management. A discussion of acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis and its imaging findings is provided below.

  2. Investigating an approach to identifying the biomechanical differences between intercostal cartilage in subjects with pectus excavatum and normals in vivo: preliminary assessment of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechowicz, Krzysztof; McKenzie, Frederic; Yan, Zhenzhen; Bawab, Sebastian; Ringleb, Stacie

    2009-02-01

    The cause of pectus excavatum (PE) is unknown and little research has been done to assess the material properties of the PE costal cartilage. One source reported, after studying ex vivo various properties of the costal cartilage in cases of PE that the biomechanical stability of PE cartilage is decreased when compared to that of normals. Building on this idea, it would be beneficial to measure the biomechanical properties of the costal cartilages in vivo to further determine the differences between PE subjects and normals. An approach to doing this would be to use a modified FARO arm, which can read applied loads and resulting deflections. These values can be used to establish a finite element model of the chest area of a person with PE. So far, a validated technique for the registration between a CT based 3D model of the ribcage and a skin surface scan in case of PE has been addressed. On the basis of the data gathered from 10 subjects with normal chests using a robot arm, stylus and 3D laser scanner, we tried to evaluate the influence of inter-measurement respiration of a subject on results accuracy and the possibility of using the stylus for deflection measurement. In addition, we established the best strategy for taking measurements.

  3. Pineal calcification among black patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K J

    1983-08-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification.

  4. Chondrocalcinosis of the hyaline cartilage of the knee: MRI manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J.; Marty-Delfaut, E.; Bencardino, J.; Rosenberg, Z.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Steiner, G. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Aparisi, F. [Department of Radiology, Residencia Sanitaria ``La Fe``, Valencia (Spain); Padron, M. [Clinica San Camilo, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    Purpose. To determine the ability of MRI to detect the presence of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the articular cartilage of the knee. Design and patients. The MR studies of 12 knees (11 cases) were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with radiographs (12 cases) and the findings at arthroscopy (2 cases) and surgery (1 case). A total of 72 articular surfaces were evaluated. Radiographic, surgical or arthroscopic demonstration of chondrocalcinosis was used as the gold standard. Additionally, two fragments of the knee of a patient who underwent total knee replacement and demonstrated extensive chondrocalcinosis were studied with radiography and MRI using spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density-weighted images as well as two- and three-dimensional fat saturation (2D and 3D Fat Sat) gradient recalled echo (GRE) and STIR sequences. Results. MRI revealed multiple hypointense foci within the articular cartilage in 34 articular surfaces, better shown on 2D and 3D GRE sequences. Radiographs showed 12 articular surfaces with chondrocalcinosis. In three cases with arthroscopic or surgical correlation, MRI demonstrated more diffuse involvement of the articular cartilage than did the radiographs. The 3D Fat Sat GRE sequences were the best for demonstrating articular calcification in vitro. In no case was meniscal calcification identified with MRI. Hyperintense halos around some of the calcifications were seen on the MR images. Conclusion. MRI can depict articular cartilage calcification as hypointense foci using GRE techniques. Differential diagnosis includes loose bodies, post-surgical changes, marginal osteophytes and hemosiderin deposition. (orig.) With 4 figs., 14 refs.

  5. Rectus Femoris Tendon Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Raul; Panascì, Manlio; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since it was developed, hip arthroscopy has become the favored treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Due to recent considerable improvements, the indications for this technique have been widely extended. Injuries of the rectus femoris tendon origin, after an acute phase, could result in a chronic tendinopathy with calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition, leading to pain and loss of function. Traditionally, this condition is addressed by local injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids or, when conservative measures fail, by open excision of the calcific lesion by an anterior approach. Purpose: To assess whether arthroscopic excision of calcification of the proximal rectus is a safe and effective treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Outcomes were studied from 6 top amateur athletes (age range, 30-43 years; mean, 32.6 years) affected by calcification of the proximal rectus who underwent arthroscopic excision of the calcification. Patients were preoperatively assessed radiographically, and diagnosis was confirmed by a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan. To evaluate the outcome, standardized hip rating scores were used pre- and postoperatively (at 6 and 12 months): the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, and Modified Harris Hip Score. Moreover, visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, sport activity level (SAL), and activities of daily living (ADL) were also used. Results: One year after surgery, all patients reported satisfactory outcomes, with 3 of 6 rating their return-to-sport level as high as preinjury level, and the remaining 3 with a percentage higher than 80%. Five patients ranked their ability to carry on daily activities at 100%. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement of the Oxford Hip Score, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and all 3 VAS subscales (pain, SAL, and ADL) from pre- to latest postoperative assessment (P < .05). Conclusion: Arthroscopic excision of

  6. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  7. Idiopathic arterial calcification in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Maya [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Red Cross Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Andronikou, Savvas; Solomon, Rustum; Sinclair, Paul; McCulloch, Mignon [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2004-08-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy is usually fatal with death in early life and diagnosis at post mortem. This report describes a unique, late presentation with hypertension and cardiac failure in a child aged 33 months, found to have widespread arterial calcification at radiological imaging. The calcium-phosphate axis was normal and there was no other demonstrable cause for calcification. Additionally, the histological features of arterial calcification at renal biopsy paralleled the findings in infants with this disorder. The late presentation in this case is unusual and has not been previously reported. Ultrasound and CT are sensitive for calcification, and the disease should be suspected in children presenting with cardiac or respiratory manifestations and features of arterial calcification, where no metabolic cause is established. (orig.)

  8. Medial arterial calcification, calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification in a diabetic patient with severe autonomic neuropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Medial arterial calcification (Monckeberg\\'s arteriosclerosis) is well described in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. There is also a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. We describe a diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy and extensive medial arterial calcification who also had calcification of the aortic valve and of the mitral valve annulus. We propose that autonomic neuropathy may play a role in calcification of these structures at the base of the heart.

  9. Arterial calcification: Conscripted by collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D.

    2016-03-01

    In atherosclerotic plaques, patterns of calcification -- which have profound implications for plaque stability and vulnerability to rupture -- are determined by the collagen's content and patterning throughout the plaque.

  10. Intervertebral disc calcifications in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluffi, G; Fiori, P; Sileo, C

    2009-03-01

    This study was done to assess the presence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic intervertebral disc calcifications in a large paediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the radiographs taken during the past 26 years in children (age 0-18 years) undergoing imaging of the spine or of other body segments in which the spine was adequately depicted, to determine possible intervertebral disc calcifications. The following clinical evaluation was extrapolated from the patients' charts: presence of spinal symptoms, history of trauma, suspected or clinically evident scoliosis, suspected or clinically evident syndromes, bone dysplasias, and pre- or postoperative chest or abdominal X-rays. We detected intervertebral disc calcifications in six patients only. Five calcifications were asymptomatic (one newborn baby with Patau syndrome; three patients studied to rule out scoliosis, hypochondroplasia and syndromic traits; one for dyspnoea due to sunflower seeds inhalation). Only one was symptomatic, with acute neck pain. Calcifications varied in number from one in one patient to two to five in the others. Apart from the calcification in the patient with cervical pain, all calcifications were asymptomatic and constituted an incidental finding (particularly those detected at the thoracic level in the patient studied for sunflower-seed inhalation). Calcification shapes were either linear or round. Our series confirms that intervertebral disc calcifications are a rare finding in childhood and should not be a source of concern: symptomatic calcifications tend to regress spontaneously within a short time with or without therapy and immobilisation, whereas asymptomatic calcifications may last for years but disappear before the age of 20 years. Only very few cases, such as those of medullary compression or severe dysphagia due to anterior herniation of cervical discs, may require surgical procedures.

  11. Arterial calcification: A new perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, R; Henein, M

    2017-02-01

    Arterial calcification is commonly seen in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes and has long been considered a natural progression of atherosclerosis. Yet it is a systemic condition, occurring in a wide and diverse range of disease states and no medical treatment for cardiovascular disease has yet found a way to regress it; on the contrary, lipid-lowering therapy may worsen its progression. Although numerous studies have found associations between calcification and biomarkers, none has yet found a unifying mechanism that explains the calcification found in atherosclerosis, CKD or diabetes and many of the biomarkers are equally associated with atheroma development and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, both presence and absence of coronary artery calcification appear predictive of plaque rupture and cardiovascular events, indicating that the association is not causal. This suggests that we are no further forward in understanding the true nature of arterial calcification or its pathogenesis, other than noting that it is 'multifactorial'. This is because most researchers view arterial calcification as a progressive pathological condition which must be treated. Instead, we hypothesise that calcification develops as an immune response to endothelial injury, such as shear stress or oxidative stress in diabetics, and is consequently part of the body's natural defences. This would explain why it has been found to be protective of plaque rupture and why it is unresponsive to lipid-lowering agents. We propose that instead of attempting to treat arterial calcification, we should instead be attempting to prevent or treat all causes of endothelial injury.

  12. [Calcification in nonfunctioning transplanted kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Sánchez, R J; Fernández, E J; Peces, C

    2007-01-01

    Failed renal allografts often are left in situ in patients who revert to chronic dialysis therapy or who undergo retransplantation. These organs may be the site of massive calcification despite their lack of physiological function. Calcification of an endstage renal allograft is sometimes found incidentally. We report here two patients who developed extensive calcification of the renal graft, one was on chronic hemodialysis and the other had a second renal transplantation with normal renal function. The precise pathogenesis of calcification and the factors which determine its tissue localization are unclear. Factors postulated to promote the development of metastatic calcification include an elevated calcium phosphate product, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminium toxicity and duration of dialytic therapy. In some cases local factors related with the chronic inflammatory rejection process are probably involved as well. However, the exact relative contribution of these factors remains unresolved. Unless specific clinical indications are present, transplant nephrectomy is not necessary for calcified end-stage renal allografts.

  13. Calcification in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystalline deposits in the knee: anatomic, radiographic, MR imaging, and histologic study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M.; Chung, C.B.; Lima, J.E. de; Trudell, D. [Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Johnson, K.; Terkeltaub, R.; Resnick, D. [Department of Rheumatology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Pe, S. [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States)

    2004-07-01

    To demonstrate and determine the frequency and location of calcification within cadaveric knees with or without calcification typical of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), utilizing histologic, radiographic and MR imaging techniques. Ten cadaveric knees of elderly individuals that demonstrated no radiographic evidence of prior surgery or trauma were studied with MR imaging and subsequently sectioned in planes corresponding to those obtained with MR imaging. The slices were imaged with high-resolution radiography. Two musculoskeletal radiologists correlated the anatomic, MR and radiographic findings. Three of the knees, which did not demonstrate calcifications, were utilized as controls. Histologic sections were obtained from four knees that contained calcifications and from the three controls, and analyzed with special histologic stains that demonstrate phosphorus and calcium. Radiographic imaging and histologic analysis demonstrated widespread CPPD crystal deposition in four of the 10 knee specimens (40%). MR imaging demonstrated some calcifications only within the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles in three of the four (75%) specimens that had CPPD deposits. In all four specimens radiographs and histologic analysis were more sensitive than MR imaging. Histologic analysis demonstrated no evidence of CPPD crystals in the control specimens. MR imaging is insensitive to the presence of CPPD deposits in the knee, even when such deposits are widespread. Our study suggests that the sensitivity of MR imaging was significantly better in detecting CPPD deposits in the hyaline cartilage of the femoral condyles when compared with other internal structures, even when such structures contained a higher amount of calcification. (orig.)

  14. Study of physical, chemical and structural effects caused by ionizing radiation and preservation on human costal cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINHO JUNIOR, ANTONIO C.

    2014-01-01

    Bancos de Tecidos de diversas regiões do mundo têm estocado cartilagens humanas obtidas de doadores cadavéricos recentes para uso em diversos tipos de cirurgias reconstrutivas. Para garantir que tais tecidos não estejam contaminados, estes têm sido esterilizados com radiação ionizante. Entretanto, altas doses de radiação gama podem causar efeitos indesejáveis nos tecidos, diminuindo suas propriedades mecânicas. No presente trabalho, avaliamos as alterações físico/químicas e estruturais em car...

  15. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  16. Extra-coronary calcification (aortic valve calcification, mitral annular calcification, aortic valve ring calcification and thoracic aortic calcification) in HIV seropositive and seronegative men: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaeian, P.; Miller, PE; Haberlen, SA; Razipour, A; Bahrami, H; Castillo, R.; Witt, MD; Kingsley, L; Palella, FJ; Nakanishi, R; Matsumoto, S.; Alani, A; Jacobson, LP; Post, WS; Budoff, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between HIV infection and coronary artery disease (CAD); little is known about potential associations between HIV infection and extra-coronary calcification (ECC).We analyzed 621 HIV infected (HIV+) and 384 HIV uninfected (HIV-) men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who underwent non-contrast computed tomography (CT) from 2010-2013. Agatston scores were calculated for mitral annular calcification (MAC), aortic valve calcification (AVC), a...

  17. MRI of the cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Krestan, C.; Gahleitner, A.; Marlovits, S.; Trattnig, S. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH-Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Pathologie Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-11-01

    With the introduction of fat-suppressed gradient-echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences in clinical routine MR visualization of the hyaline articular cartilage is routinely possible in the larger joints. While 3D gradient-echo with fat suppression allows exact depiction of the thickness and surface of cartilage, FSE outlines the normal and abnormal internal structures of the hyaline cartilage; therefore, both sequences seem to be necessary in a standard MRI protocol for cartilage visualization. In diagnostically ambiguous cases, in which important therapeutic decisions are required, direct MR arthrography is the established imaging standard as an add-on procedure. Despite the social impact and prevalence, until recent years there was a paucity of knowledge about the pathogenesis of cartilage damage. With the introduction of high-resolution MRI with powerful surface coils and fat-suppression techniques, visualization of the articular cartilage is now routinely possible in many joints. After a short summary of the anatomy and physiology of the hyaline cartilage, the different MR imaging methods are discussed and recommended standards are suggested. (orig.)

  18. Transplante de cartilagem costal autóloga no reparo de desvio do pavilhão auricular de cães: estudo experimental Autologus costicartilage graft to repair external ear deviation of dogs: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvaldo Eurides

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, 12 cães com idade entre 7 e 12 meses foram submetidos a técnica cirúrgica com objetivo de apresentar novo método para reparo de desvio lateral da orelha externa, mediante transplante autólogo de cartilagem costal. Verificou-se que as orelhas apresentaram postura ereta, movimentos aparentemente normais e ausência de desvio. Macroscopicamente o enxerto encontrava-se firmemente aderido a cartilagem auricular e a pele. Pela microscopia óptica observou-se em torno da cartilagem costal presença de tecido conjuntivo fibroso. A técnica cirúrgica avaliada poderá ser utilizada para correção de desvio lateral da orelha de cães.To perform the research twelve dogs between 7 and 12 months old were submitted to a surgical technique in order to test new method to repair lateral external ear deviation with an autologus costicartilage implant. The ears presented erect posture, normal appearance, movement and no deviations. Macroscopic examination showed that the implant was firmly attached to the auricular cartilage and skin. Around the costicartilage fibrous connective tissue was observed by optical microscopy. This surgical technique can be used to correct lateral deviations of dogs ears.

  19. [Eight cases of calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis/retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yuichiro; Chazono, Hideaki; Suzuki, Homare; Ohkuma, Yusuke; Sakurai, Toshioki; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshitaka

    2013-11-01

    Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis/retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is an inflammation of the longus colli muscle caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal depositon in the longus colli muscle tendon. The three major symptoms are neck pain, limitations of neck movement, and swallowing pain. We treated 8 cases of calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis/ retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis. Each patient complained of neck pain, limitations of neck movement, and swallowing pain. The only local finding was the smooth swelling of the posterior pharyngeal wall. CT imaging showed calcification of the tendon of the longus colli muscle and a low density area in the retropharyngeal space without ring enhancement, suggesting a retropharyngeal abscess. MR imaging showed the smooth swelling of the retropharyngeal space and an increased signal intensity on T2-weighted MR imaging. Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis heals spontaneously, and treatment is not usually required. However, the clinical outcomes are similar and can be confused with retropharyngeal abscess and pyogenic spondylitis, so antibiotics are administrated in many cases. In our report, 7 patients were hospitalized and were treated with the intravenous administration of antibiotics, while 1 patient who refused hospitalization was treated with an oral antibiotic. Steroids were administrated in 2 cases. The 7 patients who were hospitalized were cured within 6 to 10 days.

  20. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages Técnica modificada para aumentar a área seccional externa da narina após o uso de enxerto cartilaginoso de costela e septo sob as cartilagens alares nasais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. METHODS: A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad®; 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage. Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance for the variable "area". RESULTS: There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica modificada para se aumentar a área seccional externa da narina com cartilagem septal e costal acima das cartilagens alares nasais. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se uma técnica cirúrgica modificada para obter, esculpir e inserir enxertos de cartilagem sobre as cartilagens alares. Realizou-se fotos padronizadas e mensuração de 90 áreas seccionais externas de narina em cadáveres com Autocad®; 30 antes sem procedimento; 60 após a inclusão de enxertos sob a cruz lateral (30 usando cartilagem costal e 30 usando cartilagem septal. A análise estatística foi feita com um modelo de medidas repetidas e ANOVA para a variável "área" RESULTADOS: Existe evidência estatística de que o enxerto de

  1. Arthroscopic Treatment of Calcific Tendonitis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Calcific tendonitis, or calcifying tendonitis, is a common disorder characterized by the multifocal accumulation of basic calcium phosphate crystals within the rotator cuff tendons. In most cases, the multifocal calcifications are located 1 to 2 cm from the insertion of the supraspinatus tendon on the greater tuberosity. The initial treatment should be nonoperative including oral anti-inflammatory medication and physical therapy. If this is unsuccessful, arthroscopic debridement of the deposi...

  2. Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Nathalie J

    2013-02-01

    This review article presents the current knowledge on the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder and discusses the clinical presentation in relation to the stage of the disease process and the appearance of the calcific deposits. The outcome and the available treatment modalities for this common shoulder disorder are also examined, emphasizing the technique of percutaneous lavage and aspiration under ultrasound guidance.

  3. Calcifications simulating peroneus longus tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A. de; Illum, F.; Joergensen, J.

    1984-06-01

    In two patients with sprains of the ankle joint calcification adjacent to the posterior tibial margin was evident in the lateral projection of a standard radiographic examination. Calcifying peroneus longus tendinitis was suggested. Further tangential views and computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed, however, that the calcifications in both patients were located in the tibial insertion of the posterior and inferior tibio-fibular ligament. In such cases, a correct diagnosis will avoid unnecessary treatment for a non-existent tendinitis.

  4. Statistical analysis of associated vertebra and costal anomalies in spina bifida patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alatas Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Spina bifida is one of the most severe birth defects and can happen as a result of disrupted primary neurulation. Congenital vertebra and costa anomalies are more frequently seen with spina bifida, and associated anomalies significantly affect the prognosis of affected children. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence of scoliosis, costal anomalies, and vertebral deformations seen at the time of diagnosis and to statistically evaluate their concomitancies.

  5. Aesthetic auricular reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage grafts in adult microtia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-ik; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Oh, Kap Sung

    2015-08-01

    Cartilage calcification is an important factor in aesthetic auricular reconstruction using autologous rib cartilage grafts in adults, a technique that involves difficult manipulation and unexpected absorption. As a result, artificial implants or prosthetics are considered for auricular reconstruction in adult patients despite the limitations of artificial material. In this article, we present our experience with auricular reconstruction using autologous rib cartilage grafts in adult microtia patients with reliable aesthetic results and minimal complications. A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 microtia patients ranging in age from 21 to 56 (average: 29.9) years who underwent auricular reconstruction using autologous rib cartilage grafts from March 2001 to March 2013. To validate our acceptable reconstructive results, two independent observers performed postoperative photographic evaluation of two groups (adults and children) using non-inferiority tests in addition to patient questionnaires. The mean operation time for rib cartilage grafts was 3 h and 53 min, and the follow-up time for all patients ranged from 6 months to 8 years. Surgery-related complications occurred in only three cases. On objective photographic evaluation, the adult group was not inferior to the child group in auricular shape, location, or symmetry. The subjective patient satisfaction evaluation reported a high satisfaction rate. As this study shows, aesthetic auricular reconstruction using rib cartilage grafts in adult microtia patients is possible even in cases with advanced cartilage calcification. Modification of the fabricating framework, well-preserved flap vascularity, and complete understanding of physiological aspects of rib cartilage are essential for aesthetic auricular reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcification prevention tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  7. Tractotomía pulmonar con ligadura vascular selectiva en un hemotórax masivo por fragmento costal libre Pulmonary tractotomy using selective vascular ligation in a massive hemothorax caused by free costal fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes N Mederos Curbelo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente con un trauma de tórax por fractura doble de un arco costal, que dejó libre un segmento costal que actúa como fragmento agresor y produce un hemotórax masivo del hemitórax afecto. El objetivo es presentar un caso interesante no solo por su solución quirúrgica, estandarizada, sino por las características particulares de la lesión. El paciente fue operado de urgencia por presentar un cuadro de shock hipovolémico severo secundario a un hemotórax traumático masivo, que fue resultado de la herida penetrante del parénquima pulmonar por un fragmento costal libre que se incrustó en la parte superior de la cara costal del lóbulo inferior derecho, y a la sección de los vasos intercostales del arco costal fracturado. El tratamiento quirúrgico consistió en una tractotomía pulmonar con ligadura individual de los vasos intraparenquimatosos heridos y de los vasos intercostales. El caso resulta interesante no solo por la gravedad y emergencia de su atención, sino por las características de la lesión. Esta demostró que la fractura doble de un arco costal puede dar lugar a un fragmento costal libre que puede actuar como instrumento agresor mortífero al penetrar en el parénquima pulmonar luego de desprenderse de sus elementos de fijación, y actuar como agente lesivo. Se muestra, además, un procedimiento quirúrgico útil, de uso infrecuente en nuestro medio (tractotomía pulmonar y que puede realizar todo cirujano entrenado

  8. Calcification Transformation of Diasporic Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lv, Guozhi; Zhang, Zimu; Yin, Zhengnan; Zhang, Tingan

    2016-06-01

    The disposal of red mud, which is a solid waste that is generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Alkali in red mud seeping under the soil may pollute land and water. The Northeastern University, China, has proposed a calcification-carbonation method to deal with low-grade bauxite or red mud. Its main purpose is to change the equilibrium phase of red mud to 2CaO·SiO2 and CaCO3 hydrometallurgically, so that recomposed alkali-free red mud can be widely used. We conducted calcification transformation experiments using diasporic bauxite sampled from Wenshan, and investigated the effects of parameters such as diasporic bauxite grain size, temperature and treatment time on the calcification transformation digestion rate, which is also termed the calcification transformation rate (CTR). The main phase in the calcification transformation slag (CTS) is hydrogarnet with different grain sizes. The CTR increases with decrease in diasporic bauxite grain size, or increase in temperature or reaction time. The CTR reaches a maximum of 87% after 120 min reaction at 240°C. The Na2O/Al2O3 ratio decreases with increase in temperature and reaches 1.5. The sodium content in the CTS decreases with increasing reaction time and is lower than that in the red mud treated using the Bayer process (4-12%).

  9. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  10. Tuberculose cutânea disseminada com escrofuloderma associado à tuberculose de arco costal Disseminated cutaneous tuberculosis with scrofuloderma associated to costal arch tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Vidal Martins Junior

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam caso de tuberculose cutânea disseminada com escrofuloderma associado à tuberculose de arco costal. Paciente de 46 anos, do sexo feminino, há um ano com nódulos de um a 6cm em região cervical, dorso, axilas e regiões glúteas, que culminavam com fistulização e eliminação de secreção purulenta, associados a febre vespertina diária, sudorese noturna e emagrecimento de 10kg nos últimos três meses. A radiografia de tórax mostrou lesão lítica na terceira costela esquerda. A cultura de secreção do nódulo foi positiva para Mycobacterium tuberculosis. O tratamento para tuberculose resultou em melhora clínica e resolução das lesões cutâneas da paciente.The authors describe a case of disseminated cutaneous tuberculosis with scrofuloderma associated to tuberculosis in the costal arch. A 46-year-old, woman, was hospitalized with nodules measuring 1 to 6 cm in the cervical region, back, armpit and buttocks, which developed purulent discharge with elimination of caseous secretion, associated to episodes of daily evening fever, night sweats and weight loss of 10Kg over the previous three months. Thorax radiography showed an osteolytic lesion in the third left rib. Culture of the nodule secretion was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment for tuberculosis resulted in pronounced clinical improvement and resolution of the patient's cutaneous lesions.

  11. Principles of cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Erggelet, Christoph; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage defects affect patients of all age groups. Surgeons, teamdoctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists alike are expected to provide adequate care. Only individual treatment plans combining a well balanced choice of various options will be successful. Background knowledge, operative and non-operative therapies are described in concise chapters: Articular cartilage biology - Diagnostics - Surgical techniques - Symptomatic and alternative medications - Physiotherapy. Diagnostic findings and surgical procedures are generously illustrated by aquarelles and colour photographs. Recommendations for additional reading, description of important clinical scoring systems and a listing of analytic tools are added for further information.

  12. An investigation of the fixation materials for cartilage frames in microtia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Aritaka; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Watanabe, Koichi; Nishi, Yukiko

    2012-05-01

    When performing auriculoplasty for microtia surgery, wires are typically used to fix the costal cartilage frames. However, cases in which such wires become exposed during a long-term follow-up were frequently observed at our facility. Hence, using various materials, we conducted an investigation of the materials most suitable for fixation. The subjects consisted of 122 cases in which auriculoplasty by costal cartilage graft surgery was performed and the postoperative course was traceable, within approximately 24 years from January 1984 to March 2007. Regarding the fixation materials used in the 84 cases in which wire was used, 5 cases used monofilament non-absorbable sutures (Nylon(®)), 5 cases used monofilament absorbable sutures (PDS(®)), and 28 cases used braided absorbable sutures(VICRYL(®)).Their postoperative course was investigated, and the presence of auricular deformities caused by a loosening of the fixation materials and the exposure of the fixation materials was examined. An exposure of the wire was observed in 19 cases (22.6%) of the 84 cases that used wires. An exposure of nylon was observed in 2 (40%) of 5 the cases that used nylon, and of those, a mild deformation was observed in the lower helix in one case that was suspected to have been caused by a loosening of the surgical suture. Regarding the 33 cases in which absorbable sutures were used (5 cases used monofilament absorbable sutures and 28 cases used braided absorbable sutures), neither any auricular deformities nor exposure of the fixation materials was observed in any of the cases. Whether using monofilament or braided sutures, absorbable sutures are therefore believed to be the most suitable material for the fixation of cartilage. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conserving Cartilage In Microtia Repair: The Modular Component Assembly Approach To Rebuilding A Human Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Jessica R.; Lemieux, Bryan; Foulad, Allen; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current methods of microtia repair include carving an auricular framework from the costal synchondrosis. This requires considerable skill and may create a substantial donor site defect. Here, we present a modular component assembly (MCA) approach that minimizes the procedural difficulty and reduces the amount of cartilage to a single rib. Study Design Ex vivo study and survey Methods A single porcine rib was sectioned into multiple slices using a cartilage guillotine, cut into components outlined by 3D-printed templates, and assembled into an auricular scaffold. Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) was used to bend cartilage slices for creation of the helical rim. Chondrocyte viability was confirmed using confocal imaging. Ten surgeons reviewed the scaffold constructed with the MCA approach to evaluate aesthetics, relative stability, and clinical feasibility. Results An auricular framework with projection and curvature was fashioned from one rib. Surgeons found the MCA scaffold to meet minimal aesthetic and anatomic acceptability. When embedded under a covering, the region of the helix and anti-helix of the scaffold scored significantly higher on the assessment survey than that of an embedded alloplast implant (t-value=0.01). Otherwise, no difference was found between the embedded MCA and alloplast implants (t-value >0.05). EMR treated cartilage was found to be viable. Conclusion This study demonstrates that one rib can be used to create an aesthetic and durable framework for microtia repair. Precise assembly and the ability to obtain thin, uniform slices of cartilage were essential. This cartilage-sparing MCA approach may be an alternative to classic techniques. PMID:26720326

  14. CT of schistosomal calcification of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.; Hebbar, G.; Khalifa, A.; Cherian, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of schistosomal colonic calcification on abdominal radiographs has been described. The appearance on computed tomography (CT) is equally distinctive and occurs with varying degrees of genitourinary calcification. The authors have experience in three cases with the appearance on CT of intestinal calcification due to schistosomiasis.

  15. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  16. Chronic calcific tendinitis of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, H.; Zee, C.S.; Frankel, P.; Robinson, A.; Blau, L.; Gans, D.C.

    1981-12-01

    The authors present the first three cases of chronic calcific tendinits of the neck. This condition is diagnosed radiologically by the presence of calcification located just inferior to the anterior tubercle of C1. The calcification is at the insertion of the longus colli muscle. No soft tissue swelling is present and the patients are asymptomatic.

  17. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa Ramadan; Pandey, Tarun; Badawi, Mona H

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification.

  18. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa R. [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Radiology Department, Little Rock, AR (United States); Badawi, Mona H. [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    2008-01-15

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification. (orig.)

  19. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Ro

  20. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Rott

  1. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who particip

  2. Acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis: a case report with unusual location of calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Young; Jin, Wook; Yang, Dal Mo [East-West Neo-Medical Center, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hun [East-West Neo Medical Center, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is an inflammatory process caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in the longus colli tendon of the prevertebral space, and it may mimic a retropharyngeal infection or abscess. The diagnosis of retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis will be made radiologically by the detection of calcifications anterior to C1-C3 and prevertebral soft tissue swelling. We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with an unusual location of calcification anterior to the C5-C6 disc. (orig.)

  3. 肺癌患者SPECT/CT同机融合显像肋骨单发病灶影像分析%SPECT/CT fusion imaging analysis of costal single hot spots in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包贺菊; 陈刚; 陈燕燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the imaging features and clinical significance of solitary costal hot spots in patient with lung cancer on SPECT/CT fusion imaging and the value of low-dose CT for diagnosis.Methods SPECT/CT scan was performed on 68 patients with lung cancer and costal single hot spots using whole body bone imaging.The sites of lesions were classified into four types:junction between costal cartilage and rib,frontal rib,lateral rib,posterior rib.The shapes of lesions were classified into two forms:punctiform and strip shapes,and were analyzed and classified.The differences of the diagnosis of whole body bone imaging and SPECT/CT scan were analyzed.Results Punctiform spots were mainly due to costal fractures(36/68,52.94%).The majority of spots in strip shape were costal metastases (21/23,91.30%).The lesions of junction between costal cartilage and rib were punctiform shape and benign.Hot spots in posterior ribs were mainly costal metastases (18/22,81.82%).Sensitivity of diagnosis of the metastatic bone tumor with whole body bone imaging and SPECT/CT in single hot spot of spine and rib was 69.23% (18/26) and 92.31%(24/26),specificity 59.52%(25/42) and 85.71%(36/42),accuracy 63.24%(43/68) and 88.24% (60/68),positive predictive value 51.43% (18/35) and 80.00% (24/30),negative predictive value 75.76% (25/33) and 94.74% (36/38).SPECT/CT scan had differences with whole body bone imaging in sensitivity (P < 0.05),SPECT/CT scan had significant differences with whole body bone imaging in coincidence and specificity (P < 0.01).Conclusions Useful imaging features can be obtained from SPECT/CT fusion imaging with single costal hot spots,being helpful to differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions.SPECT/CT fusion imaging may improve the accuracy to diagnose the rib disease.%目的 分析肺癌患者SPECT/CT同机融合显像肋骨单发病灶的特征和临床诊断之间的相互关系,并评价定位CT在诊断中的作用.方法

  4. Empirical analysis on impact of FDI on the level of urbanization in costal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Can-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a close relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization. the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces in costal areas.Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the modern econometric methods by panel unit root test, cointegration test, random effects models and fixed effects models, and the data of FDI (2000-2012, urbanization rate, industrial structure and regional GDP of Nanjing, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi and other 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other 19 cities in Guangdong province, researches the relationship between FDI and urbanization rate.Findings: Models show, FDI was closely correlated with urbanization rate in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, the highly correlated with industrial structure, while it negatively correlated with the growth of GDP, and the degree of correlation is not high in Jiangsu province, but the high negative correlation in Guangdong province. The results shows the industrial structure and the urbanization rate mainly cause FDI growth.Research limitations/implications: There are many provinces in costal areas of China, this paper just research the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, there are some limitations in the study areas and results.Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply on random effects model and fixed effects model to study the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in coastal areas by competitive analysis. Guangdong and Jiangsu province are the most developed regions, they are the most representative provinces in costal areas of China. Taking these two province as an example, we can analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in central and western regions.

  5. Cartilage differentiation in cephalopod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Alison G; Hall, Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Amongst the various metazoan lineages that possess cartilage, tissues most closely resembling vertebrate hyaline cartilage in histological section are those of cephalopod molluscs. Although elements of the adult skeleton have been described, the development of these cartilages has not. Using serial histology of sequential developmental stages of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, we investigate these skeletal elements and offer the first description of the formation of any cellular invertebrate cartilage. Our data reveal that cuttlefish cartilage most often differentiates from uncondensed mesenchymal cells near the end of embryonic development, but that the earliest-forming cartilages differentiate from a cellular condensation which goes through a protocartilage stage in a manner typical of vertebrate primary cartilage formation. We further investigate the distribution and degree of differentiation of cartilages at the time of hatching in an additional four cephalopod species. We find that the timing of cartilage development varies between elements within a single species, as well as between species. We identify a tendency towards cartilage differentiation from uncondensed connective tissue in elements that form at the end of embryogenesis or after hatching. These data suggest a form of metaplasia from connective tissue is the ancestral mode of cartilage formation in this lineage.

  6. INJURED ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Barlič

    2008-02-01

    Surveys show that the most frequently used surgical methods are mosaicplasty and bonemarrow stimulation with microfracturing. The efficacy of the autologous chondrocyte implantationmethod should be superior to microfracturing on a long run. Especially when(regeneration of the hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue (fibrocartilage is concerned.However, it has not been scientifically proved yet

  7. Arthroscopic treatment of calcific tendonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Cowden, Courtney H

    2014-04-01

    Calcific tendonitis, or calcifying tendonitis, is a common disorder characterized by the multifocal accumulation of basic calcium phosphate crystals within the rotator cuff tendons. In most cases, the multifocal calcifications are located 1 to 2 cm from the insertion of the supraspinatus tendon on the greater tuberosity. The initial treatment should be nonoperative including oral anti-inflammatory medication and physical therapy. If this is unsuccessful, arthroscopic debridement of the deposit is effective. The technique used is an arthroscopic localization and debridement without associated subacromial decompression. The rotator cuff should be evaluated for partial- and full-thickness tears before and after the debridement of calcifications. If a partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear is identified, it should be treated in a fashion consistent with those without associated calcium deposits. In our hands, tears 5 mm or greater in depth are repaired using a tendon-to-tendon or tendon-to-bone technique. Tears with less depth are debrided and then left alone. Arthroscopic debridement of calcific tendonitis can yield excellent functional results and high patient satisfaction.

  8. Arterial calcification: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2013-07-31

    There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic plaque burden, with angiography studies showing very high sensitivity but poor specificity of CAC score for predicting obstructive disease. Nevertheless, there are objections to CAC screening because of uncertainties and lack of studies showing improved outcome. Furthermore, histopathology studies indicate that heavily calcified plaque is unlikely to result in a CV event, while the vulnerable plaque tends to be uncalcified or 'mixed', suggesting that calcification may be protective. This scenario highlights a number of paradoxes, which may indicate that the association between CAC and CV events is spurious, following from the adoption of CAC as a surrogate for high plaque burden, which itself is a surrogate for the presence of vulnerable plaque. Since studies indicate that arterial calcification is a complex, organised and regulated process similar to bone formation, there is no particular reason why it should be a reliable indicator of either the plaque burden or the risk of a future CV event. We suggest that it is time to divorce arterial calcification from atherosclerosis and to view it as a distinct pathology in its own right, albeit one which frequently coexists with atherosclerosis and is related to it for reasons which are not yet fully understood.

  9. Trefoil factor family protein 3 (TFF3) is present in cartilage during endochondral ossification in the developing mouse fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2013-04-01

    Trefoil factor family protein 3 (TFF3) is found in cartilage affected by osteoarthritis and septic arthritis, whereas no TFF3 presence is observed in healthy cartilage. During endochondral ossification, bone tissue replaces degenerating cartilage. There is no data about the role of TFF3 in this process. Our aim was to study the localization of TFF3 in cartilage during endochondral ossification in the mouse fetus. CD1 mouse fetuses, days 14-17, were isolated, fixed, and paraffin embedded. Fetuses were cut into 6μm sections, and processed for immunohistochemical staining with affinity purified polyclonal rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody. TFF3 was present in cartilage chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification, particularly in zone of proliferation, hypertrophy and calcification as well as in zone of cartilage degeneration during the monitored fetal period. Resting cartilage showed no presence of TFF3, while during endochondral ossification TFF3 localization showed an analogous pattern to that reported in cartilage affected by osteoarthritis and septic arthritis. Our data indicate that the role of TFF3 in these pathological conditions is similar to its role in the physiological process of endochondral ossification.

  10. Advances in cartilage tissue engineering : in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Mandl (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWithin the body three subtypes of cartilage can be distinguished: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. Hyaline cartilage is the predominant subtype and is mainly located in articular joints and in less extent in the nasal septum and cricoid. Elastic cartilage can be

  11. Lubrication of Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Sabrina; Seror, Jasmine; Klein, Jacob

    2016-07-11

    The major synovial joints such as hips and knees are uniquely efficient tribological systems, able to articulate over a wide range of shear rates with a friction coefficient between the sliding cartilage surfaces as low as 0.001 up to pressures of more than 100 atm. No human-made material can match this. The means by which such surfaces maintain their very low friction has been intensively studied for decades and has been attributed to fluid-film and boundary lubrication. Here, we focus especially on the latter: the reduction of friction by molecular layers at the sliding cartilage surfaces. In particular, we discuss such lubrication in the light of very recent advances in our understanding of boundary effects in aqueous media based on the paradigms of hydration lubrication and of the synergism between different molecular components of the synovial joints (namely hyaluronan, lubricin, and phospholipids) in enabling this lubrication.

  12. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  13. Cerebral calcifications and schizophreniform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Discuss pathophysiological aspects of cerebral calcifications (CC and highlight its importance related to the occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes. METHOD: Single case report. RESULT: Man 52 years old, 20 years after going through a total thyroidectomy, starts showing behavioral disturbance (psychotic syndrome. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic (paranoid subtype and submitted to outpatient psychiatric treatment. During a psychiatric admission to evaluate his progressive cognitive and motor deterioration, we identified a dementia syndrome and extensive cerebral calcifications, derived from iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: The calcium and phosphorus disturbances, including hypoparathyroidism, are common causes of CC. Its symptoms can imitate psychiatric disorders and produce serious and permanent cognitive sequelae. The exclusion of organicity is mandatory in any psychiatric investigative diagnosis in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes, such as in the present case report.

  14. Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis. [Radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S.

    1981-12-01

    Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is an imflammation of the longus colli muscle tendon which is located on the anterior surface of the verterbral column extending from the atlas to the third thoracic vertebra. The acute inflammatory condition is selflimiting with symptoms consisting of a gradually increasing neck pain often associated with throat pain and difficulty swallowing. The pain is aggravated by head and neck movement. Clinically the condition can be confused with retropharyngeal absecess, meningitis, infectious spondylitis, and post-traumatic muscle spasm. The radiographic features of this condition consist of pre-vertebral soft tissue swelling from C1 to C4 and amorphous calcific density in the longus colli tendon anterior to the body of C2 and inferior to the anterior arch of C1.

  15. Virtual casting of stab wounds in cartilage using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Derrick J; Sim, Louise J

    2011-06-01

    In homicidal stabbings using a serrated knife, stab wounds involving costal cartilage leave striations on the cut surface of the cartilage from the serration points on the blade edge. Class characteristics of the serrated blade can be determined from the striation marks, and individualizing characteristics may be seen also. The traditional method for recording the striation marks involves the pernickety technique of casting with dental impression material. We assessed the potential utility of micro-computed tomography scanning of the stab track as a technique for nondestructive recording of striation patterns and virtual casting of them. Stab tracks in porcine cartilage, produced with a coarsely serrated blade, were scanned with a bench-top micro-computed tomography scanner. The typical irregularly regular striation pattern could be demonstrated, and the images manipulated, using proprietary software to produce a virtual cast. Whether the technology will have sufficient resolution to image not only class characteristic tool marks but also the much finer individualizing tool marks remains to be evaluated, but the technology shows considerable promise.

  16. Adhesion and integration of tissue engineered cartilage to porous polyethylene for composite ear reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Niamh A; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ranka, Mitun P; Zaleski, Katherine L; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Randolph, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of tissue engineered cartilage to adhere to and integrate with porous polyethylene (PPE) in vivo and to evaluate the biomechanical integrity of the bond formed at the interface. Porcine auricular, articular, and costal chondrocytes were suspended in fibrin gel polymer and placed between discs of PPE to form tri-layer constructs. Controls consisted of fibroblasts suspended in gel or gel alone between the discs. Constructs were implanted into nude mice for 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Upon harvest, specimens were evaluated for neocartilage formation and integration into the PPE, using histological, dimensional (mass, thickness, diameter), and biomechanical (adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, failure energy and failure strain) analyses. Neotissue was formed in all experimental constructs, consisting mostly of neocartilage integrating with discs of PPE. Control samples contained only fibrous tissue. Biomechanical analyses demonstrated that adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, and failure energy were all significantly higher in the chondrocyte-seeded samples than in fibroblast-seeded controls, with the exception of costal constructs at 12 weeks, which were not significantly greater than controls. In general, failure strains did not vary between groups. In conclusion, porous polyethylene supported the growth of neocartilage that formed mechanically functional bonds with the PPE.

  17. Atypical Steatocystoma Multiplex with Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Hasibur; Islam, Muhammad Saiful; Ansari, Nazma Parvin

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old male reported to us with an atypical case of giant steatocystoma multiplex in the scrotum with calcification. There was no family history of similar lesions. Yellowish, creamy material was expressed from a nodule during punch biopsy. The diagnosis was based on clinical as well as histological findings. Successful surgical excision was done to cure the case without any complications. PMID:22363850

  18. Scaffolding Biomaterials for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely repairing of damaged cartilage is a difficult procedure. In recent years, the use of tissue engineering approach in which scaffolds play a vital role to regenerate cartilage has become a new research field. Investigating the advances in biological cartilage scaffolds has been regarded as the main research direction and has great significance for the construction of artificial cartilage. Native biological materials and synthetic polymeric materials have their advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages can be overcome through either physical modification or biochemical modification. Additionally, developing composite materials, biomimetic materials, and nanomaterials can make scaffolds acquire better biocompatibility and mechanical adaptability.

  19. Evaluation and Management of Breast Calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Zandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating mammograms, one looks for masses, areas of asymmetry or architectural distortion and microcalcifications."nCalcification found on screening and diagnostic mammography may be typically benign, of intermediate type, or have a high probability of malignancy."nThe calcifications that most radiologists have prob-lems dealing with are those of "intermediate con-cern.""nOccasionally spot compression-magnification views are necessary to evaluate and analyze the calcification characteristics."nThe morphology and distribution of calcifications are often clues to the differential diagnosis and appropriate management. Calcifications deserve closer scrutiny than those in a regional or diffuse distribution."nIn this article, we discuss the imaging evaluation and management of lesions found on screening and diagnostic mammography, with the focus on commonly encumbered questions and problems. We will also present our interesting cases with breast calcification.

  20. Variation in number of trunk vertebrae and in count of costal grooves in salamanders of the family Hynobiidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvinchuk, S.N.; Borkin, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten species from five genera of the family Hynobiidae were studied. The number of trunk vertebrae varied between 14 and 21, and the count of costal grooves ranged from 10 to 15. Both the within-species variation and the within-population variation were recorded in some species. In both kinds the val

  1. Cardiac calcification in acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Ghatak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aetiology of pericardial calcifications can be multifactorial. Tuberculosis has been reported as the most common cause. Other known causes include uraemia, asbestosis, post-traumatic or postoperative. We report a rare case of pericardial calcification seen in a patient with established acute intermittent porphyria. A direct causal relationship cannot be established between porphyria and pericardial calcification, but it may be due to deposition of the porphyrin in the pericardium.

  2. Calcification of thoracic aorta - solar eclipse sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Abhijeet; Puttarajappa, Chethan

    2008-08-29

    Calcification of thoracic aorta is very common in old people, especially ones with hypertension. This can sometime be visible on plain chest radiograph. We present a case of a male patient who had extensive deposition of calcium in the thoracic aorta. The relationship between aortic calcification and coronary atherosclerosis remains contentious. Computed tomography of the thorax can display this calcification which appears like 'solar eclipse'.

  3. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  4. [The anatomical structure similarity research on auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyong; Fan, Fei; Li, Wenzhi; Li, Binbin; You, Jianjun; Wang, Huan

    2015-09-01

    There are many scaffold materials of repairing nasal alar cartilage defects. Auricuiar cartilage was used extensively in terms of its abundant tissues, good elasticity, little donor-site malformation, good plasticity etc. The authors dissected auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, measured cartilage's morphous data and found some similar territories with nasal alar cartilage in the structure of auricular cartilage. An anatomical study was performed using 10 adult cadavers acquired through Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Seven male and three female cadav-ers were included in the study. Harvest 20 auricular cartilage specimens and 20 nasal alar cartilage specimens. Then, Computed Tomography Scan on the auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage were performed. The datas were imported into mimics and three-dimensional reconstructions of the auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage were carried on. Parts of the auricular cartilage, such as conchal fossa, tragus, intertragic notch, and cymba of auricular concha, curs of helix and curs of helix, triangular fossa, are ana-tomically similar to nasal alar cartilage. This study reports the anatomy of auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, found some territories in the auricular cartilage, such as conchal fossa, tragus, intertragic notch, and cymba of auricular concha, curs of helix and curs of helix, triangular fossa, are anatomically similar to nasal alar cartilage. This research provides the anatomical basis that auricular cartilage was used to repair the nasal cartilage defect.

  5. 13C NMR relaxation studies on cartilage and cartilage components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, L; Kaufmann, J; Huster, D; Schiller, J; Arnold, K

    2000-08-07

    We have investigated the molecular motions of polysaccharides of bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage by measuring the 13C NMR relaxation times (T1 and T2). Both types of cartilage differ significantly towards their collagen/glycosaminoglycan ratio, leading to different NMR spectra. As chondroitin sulfate is the main constituent of cartilage, aqueous solutions of related poly- and monosaccharides (N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid) were also investigated. Although there are only slight differences in T1 relaxation of the mono- and the polysaccharides, T2 decreases about one order of magnitude, when glucuronic acid or N-acetylglucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are compared. It is concluded that the ring carbons are motion-restricted primarily by the embedment in the rigid pyranose structure and, thus, additional limitations of mobility do not more show a major effect. Significant differences were observed between bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage, resulting in a considerable line-broadening and a lower signal to noise ratio in the spectra of pig articular cartilage. This is most likely caused by the higher collagen content of articular cartilage in comparison to the polysaccharide-rich bovine nasal cartilage.

  6. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  7. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  8. The secreted glycoprotein lubricin protects cartilage surfaces and inhibits synovial cell overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, David K.; Marcelino, Jose; Baker, MacArthur; Gong, Yaoqin; Smits, Patrick; Lefebvre, Véronique; Jay, Gregory D.; Stewart, Matthew; Wang, Hongwei; Warman, Matthew L.; Carpten, John D.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term integrity of an articulating joint is dependent upon the nourishment of its cartilage component and the protection of the cartilage surface from friction-induced wear. Loss-of-function mutations in lubricin (a secreted glycoprotein encoded by the gene PRG4) cause the human autosomal recessive disorder camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP). A major feature of CACP is precocious joint failure. In order to delineate the mechanism by which lubricin protects joints, we studied the expression of Prg4 mRNA during mouse joint development, and we created lubricin-mutant mice. Prg4 began to be expressed in surface chondrocytes and synoviocytes after joint cavitation had occurred and remained strongly expressed by these cells postnatally. Mice lacking lubricin were viable and fertile. In the newborn period, their joints appeared normal. As the mice aged, we observed abnormal protein deposits on the cartilage surface and disappearance of underlying superficial zone chondrocytes. In addition to cartilage surface changes and subsequent cartilage deterioration, intimal cells in the synovium surrounding the joint space became hyperplastic, which further contributed to joint failure. Purified or recombinant lubricin inhibited the growth of these synoviocytes in vitro. Tendon and tendon sheath involvement was present in the ankle joints, where morphologic changes and abnormal calcification of these structures were observed. We conclude that lubricin has multiple functions in articulating joints and tendons that include the protection of surfaces and the control of synovial cell growth. PMID:15719068

  9. Characterization of zebrafish mutants with defects in bone calcification during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yang; Chen, Dongyan; Sun, Lei; Li, Yuhao; Li, Lei

    2013-10-11

    Using the fluorescent dyes calcein and alcian blue, we stained the F3 generation of chemically (ENU) mutagenized zebrafish embryos and larvae, and screened for mutants with defects in bone development. We identified a mutant line, bone calcification slow (bcs), which showed delayed axial vertebra calcification during development. Before 4-5 days post-fertilization (dpf), the bcs embryos did not display obvious abnormalities in bone development (i.e., normal number, size and shape of cartilage and vertebrae). At 5-6 dpf, when vertebrae calcification starts, bcs embryos began to show defects. At 7 dpf, for example, in most of the bcs embryos examined, calcein staining revealed no signals of vertebrae mineralization, whereas during the same developmental stages, 2-14 mineralized vertebrae were observed in wild-type animals. Decreases in the number of calcified vertebrae were also observed in bcs mutants when examined at 9 and 11 dpf, respectively. Interestingly, by 13 dpf the defects in bcs mutants were no longer evident. There were no significant differences in the number of calcified vertebrae between wild-type and mutant animals. We examined the expression of bone development marker genes (e.g., Sox9b, Bmp2b, and Cyp26b1, which play important roles in bone formation and calcification). In mutant fish, we observed slight increases in Sox9b expression, no alterations in Bmp2b expression, but significant increases in Cyp26b1 expression. Together, the data suggest that bcs delays axial skeletal calcification, but does not affect bone formation and maturation.

  10. Atypical Radiological Manifestation of Pulmonary Metastatic Calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Hae; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Chul Hwan; Ham, Soo Youn; Oh, Yu Whan [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a condition of calcium deposition in the normal pulmonary parenchyma, and this is secondary to abnormal calcium metabolism without any prior soft tissue damage. The predisposing factors for this condition include chronic renal failure, hypercalcemia and increased tissue alkalinity. The most common radiologic manifestation consists of poorly defined nodular opacities in the upper lung zone. These opacities reflect the deposition of calcium salts in the pulmonary interstitium. We present here a case of metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient who recovered from pneumonia with sepsis and whose high-resolution CT (HRCT) images demonstrated localized parenchymal airspace calcification that was limited to the bilateral lower lobes. These lower lobes had been involved with pneumonic consolidation without calcification, as seen on the previous CT scan. In summary, we report here on an atypical presentation of metastatic pulmonary calcification that showed dense airspace consolidation localized to the bilateral lower lobes in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and pneumonia.

  11. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  12. Tensorial electrokinetics in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2006-09-15

    Electrokinetic phenomena contribute to biomechanical functions of articular cartilage and underlie promising methods for early detection of osteoarthritic lesions. Although some transport properties, such as hydraulic permeability, are known to become anisotropic with compression, the direction-dependence of cartilage electrokinetic properties remains unknown. Electroosmosis experiments were therefore performed on adult bovine articular cartilage samples, whereby fluid flows were driven by electric currents in directions parallel and perpendicular to the articular surface of statically compressed explants. Magnitudes of electrokinetic coefficients decreased slightly with compression (from approximately -7.5 microL/As in the range of 0-20% compression to -6.0 microL/As in the 35-50% range) consistent with predictions of microstructure-based models of cartilage material properties. However, no significant dependence on direction of the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was detected, even for conditions where the hydraulic permeability tensor is known to be anisotropic. This contrast may also be interpreted using microstructure-based models, and provides insights into structure-function relationships in cartilage extracellular matrix and physical mediators of cell responses to tissue compression. Findings support the use of relatively simple isotropic modeling approaches for electrokinetic phenomena in cartilage and related materials, and indicate that measurement of electrokinetic properties may provide particularly robust means for clinical evaluation of cartilage matrix integrity.

  13. Physiopathology of intratendinous calcific deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Francesco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In calcific tendinopathy (CT, calcium deposits in the substance of the tendon, with chronic activity-related pain, tenderness, localized edema and various degrees of decreased range of motion. CT is particularly common in the rotator cuff, and supraspinatus, Achilles and patellar tendons. The presence of calcific deposits may worsen the clinical manifestations of tendinopathy with an increase in rupture rate, slower recovery times and a higher frequency of post-operative complications. The aetiopathogenesis of CT is still controversial, but seems to be the result of an active cell-mediated process and a localized attempt of the tendon to compensate the original decreased stiffness. Tendon healing includes many sequential processes, and disturbances at different stages of healing may lead to different combinations of histopathological changes, diverting the normal healing processes to an abnormal pathway. In this review, we discuss the theories of pathogenesis behind CT. Better understanding of the pathogenesis is essential for development of effective treatment modalities and for improvement of clinical outcomes.

  14. Biotribology :articular cartilage friction, wear, and lubrication

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Matthew O

    1995-01-01

    This study developed, explored, and refined techniques for the in vitro study of cartilage-on-cartilage friction, deformation, and wear. Preliminary results of in vitro cartilage-on- cartilage experiments with emphasis on wear and biochemistry are presented. Cartilage-bone specimens were obtained from the stifle joints of steers from a separate controlled study. The load, sliding speed, and traverse of the lower specimens were held constant as lubricant and test length were varied. Lubric...

  15. Brief report: reconstruction of joint hyaline cartilage by autologous progenitor cells derived from ear elastic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Shinji; Takebe, Takanori; Kan, Hiroomi; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Ik, Lee Jeong; Maegawa, Jiro; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    In healthy joints, hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of bones provides cushioning due to its unique mechanical properties. However, because of its limited regenerative capacity, age- and sports-related injuries to this tissue may lead to degenerative arthropathies, prompting researchers to investigate a variety of cell sources. We recently succeeded in isolating human cartilage progenitor cells from ear elastic cartilage. Human cartilage progenitor cells have high chondrogenic and proliferative potential to form elastic cartilage with long-term tissue maintenance. However, it is unknown whether ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells can be used to reconstruct hyaline cartilage, which has different mechanical and histological properties from elastic cartilage. In our efforts to develop foundational technologies for joint hyaline cartilage repair and reconstruction, we conducted this study to obtain an answer to this question. We created an experimental canine model of knee joint cartilage damage, transplanted ear-derived autologous cartilage progenitor cells. The reconstructed cartilage was rich in proteoglycans and showed unique histological characteristics similar to joint hyaline cartilage. In addition, mechanical properties of the reconstructed tissues were higher than those of ear cartilage and equal to those of joint hyaline cartilage. This study suggested that joint hyaline cartilage was reconstructed from ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells. It also demonstrated that ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells, which can be harvested by a minimally invasive method, would be useful for reconstructing joint hyaline cartilage in patients with degenerative arthropathies.

  16. Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. ... In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. ...

  17. Programmed Application of Transforming Growth Factor β3 and Rac1 Inhibitor NSC23766 Committed Hyaline Cartilage Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Osteochondral Defect Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shouan; Chen, Pengfei; Wu, Yan; Xiong, Si; Sun, Heng; Xia, Qingqing; Shi, Libing; Liu, Huanhuan; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2014-10-01

    Hyaline cartilage differentiation is always the challenge with application of stem cells for joint repair. Transforming growth factors (TGFs) and bone morphogenetic proteins can initiate cartilage differentiation but often lead to hypertrophy and calcification, related to abnormal Rac1 activity. In this study, we developed a strategy of programmed application of TGFβ3 and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 to commit the hyaline cartilage differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for joint cartilage repair. ADSCs were isolated and cultured in a micromass and pellet culture model to evaluate chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation. The function of Rac1 was investigated with constitutively active Rac1 mutant and dominant negative Rac1 mutant. The efficacy of ADSCs with programmed application of TGFβ3 and Rac1 inhibitor for cartilage repair was studied in a rat model of osteochondral defects. The results showed that TGFβ3 promoted ADSCs chondro-lineage differentiation and that NSC23766 prevented ADSC-derived chondrocytes from hypertrophy in vitro. The combination of ADSCs, TGFβ3, and NSC23766 promoted quality osteochondral defect repair in rats with much less chondrocytes hypertrophy and significantly higher International Cartilage Repair Society macroscopic and microscopic scores. The findings have illustrated that programmed application of TGFβ3 and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 can commit ADSCs to chondro-lineage differentiation and improve the efficacy of ADSCs for cartilage defect repair. These findings suggest a promising stem cell-based strategy for articular cartilage repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  18. Calcifications in the breast in Filaria loa infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, R. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    A 40-year-old patient underwent mammography for evaluation of a mass. Atypical calcifications were observed in the opposite breast. Two types of calcification were observed: One type was spiral-shaped and the other type rod-shaped. These calcifications were caused by Filaria loa. Parasitic calcifications in the breast are uncommon. (orig.).

  19. Fetal calcifications are associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellika Sahlin

    Full Text Available The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far.One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection.Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001. The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%, trisomy 18 (22%, and monosomy X (18%. A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004. Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001.The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer

  20. The ontogeny of the shell in side-necked turtles, with emphasis on the homologies of costal and neural bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Brüllmann, Benjamin; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2008-08-01

    Although we are starting to understand the molecular basis of shell development based on the study of cryptodires, basic comparative ontogenetic data for the other major clade of living turtle, the pleurodires, are largely missing. Herein, the developmental and phylogenetic relation between the bony shell and endoskeleton of Pleurodira are examined by studying histological serial sections of nine specimens of three different species, including an ontogenetic series of Emydura subglobosa. Emphasis is given to the portion of the carapace in which ribs and vertebral spinous processes become part of the carapace. Central questions are how neurals and costals are formed in pleurodiran turtles, whether costals and neurals are of endoskeletal or exoskeletal origin, and what ontogenetic factors relate to neural reduction of some Pleurodira. The neurals and costals do not develop as independent ossification centers, but they are initial outgrowths of the periosteal collar of endoskeletal ribs and neural arches. Slightly later in development, the ossification of both shell elements continues without a distinct periosteum but by metaplastically ossifying precondensed soft-tissue integumentary structures. Through ontogeny, ribs of the turtles studied are closely associated with the hypaxial intercostalis musculature while epaxial interspinalis musculature connects the neural arches. We here propose an alternative structural hypothesis for the neural reduction and, ultimately, the complete loss of the neural series. The complete reduction of neurals in Emydura spp. may be linked to heterochrony, accompanied by a restricted influence of epaxial musculature and epidermal-dermal interaction in shell bone formation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2011-09-15

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  2. Atypical calcific tendinitis with cortical erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, E.J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); El-Khoury, G.Y. [Dept. of Radiology and Orthopaedics, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To present and discuss six cases of calcific tendinitis in atypical locations (one at the insertion of the pectoralis major and five at the insertion of the gluteus maximus).Patients and results. All cases were associated with cortical erosions, and five had soft tissue calcifications. The initial presentation was confusing and the patients were suspected of having infection or neoplastic disease.Conclusion. Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition. It is important to recognize the imaging features of this condition to avoid unnecessary investigation and surgery. (orig.)

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi and Triatoma dimidiata in costal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yim Yan; Sornosa Macias, Karen Jeniffer; Guale Martínez, Doris; Solorzano, Luis F; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In Ecuador, Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis are the main vector species, responsible for over half of the cases of T. cruzi infection in the country. T. dimidiata is believed to have been introduced in Ecuador during colonial times, and its elimination from the country is thus believed to be feasible. We investigated here the molecular ecology of T. dimidiata and T. cruzi in costal Ecuador to further guide control efforts. Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) of 23 specimens from Progreso, Guayas, unambiguously supported the likely importation of T. dimidiata from Central America to Ecuador. The observation of a very high parasite infection rate (54%) and frequent feeding on humans (3/5) confirmed a continued risk of transmission to humans. All genotyped parasites corresponded to TcI DTU and Trypanosoma rangeli was not detected in T. dimidiata. TcI subgroups corresponded to TcIa (25%), and mixed infections with TcIa and TcId (75%). Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi genetic structure in the country, and the possible impact of the introduction of T. dimidiata on the circulating parasite strains. The elevated risk posed by this species warrants continuing efforts for its control, but its apparent mobility between peridomestic and domestic habitats may favor reinfestation following insecticide spraying.

  4. Subchondral bone loss following orthodontically induced cartilage degradation in the mandibular condyles of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Wang, Mei-Qing; Dai, Juan; Yu, Shi-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jun

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease generally characterized by progressive cartilage degradation and subchondral bone changes. Subchondral bone changes have been proposed to initiate or accompany with cartilage degradation in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize cartilage damage, subchondral bone remodeling, and the possible mechanism involved in these morphological changes in our reported rat model with OA-like lesions in the mandibular condyle. In experimental groups, the dental occlusion was orthodontically disturbed. By histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-CT scanning and serum tests, changes in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone were analyzed at 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The mRNA and protein levels of bone pro-resorptive and pro-formative factors by chondrocytes were investigated. Increased degraded cartilage areas and obvious cartilage calcification were observed in 8- and 12-week treated (EXP) groups compared to the age-matched controls. Subchondral bone loss, characterized as decreased bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), was observed in the 12-week but not the 8-week EXP group, respectively, versus their age-matched controls. The subchondral bone loss in the 12-week EXP group was accompanied with decreased new bone formation rate, but increased serum carboxy terminal telopeptides (CTXs), and increased osteoclast numbers and proportion of surface area in the subchondral bone regions. Increased mRNA and protein levels of M-CSF, VEGF, RUNX and RANKL/OPG ratio, but decreased OPG, were found in condylar cartilage in the 12-week EXP group versus its age-matched controls, and those of RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the 12-week EXP group than the 8-week EXP. In addition, increased mRNA levels of VEGF, RUNX and RANKL/OPG ratio, but decreased OPG, were also found in condylar

  5. Rib cartilage graft for posttraumatic or degenerative arthritis at wrist level: 10-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Laurent; Lepage, Daniel; Ferrier, Maxime; Tropet, Yves

    2013-08-01

    Background Posttraumatic arthritides of the radiocarpal joint, secondary to scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC), scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC), or Kienböck disease or in cases of intraarticularmalunion of the distal radius, are classically solved by some type of arthrodesis procedure. Osteochondral grafting provides a possible motion-sparing option that can diminish pain in the active patient. Description of Technique A chondrocostal graft harvested from the ninth rib was inserted and fixed with a plate in place of the articular defect in cases of a malunited intra-articular distal radius fracture (7 cases) or to replace the proximal pole of the scaphoid in cases of SNAC or SLAC (18 cases). In Kienböck disease, the graft was inserted as a free cartilage spacer (4 cases). Results Harvesting the graft from the ninth rib had minimal morbidity without pleural injury in the reported series. Graft union was achieved in all cases of fixation. No graft resorption or necrosis were observed on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation at the longest follow-up of 10 years. Histological analysis performed at the time of plate removal showed the vitality of the graft. Two thirds of the patients had excellent or good results using the Green and O'Brien score. Conclusions Reconstruction of a partially destroyed articular surface using a costal graft is reliable and provides an alternative option for resurfacing the articular surface with viable cartilage.

  6. Autophagy modulates articular cartilage vesicle formation in primary articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B; Jackson, William T

    2015-05-22

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair.

  7. Proton pumping accompanies calcification in foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Takashi; Matsuo, Miki Y.; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; Nagai, Yukiko; Kawada, Sachiko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Sakaguchi, Hide; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing ocean acidification is widely reported to reduce the ability of calcifying marine organisms to produce their shells and skeletons. Whereas increased dissolution due to acidification is a largely inorganic process, strong organismal control over biomineralization influences calcification and hence complicates predicting the response of marine calcifyers. Here we show that calcification is driven by rapid transformation of bicarbonate into carbonate inside the cytoplasm, achieved by active outward proton pumping. Moreover, this proton flux is maintained over a wide range of pCO2 levels. We furthermore show that a V-type H+ ATPase is responsible for the proton flux and thereby calcification. External transformation of bicarbonate into CO2 due to the proton pumping implies that biomineralization does not rely on availability of carbonate ions, but total dissolved CO2 may not reduce calcification, thereby potentially maintaining the current global marine carbonate production.

  8. Progressive liver calcifications in neonatal coxsackievirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, O.; Rathaus, V.; Shapiro, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Meir General Hospital, Kfar Saba (Israel); Bauer, S.; Dolfin, T. [Neonatal Dept. Neonatal intensive Care, Sapir Medical Center, Meir General Hospital Affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2000-05-01

    Coxsackievirus group B can cause a severe systemic disease in the perinatal period. Severe manifestations like meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis have been previously reported. A case of a twin neonate infected by coxsackievirus group B is described, who developed progressive extensive hepatic calcifications demonstrated by ultrasound and computed tomography with follow-up. Hepatic calcifications in coxsackievirus infection have not been previously reported. (orig.)

  9. Coral calcification in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2010-01-01

    Animals and plants that live in the ocean form skeletons and other hard parts by combining calcium ions and carbonate ions to create calcium carbonate. This process is called calcification. In tropical and subtropical oceans, the calcification of corals and other organisms creates reefs that protect islands, produce beautiful white-sand beaches, and create habitat for thousands of species that live on coral reefs.

  10. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting with prominent calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Izawa; Takeshi Sawada; Ryuichi Abiko; Daisuke Kumon; Mami Hirakawa; Mika Kobayashi; Nobuyuki Obinata

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach with prominent calcification at presentation.A 61-year-old woman visited our hospital because of epigastric discomfort.A spherical calcified lesion with a diameter of about 30 mm was incidentally shown in the left upper quadrant on an abdominal X-ray.Computed tomography demonstrated that the tumor was growing from the upper gastric body,with calcification in the peripheral ring area.A laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed,and the resected specimen revealed a well-circumscribed tumor with exophytic growth from the gastric muscularis propria.Microscopic examination revealed spindleshaped tumor cells with calcification and hemorrhage.Additionally,positive immunoreactivity of the tumor to KIT and CD34 and a low mitotic index resulted in the diagnosis of very low risk GIST.There are a few case reports of heavily calcified GIST,although solitary or punctate calcification of primary GIST has been reported in several case series.Dystrophic calcification of necrotic or degenerative tissue is the supposed cause of primary calcified GISTs.In contrast,appearance of calcification after administration of imatinib mesylate,which may be one indicator of disease response,is possibly caused by a different mechanism.

  11. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Intracranial physiological calcification on computed tomography, 1. Calcification of pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ryungchan; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ito, Shotaro; Kadoya, Satoru

    1988-06-01

    Of intracranial physiological calcification, common calcification of pineal region, choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and of basal ganglia was examined based on the frequency of occurence of age and sex and type of CT scanners. Consecutive cases of 2877 (1450 males and 1427 females) underwent plain CT scanning were studied. Pathological calcification was excluded from this study. Three types of CT scanners (SCN-200, Somatom 2 and TCT-10 A) were used. As a whole, calcification was shown in 67.7 % in pineal region, 57.6 % in choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and 7.5 % in basal ganglia. First, we reported in detail the calcification of pineal region, in which calcification occurred most frequently. Calcification in pineal region had a close relation with age by increasing with aging. The youngest patient was 8 years old. There was a striking increase in number of patients aged from 10 to 39 years. There was a gradual increase in those aged over 40 years. Of patients aged from 70 to 79 years, calcification was found in 81.5 %. The incidence was noted no changes in patients aged over 80 years. As for patients aged over 20 years, calcification was observed in 75.1 % (82.6 % males and 68.0 % females). In patients aged from 20 to 79 years, the calcification was significantly higher in male than female. Although there was a different incidence of calcification examined by three types of CT scanners, it was not significant. There was no significant difference between thickness of 8 mm section and 10 mm.

  13. Release of transgenic progranulin from a living hyaline cartilage graft model: An in vitro evaluation on anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ting Ting; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Wei; Wang, Dong-An

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent condition that compromises and even jeopardizes the life quality of millions of people. Common symptoms in OA includes joint stiffness and soreness, and they are often associated with inflammations to various extend. Due to the avascular and aneural nature of articular hyaline cartilage, it has limited self-repair capabilities; especially under inflammatory conditions, damages inflicted on cartilage are often irreversible. Hence, treatment approaches focus on anti-inflammation or articular cartilage replacement. In this study, an engineered, dual-functional living hyaline cartilage graft (LhCG), capable of releasing transgenic anti-inflammatory cytokine-progranulin (PGRN) is developed and envisioned to simultaneously fulfil both requirements. The therapeutic functionality of PGRN releasing LhCG is evaluated by co-culturing the constructs with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secreting THP-1 cells to simulate the inflammatory condition in arthritis. Non-transgenic LhCG constructs and non-coculture sample groups were set up as controls. Gene expression and ECM composition changes across samples were assessed to understand the effects of PGRN as well as inflammatory environment on the cartilage graft. Collectively, the results in this study suggest that in situ release of transgenic recombinant PGRN protects LhCG from induced inflammation in vitro; contrastively, in the absence of PGRN, cartilage grafts are at risk of being degraded and mineralized under exposure to TNFα signaling. This shows that cartilage graft itself can be at risk of degradation or calcification when implanted in arthritic microenvironment. Hence, the inflammatory microenvironment has to be considered in cartilage replacement therapy to increase chances of successful joint mobility restoration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2968-2977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Treatment with recombinant lubricin attenuates osteoarthritis by positive feedback loop between articular cartilage and subchondral bone in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhuang; Xu, Changpeng; Li, Xue; Song, Jinqi; Yu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a most commonly multifactorial degenerative joint disease along with the aging population, particularly in postmenopausal women. During the onset of OA, articular cartilage and subchondral bone act in concert as a functional unit. This present study is to investigate the effects of early or late treatment with recombinant lubricin on the onset of osteoarthritis (OA) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We found that both early and late recombinant lubricin treatments attenuated the onset of OA by positive feedback loop between articular cartilage and subchondral bone, although late treatment contributed to a lesser effect compared with early treatment. Specifically, treatment with recombinant lubricin protected articular cartilage from degeneration, demonstrated by lower proteoglycan loss, lower OARSI scores, less calcification cartilage zone and reduced immunostaining for collagen X (Col X) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13) but increased the expression of lubricin, in comparison with vehicle-treated OVX rat group. Further, chondroprotective effects of lubricin normalized bone remodeling in subchondral bone underneath. It's suggested that treatment with recombinant lubricin inhibited the elevation of TRAP and Osterix positive cells in OVX rats and led to the normalization of subchondral bone microarchitectures with the suppression of subsidence of bone volume ratio (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and the increase of trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in vehicle-treated OVX rats. What's more, the normalization of subchondral bone in turn attenuated the articular cartilage erosion by inhibiting vascular invasion from subchondral bone to calcified cartilage zone, exemplified by inhibiting the elevation of CD31 positive cells in calcified cartilage and angiography in subchondral bone. Together, these results shed light that both early and late recombinant lubricin treatments attenuate the onset of OA by balancing the interplay between articular

  15. Transcriptomic signatures in cartilage ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Age is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. Microarray studies provide insight into cartilage aging but do not reveal the full transcriptomic phenotype of chondrocytes such as small noncoding RNAs, pseudogenes, and microRNAs. RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the interrogation of large numbers of transcripts including nonprotein coding RNAs. The aim of the study was to characterise molecular mechanisms associated with age-related changes in gene signatures. Methods RNA for gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis was isolated from macroscopically normal cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joints of eight horses; four young donors (4 years old) and four old donors (>15 years old). RNA sequence libraries were prepared following ribosomal RNA depletion and sequencing was undertaken using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes were defined using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction with a generalised linear model likelihood ratio test (P ageing cartilage. Conclusion There was an age-related dysregulation of matrix, anabolic and catabolic cartilage factors. This study has increased our knowledge of transcriptional networks in cartilage ageing by providing a global view of the transcriptome. PMID:23971731

  16. El Rey Costales, personaje de la narrativa oral de Zumpahuacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urdapilleta Muñoz, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the King of Sacks (Rey Costales, a mythical character in Zumpahuacan’s oral narrative. This so difficult to grasp character, and its protean condition, oriented the research into determining its identity. According the stories, King of Sacks is kind of a «spirit» or «Banshee », but its behavior is that of an «Air”, a Mesoamerican supernatural being. However, its high degree of individualization —as manifested in the consciousness of its pagan status as well as in the lack of links with the atmospheric phenomena affecting crops— required some clarifications. As expected, there is a conflict or symbolic-religious adjustment between Christian beliefs and vernacular beliefs, but above all, a larger cultural realignment revealing the process of looking for balance in collective imagination as a result of a community’s new circumstances, no longer mainly agrarian and indigenous. Beyond this adjustment, the narrative shows the creativity of Zumpahuacan’s inhabitants, projecting their ability to shape their experiences anchored in pre- Hispanic past, but in the light of present experiences and circumstances.

    El propósito de este artículo es el estudio del Rey Costales, un personaje mítico de la narrativa oral de Zumpahuacán. Su identidad múltiple, proteica, difícil de asir, orientó la investigación hacia el establecimiento de la identidad del personaje. En los relatos se le refiere como un «espíritu» o «alma en pena», pero su conducta permitió tipificarlo como «aire», un género de seres sobrenaturales mesoamericanos Sin embargo, su alto grado de individualización, manifiesto en la conciencia de su condición pagana, así como la falta de vínculos con los fenómenos atmosféricos que inciden en el cultivo hicieron necesarias algunas precisiones. Éstas mostraron que hay un conflicto o ajuste simbólico-religioso entre las creencias cristianas y las vernáculas, y ante todo un reacomodo

  17. Acute renal infarction secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Dinesh; Abbara, Suhny; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with right groin pain who subsequently was found to have a renal infarct secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification on CT and angiography. We briefly review the literature and discuss the importance of this entity in clinical practice.

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Jayne Peffers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older donors. Here we describe the contents and quality controls in detail for the gene expression and related results published by Peffers and colleagues in Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 associated with the data uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-1386.

  19. Imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification in the abdominopelvic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Hee Sun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Intratumoral calcification is one of the most noticeable of radiologic findings. It facilitates detection and provides information important for correctly diagnosing tumors. In the abdominopelvic cavity, a wide variety of tumors have calcifications with various imaging features, though the majority of such calcifications are dystrophic in nature. In this article, we classify the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification according to number, location, and morphology. Then, we describe commonly-encountered abdominopelvic tumors containing typical calcification patterns, focusing on their differentiable characteristics using the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification.

  20. Imaging Patterns of Intratumoral Calcification in the Abdominopelvic Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Park, Hee Sun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Intratumoral calcification is one of the most noticeable of radiologic findings. It facilitates detection and provides information important for correctly diagnosing tumors. In the abdominopelvic cavity, a wide variety of tumors have calcifications with various imaging features, though the majority of such calcifications are dystrophic in nature. In this article, we classify the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification according to number, location, and morphology. Then, we describe commonly-encountered abdominopelvic tumors containing typical calcification patterns, focusing on their differentiable characteristics using the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification. PMID:28246512

  1. 先天性小耳畸形的肋软骨全耳廓再造术%Total auricular reconstruction with costal cartilage for congenital microtia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚燕军; 杜晓杨; 王明刚

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨先天性小耳畸形应用自体肋软骨分两期行全耳廓再造术的临床疗效.方法 对10例小耳畸形患者采用自体肋软骨分二期行全耳廓再造共11个,手术一期为耳解剖结构三维轮廓再造;二期为颅耳角再造.结果 9例手术顺利,效果满意;1例系双侧小耳,一期再造术后双侧皮瓣远端表皮坏死,自行脱痂痊愈.10例术后随访6~18个月,再造耳廓轮廓清晰,拥有良好的颅耳角.结论 应用自体肋软骨分两期行全耳廓再造,疗效满意,并发症少,是先天性小耳畸形理想的再造方法.

  2. Mechanical properties of costal cartilage of the children with pectus excavatum%漏斗胸肋软骨生物力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杰雄; 胡廷泽; 陈锐; 唐耘熳; 刘文英; 蒋小平

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨漏斗胸肋软骨生物力学特性.方法 19例漏斗胸患儿肋软骨手术标本经处理后,用日本岛津AG-1000A电子式万能实验机行拉伸、压缩和弯曲试验,载荷精度0.25%,加载速度5 mm/min.取年龄相同死于非骨骼肌肉系统疾病的尸体标本作对照.记录应力-应变关系曲线或应力-时间关系曲线并根据该曲线计算平均最大压缩、拉伸、弯曲强度和平均最大应变.结果病变组拉伸强度、压缩强度、弯曲强度和平均最大应变均小于对照组.在相同的应力作用下,病变组的应变较大.病变组破坏应力也小于对照组.结论漏斗胸肋软骨生物力学性能有下降,这种改变可能与漏斗胸的形成有一定关系.

  3. PHOTOCROSSLINKABLE HYDROGELS FOR CARTILAGE TISSUE ENGINEERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levett, Peter Andrew

    2015-01-01

    For millions of people, damaged cartilage is a major source of pain and disability. As those people often discover upon seeking medical treatment, once damaged, cartilage is very difficult to repair. Finding better clinical therapies for damaged cartilage has generated a huge amount of research inte

  4. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic sur

  5. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic

  6. Characterization of a cartilage-like engineered biomass using a self-aggregating suspension culture model: molecular composition using FT-IRIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Kraft, Jeffrey J; Volk, Andrew C; Pugarelli, Joan; Pleshko, Nancy; Dodge, George R

    2011-12-01

    Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype and robust expression and organization of macromolecular components with suitable cartilaginous properties is an ultimate goal in cartilage tissue engineering. We used a self-aggregating suspension culture (SASC) method to produce an engineered cartilage, "cartilage tissue analog" (CTA). With an objective of understanding the stability of phenotype of the CTA over long periods, we cultured chondrocytes up to 4 years and analyzed the matrix. Both early (eCTAs) (6 months) and aged (aCTAs) (4 years) showed type II collagen throughout with higher concentrations near the edge. Using Fourier transform-infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS), proteoglycan/collagen ratio of eCTA was 2.8 times greater than native cartilage at 1 week, but the ratio was balanced to native level (p = 0.017) by 36 weeks. Surprisingly, aCTAs maintained the hyaline characteristics, but there was evidence of calcification within the tissue with a distinct range of intensities. Mineral/matrix ratio of those aCTA with "intensive" calcification was significantly higher (p = 0.017) than the "partial," but when compared to native bone the ratio of "intensive" aCTAs was 2.4 times lower. In this study we utilized the imaging approach of FT-IRIS and have shown that a biomaterial formed is compositionally closely related to natural cartilage for long periods in culture. We show that this culture platform can maintain a CTA for extended periods of time (4 years) and under those conditions signs of mineralization can be found. This method of cartilage tissue engineering is a promising method to generate cartilaginous biomaterial and may have potential to be utilized in both cartilage and boney repairs. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  8. Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanassoulis, George; Campbell, Catherine Y; Owens, David S

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease.......Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease....

  9. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheiber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7 supplementation (100 µg/g diet on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05 and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05 calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01. MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression (10-fold; p < 0.05. CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures.

  10. Strategies for Stratified Cartilage Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple materials, cells and growth factors can be combined into one construct by the use of a state–of-the-art bioprinter. This technique may in the future make the fabrication of complete tissues or organs possible. In this thesis the feasibility of the bioprinting of cartilage and the difference

  11. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a

  12. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a dep

  13. Hydrodynamic influences of tidal fluctuations and beach slopes on benzene transport in unconfined, sandy costal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, C.-F.; Wei, Y.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills in oceans have led to severe environment and ecosystem problems due to high toxicity substances, large spatial extents, and long temporal durations. The BTEX compounds are key indexes generally used for identifications of such contamination events and also for quantifications of residual substances after remediations. Benzene is one of the BTEX compounds, which is recognized to be high toxicity and may threat near-shore ecosystem and human safety. Therefore, the understanding of benzene transport in costal aquifers is critical for predictions of contaminated zones and managements and organizations of remediation plans. In this study a numerical investigation was conducted to quantify the influence of tidal fluctuations and beach slopes on benzene transport in an unconfined coastal aquifer. More specifically, three different tidal amplitudes and three beach slopes were considered in the two-dimensional HYDROGEOCHEM model to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of the benzene transport. Simulation results show that tidal fluctuations will lead to shallow seawater circulations near the ground surface where the high tides can reach periodically. Such local circulation flows will trap benzene plume and the plume may migrate to the deeper aquifer, depending on the amplitudes of tides and the surface slopes of the coastal lines. The sine curve tides with 0.5 m amplitudes will create circulation plume sizes of about 50m in length and 20m in depth, while the circulation plume sizes for tides with 1.0 m amplitudes will significantly increase to approximately 150 m in length and 60 m in depth. Additionally, double the beach slopes and keep the same tidal amplitude will lead to 40 m plume movement toward the land. The amplitude of tidal fluctuation is the key factor to decide when and where a benzene plume reaches a largest depth. In general, the plume with tidal amplitude of 0.5 m requires 50 days to reach 90% of the largest depth. However, the plume with

  14. FIBROBLAST INVOLVEMENT IN SOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUE CALCIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne eRonchetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft connective tissue calcification is not a passive process, but the consequence of metabolic changes of local mesenchymal cells that, depending on both genetic and environmental factors, alter the balance between pro- and anti-calcifying pathways. While the role of smooth muscle cells and pericytes in ectopic calcifications has been widely investigated, the involvement of fibroblasts is still elusive. Fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of PXE patients and of patients exhibiting PXE-like clinical and histopathological findings offer an attractive model to investigate the mechanisms leading to the precipitation of mineral deposits within elastic fibres and to explore the influence of the genetic background and of the extracellular environment on fibroblast-associated calcifications, thus improving the knowledge on the role of mesenchymal cells on pathologic mineralization.

  15. [Arterial calcification and risk of cardiovascular events in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kunimitu; Morimoto, Shigeto

    2010-11-01

    The cohort studies reported the subclinical vascular calcification including atheroslerosis starts during prediabetic state characterized by impaired fasting glucose. In the cardiovascular systems of diabetes mellitus there is an original mechanism to induce the medial calcification other than intimal calcification observed in the classical atherosclerosis. This is characterized as the ectipic osteogenesis induced by paracrine signals from inflammatory lesions in the adventitia. On the other hand, many internal systems have been discovered to inhibit vascular calcification.

  16. Dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dru, Christopher; Bender, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.

  17. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Angela H. E. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J. M.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin K is an important co-factor in the production of proteins that inhibit vascular calcification. A low dietary Vitamin K intake has been associated with aortic and coronary calcifications and an elevated cardiovascular risk. Calcifications in the arteries of the breasts have also b

  18. Calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus tendon (Gluteus maximus tendinitis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wepfer, J.F.; Reed, J.G.; Cullen, G.M.; McDevitt, W.P.

    1983-02-01

    Seven cases of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus tendon are presented. Awareness of the precise anatomic location of the calcific deposit is essential for the accurate diagnosis of this uncommon site of tendinitis. Clinically, the presenting complaint is that of pain. In some instances, however, the patients are asymptomatic and the calcification is an incidental finding.

  19. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Angela H. E. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J. M.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin K is an important co-factor in the production of proteins that inhibit vascular calcification. A low dietary Vitamin K intake has been associated with aortic and coronary calcifications and an elevated cardiovascular risk. Calcifications in the arteries of the breasts have also b

  20. Cartilage-selective genes identified in genome-scale analysis of non-cartilage and cartilage gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Zachary A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartilage plays a fundamental role in the development of the human skeleton. Early in embryogenesis, mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes to shape the early skeleton. Subsequently, the cartilage anlagen differentiate to form the growth plates, which are responsible for linear bone growth, and the articular chondrocytes, which facilitate joint function. However, despite the multiplicity of roles of cartilage during human fetal life, surprisingly little is known about its transcriptome. To address this, a whole genome microarray expression profile was generated using RNA isolated from 18–22 week human distal femur fetal cartilage and compared with a database of control normal human tissues aggregated at UCLA, termed Celsius. Results 161 cartilage-selective genes were identified, defined as genes significantly expressed in cartilage with low expression and little variation across a panel of 34 non-cartilage tissues. Among these 161 genes were cartilage-specific genes such as cartilage collagen genes and 25 genes which have been associated with skeletal phenotypes in humans and/or mice. Many of the other cartilage-selective genes do not have established roles in cartilage or are novel, unannotated genes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the unique pattern of gene expression observed by microarray analysis. Conclusion Defining the gene expression pattern for cartilage has identified new genes that may contribute to human skeletogenesis as well as provided further candidate genes for skeletal dysplasias. The data suggest that fetal cartilage is a complex and transcriptionally active tissue and demonstrate that the set of genes selectively expressed in the tissue has been greatly underestimated.

  1. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Lucas Meuwese

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP and Klotho.In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH, total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP, desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP, descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II, and soluble Klotho (sKlotho were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively.fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness.The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail.

  3. Direct Promotion of Collagen Calcification by Alkaline Phosphatase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase promotes hydrolysis of phosphate containing substrates, causes a rise in inorganic phosphate and, therefore, enhances calcification of biological tissues. In this work, the calcification of collagen in a model serum was used as a model of collagenous tissue biomaterials to study the possible calcification promotion mechanism of alkaline phosphatase. In the enzyme concentration range of 0.10.5mg/mL, the enzyme shows a direct calcification promoting effect which is independent of the hydrolysis of its phosphate containing substrates but proportional to the enzyme concentration. Potassium pyrophosphate somewhat inhibits the calcification promotion.

  4. Sclerosing peritonitis with gross calcification: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheung Sook; Kim, Young Jae; Min, Seon Jeong; Cho, Seong Whi; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis is an uncommon complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and can lead to small bowel dysfunction involving abdominal pain, progressive loss of ultrafiltration, and small intestinal obstruction. Peritoneal thickening, in which calcification can develop, often starts as al small plaque which gradually becomes larger. We report a case of CAPD-related calcifying peritonitis.

  5. Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendonitis Mimics a Retropharyngeal Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis (RCT is an uncommon, self-limiting condition that is often omitted in the differential diagnosis of a retropharyngeal fluid collection. This condition mimics a retropharyngeal abscess and should be considered when evaluating a fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space. Although calcific tendonitis at other sites has been well described in the medical literature, it appears that this entity has been underreported in the otolaryngology literature where only a few case reports have been identified. Presumably, the actual incidence is higher than the reported incidence, due to lack of familiarity with this disorder. As an otolaryngologist’s scope of practice includes the managements of retropharyngeal lesions, it is important for the otolaryngologist to recognize the presentation of acute RCT and be familiar with appropriate treatment strategies. Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis presents with neck pain, limitation of neck range of motion and includes inflammation, calcifications, and a sterile effusion within the longus colli muscle. Treatment is medical with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. RCT does not require surgical treatment, and an accurate diagnosis can prevent unnecessary attempts at operative drainage. In this study, we discuss two cases of RCT, summarize the salient features in diagnosis, including key radiologic features, discuss treatment options, and review the literature.

  6. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  7. Mechanobiology and Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Céline; HUSELSTEIN; Natalia; de; ISLA; Sylvaine; MULLER; Jean-Franois; STOLTZ

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue in joints that withstands and distributes mechanical forces. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although some of the mechanisms of mechanotransduction are known today, there are certainly many others left unrevealed. Different topics of chondrocytes mechanobiology have led to the de...

  8. Dorsal Augmentation with Septal Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Murrell, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Deficiency of nasal dorsal projection may be inherent or acquired. Repair is most commonly performed with an onlay graft. When nasal septal cartilage is available, it is the author's preferred source for graft material. It is important to realize that dorsal augmentation is an operation performed for aesthetic not functional reasons. As such, patients understandably scrutinize their postoperative result, and attention to detail in all aspects of the surgery is critical in achieving a favorabl...

  9. Resident mesenchymal progenitors of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Maria Elena; Yasuhara, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capacity of self-renewal and repair. Insufficient number and activity of resident mesenchymal (connective tissue) progenitors is likely one of the underlying reasons. Chondroprogenitors reside not only in the superficial zone of articular cartilage but also in other zones of articular cartilage and in the neighboring tissues, including perichondrium (groove of Ranvier), synovium and fat pad. These cells may respond to injury and contribute to articular cartilage healing. In addition, marrow stromal cells can migrate through subchondral bone when articular cartilage is damaged. We should develop drugs and methods that correctly stimulate resident progenitors for improvement of repair and inhibition of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  11. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Neal X., E-mail: xuechen@iupui.edu [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Moe, Sharon M. [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  12. Zebrafish enpp1 mutants exhibit pathological mineralization, mimicking features of generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Apschner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that, mechanistically, biomineralization is a process that has to be actively inhibited as a default state. This inhibition must be released in a rigidly controlled manner in order for mineralization to occur in skeletal elements and teeth. A central aspect of this concept is the tightly controlled balance between phosphate, a constituent of the biomineral hydroxyapatite, and pyrophosphate, a physiochemical inhibitor of mineralization. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of a zebrafish mutant, dragonfish (dgf, which is mutant for ectonucleoside pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (Enpp1, a protein that is crucial for supplying extracellular pyrophosphate. Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI is a fatal human disease, and the majority of cases are thought to be caused by mutations in ENPP1. Furthermore, some cases of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE have recently been linked to ENPP1. Similar to humans, we show here that zebrafish enpp1 mutants can develop ectopic calcifications in a variety of soft tissues – most notably in the skin, cartilage elements, the heart, intracranial space and the notochord sheet. Using transgenic reporter lines, we demonstrate that ectopic mineralizations in these tissues occur independently of the expression of typical osteoblast or cartilage markers. Intriguingly, we detect cells expressing the osteoclast markers Trap and CathepsinK at sites of ectopic calcification at time points when osteoclasts are not yet present in wild-type siblings. Treatment with the bisphosphonate etidronate rescues aspects of the dgf phenotype, and we detected deregulated expression of genes that are involved in phosphate homeostasis and mineralization, such as fgf23, npt2a, entpd5 and spp1 (also known as osteopontin. Employing a UAS-GalFF approach, we show that forced expression of enpp1 in blood vessels or the floorplate of mutant embryos is sufficient to rescue the notochord

  13. Gla-rich protein is involved in the cross-talk between calcification and inflammation in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Sofia; Viegas, Carla S B; Rafael, Marta S; Ramos, Acácio; Magalhães, Joana; Blanco, Francisco J; Vermeer, Cees; Simes, Dina C

    2016-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole-joint disease characterized by articular cartilage loss, tissue inflammation, abnormal bone formation and extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. Disease-modifying treatments are not yet available and a better understanding of osteoarthritis pathophysiology should lead to the discovery of more effective treatments. Gla-rich protein (GRP) has been proposed to act as a mineralization inhibitor and was recently shown to be associated with OA in vivo. Here, we further investigated the association of GRP with OA mineralization-inflammation processes. Using a synoviocyte and chondrocyte OA cell system, we showed that GRP expression was up-regulated following cell differentiation throughout ECM calcification, and that inflammatory stimulation with IL-1β results in an increased expression of COX2 and MMP13 and up-regulation of GRP. Importantly, while treatment of articular cells with γ-carboxylated GRP inhibited ECM calcification, treatment with either GRP or GRP-coated basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals resulted in the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and mediators of inflammation, independently of its γ-carboxylation status. Our results strengthen the calcification inhibitory function of GRP and strongly suggest GRP as a novel anti-inflammatory agent, with potential beneficial effects on the main processes responsible for osteoarthritis progression. In conclusion, GRP is a strong candidate target to develop new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Harnessing Biomechanics to Develop Cartilage Regeneration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiou, KA; Responte, DJ; Brown, WE; Hu, JC

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 by ASME. As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. Thi...

  15. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams VII. Culture studies on the taxonomic relevance of costal anatomy in the Campylopus leucognodes-subconcolor complex and in Campylopus pittieri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florschütz-de Waard, J.; Worrell-Schets, M.

    1980-01-01

    Observations on costal anatomy in Colombian material of the Campylopus leucognodessubconcolor complex revealed a correlation between habitat humidity and degree of cell wall thickness. Cultivation experiments confirmed the assumption that the presence or absence of pseudostereids in this group is en

  16. Anisothecium staphylinum (Whitehouse) Sipman, Rubers & Riemann comb. nov. found in Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands, with a remark on its costal anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.; Rubers, W.V.; Riemann, B.

    1972-01-01

    Dicranella staphylina Whitehouse, a species recently described from Great Britain, is now recorded from Belgium, Denmark and The Netherlands. A new combination, Anisothecium staphylinum (Whitehouse) Sipman, Rubers & Riemann, is proposed. A study of the costal anatomy revealed that A. staphylinum in

  17. Can Glucosamine Supplements Protect My Knee Cartilage from Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can glucosamine supplements protect my knee cartilage from osteoarthritis? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Study results on this question have ... build cartilage. The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis wears away the slick cartilage that covers the ...

  18. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on Hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Campos Ciccone Carla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Results Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. Conclusion We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  19. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Ciccone, Carla; Zuzzi, Denise Cristina; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; Mendonça, Josué Sampaio; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2013-01-19

    In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  20. Optical properties of nasal septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Nodar V.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Kitai, Moishe S.

    1998-05-01

    Optical parameters (scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g) of hyaline cartilage were studied for the first time. Optical properties of human and pig nasal septum cartilage, and of bovine ear cartilage were examined using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and an Optical Multi-Channel Analyser. We measured total transmission Tt, total reflection Rt, and on-axis transmission Ta for light propagating through cartilage sample, over the visible spectral range (14000 - 28000 cm-1). It is shown that transmission and reflection spectra of human, pig and bovine cartilage are rather similar. It allows us to conclude that the pig cartilage can be used for in-vivo studies instead of human cartilage. The data obtained were treated by means of the one-dimensional diffusion approximation solution of the optical transport equation. We have found scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g by the iterative comparison of measured and calculated Tt, Rt and Ta values for human and pig cartilage. We found, in particular, that for 500 nm irradiation s equals 37,6 plus or minus 3.5 cm-1, g equals 0,56 plus or minus 0.05, k approximately equals 0,5 plus or minus 0.3 cm-1. The above data were used in Monte Carlo simulation for spatial intensity profile of light scattered by a cartilage sample. The computed profile was very similar to the profile measured using an Optical Multi-Channel Analyzer (OMA).

  1. Abnormal Mechanical Loading Induces Cartilage Degeneration by Accelerating Meniscus Hypertrophy and Mineralization After ACL Injuries In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoqing; Zhan, Hongsheng; Ding, Daofang; Wang, Shaowei; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Bilgen, Bahar; Reginato, Anthony M; Fleming, Braden C; Deng, Jin; Wei, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Although patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have a high risk of developing posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), the role of meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization in PTOA after an ACL injury remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if menisci respond to abnormal loading and if an ACL injury results in meniscus hypertrophy and calcification. The hypotheses were that (1) abnormal mechanical loading after an ACL injury induces meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization, which correlates to articular cartilage damage in vivo, and (2) abnormal mechanical loading on bovine meniscus explants induces the overexpression of hypertrophic and mineralization markers in vitro. Controlled laboratory study. In vivo guinea pig study (hypothesis 1): Three-month-old male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 9) underwent ACL transection (ACLT) on the right knee; the left knee served as the control. Calcification in the menisci was evaluated by calcein labeling 1 and 5 days before knee harvesting at 5.5 months. Cartilage and meniscus damage and mineralization were quantified by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score and meniscus grade, respectively. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), collagen type X (Col X), progressive ankylosis homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro bovine meniscus explant study (hypothesis 2): Bovine meniscus explants were subjected to 25% strain at 0.3 Hz for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Cell viability was determined using live/dead staining. The levels of mRNA expression and protein levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot after 24, 48, and 72 hours in culture. The conditioned medium was collected for sulfated

  2. Calcification by reef-building sclerobionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Mallela

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that deteriorating water quality associated with increased sediment stress has reduced calcification rates on coral reefs. However, there is limited information regarding the growth and development of reef building organisms, aside from the corals themselves. This study investigated encruster calcification on five fore-reefs in Tobago subjected to a range of sedimentation rates (1.2 to 15.9 mg cm(-2 d(-1. Experimental substrates were used to assess rates of calcification in sclerobionts (e.g. crustose coralline algae, bryozoans and barnacles across key reef microhabitats: cryptic (low-light, exposed (open-horizontal and vertical topographic settings. Sedimentation negatively impacted calcification by photosynthesising crustose coralline algae in exposed microhabitats and encrusting foram cover (% in exposed and cryptic substrates. Heterotrophs were not affected by sedimentation. Fore-reef, turbid water encruster assemblages calcified at a mean rate of 757 (SD ±317 g m(-2 y(-1. Different microhabitats were characterised by distinct calcareous encruster assemblages with different rates of calcification. Taxa with rapid lateral growth dominated areal cover but were not responsible for the majority of CaCO3 production. Cryptobiont assemblages were composed of a suite of calcifying taxa which included sciaphilic cheilostome bryozoans and suspension feeding barnacles. These calcified at mean rates of 20.1 (SD ±27 and 4.0 (SD ±3.6 g m(-2 y(-1 respectively. Encruster cover (% on exposed and vertical substrates was dominated by crustose coralline algae which calcified at rates of 105.3 (SD ±67.7 g m(-2 y(-1 and 56.3 (SD ±8.3 g m(-2 y(-1 respectively. Globally, encrusting organisms contribute significant amounts of carbonate to the reef framework. These results provide experimental evidence that calcification rates, and the importance of different encrusting organisms, vary significantly according to topography and sediment

  3. Calcification by reef-building sclerobionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallela, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that deteriorating water quality associated with increased sediment stress has reduced calcification rates on coral reefs. However, there is limited information regarding the growth and development of reef building organisms, aside from the corals themselves. This study investigated encruster calcification on five fore-reefs in Tobago subjected to a range of sedimentation rates (1.2 to 15.9 mg cm(-2) d(-1)). Experimental substrates were used to assess rates of calcification in sclerobionts (e.g. crustose coralline algae, bryozoans and barnacles) across key reef microhabitats: cryptic (low-light), exposed (open-horizontal) and vertical topographic settings. Sedimentation negatively impacted calcification by photosynthesising crustose coralline algae in exposed microhabitats and encrusting foram cover (%) in exposed and cryptic substrates. Heterotrophs were not affected by sedimentation. Fore-reef, turbid water encruster assemblages calcified at a mean rate of 757 (SD ±317) g m(-2) y(-1). Different microhabitats were characterised by distinct calcareous encruster assemblages with different rates of calcification. Taxa with rapid lateral growth dominated areal cover but were not responsible for the majority of CaCO3 production. Cryptobiont assemblages were composed of a suite of calcifying taxa which included sciaphilic cheilostome bryozoans and suspension feeding barnacles. These calcified at mean rates of 20.1 (SD ±27) and 4.0 (SD ±3.6) g m(-2) y(-1) respectively. Encruster cover (%) on exposed and vertical substrates was dominated by crustose coralline algae which calcified at rates of 105.3 (SD ±67.7) g m(-2) y(-1) and 56.3 (SD ±8.3) g m(-2) y(-1) respectively. Globally, encrusting organisms contribute significant amounts of carbonate to the reef framework. These results provide experimental evidence that calcification rates, and the importance of different encrusting organisms, vary significantly according to topography and sediment

  4. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of the joint cartilage and bone tissue in osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Liliana; Torok, Rodica; Deleanu, Bogdan; Marchese, Cristian; Valeanu, Adina; Bodea, Rodica

    2012-06-01

    Aim of the study. Assessment by stereomicroscopy of the severity of lesions in osteoporotic bone at both sexes and to correlate micro-and macro-bone fracture due to low bone density values with the disease evolution. Material and method: The study material consists of fragments of bone from the femoral head, vertebral bone, costal and iliac crest biopsy obtained from patients aged over 70 years, female and male, treated in the County Hospital of Timisoara, Department of Orthopedics. For the purpose of studying the samples in stereomicroscopy and trough polarized light it has been used the Olympus Microscope SZ ×7 and an Olympus camera with 2,5 × digital zoom and a 3× optical zoom in the Vest Politechnic Univesity. Results and discussions: Subchondral bone presents osteolysis associated with a osteoporotic bone transformation. Pseudocystic chondrolisis was noted in the osteoarticular cartilage, in addition with areas of hemorrhagic postfractural necrosis. The osteoporotic bone exhibits ischemic necrosis and focal hemorrhagic necrosis adjacent fracture. Microporosity pattern of the bone observed by stereomicroscopy correspond to the spongy bone osteoporosis images. Morphometry of the bone spiculi reveals length of 154.88 and 498.32 μ. In men we found a greater thickness of bone trabeculi compared with bone texture porosity in women. The subchondral bone supports and fulfills an important role in transmitting forces from the overlying articular cartilage inducing the bone resorbtion. The femoral head fracture may be the final event of many accumulated bone microcracks. Conclusions: Bone fragility depends not only of the spongy bone but also of the cortical bone properties. Osteolysis produced by loss of balance in the process of remodeling in favor of bone resorption leads to the thinning of the subchondral bone at both sexes.

  5. Which cartilage is regenerated, hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage? Non-invasive ultrasonic evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K; Takakura, Y; Ohgushi, H; Habata, T; Uematsu, K; Takenaka, M; Ikeuchi, K

    2004-09-01

    To investigate ultrasonic evaluation methods for detecting whether the repair tissue is hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in new cartilage regeneration therapy. We examined four experimental rabbit models: a spontaneous repair model (group S), a large cartilage defect model (group L), a periosteal graft model (group P) and a tissue-engineered cartilage regeneration model (group T). From the resulting ultrasonic evaluation, we used %MM (the maximum magnitude of the measurement area divided by that of the intact cartilage) as a quantitative index of cartilage regeneration. The results of the ultrasonic evaluation were compared with the histological findings and histological score. The %MM values were 61.1 +/- 16.5% in group S, 29.8 +/- 15.1% in group L, 36.3 +/- 18.3% in group P and 76.5 +/- 18.7% in group T. The results showed a strong similarity to the histological scoring. The ultrasonic examination showed that all the hyaline-like cartilage in groups S and T had a high %MM (more than 60%). Therefore, we could define the borderline between the two types of regenerated cartilage by the %MM.

  6. Articular Cartilage Changes in Maturing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Ayala; Chu, Constance R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage has a unique functional architecture capable of providing a lifetime of pain-free joint motion. This tissue, however, undergoes substantial age-related physiologic, mechanical, biochemical, and functional changes that reduce its ability to overcome the effects of mechanical stress and injury. Many factors affect joint function in the maturing athlete—from chondrocyte survival and metabolism to structural composition and genetic/epigenetic factors governing cartilage and synovium. An evaluation of age-related changes for joint homeostasis and risk for osteoarthritis is important to the development of new strategies to rejuvenate aging joints. Objective: This review summarizes the current literature on the biochemical, cellular, and physiologic changes occurring in aging articular cartilage. Data Sources: PubMed (1969-2013) and published books in sports health, cartilage biology, and aging. Study Selection: Keywords included aging, athlete, articular cartilage, epigenetics, and functional performance with age. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Data Extraction: To be included, research questions addressed the effect of age-related changes on performance, articular cartilage biology, molecular mechanism, and morphology. Results: The mature athlete faces challenges in maintaining cartilage health and joint function due to age-related changes to articular cartilage biology, morphology, and physiology. These changes include chondrocyte loss and a decline in metabolic response, alterations to matrix and synovial tissue composition, and dysregulation of reparative responses. Conclusion: Although physical decline has been regarded as a normal part of aging, many individuals maintain overall fitness and enjoy targeted improvement to their athletic capacity throughout life. Healthy articular cartilage and joints are needed to maintain athletic performance and general activities. Genetic and potentially reversible

  7. The relationship between aortic calcification volume and obstructive coronary artery disease: comparison with coronary calcification volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Seok; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Chul Hi; Park, Seon Young; Choe, Soo Jin; Hwang, Hee Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We compared the diagnostic performance of aortic calcification volume with that of coronary artery calcification volume at CT in diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD). A total of 308 patients (M: F 141: 167) underwent coronary CT angiography using a 64-slice MDCT. We measured the calcification volume (mm{sup 3}) of coronary artery (CAC), thoracic aorta (TAC), abdominal aorta (AAC), and whole aorta (AC) at unenhanced CT. OCAD was defined as the significant stenosis ({>=} 50%) in any coronary artery at CT angiography. The diagnostic performance for OCAD was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Among the 308 patients studied, 45 patients were diagnosed with OCAD. The mean volumes of TAC, AAC, AC, and CAC were 518.8 mm{sup 3}, 551.5 mm{sup 3}, 1069.9 mm{sup 3}, 57.6 mm{sup 3} respectively. The areas under the ROC curve of TAC, AAC, AC, and CAC for OCAD were 0.766 (0.694 < 95% confidence interval < 0.838), 0.837 (0.784 < 95% confidence interval < 0.892), 0.814 (0.755 < 95% confidence interval < 0.873), 0.871 (0.812 < 95% confidence interval < 0.930), respectively. The volume of aortic calcification as well as coronary artery calcification is associated with obstructive coronary artery disease.

  8. Dystrophic Calcification of the Prostate after Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.

  9. Unusual ganglioglioma with extensive calcification and ossification

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    Vikas Shashikant Kavishwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganglioglioma is a slow-growing relatively low-grade mixed glioneuronal tumor with most cases corresponding to the WHO Grade I category. It frequently presents with seizures. The temporal lobe is the most common location followed by frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. These generally behave in a benign fashion and have a favorable prognosis. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting with convulsions and a calcified parieto-occipital mass. This mass removed from the parietal lobe showed neoplastic glial and dysplastic neuronal tissue amidst extensive areas of calcification and foci of ossification. On immunohistochemistry, the glial component expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein whereas the dysplastic neuronal component expressed synaptophysin and CD34. Epithelial membrane antigen was negative and Ki-67 showed a low proliferative index. After the surgery, the patient is free of neurological symptoms. Widespread calcification and ossification are very unusual in ganglioglioma, which prompted us to report this case.

  10. Dystrophic Calcification of the Prostate after Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses. PMID:25548712

  11. Intervertebral disc calcification in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahemad Athar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Disc calcification in children is a rare condition of which only approximately 200 cases have been reported worldwide and one from India and we report one such case. A five year-old boy presented with neck pain, torticollis and limitations of cervical motions following a fall while playing 3 months back. He had low grade fever cervical lymphadenopthy, paraspinal muscle spasm. His blood counts and ESR was raised. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymph node revealed reactive lymphadenitis. His cervical radiograph slowed calcification of C 6-7. MRI scan showed hypointense signals in C6-C7 and D5-D6 disc on both T1 and T2 W images. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. He improved on analgesics, bed rest and cervical traction.

  12. Neurological manifestations of calcific aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Egorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being thoroughly studied, senile aortic stenosis (AS remains a disease that is frequently underestimated by Russian clinicians. Meanwhile, its manifestations can not only deteriorate quality of life in patients, but can also be poor prognostic signs. The most common sequels of this disease include heart failure and severe arrhythmias. However, there may be also rare, but no less dangerous complications: enteric bleeding associated with common dysembriogenetic backgrounds, infarctions of various organs, the basis for which is spontaneous calcium embolism, and consciousness loss episodes. The latter are manifestations of cardiocerebral syndrome. Apart from syncope, embolic stroke may develop within this syndrome. There is evidence that after syncope occurs, life expectancy averages 3 years. Global practice is elaborating approaches to the intracardiac calcification prevention based on the rapid development of new pathogenetic ideas on this disease. In particular, it is clear that valvular calcification is extraskeletal leaflet ossification rather than commonplace impregnation with calcium salts, i.e. the case in point is the reverse of osteoporosis. This is the basis for a new concept of drug prevention of both calcification and the latter-induced heart disease. But the view of senile AS remains more than conservative in Russia. The paper describes a clinical case of a rare complication as cerebral calcium embolism and discusses the nature of neurological symptoms of the disease, such as vertigo and syncope.

  13. Calcification of intraocular implant lens surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenju; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hook, Daniel; Yan, Wenyan; Grobe, George; Nancollas, George H

    2004-02-17

    Calcification of octacalcium phosphate [Ca8H2(PO4)6 x 5H2O, OCP] on differently packaged "Ultem" and "Surefold" intraocular implant lens surfaces has been studied in vitro in solutions supersaturated with respect to OCP at pH = 7.10 and 37 degrees C. No mineral deposition was observed on the lenses packaged in Ultem vials even after treatment with behenic acid, one of the fatty acids identified on explanted lenses. Following treatment with behenic acid, nucleation of OCP occurred on the lenses from Surefold vials, which incorporate silicone gaskets; induction periods preceding calcification were about 6 h. No mineralization was found on the lenses in vials with other gasket materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene, fluorocarbon elastomer, and polypropylene. The results of this study indicate that both silicone and fatty acids such as behenic acid play important roles in inducing the in vivo calcification of OCP on IOL lenses; all of the lens treatment steps were necessary for nucleation induction.

  14. Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razon, Rhea Victoria B; Nasir, Asad; Wu, George S; Soliman, Manal; Trilling, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis is an inflammatory process of the superior oblique tendons of the longus colli muscle, a neck flexor in the upper cervical spine, caused by deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals; the definitive diagnostic test is computed tomography (CT). Presented in this article are two cases seen at our institution. Patients typically present with acute onset of neck pain/spasm, odynophagia, dysphagia, and/or low grade fevers. Leukocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be noted. It is important to understand this entity because its signs and symptoms are mimickers of those of the more serious condition of retropharyngeal space abscess. Calcific tendonitis is managed conservatively whereas retropharyngeal abscess requires incision and drainage. Some may argue that this entity is a zebra because its reported incidence in the literature is low. However, most of these studies were done in an era when CT was not yet in vogue. With today's widespread use of CT and its superb ability to visualize the calcification, the true incidence of this condition is probably higher and, thus, it is important for the family practitioner to be aware of this entity. The astute clinician may save the patient from unnecessary diagnostic workup, undue anxiety, and delays in hospital discharge.

  15. Anatomical study of nasal cartilage in buffalo (Bubalus bubulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Yeganehzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used ten heads of adult buffalo taken from slaughterhouse. After transferring the samples to the anatomy hall, a split was carefully created on skin of muzzle and the skin was slowly separated from muscles and hypodermal connective tissue. Place of connection of cartilages to bone, cartilages to each other and shape of the cartilages were specified. In buffalo, nose apex has two nostrils fixed by bone and cartilage. After identifying and separating the cartilages, it was found that nasal cartilages in buffalo consisted of: 1 septum nasal located between two nostrils and reinforces it from inside. 2 dorso-lateral nasal cartilage constituting dorsal and lateral parts of the nostril. 3 ventro-lateral nasal cartilage constituting ventral and lateral parts of the nostril. 4 lateral accessory cartilage constituting lateral and ventral parts of the nostril. 5 medial accessory nasal cartilage located at Alar fold and connected to ventro-lateral nasal cartilage.

  16. Strategies for Zonal Cartilage Repair using Hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Travis J.; Rizzi, Simone C.; Reichert, Johannes C.; Georgi, Nicole; Malda, Jos; Schuurman, Wouter; Crawford, Ross W.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly hydrated tissue with depth-dependent cellular and matrix properties that provide low-friction load bearing in joints. However, the structure and function are frequently lost and there is insufficient repair response to regenerate high-quality cartilage. Several hydrog

  17. Hyaline cartilage degenerates after autologous osteochondral transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, C O; Szuwart, T; Kleffner, T O; Schlegel, P M; Jahn, U R; Van Aken, H; Fuchs, S

    2004-11-01

    Autologous osteochondral grafting is a well-established clinical procedure to treat focal cartilage defects in patients, although basic research on this topic remains sparse. The aim of the current study was to evaluate (1) histological changes of transplanted hyaline cartilage of osteochondral grafts and (2) the tissue that connects the transplanted cartilage with the adjacent cartilage in a sheep model. Both knee joints of four sheep were opened surgically and osteochondral grafts were harvested and simultaneously transplanted to the contralateral femoral condyle. The animals were sacrificed after three months and the received knee joints were evaluated histologically. Histological evaluation showed a complete ingrowth of the osseous part of the osteochondral grafts. A healing or ingrowth at the level of the cartilage could not be observed. Histological evaluation of the transplanted grafts according to Mankin revealed significantly more and more severe signs of degeneration than the adjacent cartilage, such as cloning of chondrocytes and irregularities of the articular surface. We found no connecting tissue between the transplanted and the adjacent cartilage and histological signs of degeneration of the transplanted hyaline cartilage. In the light of these findings, long-term results of autologous osteochondral grafts in human beings have to be followed critically.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  19. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton.

  20. Medial arterial calcification in diabetes and its relationship to neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffcoate, W J; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Hofbauer, L C

    2009-01-01

    Calcification of the media of arterial walls is common in diabetes and is particularly associated with distal symmetrical neuropathy. Arterial calcification also complicates chronic kidney disease and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The term calcification...... factor linked to the development of arterial calcification is distal symmetrical neuropathy; indeed, it has been suggested that neuropathy explains the distal distribution of arterial calcification in diabetes. It has also been suggested that the link with neuropathy results from loss of neuropeptides......, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, which are inherently protective. The association between distal symmetrical neuropathy and calcification of the arterial wall highlights the fact that neuropathy may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality....

  1. Prolonged upright posture induces calcified hypertrophy in the cartilage end plate in rat lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qin; Liang, Qian-Qian; Wan, Chao; Hou, Wei; Li, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Lu, Sheng; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2011-11-15

    Both forelimbs of rats were amputated and these rats were kept in the custom-made cages to keep prolonged and repeated upright posture. Changes of bone were observed in the lumbar vertebrae at three different time points after the surgery. To investigate the effect of prolonged and repeated upright posture on the cartilage end plate of rat lumbar vertebrae. Previous studies show calcified hypertrophy is related to mechanical stress, but there are no clear evidences to indicate whether or not long-term and repeated assumption of the upright posture could result in calcified hypertrophy in cartilage end plate of rat lumbar spine. The forelimbs of 30 rats were amputated when they were 1 month old. These rats were kept in the custom-made cages and were forced to stand upright on their hind-limbs and tails to obtain water and food. Normal rats of the same ages kept in regular cages were used as control. The rats were killed at 5, 7, and 9 months after the surgery and lumbar vertebrae samples were harvested for micro-CT, histologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Total RNA isolated from these samples were used for real-time RT-PCR of type X collagen (Col10α1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Micro-CT showed increased inner part of cartilage end plate. Histologic revealed peripheral hypertrophy of disc after the surgery. Immunostaining and real-time RT-PCR showed increased protein and mRNA expression of type X collagen, VEGF, and TGF-β1. Prolonged upright posture induces cartilage end plate calcification and hypertrophy in rat lumbar spine.

  2. An unusual case of neonatal peritoneal calcifications associated with hydrometrocolpos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.X.; Methratta, S. [College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-10-01

    Neonatal peritoneal calcifications usually suggest a diagnosis of meconium peritonitis, but in this case, a premature baby girl, peritoneal calcifications were caused by hydrometrocolpos secondary to imperforate hymen, a rare association. The patient presented with respiratory distress and ascites and demonstrated abdominal calcifications on plain film. Other radiographic work-up revealed hydrometrocolpos without evidence of gastrointestinal tract obstruction. The patient was diagnosed and treated for imperforate hymen; she was recovered fully. (orig.)

  3. Calcific tendonitis of pectoralis major: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahir, John [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College London, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom); London Bone and Soft Tissue Tumour Service, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    The shoulder is the most common location for calcific tendonitis. Presentation of calcific tendonitis at other sites is unusual and may lead to diagnostic difficulty. We report a case of calcific tendonitis of the pectoralis major insertion and describe the CT and MRI findings. The presence of an associated cortical defect at the site of tendon insertion may lead to the incorrect diagnosis of neoplastic process. (orig.)

  4. Significance of density and demarcation of calcifications in calcifying tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhthoff, H.K.; Sarkar, K.; Hammond, I.

    1982-04-01

    Calcification of tendons can be either degenerative and progressive in nature or reactive and selfhealing. Radiologic examinations permit to distinguish between both kinds. The reactive calcification, known also as calcifying tendinitis, passes through two main phases, the formative and the resorptive phase. Since treatment is different for each phase, their roentgenologic distinction is important. Dense, well demarcated and homogenous calcifications indicate the presence of a formative phase whereas less dense, ill defined and fluffy deposits point toward an ongoing resorption.

  5. Atraumatic quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Simon G F; Sharma, Akash D; Arvind, Chinnakonda

    2012-11-27

    Calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon condition. We present the first case of a quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis. In this case, the patient presented with symptoms mimicking a rupture of the quadriceps tendon. This case illustrates that although calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps is a rare condition it is not benign and should be considered when investigating acute symptoms associated with the extensor mechanism of the knee.

  6. Eggshell calcification of the heart in constrictive pericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh; Vijayvergiya; Ramalingam; Vadivelu; Sachin; Mahajan; Sandeep; S; Rana; Manphool; Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis(CP) is an inflammatory disease of pericardium. Pericardial calcification in X-ray provides a clue for the diagnosis of CP. An extensive "eggshell" type of calcification is rarely seen in CP. We hereby report a case of CP with eggshell calcification of pericardium, encircling whole of the heart. A need for multimodality imaging and hemodynamic assessment followed by surgical pericardiectomy is discussed.

  7. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsych...

  8. Calcification of thoracic aorta – solar eclipse sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Abhijeet; Puttarajappa, Chethan

    2008-01-01

    Background Calcification of thoracic aorta is very common in old people, especially ones with hypertension. This can sometime be visible on plain chest radiograph. Case Presentation We present a case of a male patient who had extensive deposition of calcium in the thoracic aorta. Conclusion The relationship between aortic calcification and coronary atherosclerosis remains contentious. Computed tomography of the thorax can display this calcification which appears like 'solar eclipse'. PMID:18759981

  9. Progressive pulmonary calcification in a child after orthotopic liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Olena O.; Stazzone, Madelyn M.; Bhalla, Sanjeev [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2006-06-15

    We present a case of progressive pulmonary calcification associated with prolonged respiratory insufficiency in a 2-year-old boy with a history of orthotopic liver transplantation. This case demonstrates the potentially progressive nature of pulmonary calcification and that it can present with respiratory insufficiency at a later period after transplantation than previously thought. We describe radiological findings and discuss established as well as plausible pathological mechanisms contributing to the development of calcifications in these patients. (orig.)

  10. Calcification Changes of Mesozoic Calcareous Nannofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, A.; Mutterlose, J.

    2003-12-01

    Studies on plankton samples and cultures revealed a variety factors which presumably control calcification and the size of coccoliths. Among others temperature, nutrients and seawater pH are thought to influence nannoplankton calcification. Whereas these studies only provide information of very short time intervals from hours to years, global climatic and oceanographic changes occur, however, on geological timescales. Thus their impact on nannofossil calcification and carbonate production can only be studied from the fossil record. We investigated DSDP sites from the western Atlantic of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age in order to better understand long-term variations of the size of common nannofossil taxa and the resulting carbonate accumulation. The studied interval is characterized by two events in the pelagic carbonate record: (1) the onset of pelagic carbonate accumulation in the Tithonian, and (2) the Valanginian 'nannoconid crisis'. The Tithonian event went along with high abundances of strongly calcified nannofossils which presumably have an affinity to more oligotrophic surface water conditions. The mid Valanginian is marked by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE). This coincides with a sea level rise, volcanic activity and elevated atmospheric pCO2 levels. Greenhouse climate and an accelerated hydrological cycle presumably intensified weathering processes causing enhanced nutrient transfer from the continents into the oceans. Increasing surface water fertility is indicated by high abundances of nannofossils which possibly indicate more eutrophic conditions. In the western Tethys the CIE is predated by a sharp decrease in the abundance of rockforming nannoconids. This event is less pronounced in the western Atlantic due to a general scarcity of nannoconids. Low nannofossil carbonate accumulation rates and a dominance of less calcified taxa were observed and may reflect a general marine biocalcification crisis. Possible factors, which may have

  11. Calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus tendon: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottat, N.; Fumiere, E.; Delcour, C. [C. H. U. de Charleroi (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-08-01

    Two cases of calcific tendinitis of gluteus maximus muscle are presented. The CT findings, including amorphous calcification without soft tissue mass and possible cortical erosion at the femoral enthesis of the gluteus maximus muscle, are highly suggestive of calcific tendinitis at this unusual but classical location. Ossifying entheses with well-defined cortical defect are frequent at the femoral insertion of the gluteus maximus muscle in asymptomatic subjects and must be differentiated from a real cortical erosion sometimes associated with these calcific tendinitis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 7 refs.

  12. The roentgenographic study of placental calcifications in Korean pregnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chung Che [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Calcifications in the placenta have been considered as a sign of the maturity because it is found frequently in variable degrees in full-term placentas. The placentas studied were those from deliveries at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the period of January 1978 to June 1980 and were excluded if their deliveries were by Caesarean section. Roentgenographic studies of placenta were performed postnatally in 135 cases delivered from normal pregnant. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification in the placenta was 53.3%. 2. The tendency of placenta calcification was increased as progress of maturity but not indicated as postmaturity. 3. Calcifications were less correlated with increasing gravidity or maternal age. 4. Calcifications occurred more frequently with increasing birth weight. 5. Calcifications in placentas were more frequently in the neonates with 10 scores of Apgar and normal level of maternal hemoglobin. 6. No significant correlation between incidence of calcification and maternal toxemia was observed. In the pregnant with an episode of previous abortion or S. P. R. M., incidence of calcification was apparently increased but statistically not significant. On the whole, placental calcifications are not harmful and identified as normal or proper aging process.

  13. Chronic parotitis with multiple calcifications: Clinical and sialendoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel; Kiringoda, Ruwan; Ryan, William R; Eisele, David W; Chang, Jolie L

    2017-07-01

    To characterize clinical, imaging, and sialendoscopy findings in patients with chronic parotitis and multiple parotid calcifications. Retrospective review. Clinical history, radiographic images and reports, lab tests, and operative reports were reviewed for adult patients with chronic parotitis and multiple parotid calcifications who underwent parotid sialendoscopy. Thirteen of 133 (10%) patients undergoing parotid sialendoscopy for chronic sialadenitis had more than one calcification in the region of the parotid gland. Seven patients (54%) were diagnosed with immune-mediated disease from autoimmune parotitis (positive Sjögren's antibodies or antinuclear antibodies) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The six patients (46%) who did not have an immune-mediated disorder had most calcifications located anterior or along the masseter muscle. Eight of 13 patients (61%) had at least one calculus found in the parotid duct on sialendoscopy. Four patients (38%) had multiple punctate calcifications within the parotid gland, all of whom had either autoimmune parotitis or HIV. None of the proximal or punctate parotid calcifications posterior to the masseter were visualized on sialendoscopy. Chronic parotitis in conjunction with multiple parotid calcifications is uncommon and was identified in 10% of our cohort. We contrast two classifications of parotid calcifications: 1) intraductal stones that cause recurrent duct obstruction and are often located within the main parotid duct along or anterior to the masseter and 2) punctate intraparenchymal parotid gland calcifications that are not visualized on sialendoscopy and may represent underlying inflammatory disease. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1565-1570, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  15. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  16. Elastic cartilage reconstruction by transplantation of cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M; Takebe, T; Kobayashi, S; Kimura, S; Masutani, M; Lee, S; Jo, Y H; Lee, J I; Taniguchi, H

    2014-05-01

    Current surgical intervention of craniofacial defects caused by injuries or abnormalities uses reconstructive materials, such as autologous cartilage grafts. Transplantation of autologous tissues, however, places a significant invasiveness on patients, and many efforts have been made for establishing an alternative graft. Recently, we and others have shown the potential use of reconstructed elastic cartilage from ear-derived chondrocytes or progenitors with the unique elastic properties. Here, we examined the differentiation potential of canine joint cartilage-derived chondrocytes into elastic cartilage for expanding the cell sources, such as hyaline cartilage. Articular chondrocytes are isolated from canine joint, cultivated, and compared regarding characteristic differences with auricular chondrocytes, including proliferation rates, gene expression, extracellular matrix production, and cartilage reconstruction capability after transplantation. Canine articular chondrocytes proliferated less robustly than auricular chondrocytes, but there was no significant difference in the amount of sulfated glycosaminoglycan produced from redifferentiated chondrocytes. Furthermore, in vitro expanded and redifferentiated articular chondrocytes have been shown to reconstruct elastic cartilage on transplantation that has histologic characteristics distinct from hyaline cartilage. Taken together, cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes are a possible cell source for elastic cartilage reconstruction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Knee cartilage extraction and bone-cartilage interface analysis from 3D MRI data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Barbu-McInnis, Monica; Totterman, Saara

    2004-05-01

    This works presents a robust methodology for the analysis of the knee joint cartilage and the knee bone-cartilage interface from fused MRI sets. The proposed approach starts by fusing a set of two 3D MR images the knee. Although the proposed method is not pulse sequence dependent, the first sequence should be programmed to achieve good contrast between bone and cartilage. The recommended second pulse sequence is one that maximizes the contrast between cartilage and surrounding soft tissues. Once both pulse sequences are fused, the proposed bone-cartilage analysis is done in four major steps. First, an unsupervised segmentation algorithm is used to extract the femur, the tibia, and the patella. Second, a knowledge based feature extraction algorithm is used to extract the femoral, tibia and patellar cartilages. Third, a trained user corrects cartilage miss-classifications done by the automated extracted cartilage. Finally, the final segmentation is the revisited using an unsupervised MAP voxel relaxation algorithm. This final segmentation has the property that includes the extracted bone tissue as well as all the cartilage tissue. This is an improvement over previous approaches where only the cartilage was segmented. Furthermore, this approach yields very reproducible segmentation results in a set of scan-rescan experiments. When these segmentations were coupled with a partial volume compensated surface extraction algorithm the volume, area, thickness measurements shows precisions around 2.6%

  18. Hyaline cartilage cells outperform mandibular condylar cartilage cells in a TMJ fibrocartilage tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Lazebnik, M; Detamore, M S

    2009-03-01

    To compare temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage cells in vitro to hyaline cartilage cells cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) environment for tissue engineering of mandibular condylar cartilage. Mandibular condylar cartilage and hyaline cartilage cells were harvested from pigs and cultured for 6 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds. Both types of cells were treated with glucosamine sulfate (0.4 mM), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (100 ng/ml) and their combination. At weeks 0 and 6, cell number, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content were determined, types I and II collagen were visualized by immunohistochemistry and GAGs were visualized by histology. Hyaline cartilage cells produced from half an order to a full order of magnitude more GAGs and collagen than mandibular condylar cartilage cells in 3D culture. IGF-I was a highly effective signal for biosynthesis with hyaline cartilage cells, while glucosamine sulfate decreased cell proliferation and biosynthesis with both types of cells. In vitro culture of TMJ condylar cartilage cells produced a fibrous tissue with predominantly type I collagen, while hyaline cartilage cells formed a fibrocartilage-like tissue with types I and II collagen. The combination of IGF and glucosamine had a synergistic effect on maintaining the phenotype of TMJ condylar cells to generate both types I and II collagen. Given the superior biosynthetic activity by hyaline cartilage cells and the practical surgical limitations of harvesting cells from the TMJ of a patient requiring TMJ reconstruction, cartilage cells from elsewhere in the body may be a potentially better alternative to cells harvested from the TMJ for TMJ tissue engineering. This finding may also apply to other fibrocartilages such as the intervertebral disc and knee meniscus in applications where a mature cartilage cell source is desired.

  19. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  20. A cartilage-inspired lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George W; Olszewska, Anna; Osterberg, Monika; Zhu, Haijin; Horn, Roger

    2014-01-14

    Articular cartilage is an example of a highly efficacious water-based, natural lubrication system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads and sliding velocities. One of the secrets of cartilage's superior tribology comes from a unique, multimodal lubrication strategy consisting of both a fluid pressurization mediated lubrication mechanism and a boundary lubrication mechanism supported by surface bound macromolecules. Using a reconstituted network of highly interconnected cellulose fibers and simple modification through the immobilization of polyelectrolytes, we have recreated many of the mechanical and chemical properties of cartilage and the cartilage lubrication system to produce a purely synthetic material system that exhibits some of the same lubrication mechanisms, time dependent friction response, and high wear resistance as natural cartilage tissue. Friction and wear studies demonstrate how the properties of the cellulose fiber network can be used to control and optimize the lubrication and wear resistance of the material surfaces and highlight what key features of cartilage should be duplicated in order to produce a cartilage-mimetic lubrication system.

  1. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  2. NMR Studies of Cartilage Dynamics, Diffusion, Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Daniel; Schiller, Jurgen; Naji, Lama; Kaufmann Jorn; Arnold, Klaus

    An increasing number of people is suffering from rheumatic diseases, and, therefore, methods of early diagnosis of joint degeneration are urgently required. For their establishment, however, an improved knowledge about the molecular organisation of cartilage would be helpful. Cartilage consists of three main components: Water, collagen and chondroitin sulfate (CS) that is (together with further polysaccharides and proteins) a major constituent of the proteoglycans of cartilage. 1H and 13C MAS (magic-angle spinning) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) opened new perspectives for the study of the macromolecular components in cartilage. We have primarily studied the mobilities of CS and collagen in bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage (that differ significantly in their collagen/polysaccharide content) by measuring 13C NMR relaxation times as well as the corresponding 13C CP (cross polarisation) MAS NMR spectra. These data clearly indicate that the mobility of cartilage macromolecules is broadly distributed from almost completely rigid (collagen) to highly mobile (polysaccharides), which lends cartilage its mechanical strength and shock-absorbing properties.

  3. The Relation between Calcium Supplement Consumption and Calcific Shoulder Tendonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rouhani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcific tendonitis is a common cause of non-traumatic shoulder pain. Previous studies have suggested a relation between minerals and endocrine and calcium deposition. Thus, hypercalcemia is probably related to calcific tendonitis. This study aims at evaluating the relation found between calcium supplement consumption and calcific shoulder tendonitis. Methods: This analytical-descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients with shoulder pain referring to clinics and emergency department of Shohada Orthopedics Hospital during one year for considering calcific shoulder tendonitis and calcium supplement consumption. Patients with calcific tendonitis were treated and their functional ability was evaluated using DASH questionnaire, pain severity and range of motion (ROM before and after treatment and their correlation with calcium supplement consumption. Results: Calcific tendonitis and calcium consumption were generally seen in 30 (12% and 73 (29.2% cases, respectively. Calcium consumption frequency in patients with calcific tendonitis was significantly higher than the patients who did not consume calcium supplements (76.7% vs. 22.7%. Patients with calcific tendonitis who did not consume calcium supplements suffered from significantly longer periods of shoulder pain. All patients having consumed calcium supplement were female. The group who consumed calcium supplement had significantly severe pain and higher DASH score before and after treatment, while there was no significant difference in number of impaired ROM before and after treatment. Also, there was a negative correlation between calcium supplement consumption, pain severity and DASH score before and after treatment. Conclusion: Calcium supplement consumption is related to calcific tendonitis and is also accompanied with more pain and lower functional ability in patients with calcific tendonitis.    Keywords: Calcific tendonitis; Shoulder; Calcium supplement; Pain

  4. Substrate properties influence calcification in valvular interstitial cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Julie A; Kern, Hanna B; Anseth, Kristi S

    2008-11-01

    Valvular calcification is an active, cell-mediated process that results in significant morbidity and mortality. In standard culture, valvular interstitial cells (VICs) elicit significant calcification as a result of myofibroblast activation, and this limits their use in characterization studies. The study aim was to identify culturing substrates that would suppress atypical VIC calcification, and to investigate culture substrates representing a more physiological system. Several culture platforms were selected to compare and contrast the influence of biochemical and mechanical properties on VIC calcification. Substrates investigated included: tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), TCPS coated with either fibronectin or fibrin, and an elastic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel, also with fibronectin or fibrin coupled to the surface. Experiments were repeated with profibrotic growth factor transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). VIC calcification was characterized by calcific nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium accumulation. Gene and protein expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (aSMA) and core binding factor-1 (CBFa-1) were analyzed with qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Unmodified TCPS substrates had an innate ability to promote the markers of calcification studied. The addition of TGF-beta1 enhanced levels of all osteoblastic markers studied. When TCPS surfaces were modified with fibronectin, all markers for calcification were repressed, but alphaSMA - a marker for myofibroblastic activity was unchanged. Meanwhile, fibrin-modified TCPS surfaces enhanced calcification over unmodified TCPS substrates. On soft PEG hydrogels, all markers for calcification were repressed, regardless of the surface chemistry, while alphaSMA expression remained unaffected. Collectively, VIC properties are highly linked to the culture microenvironment. Both, the biochemical and mechanical environment of tissue culture has an effect on the spontaneous calcification

  5. Does intraarticular inflammation predict biomechanical cartilage properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Wenzel; Perino, Giorgio; Jawetz, Shari T; Gilbert, Susannah L; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    Intact cartilage in the lateral compartment is an important requirement for medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Progression of cartilage degeneration in the lateral compartment is a common failure mode of medial UKA. Little is known about factors that influence the mechanical properties of lateral compartment cartilage. The purposes of this study were to answer the following questions: (1) Does the synovial fluid white blood cell count predict the biomechanical properties of macroscopically intact cartilage of the distal lateral femur? (2) Is there a correlation between MRI grading of synovitis and the biomechanical properties of macroscopically intact cartilage? (3) Is there a correlation between the histopathologic assessment of the synovium and the biomechanical properties of macroscopically intact cartilage? The study included 84 patients (100 knees) undergoing primary TKA for varus osteoarthritis between May 2010 and January 2012. All patients underwent preoperative MRI to assess the degree of synovitis. During surgery, the cartilage of the distal lateral femur was assessed macroscopically using the Outerbridge grading scale. In knees with an Outerbridge grade of 0 or 1, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the distal lateral femur for biomechanical and histologic assessment. The synovial fluid was collected to determine the white blood cell count. Synovial tissue was taken for histologic evaluation of the degree of synovitis. The mean aggregate modulus and the mean dynamic modulus were significantly greater in knees with 150 or less white blood cells/mL synovial fluid compared with knees with greater than 150 white blood cells/mL synovial fluid. There was no correlation among MRI synovitis grades, histopathologic synovitis grades, and biomechanical cartilage properties. The study suggests that lateral compartment cartilage in patients with elevated synovial fluid white blood cell counts has a reduced ability to withstand compressive loads

  6. Fracaso del cartílago costal en el tratamiento de defectos óseos experimentales: Estudio histológico y radiológico

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio experimental para demostrar la utilidad del cartílago costal, fresco o criopreservado (autólogo y homólogo), en el tratamiento de defectos óseos cavitarios de huesos largos y observar si la radiología simple es fiable para la valoración de su incorporación. Para ello se implanta cartílago costal, sin pericondrio, en un defecto óseo cavitario de la metáfisis distal del fémur de conejo. Se utilizan dos tipos de injerto según su procedencia (antólogo y homólogo) y el proced...

  7. Aortic root, not valve, calcification correlates with coronary artery calcification in patients with severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henein, Michael; Hällgren, Peter; Holmgren, Anders

    2015-01-01

    calcification (AVC), due to tissue similarity between the two types of vessel rather than with the valve leaflet tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 212 consecutive patients (age 72.5 ± 7.9 years, 91 females) with AS requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR) in two Heart Centers, who underwent multidetector...

  8. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardys, Isabella; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Although several studies have recently suggested that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent predictor of coronary events, only one study has examined the association between Lp-PLA2 and coronary calcification, using young adults. We investigated the associat

  9. Mitral annular calcification and aortic valve calcification may help in predicting significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acartürk, Esmeray; Bozkurt, Abdi; Cayli, Murat; Demir, Mesut

    2003-01-01

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and aortic valve calcification (AVC) are manifestations of atherosclerosis. To determine whether mitral annular calcification and aortic valve calcification detected by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) might help in predicting significant coronary artery disease (CAD), 123 patients with significant CAD and 93 patients without CAD detected by coronary angiography were investigated. MAC and AVC identified CAD with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.2%, 55.9% and 74.8%, 52.7%, respectively, and with a negative and a positive predictive values of 51.5%, 64.3% and 61.3% and 67.6%, respectively. The positive predictive value of MAC was greater than gender, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. AVC showed a positive predictive value greater than gender, hypertension, family history, and hypercholesterolemia. The negative predictive values of MAC and AVC for CAD were greater than those of all risk factors except diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, presence of MAC and AVC on TTE may help in predicting CAD and should be added to conventional risk factors. Absence of MVC and AVC is a stronger predictor for absence of CAD than all conventional risk factors, except diabetes mellitus. Patients with MAC and AVC should be taken into consideration for the presence of significant CAD and thereby for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in order to improve the prognosis.

  10. The costal remains of the El Sidrón Neanderthal site (Asturias, northern Spain) and their importance for understanding Neanderthal thorax morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Daniel; Bastir, Markus; Huguet, Rosa; Estalrrich, Almudena; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Ríos, Luis; Cunha, Eugenia; Rasilla, Marco de la; Rosas, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The study of the Neanderthal thorax has attracted the attention of the scientific community for more than a century. It is agreed that Neanderthals have a more capacious thorax than modern humans, but whether this was caused by a medio-lateral or an antero-posterior expansion of the thorax is still debated, and is key to understanding breathing biomechanics and body shape in Neanderthals. The fragile nature of ribs, the metameric structure of the thorax and difficulties in quantifying thorax morphology all contribute to uncertainty regarding precise aspects of Neanderthal thoracic shape. The El Sidrón site has yielded costal remains from the upper to the lower thorax, as well as several proximal rib ends (frequently missing in the Neanderthal record), which help to shed light on Neanderthal thorax shape. We compared the El Sidrón costal elements with ribs from recent modern humans as well as with fossil modern humans and other Neanderthals through traditional morphometric methods and 3D geometric morphometrics, combined with missing data estimation and virtual reconstruction (at the 1st, 5th and 11th costal levels). Our results show that Neanderthals have larger rib heads and articular tubercles than their modern human counterparts. Neanderthal 1st ribs are smaller than in modern humans, whereas 5th and 11th ribs are considerably larger. When we articulated mean ribs (size and shape) with their corresponding vertebral elements, we observed that compared to modern humans the Neanderthal thorax is medio-laterally expanded at every level, especially at T5 and T11. Therefore, in the light of evidence from the El Sidrón costal remains, we hypothesize that the volumetric expansion of the Neanderthal thorax proposed by previous authors would mainly be produced by a medio-lateral expansion of the thorax. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary metastatic calcification: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozi, Lilian Christine Franchiotti [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The present report describes the case of a 48-year-old female patient suffering from chronic renal failure on dialysis for 13 years. She presented with hemoptysis, fever, productive cough and dyspnoea. Chest radiography showed predominance of ill-defined opacities in the middle and lower lung fields, bilaterally. Chest computed tomography showed ground glass opacities associated with poorly defined centrilobular nodules with ground-glass attenuation. The patient was submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage that was negative for mycobacteria and fungi. On the basis of such findings, open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed metastatic pulmonary calcification. (author)

  12. Liposarcoma of the thigh with mixed calcification and ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Child, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas. Calcification and ossification can occur in liposarcoma; however, the presence of both ossification and calcification is a very rare entity. We present a case of a partially calcified and ossified dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh in a 76-year-old woman, which contained heterologous elements of chondrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.

  13. Acute calcific tendinitis of the finger--a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, S N

    2004-07-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis of the hand is rare and often misdiagnosed as infection, fracture or periarthritis. It frequently occurs in peri-menopausal women and is caused by deposits of hydroxyapatite crystals. We describe acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion in an elderly man taking oral anticoagulants. The differential diagnoses and recommended treatment are discussed.

  14. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  15. Cardiovascular calcifications in chronic kidney disease: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Górriz, José Luis; Lloret, María Jesús; da Silva, Iara; Ruiz-García, César; Chang, Pamela; Rodríguez, Mariano; Ballarín, José

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is a highly prevalent condition at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is directly associated with increased CV and global morbidity and mortality. In the first part of this review, we have shown that CV calcifications represent an important part of the CKD-MBD complex and are a superior predictor of clinical outcomes in our patients. However, it is also necessary to demonstrate that CV calcification is a modifiable risk factor including the possibility of decreasing (or at least not aggravating) its progression with iatrogenic manoeuvres. Although, strictly speaking, only circumstantial evidence is available, it is known that certain drugs may modify the progression of CV calcifications, even though a direct causal link with improved survival has not been demonstrated. For example, non-calcium-based phosphate binders demonstrated the ability to attenuate the progression of CV calcification compared with the liberal use of calcium-based phosphate binders in several randomised clinical trials. Moreover, although only in experimental conditions, selective activators of the vitamin D receptor seem to have a wider therapeutic margin against CV calcification. Finally, calcimimetics seem to attenuate the progression of CV calcification in dialysis patients. While new therapeutic strategies are being developed (i.e. vitamin K, SNF472, etc.), we suggest that the evaluation of CV calcifications could be a diagnostic tool used by nephrologists to personalise their therapeutic decisions.

  16. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We examined the cross-sectional association between MGP SNPs [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A),and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)...

  17. Umbilical and portal vein calcification following umbilical vein catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Hartl, M.

    1989-07-01

    Calcifications of the umbilical vein and intrahepatic branches of the portal vein developed in a newborn who had inserted an umbilical vein catheter for 11 days postnatally. The calcified intrahepatic portal veins can still be demonstrated sonographically at the age of three years, whereby these calcifications were no longer detectable radiologically. (orig.).

  18. [Endomyocardial fibrosis with massive calcification of the left ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Joana; Camacho, Ana; Gago, Paula; Candeias, Rui; Santos, Walter; Marques, Nuno; Matos, Pedro; Brandão, Victor; Gomes, Veloso

    2010-03-01

    Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare disease, endemic in tropical countries. It is characterized by fibrosis of the endocardium that can extend to myocardium. Important calcification of the endocardium is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of endomyocardial fibrosis in a european caucasian patient, associated with massive calcification of left ventricle.

  19. Left atrial calcification in a hemodialysis patient with cor triatriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Pobes, A; Rodriguez, M; Simarro, C; Iglesias, G; Simarro, E

    2000-05-01

    Myocardial calcification is a rare manifestation of abnormal calcium metabolism seen in some patients with chronic renal failure. This report describes the transesophageal echocardiographic and spiral computed tomography (CT) findings in a young hemodialysis female with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. These findings included calcification of the multiperforated membrane of a cor triatriatum and the wall of the left atrium.

  20. First and second order stereology of hyaline cartilage: Application on mice femoral cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Niazi, Behnam; Mohamadpour, Masoomeh; Hoseini, Leila; Hoseini, Najmeh; Owji, Ali Akbar; Rafati, Ali; Sadeghi, Yasaman; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2016-11-01

    Stereological techniques could be considered in research on cartilage to obtain quantitative data. The present study aimed to explain application of the first- and second-order stereological methods on articular cartilage of mice and the methods applied on the mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). The distal femoral articular cartilage of BALB/c mice (control and Cd-treated) was removed. Then, volume and surface area of the cartilage and number of chondrocytes were estimated using Cavalieri and optical dissector techniques on isotropic uniform random sections. Pair-correlation function [g(r)] and cross-correlation function were calculated to express the spatial arrangement of chondrocytes-chondrocytes and chondrocytes-matrix (chondrocyte clustering/dispersing), respectively. The mean±standard deviation of the cartilage volume, surface area, and thickness were 1.4±0.1mm(3), 26.2±5.4mm(2), and 52.8±6.7μm, respectively. Besides, the mean number of chondrocytes was 680±200 (×10(3)). The cartilage volume, cartilage surface area, and number of chondrocytes were respectively reduced by 25%, 27%, and 27% in the Cd-treated mice in comparison to the control animals (pcartilage components carried potential advantages for investigating the cartilage in different joint conditions. Chondrocyte clustering/dispersing and cellularity can be evaluated in cartilage assessment in normal or abnormal situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in the Chondrogenic and Ossifying Sites of Calcific Tendinopathy and Traumatic Tendon Injury Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Lai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectopic chondrogenesis and ossification were observed in a degenerative collagenase-induced calcific tendinopathy model and to a lesser extent, in a patellar tendon traumatic injury model. We hypothesized that expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 contributed to ectopic chondrogenesis and ossification. This study aimed to study the spatial and temporal expression of BMP-2 in our animal models. Methods Seventy-two rats were used, with 36 rats each subjected to central one-third patellar tendon window injury (C1/3 group and collagenase-induced tendon injury (CI group, respectively. The contralateral limb served as controls. At week 2, 4 and 12, 12 rats in each group were sacrificed for immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR of BMP-2. Results For CI group, weak signal was observed at the tendon matrix at week 2. At week 4, matrix around chondrocyte-like cells was also stained in some samples. In one sample, calcification was observed and the BMP-2 signal was observed both in the calcific matrix and the embedded chondrocyte-like cells. At week 12, the staining was observed mainly in the calcific matrix. Similar result was observed in C1/3 group though the immunopositive staining of BMP-2 was generally weaker. There was significant increase in BMP-2 mRNA compared to that in the contralateral side at week 2 and the level became insignificantly different at week 12 in CI group. No significant increase in BMP-2 mRNA was observed in C1/3 group at all time points. Conclusion Ectopic expression of BMP-2 might induce tissue transformation into ectopic bone/cartilage and promoted structural degeneration in calcific tendinopathy.

  2. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: jeamharoldo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Santos, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and methods: computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41-54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab's own routine. Results: four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: the selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. (author)

  3. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  4. A history of the understanding of cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, T G

    2006-03-01

    To review the historic development of the understanding of articular cartilage from the earliest comment in the fourth century BCE until about 2000. The history up to 1900 is told chronologically, divided into (1) recognition of the tissue, (2) structure, and (3) chemistry. The twentieth century is sketched with a timeline of discoveries that at the time were important and a bibliography of journal review articles. By 1900 the avascular, aneural state and fibrillar composition have been accepted. The nutrition of articular cartilage remained in dispute. The composition of the binding substance and its relation to collagen remained unknown. Research in the first half of the twentieth century continued to be impeded by lack of technology. The advent of electron microscopy, isotopic tracer technics and enzymology rapidly accelerated the understanding of hyaline cartilage beginning in the 1950s. The history of research on hyaline cartilage illustrates the dependence of scientific progress on technologic innovation.

  5. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  6. Multislice computed tomography of the first rib: a useful technique for bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitch, Guillaume; Dedouit, Fabrice; Braga, José; Rougé, Daniel; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Macroscopic study of the first rib has been described by Kunos et al. as an efficient method of age estimation. We retrospectively reviewed a test sample of 160 first right ribs obtained from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) clinical investigations of living individuals aged 15-30 years old. Based on the descriptions of Kunos et al., we analyzed the morphological appearance of the sternal end of the first rib on two- and three-dimensional MSCT reconstructions and defined changes in appearance in stages (from 2 to 5). We also studied the calcification and ossification of the costal cartilage as an independent feature. By statistical analysis (ANOVA), we determined for each gender the correlation between the estimated stage of the costal face, the appearance of the costal cartilage, and the documented age of the subjects. We demonstrated that MSCT of the first rib appears to be an efficient noninvasive modality for bone age estimation.

  7. Materials science: Like cartilage, but simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties.......The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties....

  8. The structure and function of cartilage proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Roughley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage contains a variety of proteoglycans that are essential for its normal function. These include aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican. Each proteoglycan serves several functions that are determined by both its core protein and its glycosaminoglycan chains. This review discusses the structure/function relationships of the cartilage proteoglycans, and the manner in which perturbations in proteoglycan structure or abundance can adversely affect tissue function.

  9. Cartilage proteoglycans inhibit fibronectin-mediated adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, A. M.; Pearlstein, E.; Weissmann, G.; Hoffstein, S. T.

    1981-09-01

    Normal tissues and organs show, on histological examination, a pattern of cellular and acellular zones that is characteristic and unique for each organ or tissue. This pattern is maintained in health but is sometimes destroyed by disease. For example, in mobile joints, the articular surfaces consist of relatively acellular hyaline cartilage, and the joint space is enclosed by a capsule of loose connective tissue with a lining of fibroblasts and macrophages. In the normal joint these cells are confined to the synovial lining and the articular surface remains acellular. In in vitro culture, macrophages and their precursor monocytes are very adhesive, and fibroblasts can migrate and overgrow surfaces such as collagen or plastic used for tissue culture. The fibroblasts adhere to collagen by means of fibronectin, which they synthesize and secrete1. Because the collagen of cartilage is capable of binding serum fibronectin2 and fibronectin is present in cartilage during its development3, these cells should, in theory, slowly migrate from the synovial lining to the articular surface. It is their absence from the articular cartilage in normal circumstances, and then presence in such pathological states as rheumatoid arthritis, that is striking. We therefore set out to determine whether a component of cartilage could prevent fibroblast adherence in a defined adhesion assay. As normal cartilage is composed of 50% proteoglycans and 50% collagen by dry weight4, we tested the possibility that the proteoglycans in cartilage inhibit fibroblast adhesion to collagen. We present here evidence that fibroblast spreading and adhesion to collagenous substrates is inhibited by cartilage proteoglycans.

  10. Precision of hyaline cartilage thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Buckwalter, K.; Helvie, M.; Niklason, L.; Martel, W. (Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Measurement of cartilage thickness in vivo is an important indicator of the status of a joint as the various degenerative and inflammatory arthritides directly affect the condition of the cartilage. In order to assess the precision of thickness measurements of hyaline articular cartilage, we undertook a pilot study using MR imaging, plain radiography, and ultrasonography (US). We measured the cartilage of the hip and knee joints in 10 persons (4 healthy volunteers and 6 patients). The joints in each patient were examined on two separate occasions using each modality. In the hips a swell as the knee joints, the most precise measuring method was plain film radiography. For radiographs of the knees obtained in the standing position, the coefficient of variation was 6.5%; in the hips this figure was 6.34%. US of the knees and MR imaging of the hips were the second best modalities in the measurement of cartilage thickness. In addition, MR imaging enabled the most complete visualization of the joint cartilage. (orig.).

  11. Morphological characteristics of the life cycle of resting cartilage cells in mouse rib investigated in intrasplenic isografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizeki, K; Kuroda, N; Nawa, T

    1992-01-01

    Resting cartilages taken from 2-day-old mouse ribs were transplanted into spleens in order to carry out morphological investigations of the life cycles of their chondrocytes. The explants were isografted for periods of up to 60 days and examined at light and electron microscopic levels, using von Kossa's reaction or osmium-potassium ferrocyanide (OPF) fixation. By day 3 after transplantation, resting cartilage containing immature chondrocytes was well adapted to splenic tissue and by 7 days after transplantation these chondrocytes had changed into early hypertrophic chondrocytes containing large vacuoles, glycogen aggregates and abundant secretory organelles. It was also demonstrated by von Kossa's reaction that the initial calcification occurred in the territorial matrix during this period. In spite of the hypertrophic chondrocytes in the central zone being surrounded by an extensively calcified matrix during days 14-21 after transplantation, these cells had well-preserved organized organelles, except that Golgi-associated elements and endoplasmic reticulum revealed a tendency toward degenerative changes. With increased duration of the grafting period, from 30-60 days, the calcification zone progressed gradually, and the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes embedded in the calcified matrix decreased considerably. By day 60, degenerating hypertrophic chondrocytes of two types were distinguished:flattened cells containing large vacuoles, poorly developed Golgi apparatuses, and rough endoplasmic reticulum; and shrunken dark cells displaying terminal hypertrophy. During the present study, we observed no vascular invasion into the calcified matrix, or appearance of bone-related cells, and the morphological changes from the resting chondrocytes to cellular hypertrophy accompanied by the formation of a calcified matrix were observed at day 60. These findings indicate that resting cartilage cells of the mouse have the capacity for terminal differentiation when transplanted

  12. Improved cartilage integration and interfacial strength after enzymatic treatment in a cartilage transplantation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van de Breevaart Bravenboer; C.D. in der Maur; L. Feenstra (Louw); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); P.K. Bos (Koen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to investigate whether treatment of articular cartilage with hyaluronidase and collagenase enhances histological and mechanical integration of a cartilage graft into a defect. Discs of 3 mm diameter were taken from 8-mm diameter bo

  13. Cartilage repair surgery: outcome evaluation by using noninvasive cartilage biomarkers based on quantitative MRI techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Erdle, Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H

    2014-01-01

    New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  14. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia M. Jungmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  15. Limited integrative repair capacity of native cartilage autografts within cartilage defects in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelse, Kolja; Riedel, Dominic; Pachowsky, Milena; Hennig, Friedrich F; Trattnig, Siegfried; Welsch, Götz H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate integration and cellular outgrowth of native cartilage autografts transplanted into articular cartilage defects. Native cartilage autografts were applied into chondral defects in the femoral condyle of adult sheep. Within the defects, the calcified cartilage layer was either left intact or perforated to induce bone marrow stimulation. Empty defects served as controls. The joints were analyzed after 6 and 26 weeks by macroscopic and histological analysis using the ICRS II Score and Modified O'Driscoll Scores. Non-treated defects did not show any endogenous regenerative response and bone marrow stimulation induced fibrous repair tissue. Transplanted native cartilage grafts only insufficiently integrated with the defect borders. Cell death and loss of proteoglycans were present at the margins of the grafts at 6 weeks, which was only partially restored at 26 weeks. Significant cellular outgrowth from the grafts or defect borders could not be observed. Bonding of the grafts could be improved by additional bone marrow stimulation providing ingrowing cells that formed a fibrous interface predominantly composed of type I collagen. Transplanted native cartilage grafts remain as inert structures within cartilage defects and fail to induce integrative cartilage repair which rather demands additional cells provided by additional bone marrow stimulation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tissue engineering strategies to study cartilage development, degeneration and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Maumita; Coburn, Jeannine; Centola, Matteo; Murab, Sumit; Barbero, Andrea; Kaplan, David L; Martin, Ivan; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2015-04-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering has primarily focused on the generation of grafts to repair cartilage defects due to traumatic injury and disease. However engineered cartilage tissues have also a strong scientific value as advanced 3D culture models. Here we first describe key aspects of embryonic chondrogenesis and possible cell sources/culture systems for in vitro cartilage generation. We then review how a tissue engineering approach has been and could be further exploited to investigate different aspects of cartilage development and degeneration. The generated knowledge is expected to inform new cartilage regeneration strategies, beyond a classical tissue engineering paradigm.

  17. Incidental orbital calcifications on computed tomography scans; Calcificacoes orbitarias incidentais na tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugita, Dalton Yukio A.; Cruz, Daniela Nogueira; Cappucci, Alessandro; Arakava, Marcia Mayumi; Guimaraes, Maria Carolina; Wolosker, Angela Maria B.; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Manso, Paulo Goes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oftalmologia

    2001-02-01

    We retrospectively studied the computed tomography scans of the orbit in 75 patients in order to identify the presence of incidental calcifications (scleral and trochlear apparatus calcifications.). These imaging findings should integrate the vast list of differential diagnosis of orbital calcifications, as they may help radiologists to distinguish these calcifications from orbital foreign bodies. (author)

  18. Idiopathic calcification of the seminal vesicles: a rare cause for prostate cancer overstaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, J; Senge, T

    2001-01-01

    Calcification of the seminal vesicles is a rare phenomenon. We present 2 cases in whom calcification of the seminal vesicles led to preoperative overstaging of prostate cancer. Although idiopathic calcifications are extremely rare, calcifications appear more frequently in diabetic patients. Therefore, knowledge of these formations is essential to prevent overstaging, namely infiltration of the seminal vesicles.

  19. Observer study to evaluate the simulation of mammographic calcification clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    Numerous breast phantoms have been developed to be as realistic as possible to ensure the accuracy of image quality analysis, covering a greater range of applications. In this study, we simulated three different densities of the breast parenchyma using paraffin gel, acrylic plates and PVC films. Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate calcification clusters. From the images acquired with a GE Senographe DR 2000D mammography system, we selected 68 regions of interest (ROIs) with and 68 without a simulated calcification cluster. To validate the phantom simulation, we selected 136 ROIs from the University of South Florida's Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Seven trained observers performed two observer experiments by using a high-resolution monitor Barco mod. E-3620. In the first experiment, the observers had to distinguish between real or phantom ROIs (with and without calcification). In the second one, the observers had to indicate the ROI with calcifications between a pair of ROIs. Results from our study show that the hydroxyapatite calcifications had poor contrast in the simulated breast parenchyma, thus observers had more difficulty in identifying the presence of calcification clusters in phantom images. Preliminary analysis of the power spectrum was conducted to investigate the radiographic density and the contrast thresholds for calcification detection. The values obtained for the power spectrum exponent (β) were comparable with those found in the literature.

  20. Acromial morphology in patients with calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Maurice; Banerjee, Marc; Vogler, Tim; Akoto, Ralph; Bouillon, Bertil; Liem, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the morphology of the acromion in calcific tendinitis differs from controls without subacromial pathology and matches subacromial impingement. Digital radiographs of 150 shoulders were evaluated with the open source DICOM-Viewer OsiriX. 50 patients had symptomatic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, 50 had subacromial impingement without calcifications or rotator cuff tears, 50 with bruised shoulder that were previously asymptomatic served as controls. Acromial shape according to Bigliani et al. acromial tilt (AT) according to Kitay et al. and Aoki et al. acromion index (AI) according to Nyffeler et al. and lateral acromial angle (LAA) according to Banas et al. were measured. Both calcific (0.72; P = 0.001) and impingement groups (0.73; P = 0.008) were significantly different from controls (0.67) using AI measure, while only the calcific group (79.5°) was different from controls (84.1°) using LAA (P tendinitis. The hypothesis of this study was that the morphology of the acromion in calcific tendinitis differs from controls without subacromial pathology and matches subacromial impingement was only confirmed for the AI. The AI of shoulders with calcific tendinitis is comparable to that of shoulders with subacromial impingement.

  1. Sonographic Findings of Calcific Tendinitis around the Hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seok; Lee, Young Hwan; Sung, Nak Kwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho [Keimyung University, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Dankook University, College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of calcific tendinitis around the hip. Ten patients (7 women and 3 men: mean age, 42 years: age range, 34-52 years) with a diagnosis of calcific tendinitis around the hip were evaluated. All the patients underwent radiography and sonography (color Doppler sonography in 6 patients). The sonographic findings were analyzed to determine the level of tendon thickening compared with the contralateral side as well as the shape and posterior acoustic shadowing of the calcification, and vascularity on color Doppler sonography. In all cases, sonography showed a thickening of the tendon compared with the contralateral normal tendon as well as hyperechoic calcific shadows within the thickened tendon. Intratendinous calcifications were mainly observed as a homogeneous ovoid hyperechoic shadow with or without acoustic shadowing. Color Doppler sonography showed increased vascularity within or around the thickened tendon in four of the six patients. Sonography is effective in detecting a thickening of the tendon as well as intratendinous calcification, and can be used to diagnose calcific tendinitis around the hip

  2. Inducers and inhibitors of biomineralization: lessons from pathological calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachelli, C M

    2005-11-01

    Ectopic calcification is a common response to soft tissue injury and systemic mineral imbalance and can lead to devastating clinical consequences when present in joints, heart valves and blood vessels. We have hypothesized that mineralization of matrices in any tissue is normally controlled by a balance between procalcific and anticalcific regulatory proteins such that abnormal deposition of apatite is avoided. Alterations in this balance induced by injury, disease or genetic deficiency are postulated to induce ectopic mineral deposition. Over the past several years, we have developed in vitro and in vivo models of ectopic calcification to investigate potential inducers and inhibitors of this process. Osteopontin, a secreted phosphoprotein, has emerged as a major inhibitor of ectopic mineralization. Osteopontin is a potent inhibitor of vascular cell calcification in vitro and mice lacking osteopontin are highly susceptible to ectopic calcification. Furthermore, osteopontin treatment of biomaterials protected against ectopic mineralization. Our studies indicate that in addition to inhibiting apatite crystal initiation and growth, osteopontin stimulates resorption of ectopic calcification via peripheral macrophages and giant cells. In contrast, inorganic phosphate has emerged as a major inducer of mineralization in these systems. Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) was shown to induce smooth muscle cell matrix calcification with morphological properties similar to those observed in calcified human valves and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, mineralization induced by inorganic phosphate was dependent on the activity of the sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, Pit-1. These studies implicate controlled, transcellular transport of Pi as a major requirement for matrix calcification.

  3. In-vitro calcification study of polyurethane heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloori Zadeh, Parnian; Corbett, Scott C; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2014-02-01

    Tri-leaflet polyurethane heart valves have been considered as a potential candidate in heart valve replacement surgeries. In this study, polyurethane (Angioflex(®)) heart valve prostheses were fabricated using a solvent-casting method to evaluate their calcification resistance. These valves were subjected to accelerated life testing (continuous opening and closing of the leaflets) in a synthetic calcification solution. Results showed that Angioflex(®) could be considered as a potential material for fabricating prosthetic heart valves with possibly a higher calcification resistance compared to tissue valves. In addition, calcification resistance of bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves was also evaluated. Bisphosphonates are considered to enhance the calcification resistance of polymers once covalently bonded to the bulk of the material. However, our in-vitro results showed that bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves did not improve the calcification resistance of Angioflex(®) compared to its untreated counterparts. The results also showed that cyclic loading of the valves' leaflets resulted in formation of numerous cracks on the calcified surface, which were not present when calcification study did not involve mechanical loading. Further study of these cracks did not result in enough evidence to conclude whether these cracks have penetrated to the polymeric surface.

  4. Management of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis guided by ultrasound elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Huai; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) elastography can provide information about the hardness of calcification and might help decide treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the calcific area within rotator cuffs by US elastography as an aid for the selection of aspiration or fine-needle repeated puncture for the treatment of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis. This prospective study included 39 patients (32 males, 7 females; mean age, 52.9 years) who received US elastography and gray-scale ultrasonography before US-guided treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinosis. The morphology of the calcifications was classified as arc, fragmented, nodular, and cystic types. US elastography using virtual touch imaging (acoustic radiation force impulse) technique was performed to examine the calcified region to obtain an elastogram that was graded dark, intermediate, or bright. The hardness of the calcifications were recorded, and graded as hard, sand-like, or fluid-like tactile patterns during the US-guided treatment, and the tactile patterns were compared with the results of US elastography and gray-scale ultrasonography. Though the morphologies of the calcifications were significantly related to the tactile pattern of the needle punctures (p tendinosis, and as an aid to guide management. If elastography shows the calcified area as a non-dark pattern, then fine-needle aspiration should be performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  5. Association of conjunctival and corneal calcification with vascular calcification among hepatitis-C-seropositive hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled AbouSeif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification. A total of 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD in our hospital were included in this study. Patients underwent a complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure, and CCC was looked for by slit lamp and fundoscopy. CCC was graded according to modified Porter and Crombie classification system described by Tokuyama et al. Helical computerized tomographic chest examination was used to evaluate the grading of AAC. Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained. There was significant difference between seropositive (n = 51 and seronegative patients (n = 49 regarding grading of AAC and CCC (P <0.001. Significant positive correlation was found between grading of CCC, AAC, age (P <0.001, duration on HD (P <0.001, HCV-antibody positivity (P <0.001, serum calcium level (P <0.001, serum phosphorus level (P <0.001, calcium × phosphorus product (P <0.001, and i-parathormone level (P < 0.001. In addition, CCC grading positively correlated with AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing HD infected with the HCV have high degree of CCC, AAC, and mineral metabolism disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC evaluation is an easy, fast, non-invasive method, and might be used as an indirect indicator to detect vascular calcification in patients undergoing MHD.

  6. Trochlear calcification and intraorbital foreign body in ocular trauma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Tian-lin; Nileshkumar M Kalariya; YAN Zhi-han; CHEN Wei; LIU Xiao-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-quan; ZHOU Ye-hui; XU Dan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish trochlear calcification and intraorbital foreign body after eye injury in order to avoid misdiagnosis as well as mistreatment. Methods: The orbital CT images of 403 patients, who visited the Eye Hospital or the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College during May 2005-April 2007, were reviewed. The diagnosis of trochlear calcification and in-traorbital foreign body was made together by a skilled radi-ologist as well as an ophthalmologist. General information and CT characteristics in the patients with trochlear calcifi-cation were collected.Results: Using CT scan images, 27 among 403 pa-tients (6.69%) were identified with trochlear calcification. Three patients (3/27, 11.11%) were misdiagnosed by radi-ologists as intraorbital foreign body. Among the 27 patients with trochlear calcification, 23 (85.19%) were male and 4 (14.81%)were female, with an unilateral calcification in 7 patients (7/27, 25.93%) and bilateral in 20(74.07%). The highest occurrence of trochlear calcification was in 31-40 years old group (13/403, 3.23%) which reached to 12.87% (13/101) after age-correction. There were 3 types of trochlear calcification on the basis of CT images: commas, dot and inverted "U".Conclusions: The trochlear calcification is not an un-common phenomenon and should not be diagnosed as in-traorbital foreign body, especially when it co-exists with eye injury in 31-40 years old group. Injury history and our classification method on the basis of CT images could help to avoid misdiagnosis.

  7. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  8. Maximal conservative therapy of calcific uremic ateriolopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Charlotte; Janssen van Doorn, Karin; Vermander, Evert; Vlayen, Sonja; Verpooten, Gert A; Couttenye, Marie-Madeleine

    2012-07-01

    We present the case of a 61-year- old female patient in long-term hemodialysis who developed calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) upon administration of the oral calcimimetic agent cinacalcet for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In May 2009, the baseline serum values were parathormone (PTH) 310 pg/ml, calcium 9.1 mg/dl and phosphorous 6.9 mg/dl. Necrotic wounds in the suprapubic fat tissue were successfully treated first, by correcting the calcium phosphorous product; second, through treatment with sodium thiosulfate and third, through intensive wound care with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and vacuum-assisted closure therapy, with no need for parathyroidectomy. Multiple factors have been described to play a role in the development of CUA. Based on the findings of this case, the treatment of CUA should be aimed at correcting different causes simultaneously.

  9. Orbital melanoma with calcification: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Bains

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital melanoma is rare and has varied initial presentation. A 28-year-old female presented with proptosis and decreased vision in the left eye. Computed tomography scan showed an orbital mass with contrast enhancement and calcification around the optic nerve leading to a diagnosis of meningioma. The patient chose to be on observation. Loss of vision with an increase in proptosis was seen at 6 months follow-up. On surgical exploration, a well-defined pigmented mass was seen encasing the optic nerve. Histopathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Metastatic workup was negative. Left eye lid sparing exenteration was done. A high index of suspicion is necessary in a rapidly growing suspected optic nerve sheath meningioma and a differential diagnosis including orbital melanoma be considered.

  10. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-03-15

    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration.

  11. Tumour Calcification and Calciphylaxis in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although soft tissue and vascular calcifications are common in CKD and progress as an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality, tumour calcification and calciphylaxis are uncommon in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Here, we discuss a rare case of a patient with tumour calcification complicated with calciphylaxis developed septic shock from infection. Our patient is a 57-year-old man in his late stage of renal disease who presented with a huge mass at the right hip and necrotic cutaneous ulcers on the lower legs followed by local and systemic infection and death due to septic shock.

  12. Relationship between intra thyroid calcifications and thyroglobulin in endemic goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccheroni, V.; Iagulli, M.P.; Vescini, F.; Bianchi, G.P.; Menini, S.; Vacirca, A.; Vallese, M.; Lodi, A. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di medicina interna, cardioangiologia e epatologia

    1999-06-01

    The authors have been looking for the presence of parameters associated with thyroid calcifications in patients affected by simple or nodular goiter, either sporadic or endemic. A multistep discriminant analysis taking the presence-absence of calcifications as dependent variant was applied and a new variable (TG1) was created to differentiate normal from supra physiologic concentrations of hTG. In conclusion, as far as a follicular hyperstimulation can be assumed, especially if long-lasting, the presence intra thyroid calcifications should rise clinical suspect toward an old goiter rather than a neoplastic lesion.

  13. Intraocular Lens Calcification; a Clinicopathologic Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei-Kanavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathological features of a case of hydrogel intraocular lens (IOL calcification. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old man underwent explantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in his left eye because of decreased visual acuity and milky white opalescence of the IOL. The opacified lens was exchanged uneventfully with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL. Gross examination of the explanted IOL disclosed opacification of the optic and haptics. Full-thickness sections of the lens optic were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, von Kossa and Gram Tworts'. Microscopic examination of the sections revealed fine and diffuse basophilic granular deposits of variable size within the lens optic parallel to the lens curvature but separated from the surface by a moderately clear zone. The deposits were of high calcium content as evident by dark brown staining with von Kossa. Gram Tworts' staining disclosed no microorganisms. CONCLUSION: This report further contributes to the existing literature on hydrogel IOL calcification.

  14. Enhanced cartilage repair in 'healer' mice-New leads in the search for better clinical options for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Adult articular cartilage has a poor capacity to undergo intrinsic repair. Current strategies for the repair of large cartilage defects are generally unsatisfactory because the restored cartilage does not have the same resistance to biomechanical loading as authentic articular cartilage and degrades over time. Recently, an exciting new research direction, focused on intrinsic cartilage regeneration rather than fibrous repair by external means, has emerged. This review explores the new findings in this rapidly moving field as they relate to the clinical goal of restoration of structurally robust, stable and non-fibrous articular cartilage following injury.

  15. Association of Serum Phosphate and Related Factors in ESRD-Related Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common in ESRD patients and is important in increasing mortality from cardiovascular complications in these patients. Hyperphosphatemia related to chronic kidney disease is increasingly known as major stimulus for vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification become popular discussion among nephrologist environment more than five decades, and many researches have been evolved. Risk factors for calcification are nowadays focused for the therapeutic prevention of vascular calcification with the hope of reducing cardiovascular complications.

  16. Vascular calcification is associated with cortical bone loss in chronic renal failure rats with and without ovariectomy: the calcification paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Neven, Ellen; Persy, Veerle P; Behets, Geert J; Postnov, Andrei A; De Clerck, Nora M; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2011-01-01

    Increased bone loss has been associated with the development of vascular calcification in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). In this study, the effect of impaired bone metabolism on aortic calcifications was investigated in uremic rats with or without ovariectomy. CRF was induced by administration of a 0.75% adenine/2.5% protein diet for 4 weeks. In one group, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (CRF-OVX), while the other group underwent a sham-operation instead (CRF). A third group consisted of ovariectomized rats with normal renal function (OVX). At regular time intervals throughout the study, bone status and aortic calcifications were evaluated by in vivo micro-CT. At sacrifice after 6 weeks of CRF, bone histomorphometry was performed and vascular calcification was assessed by bulk calcium analysis and Von Kossa staining. Renal function was significantly impaired in the CRF-OVX and CRF groups. Trabecular bone loss was seen in all groups. In the CRF-OVX and CRF groups, trabecular bone density was restored after adenine withdrawal, which coincided with cortical bone loss and the development of medial calcifications in the aorta. No significant differences with regard to the degree of aortic calcifications were seen between the two CRF groups. Neither cortical bone loss nor calcifications were seen in the OVX group. Cortical bone loss significantly correlated with the severity of vascular calcification in the CRF-OVX and CRF groups, but no associations with trabecular bone changes were found. Cortical rather than trabecular bone loss is associated with the process of calcification in rats with adenine- induced CRF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Human stem cells and articular cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-11-05

    The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  18. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  19. Repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits with ectopically produced cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Hulsbosch, M; Wetzels, GMR; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    2005-01-01

    Cartilage has poor regenerative capacity. Donor site morbidity and interference with joint homeostasis should be considered when applying the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique. The use of ectopically produced cartilage, derived from periosteum, might be a novel method to heal

  20. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  1. Coronary calcification improves cardiovascular risk prediction in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Oei, HHS; van Dijck, W; van Rooij, FJA; Witteman, JCM

    2005-01-01

    Background - Coronary calcification detected by electron beam tomography may improve cardiovascular risk prediction. The technique is particularly promising in the elderly because the predictive power of cardiovascular risk factors weakens with age. We investigated the prognostic value of coronary c

  2. CT imaging of metastatic liver cancer with calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Susumu; Kido, Choichiro (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital)

    1983-05-01

    In 15 out of 20 cases of hepatic metastases with calcication, the primary focal lesion was found to be colonic cancer (10 of which were rectal cancer). The rate of calcification of metastatic liver lesions from colorectal cancer was as high as 17.9%. According to pathological classification, the primary lesion was a differentiated adenocarcinoma in 16 cases. Calcification was found to be large and to have a tendency to occur more easily in a person with multiple metastatic liver lesions. The forms of calcification from ''disperse punctate''- ''collective punctate''-''central mass''-to'' vermicular'' were inferred to represent the changes in development of the calcification.

  3. [Calcifications of the prostate: a transrectal echographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, E; Calugi, V; Stolfi, V; Rossi, P; D'Ascenzo, R; Solivetti, F M

    1989-05-01

    Prostatic lithiasis is a well know phenomenon. It has little clinical significance and is not easily shown by conventional radiography, which has poor sensitivity and specificity. The authors have studied 612 patients with both suprapubic and transrectal US in order to 1) assess US sensitivity and specificity and 2) report the frequency, spatial distribution, number and features of prostatic calcifications with special emphasis on differential diagnosis between prostatic neoplasms and chronic prostatitis. The authors have also studied the relationship between morphology and symptoms and the results agree with those reported in the scanty literature. The authors conclude that the parameters studied are directly related to age, except for a younger group with clear evidence of genital inflammation. The authors emphasize the impossibility to correlate morphology of prostatic calcifications with pathologic conditions: there are no specific symptoms clearly connected with calcification even though the inflammation is often associated with calcifications.

  4. Ectopic calcification in lambs from feeding the plant Cestrum diurnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C F; Bruss, M L

    1979-01-01

    Hypercalcemia and ectopic calcification were induced in 5 lambs by supplementing the diet with the dried leaves of the plant Cestrum diurnum, for 8 to 9 weeks. Lambs developed mineralization of blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and lungs. These tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. In the vascular tissue there was calcification of elastic fibers in the hyperplastic intima and the media, along with mineralization of mitochondria of aortic smooth muscle cells. Myocardial cells and their mitochondria were mineralized. In the kidney, there was calcification of the epithelium of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the mesangial cells of the glomeruli. In the lung, there was mineralization of the alveolar septal walls and the bronchi and bronchioles. Feeding of the calcinogenic plant to lambs caused extensive soft tissue calcification. Results of the study indicated that degeneration was the early soft tissue lesion in this plant toxicity.

  5. [The hemodynamic characterization of the diabetic patient with arterial calcifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Lima Santana, B; Montalvo Diago, J; Bustillo, C; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutiérrez Jiménez, O; Ramirez Muñoz, O; Martínez Hernández, R

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the presence of calcifications according to the clinical features of the diabetic patient and the hemodynamics of the calcified arteries. With this purpose, 197 lower limbs from diabetic patients (type I and II) and carbon-hydrate intolerant patients, were studied. In all of the patients, the pressure ratio leg/arm was measured. On the same way, the arterial flow velocity was recorded using the Doppler ultrasonography on the pedia and postero-tibial arteries. The arterial calcifications, evident on the radiography of the foot, were more frequent between the type I patients and the neuro-infections diabetic foot. According to the hemodynamics point of view, we found a trend of association of more pathologic arterial flow velocity curves with the presence of calcifications (specially on the intima layer). It was also remarkable that an arterial incomprensibility was always associated with arterial calcifications.

  6. Calcification of vestibular schwannoma: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcification rarely occurs in vestibular schwannoma (VS, and only seven cases of calcified VS have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 48-year-old man with VS, who had a history of progressive left-sided hearing loss for 3 years. Neurological examination revealed that he had left-sided hearing loss and left cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography angiography showed a mass with calcification in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA. The tumor was successfully removed via suboccipital craniotomy, and postoperative histopathology showed that the tumor was a schwannoma. We reviewed seven cases of calcified VS that were previously reported in the literature, and we analyzed and summarized the characteristics of these tumors, including the calcification, texture, and blood supply. We conclude that calcification in VS is associated with its texture and blood supply, and these characteristics affect the surgical removal of the tumor.

  7. Cartilage Integration: Evaluation of the reasons for failure of integration during cartilage repair. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Khan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a challenging tissue to reconstruct or replace principally because of its avascular nature; large chondral lesions in the tissue do not spontaneously heal. Where lesions do penetrate the bony subchondral plate, formation of hematomas and the migration of mesenchymal stem cells provide an inferior and transient fibrocartilagenous replacement for hyaline cartilage. To circumvent the poor intrinsic reparative response of articular cartilage several surgical techniques based on tissue transplantation have emerged. One characteristic shared by intrinsic reparative processes and the new surgical therapies is an apparent lack of lateral integration of repair or graft tissue with the host cartilage that can lead to poor prognosis. Many factors have been cited as impeding cartilage:cartilage integration including; chondrocyte cell death, chondrocyte dedifferentiation, the nature of the collagenous and proteoglycan networks that constitute the extracellular matrix, the type of biomaterial scaffold employed in repair and the origin of the cells used to repopulate the defect or lesion. This review addresses the principal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impede integration and describe how manipulation of these factors using a host of strategies can positively influence cartilage integration.

  8. ADVANCE: Study to Evaluate Cinacalcet Plus Low Dose Vitamin D on Vascular Calcification in Subjects With Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Chronic Kidney Disease; End Stage Renal Disease; Coronary Artery Calcification; Vascular Calcification; Calcification; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Hyperparathyroidism; Kidney Disease; Nephrology; Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

  9. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  10. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  11. Calcific periarthritis of the elbow presenting as acute tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.

  12. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Bera

    2009-10-01

    The present study describes the development of artificial articular cartilage on the basis of mimicking structural gel properties and mechanical gel properties of natural articular cartilage. It is synthesized from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 20% Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) by sol–gel method. Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on underlying bone with high bond strength.

  13. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...... therefore involves a melange of approaches encompassing developmental biology, tissue mechanics, medicine, cell differentiation and survival biology, mechanostransduction and nano-fabrication technology. The central tissue of interest in this review is cartilage. Traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities...... and age-related degenerative diseases can all lead to cartilage loss; however, the low cell density and very limited self-renewal capacity of cartilage necessitate the development of effective therapeutic repair strategies for this tissue. The ontogeny of the chondrocyte, which is the cell that provides...

  14. Joint homeostasis in tissue engineering for cartilage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saris, D.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic joint damage, articular cartilage and the research into methods of restoring the articulation are not new topics of interest. For centuries, clinicians have recognized the importance of cartilage damage and sought ways of learning about the normal form and function of hyaline cartilage as

  15. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  16. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  17. Repairing articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineering cartilage in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-xing; LI Fo-bao; SHEN Hui-liang; LIAO Wei-ming; LIU Miao; WANG Min; CAO Jun-ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) engineered with allogeneic chondrocytes in repairing articular cartilage defects in rabbits.Methods: Chondrocytes were seeded onto three-dimensional cancellous BMG and cultured in vitro for 12 days to prepare BMG-chondrocyte complexes. Under anesthesia with 2.5% pentobarbital sodium (1 ml/kg body weight), articular cartilage defects were made on the right knee joints of 38 healthy New Zealand white rabbits (regardless of sex, aged 4-5 months and weighing 2.5-3 kg) and the defects were then treated with 2.5 % trypsin.Then BMG-chondrocyte complex (Group A, n=18 ),BMG ( Group B, n=10), and nothing ( Group C, n=10)were implanted into the cartilage defects, respectively. The repairing effects were assessed by macroscopic, histologic,transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation,immunohistochemical examination and in situ hybridization detection, respectively, at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after operation.Results: Cancellous BMG was degraded within 8 weeks after operation. In Group A, lymphocyte infiltration was observed around the graft. At 24 weeks after operation, the cartilage defects were repaired by cartilage tissues and the articular cartilage and subchondral bone were soundly healed. Proteoglycan and type Ⅱ collagen were detected in the matrix of the repaired tissues by Safranin-O staining and immunohistochemical staining,respectively. In situ hybridization proved gene expression of type Ⅱ collagen in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in the repaired tissues. TEM observation showed that chondrocytes and cartilage matrix in repaired tissues were almost same as those in the normal articular cartilage. In Group B, the defects were repaired by cartilage-fibrous tissues. In Group C, the defects were repaired only by fibrous tissues.Conclusions : Cancellous BMG can be regarded as the natural cell scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.Articular cartilage defects can be repaired by

  18. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  19. Rhinoplasty: congenital deficiencies of the alar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosins, Aaron M; Daniel, Rollin K; Sajjadian, Ali; Helms, Jill

    2013-08-01

    Congenital deficiencies of the alar cartilages are rare and often visible at birth but can occasionally present later. The authors review the anatomical development and discuss the incidence and treatment of congenital defects within the alar cartilages seen in rhinoplasty cases. The charts of 869 consecutive patients who underwent open rhinoplasty were retrospectively reviewed, and 8 cases of congenital defects of the alar cartilage within the middle crura were identified. Intraoperative photographs were taken of the alar deformities, and each patient underwent surgical correction. To simplify analysis, a classification of the defects was developed. A division was a cleft in the continuity of the alar cartilage with the 2 ends separate. A gap was a true absence of cartilage ranging from 1 to 4 mm, which can be accurately assessed in unilateral cases. A segmental loss was a defect greater than 4 mm. The 8 cases of deformity could be classified as 4 divisions, 3 gaps, and 1 segmental loss. None of the patients had a history of prior nasal trauma or nasal surgery. Six patients were women and 2 patients were men. In all cases, adequate projection and stability were achieved with a columellar strut. Asymmetry was minimized through concealer or tip grafts. There were no complications. Surgeons performing rhinoplasty surgery will encounter and should be prepared to deal with unexpected congenital defects of the alar cartilage. These defects within the middle crura will require stabilization with a columellar strut and, often, coverage with a concealer tip graft. We speculate that the cause of these defects is a disruption of the hedgehog signals that may arrest the condensation or block the differentiation of the underlying neural crest cells.

  20. Dual energy subtraction method for breast calcification imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, Vaia; Martini, Niki; Fountos, George; Michail, Christos; Sotiropoulou, Panagiota; Bakas, Athanasios; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Speller, Robert; Nikiforidis, George

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to present an experimental dual energy (DE) method for the visualization of microcalcifications (μCs). A modified radiographic X-ray tube combined with a high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector was used. A 40/70 kV spectral combination was filtered with 100 μm cadmium (Cd) and 1000 μm copper (Cu) for the low/high-energy combination. Homogenous and inhomogeneous breast phantoms and two calcification phantoms were constructed with various calcification thicknesses, ranging from 16 to 152 μm . Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated from the DE subtracted images for various entrance surface doses. A calcification thickness of 152 μm was visible, with mean glandular doses (MGD) in the acceptable levels (below 3 mGy). Additional post-processing on the DE images of the inhomogeneous breast phantom resulted in a minimum visible calcification thickness of 93 μm (MGD=1.62 mGy). The proposed DE method could potentially improve calcification visibility in DE breast calcification imaging.

  1. Limbal and corneal calcification in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen-Broekema, N; van Bijsterveld, O P

    1993-09-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure on regular dialysis treatment, limboconjunctival degenerations and calcifications are commonly observed. In this study three groups of patients were followed over a period of 6 years. The first group consisted of 47 patients with renal failure, the second group of 17 patients with renal failure and hyperparathyroidism not controlled by drugs, and the third group seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism without renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the progression of the limboconjunctival changes over time. The hypothesis that an increase in serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, as a result of tertiary hyperparathyroidism, could possibly add a corneal component to the limbal calcification was also tested. All patients with renal failure (in as much as the degenerative limbal features were not obscured by deposits of lime salts), had a type II white limbus girdle of Vogt. This limbal degeneration was observed in only 45% of controls. In all 47 patients with renal failure conjunctival calcification was observed; 26 of them also had limbal calcification. After 6 years 41 patients had developed limbal calcification. This progression was statistically significant. In 15 out of 17 patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism a band-shaped keratopathy developed in addition to the limboconjunctival calcification.

  2. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  3. [Chondrocyte mecanobiology. Application in cartilage tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Jean François; Netter, Patrick; Huselstein, Céline; de Isla, Natalia; Wei Yang, Jing; Muller, Sylvaine

    2005-11-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue that withstands and distributes mechanical forces within joints. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain cartilaginous tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Some mechanotransduction mechanisms are known, while many others no doubt remain to be discovered. Various aspects of chondrocyte mechanobiology have been applied to tissue engineering, with the creation of replacement tissue in vitro from bioresorbable or non-bioresorbable scaffolds and harvested cells. The tissues are maintained in a near-physiologic mechanical and biochemical environment. This paper is an overview of both chondrocyte mechanobiology and cartilage tissue engineering

  4. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  5. Overexpression of hsa-miR-148a promotes cartilage production and inhibits cartilage degradation by osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Lucienne A.; Kragten, Angela H.M.; Dhert, Wouter J.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Creemers, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hsa-miR-148a expression is decreased in OA cartilage, but its functional role in cartilage has never been studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of overexpressing hsa-miR-148a on cartilage metabolism of OA chondrocytes. Design OA chondrocytes were transfected with a

  6. Overexpression of hsa-miR-148a promotes cartilage production and inhibits cartilage degradation by osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, L A; Kragten, A H M; Dhert, W J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10261847X; Saris, D B F; Creemers, L B

    OBJECTIVE: Hsa-miR-148a expression is decreased in Osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage, but its functional role in cartilage has never been studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of overexpressing hsa-miR-148a on cartilage metabolism of OA chondrocytes. DESIGN: OA chondrocytes were

  7. Abdominal calcification in cystic fibrosis with meconium ileus: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, I. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 (Canada); Daneman, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 (Canada); Cutz, E. [Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hagen, P. [Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shandling, B. [Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Background. There is confusion in the radiological literature as to the site of abdominal calcification in cystic fibrosis (CF) with meconium ileus (MI) in neonates. Purpose. To correlate the site of radiographic abdominal calcification with histologic and operative findings. Materials and methods. A review of clinical, radiographic, surgical and histologic data in 58 neonates with CF and MI. Results. Abdominal calcification was identified in 15 (26 %) neonates: on an abdominal radiograph in 8 (13 %), at laparotomy in 3 and histologically in 10 (37 %) of the 27 resected specimens. The radiographic pattern of calcification varied from small specks in three cases to small, better-defined areas in two. In the other three patients, the calcification was more extensive and curvilinear. Histologically, calcification was found to be intramural in ten resected specimens, of which two also had intraluminal and one serosal calcification. The more extensive, curvilinear calcification identified radiographically correlated with histologically proven dystrophic intramural calcification. The less marked flecks or discrete areas of radiographic calcification may represent intramural, serosal or intraluminal calcification. Conclusion. Intramural calcification is common microscopically in CF with MI. Extensive radiographic calcification in these patients is more likely to represent intramural rather than serosal or intraluminal calcification. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  8. Breast arterial calcifications are correlated with subsequent development of coronary artery calcifications, but their aetiology is predominantly different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Angela H.E.M. [Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.maas@diagram-zwolle.nl; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Atsma, Femke [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J.M. [Preventicon Breast Cancer Screening Center, Stationsplein 91, 3511ED Utrecht (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.Th.M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study whether calcifications in breast arteries, as seen on mammograms, predict future development of coronary artery calcifications. Methods: We studied 499 women, aged 49-70 years, participating in a breast cancer screening program and investigated whether arterial calcifications in the breast (BAC) are associated with coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) after 9 years follow-up. Mammograms were reviewed for the presence of BAC. CAC was assessed by multi slice computed tomography (MSCT). With logistic regression analysis the independent effect of various risk factors on BAC and CAC was measured. Results: BAC was present in 58 of 499 women (12%) and CAC score > 0 was present in 262 of 499 women (53%). BAC was strongly associated with CAC (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.71-6.04) and this remained significant after adjustment for age at baseline and the duration of follow-up (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-4.23). Most CV risk factors were associated with CAC but not with BAC. Only parity was significantly associated with both increased CAC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.60) and increased BAC (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.23-22.43). Breastfeeding was associated with BAC (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.40-8.23) but not with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.84-1.93). Conclusion: Breast arterial calcifications are predictive of subsequent development of calcifications in the coronary arteries.

  9. Bovine pericardium coated with biopolymeric films as an alternative to prevent calcification: In vitro calcification and cytotoxicity results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Grinia M. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP: 6066, CEP: 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rodas, Andrea C.D. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Weska, Raquel F.; Aimoli, Cassiano G. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP: 6066, CEP: 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maizato, Marina; Leiner, Adolfo A. [Divisao de Bioengenharia do Instituto do Coracao (InCor) HC-FMUSP (Brazil); Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M.; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (SP) (Brazil); Beppu, Marisa M., E-mail: beppu@feq.unicamp.br [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP: 6066, CEP: 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-10

    Bovine pericardium, for cardiac valve fabrication, was coated with either chitosan or silk fibroin film. In vitro calcification tests of coated and non coated bovine pericardium were performed in simulated body fluid solution in order to investigate potential alternatives to minimize calcification on implanted heart valves. Complementary, morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were performed for structural characterization of coatings and biocompatibility of chitosan. Silk fibroin films were assayed by in vitro cytotoxicity and endothelial cell growth tests. Bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin or chitosan did not present calcification during in vitro calcification tests, indicating that these biopolymeric coatings do not induce bovine pericardium calcification. Chitosan and silk fibroin films were characterized as non cytotoxic and silk fibroin films presented high affinity to endothelial cells. The results indicate that bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin is a potential candidate for cardiac valve fabrication, since the affinity of silk fibroin to endothelial cells can be explored to induce the tissue endothelization and therefore, increase valve durability by increasing their mechanical resistance and protecting them against calcification.

  10. Cartilage and soft tissue imaging using X-rays: propagation-based phase-contrast computed tomography of the human knee in comparison with clinical imaging techniques and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Annie; Brun, Emmanuel; Mittone, Alberto; Gasilov, Sergei; Weber, Loriane; Geith, Tobias; Adam-Neumair, Silvia; Auweter, Sigrid D; Bravin, Alberto; Reiser, Maximilian F; Coan, Paola

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates high-resolution tomographic x-ray phase-contrast imaging in whole human knee joints for the depiction of soft tissue with emphasis on hyaline cartilage. The method is compared with conventional computed tomography (CT), synchrotron radiation absorption-based CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After approval of the institutional review board, 2 cadaveric human knees were examined at an synchrotron institution using a monochromatic x-ray beam of 60 keV, a detector with a 90-mm field of view, and a pixel size of 46 × 46 μm. Images of phase-contrast imaging CT were reconstructed with the filtered back projection algorithm and the equally sloped tomography method. Image quality and tissue contrast were evaluated and compared in all modalities and with histology. Phase-contrast imaging provides visualization of altered cartilage regions invisible in absorption CT with simultaneous high detail of the underlying bony abnormalities. The delineation of surface changes is similar to 3-T MRI using cartilage-dedicated sequences. Phase-contrast imaging CT presents soft tissue contrast surpassing that of conventional CT with a clear discrimination of ligamentous, muscular, neural, and vascular structures. In addition, phase-contrast imaging images show cartilage and meniscal calcifications that are not perceptible on conventional CT or on MRI. Phase-contrast imaging CT may facilitate a more complete evaluation of the human knee joint by providing concurrent comprehensive information about cartilage, the underlying subchondral bone, and their changes in osteoarthritic conditions.

  11. Energetic costs of calcification under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Christopher; Finnegan, Seth; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic ocean acidification threatens to negatively impact marine organisms that precipitate calcium carbonate skeletons. Past geological events, such as the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction, together with modern experiments generally support these concerns. However, the physiological costs of producing a calcium carbonate skeleton under different acidification scenarios remain poorly understood. Here we present an idealized mathematical model to quantify whole-skeleton costs, concluding that they rise only modestly (up to ˜10%) under acidification expected for 2100. The modest magnitude of this effect reflects in part the low energetic cost of inorganic, calcium carbonate relative to the proteinaceous organic matrix component of skeletons. Our analysis does, however, point to an important kinetic constraint that depends on seawater carbonate chemistry, and we hypothesize that the impact of acidification is more likely to cause extinctions within groups where the timescale of larval development is tightly constrained. The cheapness of carbonate skeletons compared to organic materials also helps explain the widespread evolutionary convergence upon calcification within the metazoa.

  12. Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis Mimicking a Retropharyngeal Phlegmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Gabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute retropharyngeal tendinitis is a little known but not an uncommon condition. It was first described by Hartley in 1964 as an inflammation of the longus colli muscle secondary to calcium crystals deposition on its insertion. The calcifications are mostly located on the oblique portion of the muscle at the level of C1-C2. Methods. We will describe this disease through 4 cases that presented in our institution. Results. The most common symptoms are severe neck pain, odynophagia, and a painful restriction of neck movement. It is associated with mild fever and inflammatory lab findings such as a slight elevation of white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. CT scan is recommended as the first-line imaging modality to establish a diagnosis. Treatments consist of NSAIDs and analgesics to accelerate the healing process. If symptoms are severe, a course of corticosteroids is required. Conclusion. Since the clinical and laboratory findings of this condition and those of a retropharyngeal abscess overlap, it is important to establish the right diagnosis in order to prevent more invasive procedures. A good knowledge of this clinical entity by otolaryngologists would prevent delays in hospital discharge and unnecessary anxiety.

  13. Experimental evidence for foraminiferal calcification under anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Nardelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic foraminiferal tests are widely used for paleoceanographic reconstructions. There is ample evidence that foraminifera can live in anoxic sediments. For some species, this is explained by a switch to facultative anaerobic metabolism (i.e. denitrification. Here we show for the first time that adult specimens of three benthic foraminiferal species are not only able to survive but are also able to calcify in anoxic conditions, at various depths in the sediment, with and without nitrates. This demonstrates ongoing metabolic processes, even in micro-environments where denitrification is not possible. Earlier observations suggest that the disappearance of foraminiferal communities after prolonged anoxia is not due to instantaneous or strongly increased adult mortality. Here we show that it cannot be explained by an inhibition of growth through chamber addition either. Our observations of ongoing calcification under anoxic conditions means that geochemical proxy data obtained from benthic foraminifera in settings experiencing intermittent anoxia have to be reconsidered. The analysis of whole single specimens or of their successive chambers may provide essential information about short-term environmental variability and/or the causes of anoxia.

  14. Advances and Prospects in Stem Cells for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histological features of cartilage call attention to the fact that cartilage has a little capacity to repair itself owing to the lack of a blood supply, nerves, or lymphangion. Stem cells have emerged as a promising option in the field of cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and could lead to cartilage repair. Much research has examined cartilage regeneration utilizing stem cells. However, both the potential and the limitations of this procedure remain controversial. This review presents a summary of emerging trends with regard to using stem cells in cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In particular, it focuses on the characterization of cartilage stem cells, the chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, and the various strategies and approaches involving stem cells that have been used in cartilage repair and clinical studies. Based on the research into chondrocyte and stem cell technologies, this review discusses the damage and repair of cartilage and the clinical application of stem cells, with a view to increasing our systematic understanding of the application of stem cells in cartilage regeneration; additionally, several advanced strategies for cartilage repair are discussed.

  15. Generating cartilage repair from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E; Kimber, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application.

  16. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  17. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  18. Fetal jaw movement affects condylar cartilage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H; Hatta, T; Udagawa, J; Zhang, L; Yoshimura, Y; Otani, H

    2005-05-01

    Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular condyle. Condylar cartilage was reduced in size, and the bone-cartilage margin was ill-defined in the sutured group at E18.5. Volume, total number of cells, and number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the mesenchymal zone were lower in the sutured group than in the non-sutured group at E16.5 and E18.5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were larger, whereas fewer apoptotic chondrocytes and osteoclasts were observed in the hypertrophic zone in the sutured group at E18.5. Analysis of our data revealed that restricted fetal TMJ movement influences the process of endochondral bone formation of condylar cartilage.

  19. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  20. In vivo generation of cartilage from periosteum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Surtel, DAM; Frings, EJJ; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    Periosteum has chondrogenic and osteogenic potential and plays an important role in fracture healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reactive tissue formed after damaging the periosteum. Damaging the periosteum may be a way to generate ectopic cartilage or bone, which may be useful

  1. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  2. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  3. Nonspecific otalgia: Indication for cartilage tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myringoplasty and tympanoplasty are commonly performed otologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nonspecific otalgia on the successful autologous conchal cartilage and temporalis fascia graft take up in type-1 tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 adult patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled for this study. Patients were placed in two groups (otalgia and nonotalgia group depending upon the history of otalgia. Patients in both groups were operated (type-1 tympanoplasty using randomly either temporalis fascia or conchal cartilage as the graft material. Follow-up of patients was done after 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months of surgery to check the status of graft take up. Result: Our study shows that patients in otalgia group in which autologous temporalis fascia was used as the graft material, the majority of patients had graft necrosis by 3 months after surgery (9.6% success only. Whereas patients of the same group in which autologous conchal cartilage was used as the graft material, successful graft take up was in 93.5% patients after 3 months of surgery. Our study shows that there was not much difference in using autologous temporalis fascia or autologous conchal cartilage on successful graft take up in nonotolgia group of patients, with success rate of 97.89% and 97.84%, respectively.

  4. Spatially resolved elemental distributions in articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, T.; Reibetanz, U.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.; Werner, A.; Gründer, W.

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the nuclear microprobe technique is employed to analyse the chemistry of joint cartilage in order to correlate internal structures of the collagen network with the elemental distribution. The samples were taken from pig's knee joint. 30 μm thick coronar cross-sections were prepared by means of cryosectioning and freeze-drying. We performed simultaneously particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Thus we obtained spatially resolved distributions of the elements H, C, N, O, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. The main components of the organic matrix are H, C, N and O. It was shown that their relations vary with the cartilage structures. It could be shown that zones with aligned collagen fibrils contain less sulphur and potassium but more chlorine. The higher chlorine concentration is remarkable because newest biochemical studies found that hypochloric acid is involved in cartilage degradation. Furthermore, the calcium distribution is still of great interest. Its correlation to structural changes inside the cartilage is still being discussed. It could be disproved that zones of higher calcium concentration are related to the aligned structures of the collagen network.

  5. Zn deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in equine articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: D.A.Bradley@surrey.ac.uk; Moger, C.J.; Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    In articular cartilage metalloproteinases, a family of enzymes whose function relies on the presence of divalent cations such as Zn and Ca plays a central role in the normal processes of growth and remodelling and in the degenerative and inflammatory processes of arthritis. Another important enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, involved in cartilage mineralisation also relies on metallic cofactors. The local concentration of divalent cations is therefore of considerable interest in cartilage pathophysiology and several authors have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to map metal ion distributions in bone and cartilage. We report use of a bench-top XRF analytical microscope, providing spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and applicable to histological sections, facilitating correlation of the distribution with structural features. The study seeks to establish the elemental distribution in normal tissue as a precursor to investigation of changes in disease. For six samples prepared from equine metacarpophalangeal joint, we observed increased concentration of Zn and Sr ions around the tidemark between normal and mineralised cartilage. This is believed to be an active site of remodelling but its composition has hitherto lacked detailed characterization. We also report preliminary results on two of the samples using Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). This confirms our previous observations using synchrotron-based XRF of enhanced deposition of Sr and Zn at the surface of the subchondral bone and in articular cartilage.

  6. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  7. Recent developments in scaffold-guided cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinfeng; Shi, Kun; Ding, Qiuxia; Qu, Ying; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage repair is one of the most challenging problems in biomedical engineering because the regenerative capacity of cartilage is intrinsically poor. The lack of efficient treatment modalities motivates researches into cartilage tissue engineering such as combing cells, scaffolds and growth factors. In this review we summarize the current developments on scaffold systems available for cartilage tissue engineering. The factors that are critical to successfully design an ideal scaffold for cartilage regeneration were discussed. Then we present examples of selected material types (natural polymers and synthetic polymers) and fabricated forms of the scaffolds (three-dimensional scaffolds, micro- or nanoparticles, and their composites). In the end of review, we conclude with an overview of the ways in which biomedical nanotechnology is widely applied in cartilage tissue engineering, especially in the design of composite scaffolds. This review attempts to provide recommendations on the combination of qualities that would produce the ideal scaffold system for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits through tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with chitosan hydrogel and chondrocytes%新型壳聚糖水凝胶结合软骨细胞修复兔关节软骨缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming ZHAO; Zhu CHEN; Kang LIU; Yu-qing WAN; Xu-dong LI; Xu-wei LUO; Yi-guang BAI; Ze-long YANG; Gang FENG

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our previous work, we prepared a type of chitosan hydrogel with excelent biocompatibility. In this study, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with this chitosan hydrogel and costal chondrocytes was used to repair the articular cartilage defects. Methods: Chitosan hydrogels were prepared with a crosslinker formed by com-bining 1,6-disocyanatohexane and polyethylene glycol. Chitosan hydrogel scaffold was seeded with rabbit chondro-cytes that had been cultured for one weekin vitro to form the preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage. This preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage was then transplanted into the defective rabbit articular cartilage. There were three treatment groups: the experimental group received preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage; the blank group received pure chitosan hydrogels; and, the control group had received no implantation. The knee joints were harvested at predetermined time. The repaired cartilage was analyzed through gross morphology, histologicaly and immuno-histochemicaly. The repairs were scored according to the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) standard. Results: The gross morphology results suggested that the defects were repaired completely in the experimental group after twelve weeks. The regenerated tissue connected closely with subchondral bone and the boundary with normal tissue was fuzzy. The cartilage lacuna in the regenerated tissue was similar to normal cartilage lacuna. The results of ICRS gross and histological grading showed that there were significant differences among the three groups (P  创新点:利用自主研发的具有良好生物相容性和稳定性的壳聚糖水凝胶与软骨细胞,在体外初步构建组织工程软骨,并尝试利用其修复缺损的关节软骨,从而为关节软骨缺损的修复提供了一种新的治疗方法。  方法:取兔肋软骨体外培养扩增,获得P2代软骨细胞,将其种植到冻干的壳聚糖水凝胶上,体

  9. Facilitating cartilage volume measurement using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maataoui, Adel, E-mail: adel.maataoui@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gurung, Jessen, E-mail: jessen.gurung@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns, E-mail: h.ackermann@add.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Abolmaali, Nasreddin [Biological and Molecular Imaging, ZIK OncoRay - Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Khan, M. Fawad, E-mail: fawad@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare quantitative cartilage volume measurement (CVM) using different slice thicknesses. Materials and methods: Ten knees were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI (Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 3D gradient echo sequence (FLASH, fast low-angle shot). Cartilage volume of the medial and lateral tibial plateau was measured by two independent readers in 1.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm slices using the Argus software application. Accuracy and time effectiveness served as control parameters. Results: Determining cartilage volume, time for calculation diminished for the lateral tibial plateau from 384.6 {+-} 127.7 s and 379.1 {+-} 117.6 s to 214.9 {+-} 109.9 s and 213.9 {+-} 102.2 s to 122.1 {+-} 60.1 s and 126.8 {+-} 56.2 s and for the medial tibial plateau from 465.0 {+-} 147.7 s and 461.8 {+-} 142.7 s to 214.0 {+-} 67.9 s and 208.9 {+-} 66.2 s to 132.6 {+-} 41.5 s and 130.6 {+-} 42.0 s measuring 1.5 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm slices, respectively. No statistically significant difference between cartilage volume measurements was observed (p > 0.05) while very good inter-reader correlation was evaluated. Conclusion: CVM using 1.5 mm slices provides no higher accuracy than cartilage volume measurement in 5 mm slices while an overall time saving up to 70% is possible.

  10. Accuracy of 3D cartilage models generated from MR images is dependent on cartilage thickness: laser scanner based validation of in vivo cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seungbum; Giori, Nicholas J; Gold, Garry E; Dyrby, Chris O; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2009-12-01

    Cartilage morphology change is an important biomarker for the progression of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of in vivo cartilage thickness measurements from MR image-based 3D cartilage models using a laser scanning method and to test if the accuracy changes with cartilage thickness. Three-dimensional tibial cartilage models were created from MR images (in-plane resolution of 0.55 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm) of osteoarthritic knees of ten patients prior to total knee replacement surgery using a semi-automated B-spline segmentation algorithm. Following surgery, the resected tibial plateaus were laser scanned and made into 3D models. The MR image and laser-scan based models were registered to each other using a shape matching technique. The thicknesses were compared point wise for the overall surface. The linear mixed-effects model was used for statistical test. On average, taking account of individual variations, the thickness measurements in MRI were overestimated in thinner (<2.5 mm) regions. The cartilage thicker than 2.5 mm was accurately predicted in MRI, though the thick cartilage in the central regions was underestimated. The accuracy of thickness measurements in the MRI-derived cartilage models systemically varied according to native cartilage thickness.

  11. Gene expression analysis in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff

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    F Oliva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the expression of several genes involved in tissue remodelling and bone development in patients with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. Biopsies from calcified and non-calcified areas were obtained from 10 patients (8 women and 2 men; average age: 55 years; range: 40-68 with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To evaluate the expression of selected genes, RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed. A significantly increased expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG2 and its substrate, osteopontin, was detected in the calcific areas compared to the levels observed in the normal tissue from the same subject with calcific tendinopathy, whereas a modest increase was observed for catepsin K. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP4 and BMP6 in the calcific area. BMP-2, collagen V and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF did not show significant differences. Collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 were not detectable. A variation in expression of these genes could be characteristic of this form tendinopathy, since an increased level of these genes has not been detected in other forms of tendon lesions.

  12. Management of acute calcific tendinitis around the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Min; Baek, Ji-Hoon; Ko, Young-Bong; Lee, Han-Jun; Park, Ki Jeong; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2014-11-01

    Although the natural history of calcific tendinitis within the rotator cuff of the shoulder is established, the natural history of calcific tendinitis around the hip joint remains unknown. To examine the duration of symptoms including pain, the location of calcific tendinitis around the hip joint, the radiologic course of calcium phosphate crystals, and the proportion of patients who required surgical treatment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Thirty hips (29 patients) with acute calcific tendinitis were treated between January 2010 and December 2012. Level of subjective hip pain using the visual analog scale pain score, radiologic type, and the location and size of calcium deposits were measured during a follow-up period of 12 to 32 months. The 29 patients included 7 men (24%) and 22 women (76%) with a mean age of 51.5 years (range, 28-78 years). All visual analog scale pain scores significantly improved from a mean of 7.1 to 0.8 at the latest follow-up (P 3 months) of severe pain, solid type, and large size (range, 96-416 mm(2)) were treated with arthroscopic excision. Nonoperative treatment in patients with acute calcific tendinitis of the hip joint might be successful in most patients. Surgical treatment is of value for patients experiencing prolonged severe pain, solid type, and large size. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. Inflammatory, metabolic, and genetic mechanisms of vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin

    2014-04-01

    This review centers on updating the active research area of vascular calcification. This pathology underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, through adverse mechanical effects on vascular compliance, vasomotion, and, most likely, plaque stability. Biomineralization is a complex, regulated process occurring widely throughout nature. Decades ago, its presence in the vasculature was considered a mere curiosity and an unregulated, dystrophic process that does not involve biological mechanisms. Although it remains controversial whether the process has any adaptive value or past evolutionary advantage, substantial advances have been made in understanding the biological mechanisms driving the process. Different types of calcific vasculopathy, such as inflammatory versus metabolic, have parallel mechanisms in skeletal bone calcification, such as intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Recent work has identified important regulatory roles for inflammation, oxidized lipids, elastin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprogenitor cells, matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, transglutaminase, osteoclastic regulatory factors, phosphate regulatory hormones and receptors, apoptosis, prelamin A, autophagy, and microvesicles or microparticles similar to the matrix vesicles of skeletal bone. Recent work has uncovered fascinating interactions between matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, vitamin K, warfarin, and transport proteins. And, lastly, recent breakthroughs in inherited forms of calcific vasculopathy have identified the genes responsible as well as an unexpected overlap of phenotypes. Until recently, vascular calcification was considered a purely degenerative, unregulated process. Since then, investigative groups around the world have identified a wide range of causative mechanisms and regulatory pathways, and some of the recent developments are highlighted in this review.

  14. Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: Pathophysiology, Reactive Oxygen Species and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M. Sowers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA/calciphylaxis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement. Once thought to be rare, it is being increasingly recognized and reported on a global scale. The uremic milieu predisposes to multiple metabolic toxicities including increased levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation promote this arteriolopathy by adversely affecting endothelial function resulting in a prothrombotic milieu and significant remodeling effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. These arteriolar pathological effects include intimal hyperplasia, inflammation, endovascular fibrosis and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and differentiation into bone forming osteoblast-like cells resulting in medial calcification. Systemic factors promoting this vascular condition include elevated calcium, parathyroid hormone and hyperphosphatemia with consequent increases in the calcium × phosphate product. The uremic milieu contributes to a marked increased in upstream reactive oxygen species—oxidative stress and subsequent downstream increased inflammation, in part, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor NFκB and associated downstream cytokine pathways. Consitutive anti-calcification proteins such as Fetuin-A and matrix GLA proteins and their signaling pathways may be decreased, which further contributes to medial vascular calcification. The resulting clinical entity is painful, debilitating and contributes to the excess morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. These same histopathologic conditions also occur in patients without uremia and therefore, the term calcific obliterative arteriolopathy could be utilized in these conditions.

  15. Radiographic and histologic patterns of calcification in chondromyxoid fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takehiko [Section of Orthopaedic Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center/ Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)]|[Department of Pathology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu (Japan); Dorfman, H.D. [Section of Orthopaedic Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center/ Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Objective. To evaluate the frequency of radiologic and histologic manifestations of matrix calcification in chondromyxoid fibromas. Patients. Forty-four cases of chondromyxoid fibroma were reviewed. The age range of the patients was 3-70 years (average 29 years). Results. Calcification was found microscopically in 15 cases (34.1%). In five cases (12.5%) it was demonstrated on plain films or CT. The age range of the patients with microscopic evidence of calcified matrix was 14-70 years (mean 46 years), while that of the patients with non-calcified lesions was 3-59 years (average 21 years). All but two of the patients who showed microscopic calcification in the tumors were over 40 years of age. Four microscopic patterns of calcification were observed: coarse granular, circumscribed, trabecular, and ``chicken-wire.``Conclusions. Calcification in chondromyxoid fibroma was found more frequently than in previously reported studies. There was a tendency for this phenomenon to occur in the tumors of older patients, particularly those over 40 years old, and in chondromyxoid fibromas situated in flat bones, including ribs. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  16. Smoking and morphology of calcific deposits affect the outcome of needle aspiration of calcific deposits (NACD) for calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudelaar, Bart W; Ooms, Edwin M; Huis In 't Veld, Rianne M H A; Schepers-Bok, Relinde; Vochteloo, Anne J

    2015-11-01

    Although NACD has proven to be an effective minimal invasive treatment for calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff, little is known about the factors associated with treatment failure or the need for multiple procedures. Patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis who were treated by NACD were evaluated in a retrospective cohort study. Demographic details, medical history, sonographic and radiographic findings were collected from patient files. Failure of NACD was defined as the persistence of symptoms after a follow-up of at least six months. NACD procedures performed within six months after a previous NACD procedure were considered repeated procedures. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment failure and multiple procedures. 431 patients (277 female; mean age 51.4±9.9 years) were included. Smoking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7, p=0.04) was significantly associated with failure of NACD. Patients with Gärtner and Heyer (GH) type I calcific deposits were more likely to need multiple NACD procedures (AOR: 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.5, p<0.01) compared to patients with type III calcific deposits. Partial thickness rotator cuff tears were of no influence on the outcome of NACD or the number of treatments necessary. Smoking almost doubled the chance of failure of NACD and the presence of GH type I calcific deposits significantly increased the chance of multiple procedures. Partial thickness rotator cuff tears did not seem to affect the outcome of NACD. Based on the findings in this study, the importance of quitting smoking should be emphasized prior to NACD and partial thickness rotator cuff tears should not be a reason to withhold patients NACD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Osteoprotegerin level and the extent of cardiovascular calcification in haemodialysis patients

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    Waleed Ammar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: There is strong positive relationship between osteoprotegerin and both vascular and valvular calcification in hemodialysis patients. This positive correlation may open the gate for routine estimation of this agent as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular calcification in hemodialysis patients.

  18. Hydrogels as a Replacement Material for Damaged Articular Hyaline Cartilage

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    Charlotte M. Beddoes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage is a strong durable material that lubricates joint movement. Due to its avascular structure, cartilage has a poor self-healing ability, thus, a challenge in joint recovery. When severely damaged, cartilage may need to be replaced. However, currently we are unable to replicate the hyaline cartilage, and as such, alternative materials with considerably different properties are used. This results in undesirable side effects, including inadequate lubrication, wear debris, wear of the opposing articular cartilage, and weakening of the surrounding tissue. With the number of surgeries for cartilage repair increasing, a need for materials that can better mimic cartilage, and support the surrounding material in its typical function, is becoming evident. Here, we present a brief overview of the structure and properties of the hyaline cartilage and the current methods for cartilage repair. We then highlight some of the alternative materials under development as potential methods of repair; this is followed by an overview of the development of tough hydrogels. In particular, double network (DN hydrogels are a promising replacement material, with continually improving physical properties. These hydrogels are coming closer to replicating the strength and toughness of the hyaline cartilage, while offering excellent lubrication. We conclude by highlighting several different methods of integrating replacement materials with the native joint to ensure stability and optimal behaviour.

  19. NONLINEAR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN RABBIT EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elastic cartilage in the rabbit external ear is an important animal model with attractive potential value for researching the physiological and pathological states of cartilages especially during wound healing. In this work, nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation were employed for imaging and quantifying the intact elastic cartilage. The morphology and distribution of main components in elastic cartilage including cartilage cells, collagen and elastic fibers were clearly observed from the high-resolution two-dimensional nonlinear optical images. The areas of cell nuclei, a parameter related to the pathological changes of normal or abnormal elastic cartilage, can be easily quantified. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of chondrocytes and matrix were displayed by constructing three-dimensional image of cartilage tissue. At last, the emission spectra from cartilage were obtained and analyzed. We found that the different ratio of collagen over elastic fibers can be used to locate the observed position in the elastic cartilage. The redox ratio based on the ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH over flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD fluorescence can also be calculated to analyze the metabolic state of chondrocytes in different regions. Our results demonstrated that this technique has the potential to provide more accurate and comprehensive information for the physiological states of elastic cartilage.

  20. Mechanical properties of hyaline and repair cartilage studied by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, O; Durst, K; Maier, V; Göken, M; Birkholz, T; Schneider, H; Hennig, F; Gelse, K

    2007-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue that is well adapted to the functional demands in joints but difficult to replicate via tissue engineering or regeneration. Its viscoelastic properties allow cartilage to adapt to both slow and rapid mechanical loading. Several cartilage repair strategies that aim to restore tissue and protect it from further degeneration have been introduced. The key to their success is the quality of the newly formed tissue. In this study, periosteal cells loaded on a scaffold were used to repair large partial-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint of miniature pigs. The repair cartilage was analyzed 26 weeks after surgery and compared both morphologically and mechanically with healthy hyaline cartilage. Contact stiffness, reduced modulus and hardness as key mechanical properties were examined in vitro by nanoindentation in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature. In addition, the influence of tissue fixation with paraformaldehyde on the biomechanical properties was investigated. Although the repair process resulted in the formation of a stable fibrocartilaginous tissue, its contact stiffness was lower than that of hyaline cartilage by a factor of 10. Fixation with paraformaldehyde significantly increased the stiffness of cartilaginous tissue by one order of magnitude, and therefore, should not be used when studying biomechanical properties of cartilage. Our study suggests a sensitive method for measuring the contact stiffness of articular cartilage and demonstrates the importance of mechanical analysis for proper evaluation of the success of cartilage repair strategies.

  1. Cartilage issues in football—today's problems and tomorrow's solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoefer, Kai; Peterson, Lars; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury is prevalent in football players and results from chronic joint stress or acute traumatic injuries. Articular cartilage injury can often result in progressive painful impairment of joint function and limit sports participation. Management of articular cartilage injury in athletes aims to return the player to competition, and requires effective and durable joint surface restoration that resembles normal hyaline articular cartilage that can withstand the high joint stresses of football. Existing articular cartilage repair techniques can return the athlete with articular cartilage injury to high-impact sports, but treatment does not produce normal articular cartilage, and this limits the success rate and durability of current cartilage repair in athletes. Novel scientific concepts and treatment techniques that apply modern tissue engineering technologies promise further advancement in the treatment of these challenging injuries in the high demand athletic population. We review the current knowledge of cartilage injury pathophysiology, epidemiology and aetiology, and outline existing management algorithms, developing treatment options and future strategies to manage articular cartilage injuries in football players. PMID:25878075

  2. Abdominal aortic calcification quantified by the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD index is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome

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    Barascuk Natasha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC predict cardiovascular mortality. A new scoring model for AAC, the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD index may contribute with additional information to the commonly used Aortic Calcification Severity (AC24 score, when predicting death from cardiovascular disease (CVD. In this study we investigated associations of MACD and AC24 with traditional metabolic-syndrome associated risk factors at baseline and after 8.3 years follow-up, to identify biological parameters that may account for the differential performance of these indices. Methods Three hundred and eight healthy women aged 48 to 76 years, were followed for 8.3 ± 0.3 years. AAC was quantified using lumbar radiographs. Baseline data included age, weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose levels. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test for relationships. Results At baseline and across all patients, MACD correlated with blood glucose (r2 = 0.1, P Conclusion Patterns of calcification identified by the MACD, but not the AC24 index, appear to contain useful biological information perhaps explaining part of the improved identification of risk of cardiovascular death of the MACD index. Correlations of MACD but not the AC24 with glucose levels at baseline suggest that hyperglycemia may contribute to unique patterns of calcification indicated by the MACD.

  3. Calcific tendonitis of the rotator cuff: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Tanesue, Ryo; Shirachi, Isao; Shibata, Hideaki; Nakama, Kenjiro; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei

    2012-01-01

    Few case reports have described the surgical treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the subscapularis tendon. We present a case of symptomatic diffuse calcifying tendonitis involving the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions that was difficult to detect arthroscopically. The patient was treated with arthroscopic incision of the tendinous insertions thorough removal of the calcific deposits and subsequent repair using a suture-anchor technique. Two years after the surgical procedure, the patient was completely pain-free and attained full range of motion. Radiographic evaluation performed 2 years after the procedure revealed no calcific deposits. We conclude that the combination of incision of the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions, complete removal of the calcific deposits, and subsequent suture-anchor repair in an all-arthroscopic manner can lead to an excellent clinical outcome without compromising the functional integrity of the rotator cuff tendons.

  4. Calcific Tendonitis of the Rotator Cuff: An Unusual Case

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    Yasuhiro Mitsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have described the surgical treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the subscapularis tendon. We present a case of symptomatic diffuse calcifying tendonitis involving the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions that was difficult to detect arthroscopically. The patient was treated with arthroscopic incision of the tendinous insertions thorough removal of the calcific deposits and subsequent repair using a suture-anchor technique. Two years after the surgical procedure, the patient was completely pain-free and attained full range of motion. Radiographic evaluation performed 2 years after the procedure revealed no calcific deposits. We conclude that the combination of incision of the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions, complete removal of the calcific deposits, and subsequent suture-anchor repair in an all-arthroscopic manner can lead to an excellent clinical outcome without compromising the functional integrity of the rotator cuff tendons.

  5. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  6. Reduction of calcification by various treatments in cardiac valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K P; Shanthi, C

    1999-01-01

    The importance of glutaraldehyde pretreated bioprosthetic heart valves fabricated from bovine pericardium or porcine aortic valves is well realized in the management of valvular heart diseases. But, calcification limits the durability and is the most frequent cause of failure of these bioprosthetic heart valves. Various research groups in the world are actively involved in describing, understanding, and preventing calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves. Since there is no satisfactory clinical means for preventing or treating this disorder, attempts are made to improve the anticalcification properties of the replacement valves in the preparation stage itself. Research in this area is very active, and many newer approaches are made to mitigate the problem. An attempt has been made in the present article to review various theories put forward to explain the causative factors involved and mechanistic aspects of biocalcification and to present various strategies attempted for the prevention of calcification with the special feature on the work done in the area in our laboratory.

  7. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  8. Arterial calcifications at the hand: Normal development and its course in patients on maintenance dialysis

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    Fischer, E.

    1987-03-01

    Normally, the arterial calcifications at the hand progress form proximal to distal and do not reach the fingers in the 8th decade. In patients on maintenance dialysis the arterial calcifications begin earlier and do not progress with age. The most severe arterial calcifications occur in patients with renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Prognostically arterial calcifications in the finger-metacarpal region are an unfavourable sign.

  9. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  10. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  11. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; MacLaren, Jana K.; Mason, Benjamin M.; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L.; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO32-], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  12. Intraocular Lens Calcifications After (Triple-) Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittenlocher, Silvia; Penier, Marius; Schaub, Friederike; Bock, Felix; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn

    2017-07-01

    To identify incidence of and risk factors for calcifications of intraocular lenses (IOLs) after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Retrospective cohort study. Retrospective review of charts and slit-lamp images of 564 consecutive patients from the prospective Cologne DMEK database who underwent DMEK in pseudophakic eyes or DMEK in combination with cataract surgery (triple-DMEK) between September 3, 2013 and October 30, 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne. IOL calcifications after (triple-)DMEK occurred in 14 patients (2.5%). Visual acuities in affected and unaffected eyes were 0.33 ± 0.24 logMAR and 0.16 ± 0.01 logMAR after 3 months (P < .001) as well as 0.28 ± 0.16 logMAR and 0.13 ± 0.08 logMAR (P < .001) after 6 months, respectively. The proportions of triple-DMEK vs DMEK, the use of SF6 gas vs room air for anterior chamber tamponade, and the presence of hydrophilic vs hydrophobic acrylic IOLs were comparable in affected and unaffected eyes. Patients with IOL calcifications had higher rebubbling rates than patients without. Larger pupil diameters at the time of surgery showed a tendency to slightly larger areas of IOL calcifications. IOL calcifications after anterior chamber gas tamponade in DMEK lead to visual impairment and are associated with the number of rebubblings after DMEK. IOL calcifications also occur in hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration.Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected.Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  14. Evaluation and nonsurgical management of rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greis, Ari C; Derrington, Stephen M; McAuliffe, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy is a common finding that accounts for about 7% of patients with shoulder pain. There are numerous theories on the pathogenesis of rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy. The diagnosis is confirmed with radiography, MRI or ultrasound. There are numerous conservative treatment options available and most patients can be managed successfully without surgical intervention. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and multiple modalities are often used to manage pain and inflammation; physical therapy can help improve scapular mechanics and decrease dynamic impingement; ultrasound-guided needle aspiration and lavage techniques can provide long-term improvement in pain and function in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Symmetrical infantile thalamic degeneration with focal cytoplasmic calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, M; O'Neil, W

    1975-10-27

    Infantile thalamic degeneration is a rare clinico-pathological entity. Restricted location of the lesion and peculiar cytopathological changes serve to distinguish this disorder from other common encephalopathies. Optical and ultrastructural studies demonstrate cytoplasmic calcopherules in previously viable cells. According to current concepts of acute cellular reactions to injury and mechanism of intracellular calcification, the cytological changes cannot be attributed to either hypoxic ischemic cell change or dystrophic calcification. By analogy to other human and pathological material, the most likely basis for nondystrophic calcopherule formation is toxic or infectious injury with local synthesis, or autophagic or phagolysosomal degradation of cellular debris of specific chemical composition favoring calcium deposition.

  16. CALCIFICATION OF SUBCUTANEOUSLY IMPLANTED COLLAGENS IN RELATION TO CYTOTOXICITY, CELLULAR INTERACTIONS AND CROSS-LINKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DIJKSTRA, PJ; DAMINK, LHHO; FEIJEN, J

    1995-01-01

    In general, calcification of biomaterials occurs through an interaction of host and implanted material factors, but up to now the real origin of pathologic calcification is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate incidence of calcification of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagens (DSCs) with r

  17. Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Eyre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

  18. Cartilage stem cells: regulation of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solursh, M

    1989-01-01

    The developing limb bud is a useful source of cartilage stem cells for studies on the regulation of chondrogenesis. In high density cultures these cells can progress through all stages of chondrogenesis to produce mineralized hypertrophic cartilage. If the cells are maintained in a spherical shape, single stem cells can progress through a similar sequence. The actin cytoskeleton is implicated in the regulation of chondrogenesis since conditions that favor its disruption promote chondrogenesis and conditions that favor actin assembly inhibit chondrogenesis. Since a number of extracellular matrix receptors mediate effects of the extracellular matrix on cytoskeletal organization and some of these receptors are developmentally regulated, it is proposed that matrix receptor expression plays a central role in the divergence of connective tissue cells during development.

  19. An amidated carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Gemma; Fini, Milena; Torricelli, Paola; Giardino, Roberto; Barbucci, Rolando

    2008-08-01

    An amidic derivative of carboxymethylcellulose was synthesized (CMCA). The new polysaccharide was obtained by converting a large percentage of carboxylic groups ( approximately 50%) of carboxymethylcellulose into amidic groups rendering the macromolecule quite similar to hyaluronan. Then, the polysaccharide (CMCA) was crosslinked. The behavior of CMCA hydrogel towards normal human articular chondrocytes (NHAC) was in vitro studied monitoring the cell proliferation and synthesis of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components and compared with a hyaluronan based hydrogel (Hyal). An extracellular matrix rich in cartilage-specific collagen and proteoglycans was secreted in the presence of hydrogels. The injectability of the new hydrogels was also analysed. An experimental in vivo model was realized to study the effect of CMCA and Hyal hydrogels in the treatment of surgically created partial thickness chondral defects in the rabbit knee. The preliminary results pointed out that CMCA hydrogel could be considered as a potential compound for cartilage regeneration.

  20. Inflammatory pseudotumoural endotracheal mucormycosis with cartilage damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-C. Luo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection usually associated with immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus or haematological malignancy. Herein, we report an unusual case of mucormycosis in a 46-yr-old male patient with diabetes presenting with an endotracheal mass obstructing the trachea and cartilage damage. Histological examination of the bronchoscopy biopsy specimens revealed invasive mucormycosis. The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B followed by removal of the lesion via bronchoscopy.

  1. Lipid Transport and Metabolism in Healthy and Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage is an avascular tissue and cartilage metabolism depends on molecule diffusion from synovial fluid and subchondral bone. Thus, nutrient availability is limited by matrix permeability according to the size and charge of the molecules. Matrix composition limits the access of molecules to chondrocytes, determining cell metabolism and cartilage maintenance. Lipids are important nutrients in chondrocyte metabolism and are available for these cells through de novo synthesis but also through diffusion from surrounding tissues. Cartilage status and osteoarthritis development depend on lipid availability. This paper reviews lipid transport and metabolism in cartilage. We also analyze signalling pathways directly mediated by lipids and those that involve mTOR pathways, both in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage.

  2. A PURE STRAIN OF CARTILAGE CELLS IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A

    1922-09-30

    1. A strain of cartilage cells, obtained from the pars cartilago sclerae of the eye of chick embryos, has been cultivated for more than 3 months in vitro. 2. The initial growth of the cartilage was possible only on the free surface of the coagulum. 3. The hyaline substance disappeared during cultivation in vitro. The succeeding stages of a transformation from small, lymphocyte-like cells into large, spindle-shaped cells were observed. The cartilage cells were spindle-shaped and grew in close contact, forming thin membranes. In surface-grown cartilage cells, the nucleus, usually containing one large nucleolus, stained less deeply than the cytoplasm. 4. The rate of growth of cartilage was slower than that of fibroblasts and epithelium. After cultivation on the surface of the coagulum, the cartilage cells could multiply even when embedded in the coagulum. But their growth was less extensive and uniform.

  3. Technique and results of cartilage shield tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil I Vadiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Use of cartilage for repair of tympanic membrane is recommended by many otologists. The current study aims at evaluating results of cartilage shield tympanoplasty in terms of graft take up and hearing outcomes. Material and Methods: In the current study, cartilage shield tympanoplasty(CST is used in ears with high risk perforations of the tympanic membrane. A total of 40 ears were selected where type I CST was done in 30 ears and type III CST was done in 10 ears. Results: An average of 37.08 dB air bone gap(ABG was present in pre operative time and an average of 19.15 dB of ABG was observed at 6 months after the surgery with hearing gain of 17.28 dB on average was observed. Graft take up rate of 97.5% was observed. The technique is modified to make it easier and to minimize chances of lateralization of graft. Conclusion: The hearing results of this technique are comparable to other methods of tympanic membrane repair.

  4. Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepfert, C.; Slobodianski, A.; Schilling, A. F.; Adamietz, P.; Pörtner, R.

    Mesenchymal progenitor cells known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from various tissues. Since they are able to differentiate along the mesenchymal lineages of cartilage and bone, they are regarded as promising sources for the treatment of skeletal defects. Tissue regeneration in the adult organism and in vitro engineering of tissues is hypothesized to follow the principles of embryogenesis. The embryonic development of the skeleton has been studied extensively with respect to the regulatory mechanisms governing morphogenesis, differentiation, and tissue formation. Various concepts have been designed for engineering tissues in vitro based on these developmental principles, most of them involving regulatory molecules such as growth factors or cytokines known to be the key regulators in developmental processes. Growth factors most commonly used for in vitro cultivation of cartilage tissue belong to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) super-family, and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. In this chapter, in vivo actions of members of these growth factors described in the literature are compared with in vitro concepts of cartilage engineering making use of these growth factors.

  5. Shock Wave-Stimulated Periosteum for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0914 TITLE: Shock Wave-Stimulated Periosteum for Cartilage Repair PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...30Sep2010 – 1Dec2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shock Wave-Stimulated Periosteum for Cartilage Repair 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0914 5b. GRANT NUMBER... shock wave (ESW)-stimulated periosteum improves cartilage repair when it is used as an autograft to fill a defect in the articular surface of goats. A

  6. Evaluation of early changes of cartilage biomarkers following arthroscopic meniscectomy in young Egyptian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Khamis Koryem

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Cartilage volume loss by MRI combined with changes in cartilage matrix turnover detected by molecular biomarkers may reflect the initial changes associated with cartilage degeneration that account for early OA.

  7. Fascia versus cartilage graft in type I tympanoplasty: audiological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Oh, Jung Ho; Lee, Hwan Ho

    2012-11-01

    Various materials such as fascia, perichondrium, and cartilage have been used for reconstruction of the tympanic membrane in middle ear surgery. Because of its stiffness, cartilage is resistant to resorption and retraction. However, cartilage grafts result in increased acoustic impedance, the main limitation to their use. The aim of this study was to compare the hearing results after cartilage tympanoplasty versus fascia tympanoplasty. This study included 114 patients without postoperative tympanic membrane perforation who underwent tympanoplasty type I between 2007 and 2010, 31 with fascia and 83 with cartilage. Preoperative and 1 year postoperative air-bone gap (ABG) and postoperative gain in ABG at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kHz were assessed. Both groups were statically similar in terms of the severity of middle ear pathology and the preoperative hearing levels. Overall, postoperative successful hearing results showed 77.4% of the fascia group and 77.1% of the cartilage group. Mean postoperative gains in ABG were 9.70 dB for the fascia group and 9.78 dB for the cartilage group. These results demonstrate that hearing after cartilage tympanoplasty is comparable to that after fascia tympanoplasty. Although cartilage is the ideal grafting material in problematic cases, it may be used in less severe cases, such as in type I tympanoplasty, without fear of impairing hearing.

  8. Sonographic evaluation of femoral articular cartilage in the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ho; Song, Yeong Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of sonography for the evaluation of osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Ten asymptomatic volunteers and 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent sonographic evaluation. For this, the knee was maintained of full flexion in order to expose the deep portion of femoral condylar cartilage. Both transverse and longitudinal scans were obtained in standardized planes. Sonographic images of the articular cartilages were analyzed in terms of surface sharpness, echogenicity and thickness, along with associated bone changes. Normal cartilages showed a clearly-defined surface, homogeneously low echogenicity and regular thickness. Among 20 patients, the findings for medial and lateral condyles, respectively, were as follows: poorly defined cartilage surface, 16 (80%) and ten (50%); increased echogenicity of cartilage, 17 (85%) and 16 (80%); cartilage thinning, 16 (80%) and 14 (70%) (two medial condyles demonstrated obvious cartilage thickening); the presence of thick subchondral hyperechoic bands, five (25%) and four (20%); the presence of osteophytes, 13 (65%) and 12 (60%). Sonography is a convenient and accurate modality for the evaluation of femoral articular cartilage. In particular, it can be useful for detecting early degenerative cartilaginous change and for studying such change during clinical follow-up. (author)

  9. Alteration of cartilage glycosaminoglycan protein acceptor by somatomedin and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, B S; McNatt, M L; Meador, S; Lee, J A; Hughes, E R; Elders, M J

    1979-02-01

    The effect of somatomedin and cortisol on embryonic chick cartilage in vitro indicates that somatomedin stimulates 35SO4 uptake while cortisol decreases it with no effect on glycosaminoglycan turnover. Xylosyltransferase activity is increased in crude fractions of somatomedin-treated cartilage but decreased in cortisol-treated cartilage. By using a Smith-degraded proteoglycan as an exogenous acceptor, xylosyltransferase activities from both treatments were equivalent, suggesting that the enzyme was not rate limiting. The results of xylosyltransferase assays conducted by mixing enzyme and endogenous acceptor from control, cortisol-treated and somatomedin-treated cartilage, suggest both effects to be at the level of the acceptor protein.

  10. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  11. From gristle to chondrocyte transplantation: treatment of cartilage injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the progress in cartilage repair technology over the decades with an emphasis on cartilage regeneration with cell therapy. The most abundant cartilage is the hyaline cartilage that covers the surface of our joints and, due to avascularity, this tissue is unable to repair itself. The cartilage degeneration seen in osteoarthritis causes patient suffering and is a huge burden to society. The surgical approach to cartilage repair was non-existing until the 1950s when new surgical techniques emerged. The use of cultured cells for cell therapy started as experimental studies in the 1970s that developed over the years to a clinical application in 1994 with the introduction of the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique (ACT). The technology is now spread worldwide and has been further refined by combining arthroscopic techniques with cells cultured on matrix (MACI technology). The non-regenerating hypothesis of cartilage has been revisited and we are now able to demonstrate cell divisions and presence of stem-cell niches in the joint. Furthermore, cartilage derived from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells could be the base for new broader cell treatments for cartilage injuries and the future technology base for prevention and cure of osteoarthritis. PMID:26416680

  12. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  13. [Cartilage reshaping by laser in stomatology and maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, S

    2004-02-01

    The restoration of congenital and traumatic malformations of the head and neck, together with the defects resulting from the trauma of ablative surgery, continue to pose significant problems to surgeons. The post-operative results are not always satisfactory because of the difficulty of shaping the cartilage and because of the tendency of cartilage to return to its original shape. Better understanding of laser-cartilage interaction and the development of a specific instrumentation Lasers (CO2, Nd: YAG, Ho: YAG) has enabled ex situ and in situ cartilage reshaping. A recent clinical study has demonstrated that nondestructive laser irradiation can reshape septal deviations

  14. A peek into the possible future of management of articular cartilage injuries: gene therapy and scaffolds for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hubert T; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Mizuno, Shuichi; Abelow, Stephen; Safran, Marc R

    2006-10-01

    Two rapidly progressing areas of research will likely contribute to cartilage repair procedures in the foreseeable future: gene therapy and synthetic scaffolds. Gene therapy refers to the transfer of new genetic information to cells that contribute to the cartilage repair process. This approach allows for manipulation of cartilage repair at the cellular and molecular level. Scaffolds are the core technology for the next generation of autologous cartilage implantation procedures in which synthetic matrices are used in conjunction with chondrocytes. This approach can be improved further using bioreactor technologies to enhance the production of extracellular matrix proteins by chondrocytes seeded onto a scaffold. The resulting "neo-cartilage implant" matures within the bioreactor, and can then be used to fill cartilage defects.

  15. In-vivo study and histological examination of laser reshaping of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Andrei A.; Nikiforova, G.; Jones, Nicholas

    1999-06-01

    The results of recent study of cartilage reshaping in vivo are reported. The ear cartilage of piglets of 8-12 weeks old have been reshaped in vivo using the radiation of a holmium laser. The stability of the shape and possible side effects have been examined during four months. Histological investigation shown that the healing of irradiated are could accompany by the regeneration of ear cartilage. Finally, elastic type cartilage has been transformed into fibrous cartilage or cartilage of hyaline type.

  16. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutscheson, JD; Aikawa, M

    2016-01-01

    obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin...

  17. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D.B. van de; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.-J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous

  18. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  19. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  20. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  1. Calcification Propensity and Survival among Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, Charlotte A.; de Borst, Martin H.; van den Berg, Else; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Farese, Stefan; Bergmann, Ivo P.; Floege, Juergen; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Goor, Harry; Eisenberger, Ute; Pasch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Calciprotein particle maturation time (T-50) in serum is a novel measure of individual blood calcification propensity. To determine the clinical relevance of T-50 in renal transplantation, baseline serum T-50 was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 699 stable renal transplant recipients and the ass

  2. Calcific left atrium:A rare consequence of endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe; Dattilo; Carmelo; Anfuso; Matteo; Casale; Vincenza; Giugno; Lorenzo; Camarda; Natascia; Laganà; Gianluca; Di; Bella

    2014-01-01

    Usually, cardiac calcifications are observed in aortic and mitral valves, atrio-ventricular plane, mitral annulus, coronary arteries, pericaridium(usually causing constrictive pericarditis) and cardiac masses. Calcifications of atrial walls are unusual findings that can be identified only using imaging with high spatial resolution, such as cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography. We report a case of a 43-year-old patient with no history of heart disease that underwent cardiac evaluation for mild dyspnoea. The echocardiogram showed a calcific aortic valve and a hyper-echogenic lesion located in atrio-ventricular plane. The patient was submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance and to computed tomography imaging to better characterize the localization of mass. The clinical features and location of calcified lesion suggest an infective aetiology causing an endocarditis involving the aortic valve, atrioventricular plane and left atrium. Although we haven’t data to support a definite and clear diagnosis, the clinical features and location of the calcified lesion suggest an infective aetiology causing an endocarditis involving the aortic valve, atrio-ventricular plane and left atrium. The patient was followed for 12 mo both clinically and by electrocardiogram and echocardiography without worsening of clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are ideal methods for identifying and following over time patients with calcific degeneration in the heart.

  3. Low calcification in corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Reef-building coral communities in the Great Barrier Reef—the world's largest coral reef—may now be calcifying at only about half the rate that they did during the 1970s, even though live coral cover may not have changed over the past 40 years, a new study finds. In recent decades, coral reefs around the world, home to large numbers of fish and other marine species, have been threatened by such human activities as pollution, overfishing, global warming, and ocean acidification; the latter affects ambient water chemistry and availability of calcium ions, which are critical for coral communities to calcify, build, and maintain reefs. Comparing data from reef surveys during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s with present-day (2009) measurements of calcification rates in One Tree Island, a coral reef covering 13 square kilometers in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, Silverman et al. show that the total calcification rates (the rate of calcification minus the rate of dissolution) in these coral communities have decreased by 44% over the past 40 years; the decrease appears to stem from a threefold reduction in calcification rates during nighttime.

  4. Intracranial Convexity Lipoma with Massive Calcification: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Park, Dong Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Intracranial lipoma is a rare entity, accounting for less than 0.5% of intracranial tumors, which usually develops in the callosal cisterns. We report a case of lipoma with an unusual location; in the high parietal convexity combined with massive calcification, and no underlying vascular malformation or congenital anomaly.

  5. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.-J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  6. Coronary calcification and risk of cardiovascular disease : an epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAlready in the eighteenth century, calcification of the coronary artery wall was recognized as being part of the atherosclerotic process.1 However, only after the recent development of electron-beam tomography (EBT), an ultrafast CT technique, it became possible to accurately quantify th

  7. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduces coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Bots, M.L.; Atsma, F.; Bartelink, M.L.; Prokop, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Grobbee, D.E.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary vitamin K is thought to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing coronary calcification, but inconsistent results are reported. This may be due to different effects of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone, MK), but few studies included both. Methods We

  8. Severe prostatic calcification after radiation therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W A; Miller, E V; Sullivan, L D; Chapman, W H

    1979-06-01

    Severe symptomatic prostatic calcification was seen in 3 patients who had carcinoma of the prostate treated initially with transurethral resection, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by definitive radiation therapy. This complication is probably preventable if an interval of 6 weeks is allowed between transurethral resection of the prostate and radiation therapy.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL QUANTIFICATION OF AORTIC CALCIFICATION FROM LOW MAGNIFICATION IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Angulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic and medial vascular calcifications are frequent in chronic renal failure patiens and predict their increased cardiovascular mortality. Experimental models for mice have been recently developed in order to study these disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the morphological image processing algorithms developed for the semi-automated measurement of calcification from sections of aorta stained using von Kossa's silver nitrate procedure and acquired at low magnification power (x 2.5 on colour images. The approach is separated into two sequential phases. First, the segmentation is aimed to extract the calcification structures and on the other hand to demarcate the region of the atherosclerotic lesion within the tissue. The segmentation yields the image data which is the input to the second phase, the quantification. Calcified structures are measured inside and outside the lesion using a granulometric curve which allows the calculation of statistical parameters of size. The same operator computes the shape of the lesion. The relative proportion of the area of calcification is also calculated respectively for the atherosclerotic lesion area and the area outside such lesions. In conclusion, the here developed method allows quantification of vascular calcified deposits in mouse aorta. This method will be useful for the quantitative assessment of pathological vascular changes in animals and man.

  10. Change in abdominal obesity and risk of coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabour, S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Prokop, M.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Bots, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prospective follow-up study was conducted to examine the relationship between 9 year change in abdominal obesity and risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS: Data on coronary risk factors for 573 postmenopausal women were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow

  11. A spatial model of calcification in scleractinian corals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaandorp, J.A.; Cronemberger, C.; Huisman, L.; Matranga, V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcification in scleractinian corals is a highly complex process depending on a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological parameters that interact on a molecular, cellular, organismal and ecosystem level. Although many of these individual parameters have been identified during recent years,

  12. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  13. Calcific Tendinosis: A Potential Mimicker of Malignancy on PET

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Morrison, William; Zoga, Adam; Bergin, Diane; Gopez, Angela; Fayad, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53 year old female with breast cancer and elevated glucose activity at the left greater trochanter on PET imaging. Further imaging with CT and MRI showed that this focus of increased FDG activity on PET was calcific tendinosis of the gluteus medius tendon, which mimicked metastatic disease in this patient.

  14. Management of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis guided by ultrasound elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Huai Lin

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasound elastography is a useful modality for evaluation of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis, and as an aid to guide management. If elastography shows the calcified area as a non-dark pattern, then fine-needle aspiration should be performed.

  15. Breast Arterial Calcifications and Heart Disease Risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging of vascular calcification is increasingly used for cardiovascular screening purposes in asymptomatic patients. Coronary and aortic calcium deposits in the vascular wall have been shown to be related to atherosclerotic plaque burden. New imaging techniques with electron beam computed tomograp

  16. A preliminary study of periodontitis and vascular calcification compound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGYun; DENGJing; PanKe-qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective This experiment is desired to establish a compound model of chronic periodontitis and vascular calcification,so as to study the relation of periodontal and vascular calcification.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into:control group(group C),periodontitis group(group CP),vascular calcification group(group VDN),compound group (group CP+VDN).Every groups accepted the corresponding manages to establish the animal model.Eight weeks later,al the rats were sacrificed and the fol owing items were observed:inflam-matory factor in serum were tested,Hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE)staining of vascular tissue were taken to test.Results Through detection of periodontal tissue,serum and vascular tissue,an-imal models were successful.Histopathologic observation revealed:obvious inflammation of periodontal tissue was obversed in group CP and CP+VDN.The red Mineralized nodules deposition in group VDN and CP+VDN were higher than in group C and CP(P<0.05)by HE staining,and that in group CP+VDN was significantly higher than in group VDN(P<0.05);Animals in group CP+VDN showed higher level of IL-1 in serum than that in group CP,VDN and C.Conclusion This study has demonstrated that periodontitis have some promoting ef ect on vascular cal-cification.

  17. A new cause of curvilinear renal calcification: calcified hydrocalycosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atakan, Irfan Hueseyin; Pekindil, Goekhan; Alagoel, Buelent; Inci, Osman

    2000-10-01

    Although many causes of curvilinear renal calcifications have been described, calcified hydrocalycosis mimicking hydatid cyst has not previously been reported. We report a case of hydrocalycosis which was appeared as a curvilinear calcified cystic lesion resulted from staghorn calculus associated with xanthogranolomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) on intravenous pyelography (IVU) and computed tomography (CT)

  18. The identification of CD163 expressing phagocytic chondrocytes in joint cartilage and its novel scavenger role in cartilage degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation. METHODS: Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163(+ chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated. RESULTS: In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P0.05. CD163(+ chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II(+ chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163(+ chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (P<0.05. Mid-zone distribution of CD163(+ cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a

  19. The identification of CD163 expressing phagocytic chondrocytes in joint cartilage and its novel scavenger role in cartilage degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Mian; Wei, Yuying; Wu, Yaoping; Qiu, Zhong Ying; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yunxin; Hu, Jintao; Zhu, Han; Niu, Li-Na; Cao, Xu; Yang, Kun; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation. Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163(+) chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated. In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P0.05). CD163(+) chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163(+) chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II(+) chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163(+) chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II(+) chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (PCD163(+) cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II(+) chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both PCD163(+) chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a role in eliminating degraded tissues. Targeting these cells provides a new strategy for the treatment of arthritis.

  20. Evidence for effectiveness of Extracorporal Shock-Wave Therapy (ESWT) to treat calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Gebremariam, Lukas; van der Sande, Renske; Hay, Elaine M; Koes, Bart W

    2011-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) is suggested as a treatment alternative for calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis (RC-tendinosis), which may decrease the need for surgery. In this study we assessed the evidence for effectiveness of ESWT for these disorders. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Pedro, and Cinahl were searched for relevant systematic reviews and RCTs. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Seventeen RCTs (11 calcific, 6 non-calcific) were included. For calcific RC-tendinosis, strong evidence was found for effectiveness in favour of high-ESWT versus low-ESWT in short-term. Moderate evidence was found in favour of high-ESWT versus placebo in short-, mid- and long-term and versus low-ESWT in mid- and long-term. Moreover, high-ESWT was more effective (moderate evidence) with focus on calcific deposit versus focus on tuberculum major in short- and long-term. RSWT was more effective (moderate evidence) than placebo in mid-term. For non-calcific RC-tendinosis, no strong or moderate evidence was found in favour of low-, mid- or high-ESWT versus placebo, each other, or other treatments. This review shows that only high-ESWT is effective for treating calcific RC-tendinosis. No evidence was found for the effectiveness of ESWT to treat non-calcific RC-tendinosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of growth factors and glucosamine on porcine mandibular condylar cartilage cells and hyaline cartilage cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Detamore, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage is a distinct cartilage that has both fibrocartilaginous and hyaline-like character, with a thin proliferative zone that separates the fibrocartilaginous fibrous zone at the surface from the hyaline-like mature and hypertrophic zones below. In this study, we compared the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and glucosamine sulphate on porcine TMJ condylar cartilage and ankle cartilage cells in monolayer culture. In general, TMJ condylar cartilage cells proliferated faster than ankle cartilage cells, while ankle cells produced significantly greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen than TMJ condylar cartilage cells. IGF-I and bFGF were potent stimulators of TMJ cell proliferation, while no signals statistically outperformed controls for ankle cell proliferation. IGF-I was the most effective signal for GAG production with ankle cells, and the most potent upregulator of collagen synthesis for both cell types. Glucosamine sulphate promoted cell proliferation and biosynthesis at specific concentrations and outperformed growth factors in certain instances. In conclusion, hyaline cartilage cells had lower cell numbers and superior biosynthesis compared to TMJ condylar cartilage cells, and we have found IGF-I at 100 ng/mL and glucosamine sulphate at 100 microg/mL to be the most effective signals for these cells under the prescribed conditions.

  2. Cartilage Regeneration by Chondrogenic Induced Adult Stem Cells in Osteoarthritic Sheep Model: e98770

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinedu C Ude; Shamsul B Sulaiman; Ng Min-Hwei; Chen Hui-Cheng; Johan Ahmad; Norhamdan M Yahaya; Aminuddin B Saim; Ruszymah B H Idrus

    2014-01-01

    ...), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model...

  3. Molecular footprinting of skeletal tissues in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis identifies conserved and derived features of vertebrate calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eEnault

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan skeletal tissues, remain scarce. Here, based on specific combinations of expression patterns of the Col1a1, Col1a2 and Col2a1 fibrillar collagen genes, we compare the molecular footprint of endoskeletal elements from the chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula and the tetrapod Xenopus tropicalis. We find that, depending on the anatomical location, Scyliorhinus skeletal calcification is associated to cell types expressing different subsets of fibrillar collagen genes, such as high levels of Col1a1 and Col1a2 in the neural arches, high levels of Col2a1 in the tesserae, or associated to a drastic Col2a1 downregulation in the centrum. We detect low Col2a1 levels in Xenopus osteoblasts, thereby revealing that the osteoblastic expression of this gene was significantly reduced in the tetrapod lineage. Finally, we uncover a striking parallel, from a molecular and histological perspective, between the vertebral cartilage calcification of both species and discuss the evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification.

  4. Coral Calcification Across a Natural Gradient in Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. L.; Brainard, R. E.; Young, C.; Shamberger, K. E.; McCorkle, D. C.; Feely, R. A.; Mcleod, E.; Cantin, N.; Rose, K.; Lohmann, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification comes from laboratory manipulation experiments in which corals are reared under a range of seawater pH and aragonite saturation states (μar) equivalent to those projected for the next hundred years. In general, experiments show a consistently negative impact of acidification on coral calcification, leading to predictions of mass coral reef extinctions by dissolution as natural rates of carbonate erosion exceed the rates at which corals and other reef calcifiers can replace it. The tropical oceans provide a natural laboratory within which to test hypotheses about the longer term impact and adaptive potential of corals to acidification of the reef environment. Here we report results of a study in which 3-D CT scan and imaging techniques were used to quantify annual rates of calcification by conspecifics at 12 reefs sites spanning a natural gradient in ocean acidification. In situ μar calculated from alkalinity and DIC measurements of reef seawater ranged from less than 2.7 on an eastern Pacific Reef to greater than 4.0 in the central Red Sea. No correlation between μar and calcification was observed across this range. Corals living on low μar reefs appear to be calcifying as fast, sometimes faster than conspecifics living on high μar reefs. We used total lipid and tissue thickness to index the energetic status of colonies collected at each of our study sites. Our results support the hypothesis that energetics plays a key role in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Indeed, the true impact of acidification on coral reefs will likely be felt as temperatures rise and the ocean becomes more stratified, depleting coral energetic reserves through bleaching and reduced nutrient delivery to oceanic reefs.

  5. A gender bias in the calcification response to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, M.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of nutrients and pCO2 on zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate colonies of the temperate scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786) were investigated at two different temperatures (16 °C and 24 °C). Corals exposed to elevated pCO2 tended to have lower relative calcification rates, as estimated from changes in buoyant weights. No nutrient effect was observed. At 16 °C, gamete release was not observed, and no gender differences in calcification rate were observed. However, corals grown at 24 °C spawned repeatedly and male and female corals exhibited two different growth rate patterns. Female corals grown at 24 °C and exposed to CO2 had calcification rates 39 % lower than females grown at ambient CO2, while males showed only a 5 % decline in calcification under elevated CO2. At 16 °C, female and male corals showed similar reductions in calcification rates in response to elevated CO2 (15 % and 19 % respectively). At 24 °C, corals spawned repeatedly, while no spawning was observed at 16 °C. The increased sensitivity of females to elevated pCO2 may reflect a greater investment of energy in reproduction (egg production) relative to males (sperm production). These results suggest that both gender and spawning are important factors in determining the sensitivity of corals to ocean acidification and their inclusion in future research may be critical to predicting how the population structures of marine calcifiers will change in response to ocean acidification.

  6. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, E. J.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S. J.; Starczak, V. R.; Zicht, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the existence of coral reefs by slowing the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production of framework-building corals thus reducing the amount of CaCO3 the reef can produce to counteract natural dissolution. Some evidence exists to suggest that elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients can reduce the impact of OA on coral calcification. Here, we investigated the potential for enhanced energetic status of juvenile corals, achieved via heterotrophic feeding, to modulate the negative impact of OA on calcification. Larvae of the common Atlantic golf ball coral, Favia fragum, were collected and reared for 3 weeks under ambient (421 μatm) or significantly elevated (1,311 μatm) CO2 conditions. The metamorphosed, zooxanthellate spat were either fed brine shrimp (i.e., received nutrition from photosynthesis plus heterotrophy) or not fed (i.e., primarily autotrophic). Regardless of CO2 condition, the skeletons of fed corals exhibited accelerated development of septal cycles and were larger than those of unfed corals. At each CO2 level, fed corals accreted more CaCO3 than unfed corals, and fed corals reared under 1,311 μatm CO2 accreted as much CaCO3 as unfed corals reared under ambient CO2. However, feeding did not alter the sensitivity of calcification to increased CO2; ∆ calcification/∆Ω was comparable for fed and unfed corals. Our results suggest that calcification rates of nutritionally replete juvenile corals will decline as OA intensifies over the course of this century. Critically, however, such corals could maintain higher rates of skeletal growth and CaCO3 production under OA than those in nutritionally limited environments.

  7. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jutta [Bethanien Krankenhaus, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Luboldt, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Wolfram; Jacobi, Volkmar; Herzog, Christopher; Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    To investigate clinical (pain, mobility) and radiological (resolution of calcium deposits) efficacy of different energy levels of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. There were 90 study subjects with radiographically verified calcific tendinitis of one shoulder, mean age 52{+-}6 years (range 29 - 65 years; females:males=55:35), all of whom had had symptoms for at least 6 months and substantial restriction of shoulder mobility and pain that required taking anti-inflammatory drugs. Calcium deposits were of type I or type II (clearly circumscribed and dense) and ranged from 1 cm to 3 cm in diameter. Subjects were divided into three groups to receive ESWT at one of two energy levels (E{sub 1}=0.15 mJ/mm{sup 2}, E{sub 2}=0.44 mJ/mm{sup 2}) or sham treatment. Treatment was given at 6 weekly intervals until symptoms resolved, five treatments had been given or the subject dropped out of the programme. All subjects in groups E{sub 1} and E{sub 2} completed the programme. Those in group E{sub 1} had significantly less pain during treatment but more treatments than those in group E{sub 2}, and at 6 month follow-up had residual calcification and recurrence of pain (87%). Subjects in group E{sub 2} had no residual calcification or recurrence of pain. Sham treatment had no effect. There were no side effects except a small number of haematomas (2 in E{sub 1}, 6 in E{sub 2}; maximum size 2 cm). ESWT in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder is very effective. It does not have significant side effects at an energy level of E=0.44 mJ/mm{sup 2}, which can therefore be recommended. (orig.)

  8. The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-03-01

    Seventeen vitamin K-dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K-dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality, whereas circulating total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was associated with the extent of prevalent arterial calcification. Vitamin K intervention studies have shown that MGP carboxylation can be increased dose dependently, but thus far only 1 study with clinical endpoints has been completed. This study showed maintenance of vascular elasticity during a 3-y supplementation period, with a parallel 12% loss of elasticity in the placebo group. More studies, both in healthy subjects and in patients at risk

  9. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine: imaging findings and clinical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Mochida, J.; Toh, E. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Saito, Ikuo; Matui, Sizuka [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odawara Hospital, Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, Sakawa, Odawara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Ligamentous calcification of the cervical spine has been reported in the yellow ligament, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and interspinous ligament. Calcification in the upper cervical spine is rare, although some cases with calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas have been reported. Two patients with calcification of the alar ligament with an unusual clinical presentation and course are described. Examination by tomography and computed tomography (CT) showed calcification of the alar ligament and the transverse ligament of the atlas. CT documented decreased calcification as symptoms resolved. There may be a role for CT in the search for calcifications in the upper cervical spine in patients presenting with neck pain and pharyngodynia if radiographs are normal. (orig.)

  10. Differential Effects of Ocean Acidification on Coral Calcification: Insights from Geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, M.; Decarlo, T. M.; Venn, A.; Tambutte, E.; Gaetani, G. A.; Tambutte, S.; Allemand, D.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Although ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying animals due to the formation of CaCO3 becoming less favorable, experimental evidence is mixed. Corals have received considerable attention in this regard; laboratory culture experiments show there to be a wide array of calcification responses to acidification. Here we will show how relationships for the incorporation of various trace elements and boron isotopes into synthetic aragonite can be used to reconstruct carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification. In turn the chemistry at the site of calcification can be determined under different ocean acidification scenarios and differences in the chemistry at the site of calcification linked to different calcification responses to acidification. Importantly we will show that the pH of the calcifying fluid alone is insufficient to estimate calcification responses, thus a multi-proxy approach using multiple trace elements and isotopes is required to understand how the site of calcification is affected by ocean acidification.

  11. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  12. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  13. Isolated splenic calcifications in two patients with portal hypertension; Calcificaciones esplenicas aisladas en dos pacientes con hipertension portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixandre, A.; Cugat, A. [Hospital de la Malvarrosa. Valencia (Spain); Ruiz, A.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hosptial Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain); Tardaguila, F. [Clinica Provisa. Vigo (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Calcification of the walls of the veins of the portal hypertension (PHT) (1-0), is uncommon. Calcification of the intra splenic vessels is exceptional. We report two cases of isolated calcification of intra splenic vessels, without calcification of the splenoportal venous axis, in patients with liver cirrhosis and PHT. The calcification was not clear. Computed tomography identified the calcification as linear tubular, branched structures located in the wall of intra splenic vessels. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed signs of cirrhosis and PHT but did not show the splenic classifications because of technical limitations. The cause of these calcifications was sustained PHT due to chronic liver disease. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. 先天性小耳畸形行自体肋软骨雕刻植入术的围术期护理%Perioperative nursing care for patients with congenital microtia treated with carved autogenous costal cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文静; 谭君; 蔡敏

    2010-01-01

    对12例先天性小耳畸形患者应用自体肋软骨做耳支架及乳突区皮肤覆盖分二期行全耳廓再造.术后随访6~18个月,再造耳廓皮瓣色泽红润,移植软骨支架无软化、吸收、变形,再造耳廓位置、形态、大小和对侧相似;拥有良好的颅耳角,患者对再造耳满意.提出术前做好患者及家属的心理护理,术后加强生命体征和皮瓣的观察,对保障术耳外形满意有重要作用.

  15. The role of mammographic calcification in the neoadjuvant therapy of breast cancer imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-jie; Chen, Canming; Gu, Yajia; Di, Genhong; Wu, Jiong; Liu, Guangyu; Shao, ZhiMin

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the patterns of mammographically detected calcifications before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to determine their value for efficacy evaluation and surgical decision making. 187 patients with malignant mammographic calcifications were followed to record the appearances and changes in the calcifications and to analyze their responses to NACT. Patients with calcifications had higher rates of hormonal receptor (HR) positive tumors (74.3% versus 64.6%) and HER2 positive tumors (51.3% versus 33.4%, p = 0.004) and a similar pathologic complete response (pCR) rate compared to patients without calcifications (35.4% versus 29.8%). After NACT, the range of calcification decreased in 40% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 52.5%; the calcification density decreased in 15% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 77.5%; none of these change patterns were related to tumor response rate. No significant correlation was observed between the calcification appearance (morphology, distribution, range, diameter or density) and tumor subtypes or pCR rates. Among patients with malignant calcifications, 54 showed calcifications alone, 40 occurred with an architectural distortion (AD) and 93 with a mass. Calcifications were observed inside the tumor in 44% of patients and outside in 56%, with similar pCR rates and patterns of change. Calcification appearance did not clearly change after NACT, and calcification patterns were not related to pCR rate, suggesting that mammogram may not accurate to evaluate tumor response changes. Microcalcifications visible after NACT is essential for determining the extent of excision, patients with calcifications that occurred outside of the mass still had the opportunity for breast conservation.

  16. The role of mammographic calcification in the neoadjuvant therapy of breast cancer imaging evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie Li

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Investigate the patterns of mammographically detected calcifications before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT to determine their value for efficacy evaluation and surgical decision making. METHODS: 187 patients with malignant mammographic calcifications were followed to record the appearances and changes in the calcifications and to analyze their responses to NACT. RESULTS: Patients with calcifications had higher rates of hormonal receptor (HR positive tumors (74.3% versus 64.6% and HER2 positive tumors (51.3% versus 33.4%, p = 0.004 and a similar pathologic complete response (pCR rate compared to patients without calcifications (35.4% versus 29.8%. After NACT, the range of calcification decreased in 40% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 52.5%; the calcification density decreased in 15% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 77.5%; none of these change patterns were related to tumor response rate. No significant correlation was observed between the calcification appearance (morphology, distribution, range, diameter or density and tumor subtypes or pCR rates. Among patients with malignant calcifications, 54 showed calcifications alone, 40 occurred with an architectural distortion (AD and 93 with a mass. Calcifications were observed inside the tumor in 44% of patients and outside in 56%, with similar pCR rates and patterns of change. CONCLUSIONS: Calcification appearance did not clearly change after NACT, and calcification patterns were not related to pCR rate, suggesting that mammogram may not accurate to evaluate tumor response changes. Microcalcifications visible after NACT is essential for determining the extent of excision, patients with calcifications that occurred outside of the mass still had the opportunity for breast conservation.

  17. Unusual interleukin-1 and -6 expression in fetal cartilage is associated with placental abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klepacz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Unusual expression of interleukin-1alpha, -1beta and -6 was previously found in the epiphyseal cartilage of rat fetuses prenatally exposed to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, i.e., ibuprofen, piroxicam, tolmetin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (DFU. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of placenta in such phenomenon. Morphology of the organ, thickness of basal and labyrinth layer, immunoexpression of COX isoenzymes were examined, and confronted with maternal biochemical data and fetal developmental parameters. Higher maternal urea level, as well as lower placental weight and labyrinth thickness were found in the group of fetuses who revealed expression of genes coded the selected interleukins, when compared with the xenobiotic-exposed pups without the selected genes expression and untreated control. A significant correlation between placental weight and maternal total protein or urea level was revealed. Histological changes like inflammatory infiltration and calcification were observed sporadically. Location and intensity of COX-1 staining was similar in all cases. However, more intense COX-2 staining for majority of cells of the basal zone and in dispersed giant cells of the labyrinth was found in inflamed organs. It could be concluded that abnormal expression of the selected interleukins is associated with low placental weight and decrease of its thickness, especially labyrinth zone, as well as with high maternal urea level.

  18. THIONIN STAINING OF PARAFFIN AND PLASTIC EMBEDDED SECTIONS OF CARTILAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRA, SK; DRUKKER, J; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Welsch, Goetz H; Potter, Hollis G

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries.

  20. The Application of Polysaccharide Biocomposites to Repair Cartilage Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to own nature of articular cartilage, it almost has no self-healing ability once damaged. Despite lots of restore technologies having been raised in the past decades, no repair technology has smoothly substituted for damaged cartilage using regenerated cartilage tissue. The approach of tissue engineering opens a door to successfully repairing articular cartilage defects. For instance, grafting of isolated chondrocytes has huge clinical potential for restoration of cartilage tissue and cure of chondral injury. In this paper, SD rats are used as subjects in the experiments, and they are classified into three groups: natural repair (group A, hyaluronic acid repair (group B, and polysaccharide biocomposites repair (hyaluronic acid hydrogel containing chondrocytes, group C. Through the observation of effects of repairing articular cartilage defects, we concluded that cartilage repair effect of polysaccharide biocomposites was the best at every time point, and then the second best was hyaluronic acid repair; both of them were better than natural repair. Polysaccharide biocomposites have good biodegradability and high histocompatibility and promote chondrocytes survival, reproduction, and spliting. Moreover, polysaccharide biocomposites could not only provide the porous network structure but also carry chondrocytes. Consequently hyaluronic acid-based polysaccharide biocomposites are considered to be an ideal biological material for repairing articular cartilage.

  1. THIONIN STAINING OF PARAFFIN AND PLASTIC EMBEDDED SECTIONS OF CARTILAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRA, SK; DRUKKER, J; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  2. Particulate cartilage under bioreactor-induced compression and shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ning; Grad, Sibylle; Stoddart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to explore the effect of varying in vitro culture conditions on general chondrogenesis of minced cartilage (MC) fragments. METHODS: Minced, fibrin-associated, bovine articular cartilage fragments were cultured in vitro within polyurethane scaffold rings. Constructs were...

  3. Repair of osteochondral defects with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R E; Ilten-Kirby, B M; Dunkelman, N S; Symons, K T; Rekettye, L M; Willoughby, J; Ratcliffe, A

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants on healing of osteochondral defects. Rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer, then seeded onto biodegradable, three-dimensional polyglycolic acid meshes. Cartilage constructs were cultured hydrodynamically to yield tissue with relatively more (mature) or less (immature) hyalinelike cartilage, as compared with adult rabbit articular cartilage. Osteochondral defects in the patellar grooves of both stifle joints either were left untreated or implanted with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage. Histologic samples from in and around the defect sites were examined 3, 6, 9, and 12, and 24 months after surgery. By 9 months after surgery, defects sites treated with cartilage implants contained significantly greater amounts of hyalinelike cartilage with high levels of proteoglycan, and had a smooth, nonfibrillated articular surface as compared to untreated defects. In contrast, the repair tissue formed in untreated defects had fibrillated articular surfaces, significant amounts of fibrocartilage, and negligible proteoglycan. These differences between treated and untreated defects persisted through 24 months after surgery. The results of this study suggest that the treatment of osteochondral lesions with allogenic tissue engineered cartilage implants may lead to superior repair tissue than that found in untreated osteochondral lesions.

  4. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein specific antibodies are pathogenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Hui; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva; Pramhed, Anna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a major non-collagenous component of cartilage. Earlier, we developed a new mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis using COMP. This study was undertaken to investigate the epitope specificity and immunopathogenicity of COMP...

  5. A Novel Approach to Stimulate Cartilage Repair: Targeting Collagen Turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOA is a complex disease of which the ethiopathology is not completely known and therapies to repair cartilage are still under investigation. The increase of collagen type II expression in osteoarthritic cartilage suggests an activated repair mechanism that is however ineffective in

  6. Combined role of type IX collagen and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in cartilage matrix assembly: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein counteracts type IX collagen-induced limitation of cartilage collagen fibril growth in mouse chondrocyte cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumbach, K.; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Groot, J. de; Paulsson, M.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Zaucke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Defects in the assembly and composition of cartilage extracellular matrix are likely to result in impaired matrix integrity and increased susceptibility to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the functional interaction of the collagen fibril-associated proteins

  7. Growth factor releasing scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohier, Jerome

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century, life expectancy has increased at a rapid pace resulting in an increase of articular cartilage disorders. To solve this problem, extensive research is currently performed using tissue engineering approaches. Cartilage tissue engineering aims to reconstruct this tissue both stru

  8. Assessment of hyaline cartilage matrix composition using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukuru, Uday P; McGoverin, Cushla M; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are characteristic of injury or disease in cartilage tissue. Various imaging modalities and biochemical techniques have been used to assess the changes in cartilage tissue but lack adequate sensitivity, or in the case of biochemical techniques, result in destruction of the sample. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has shown promise for the study of cartilage composition. In the current study NIR spectroscopy was used to identify the contributions of individual components of cartilage in the NIR spectra by assessment of the major cartilage components, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, in pure component mixtures. The NIR spectra were obtained using homogenous pellets made by dilution with potassium bromide. A partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated to predict composition in bovine cartilage samples. Characteristic absorbance peaks between 4000 and 5000 cm(-1) could be attributed to components of cartilage, i.e. collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Prediction of the amount of collagen and chondroitin sulfate in tissues was possible within 8% (w/dw) of values obtained by gold standard biochemical assessment. These results support the use of NIR spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo applications to assess matrix composition of cartilage tissues, especially when tissue destruction should be avoided. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Integrative studies on cartilage tissue engineering and joint homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of cartilage injury to the joint is often larger than the initial clinical symptoms suggest. Through an alteration in joint homeostasis and biomechanical loading, cartilage lesions may accelerate osteoarthritis onset. Although good clinical results are achieved in patients treated by the

  10. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  11. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THYROID CARTILAGES IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini M.Joshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphometrical evaluation of the larynx has always been interesting for both morphologists and the physicians. A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilages is important Objective: Objective of the present study was to collect exact and reliable morphometric data of thyroid cartilage in adult human larynx of regional population. Methods: The totals of 50 thyroid cartilage specimens were studied. The cartilages were preserved in 5% formalin. The measurements were taken with the help of Digital Vernier Caliper. The cartilages were weighed on Single pan electronic balance. For each of the parameters, the mean, standard deviation (S.D. and range was calculated. Results: Mean depth of superior thyroid notch was 9.7± 3.36 mm. Asymmetry between the length of superior horn of thyroid cartilages in left and right sides can be seen, but difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. It is observed that inner thyroid angle varies from 55 to 1040 and outer thyroid angle varies from 53 to 990. In present study mean weight of thyroid cartilage was 6.70±1.55 grams. Conclusions: A fair amount of intersubject variability in the dimensions was observed. Bilateral asymmetry, though present in majority of specimens, was insignificant. Various dimensions of thyroid cartilages are smaller as compared to the western population.

  12. Combined role of type IX collagen and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in cartilage matrix assembly: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein counteracts type IX collagen-induced limitation of cartilage collagen fibril growth in mouse chondrocyte cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumbach, K.; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Groot, J. de; Paulsson, M.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Zaucke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Defects in the assembly and composition of cartilage extracellular matrix are likely to result in impaired matrix integrity and increased susceptibility to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the functional interaction of the collagen fibril-associated proteins

  13. A Novel Approach to Stimulate Cartilage Repair: Targeting Collagen Turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOA is a complex disease of which the ethiopathology is not completely known and therapies to repair cartilage are still under investigation. The increase of collagen type II expression in osteoarthritic cartilage suggests an activated repair mechanism that is however ineffective in repai

  14. Injectable hydrogels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Zeng, Xin; Ma, Chao; Yi, Huan; Ali, Zeeshan; Mou, Xianbo; Li, Song; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering has become a promising strategy for repairing damaged cartilage and bone tissue. Among the scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications, injectable hydrogels have demonstrated great potential for use as three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds in cartilage and bone tissue engineering, owing to their high water content, similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), porous framework for cell transplantation and proliferation, minimal invasive properties, and ability to match irregular defects. In this review, we describe the selection of appropriate biomaterials and fabrication methods to prepare novel injectable hydrogels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering. In addition, the biology of cartilage and the bony ECM is also summarized. Finally, future perspectives for injectable hydrogels in cartilage and bone tissue engineering are discussed. PMID:28584674

  15. A metrical study of laryngeal cartilages and their ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1980-01-01

    This study was carried out on the laryngeal cartilages of 150 postmortem/dissection room specimens of adult age groups, ranging from 16 to 55 years in both the sexes. The age, height, sex and profession (in known postmortem cases) were noted. Various measurements of the laryngeal cartilages were taken from the inner surface. From the present study we can conclude that the various measurements in the laryngeal cartilages were more marked in male than the female except of the thyroid angle and the length of the superior horn. The thyroid angle on an average in male was 78 degrees +/- 10 degrees and in female 106 degrees +/- 14 degrees. There was no correlation with total body height. The presence of cuneiform cartilage, cartilago-triticea and corniculate cartilage is not constant, they were seen more commonly in females than in males.

  16. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of МВМ in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  17. Epiphyseal and Physeal Cartilage: Normal Gadolinium-enhanced MR Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the normal appearance of epiphyseal and physeal cartilage on Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR imaging. The appearance and enhancement ratios of 20 proximal and distal femoral epiphyses in 10 normal piglets were analyzed on Gd-enhanced MR images. The correlation of the MR imaging appearance with corresponding histological findings of immature epiphyses was examined. Our results showed that Gd-enhanced MRI could differentiate the differences in enhancement between physeal and epiphyseal cartilage and show vascular canals within the epiphyseal cartilage. Enhanced ratios in the physeal were greater than those in the epiphyseal cartilage (P<0.005). It is concluded that Gd-enhanced MR imaging reveals epiphyseal vascular canals and shows difference in enhancement of physeal and epiphyseal cartilage.

  18. Reconstituição experimental da parede torácica de gatos com implante heterógeno de cartilagem auricular conservada em glicerina a 98% Experimental reconstitution of the cat's thoracic wall with dog conchal cartilage implant preserved in 98% glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josaine Cristina da Silva Rappeti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar o implante de cartilagem auricular heteróloga conservada em glicerina a 98% como alternativa para reparar defeitos na parede torácica em felinos, foram estudados doze animais adultos, sendo distribuídos em dois grupos GI e GII, e avaliados após 60 dias de pós-operatório. Todos os animais foram submetidos à ressecção costal na porção média do tórax abrangendo a 7ª, 8ª e 9ª costelas e posterior implante de cartilagem conchal heteróloga conservada em glicerina a 98%. No GI, foi preservada a musculatura adjacente, já no GII, a musculatura foi retirada. Os animais foram avaliados clinicamente no pós-operatório e, ao final do período, submetidos à eutanásia e necropsia para avaliação macroscópica e microscópica da região do implante. Observou-se proliferação de tecido fibrovascular neovascularizado sobre o implante, com aderência pulmonar e diafragmática em algumas das unidades experimentais. O implante de cartilagem heteróloga conservado em glicerina a 98% pode ser utilizado para reconstrução de parede costal cujo defeito abranja o espaço de parte de três costelas. O implante em 60 dias é substituído por tecido cicatricial, sem apresentar sinais clínicos de rejeição.Twelve adult cats were divided in groups GI and GII with the objective of testing a dog auricular cartilage implant conserved in 98% glycerin as an alternative to repair thoracic wall defects. All animals were submitted to a resection of the medial portion of the thorax by removal of the 7th, 8th and 9th ribs and posterior cartilage implantation. GI had the adjacent musculature preserved and in GII cat's had it removed. The animals were clinically evaluated in the post operative period and after sixty days submitted to euthanasia for microscopic evaluation of the implanted local. Proliferation of granulation tissue and neomorph over the implant was observed in all animals and some had lung and diaphragm adherence. The

  19. Special pattern of endochondral ossification in human laryngeal cartilages: X-ray and light-microscopic studies on thyroid cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Horst; Schicht, Martin; Sel, Saadettin; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2014-04-01

    Endochondral ossification is a process that also occurs in the skeleton of the larynx. Differences in the ossification mechanism in comparison to growth plates are not understood until now. To get deeper insights into this process, human thyroid cartilage was investigated by the use of X-rays and a series of light-microscopic stainings. A statistical analysis of mineralization was done by scanning areas of mineralized cartilage and of ossification. We detected a special mode of endochondral ossification which differs from the processes in growth plates. Thyroid cartilage ossifies very slowly and in a gender-specific manner. Compared with age-matched women, bone formation in thyroid cartilage of men is significantly higher in the age group 41-60 years. Endochondral ossification is prepared by internal changes of extracellular matrix leading to areas of asbestoid fibers with ingrowing cartilage canals. In contrast to growth plates, bone is deposited on large areas of mineralized cartilage, which appear at the rims of cartilage canals. Furthermore, primary parallel fibered bone was observed which was deposited on woven bone. The predominant bone type is cancellous bone with trabeculae, whereas compact bone with Haversian systems was seldom found. Trabeculae contain a great number of reversal and arresting lines meaning that the former were often reconstructed and that bone formation was arrested and resumed again with advancing age. It is hypothesized that throughout life trabeculae of ossified thyroid cartilage undergo adaptation to different loads due to the use of voice.

  20. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  1. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  2. Composite scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutos, Franklin T; Guilak, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering remains a promising therapeutic strategy for the repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues. Previous approaches have typically focused on combining cells and bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines and DNA fragments) with a biomaterial scaffold that functions as a template to control the geometry of the newly formed tissue, while facilitating the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of embedded cells. Biomaterial scaffolds also play a crucial role in determining the functional properties of engineered tissues, including biomechanical characteristics such as inhomogeneity, anisotropy, nonlinearity or viscoelasticity. While single-phase, homogeneous materials have been used extensively to create numerous types of tissue constructs, there continue to be significant challenges in the development of scaffolds that can provide the functional properties of load-bearing tissues such as articular cartilage. In an attempt to create more complex scaffolds that promote the regeneration of functional engineered tissues, composite scaffolds comprising two or more distinct materials have been developed. This paper reviews various studies on the development and testing of composite scaffolds for the tissue engineering of articular cartilage, using techniques such as embedded fibers and textiles for reinforcement, embedded solid structures, multi-layered designs, or three-dimensionally woven composite materials. In many cases, the use of composite scaffolds can provide unique biomechanical and biological properties for the development of functional tissue engineering scaffolds.

  3. Low Florida coral calcification rates in the Plio-Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, Thomas C.; Reuter, Markus; Krüger, Stefan; Klaus, James S.; Helmle, Kevin; Lough, Janice M.

    2016-08-01

    In geological outcrops and drill cores from reef frameworks, the skeletons of scleractinian corals are usually leached and more or less completely transformed into sparry calcite because the highly porous skeletons formed of metastable aragonite (CaCO3) undergo rapid diagenetic alteration. Upon alteration, ghost structures of the distinct annual growth bands often allow for reconstructions of annual extension ( = growth) rates, but information on skeletal density needed for reconstructions of calcification rates is invariably lost. This report presents the bulk density, extension rates and calcification rates of fossil reef corals which underwent minor diagenetic alteration only. The corals derive from unlithified shallow water carbonates of the Florida platform (south-eastern USA), which formed during four interglacial sea level highstands dated approximately 3.2, 2.9, 1.8, and 1.2 Ma in the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. With regard to the preservation, the coral skeletons display smooth growth surfaces with minor volumes of marine aragonite cement within intra-skeletal porosity. Within the skeletal structures, voids are commonly present along centres of calcification which lack secondary cements. Mean extension rates were 0.44 ± 0.19 cm yr-1 (range 0.16 to 0.86 cm yr-1), mean bulk density was 0.96 ± 0.36 g cm-3 (range 0.55 to 1.83 g cm-3) and calcification rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.82 g cm-2 yr-1 (mean 0.38 ± 0.16 g cm-2 yr-1), values which are 50 % of modern shallow-water reef corals. To understand the possible mechanisms behind these low calcification rates, we compared the fossil calcification rates with those of modern zooxanthellate corals (z corals) from the Western Atlantic (WA) and Indo-Pacific calibrated against sea surface temperature (SST). In the fossil data, we found a widely analogous relationship with SST in z corals from the WA, i.e. density increases and extension rate decreases with increasing SST, but over a significantly larger

  4. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  5. Human interstitial cellular model in therapeutics of heart valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Caimei; Tang, Hai; Mei, Zijian; Li, Nichujie; Zeng, Zhi; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Yin, Yulong; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Yang, Xiaoping

    2017-05-23

    Calcific aortic valve disease is a common, severe heart condition that is currently with no proven, effective drug treatment and requires a surgical valve replacement or an entire heart explanation. Thus, developing novel, targeted therapeutic approaches becomes a major goal for cardiovascular disease research. To achieve this goal, isolated heart valve interstitial cells could be an advanced model to explore molecular mechanisms and measure drug efficacy. Based on this progress, molecular mechanisms that harbor components of  inflammation and fibrosis coupled with proteins, for example, BMP-2, TLRs, RANKL, Osteoprotegerin, have been proposed. Small molecules or antibodies targeting these proteins have shown promising efficacy for either reversing or slowing down calcification development in vitro. In this review, we summarize these potential therapeutics with some highlights of interstitial cellular models.

  6. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Sarah A; Gibbs, Samantha J; Bown, Paul R; Young, Jeremy R; Poulton, Alex J; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A

    2014-11-17

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change.

  7. Ghost cell differentiation and calcification in ameloblastic fibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai Yan; Gao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Ghost cell differentiation within an ameloblastic fibroma is extremely rare. The ghost cells found in an ameloblastic fibroma in previously reported cases were all associated with a typical calcifying odontogenic cyst. Here, we report a case of an ameloblastic fibroma with focal ghost cells and calcifications in some neoplastic epithelial islands, but without other histologic manifestations consistent with a calcifying odontogenic cyst. The patient was a 13-year-old Chinese boy who presented with a bony-hard swelling in the posterior mandibular region over a 6-month period. Radiographs showed a well-defined multilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. The lesion was mostly cystic-solid and comprised of odontogenic epithelial strands, islands and myxoid ectomesenchymal component microscopically. Small groups of ghost cells and calcification were noted in the epithelial islands.

  8. Calcific Tendonitis of the Rotator Cuff: An Unusual Case

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Few case reports have described the surgical treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the subscapularis tendon. We present a case of symptomatic diffuse calcifying tendonitis involving the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions that was difficult to detect arthroscopically. The patient was treated with arthroscopic incision of the tendinous insertions thorough removal of the calcific deposits and subsequent repair using a suture-anchor technique. Two years after the surgical procedure, the p...

  9. Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas with massive central calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Goetze; Matthias Banasch; Klaus Junker; Wolfgang E. Schmidt; Christian Szymanski

    2005-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas is extremely rare, with only six cases described in the worldwide literature.An asymptomatic case of unicentric, hyaline, vascular-type Castleman's disease (UCD) localized to the tail of the pancreas with central calcification imitating a primary neoplasm of the pancreas is presented. This is the first description of endosonographic and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic findings of pancreatic UCD. Additionally, computed tomography, histological and serologic findings are reported.

  10. A Possible Role for Vitamin C in Coral Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. J.; Roberson, L.; Vazquez, N.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of coral reefs to tropical, marine ecosystems, the biological components of the calcification process are poorly understood. Because calcification must involve the delivery of organic and inorganic components across cell membranes, we postulate that it has similar features to epithelial and neuronal transport mechanisms in vertebrates. Accordingly, we are interested in identifying the specific membrane transporters underlying skeleton formation. As a model, we are using larvae from the ubiquitous Caribbean species Porites astreoides, a rapidly growing stony coral that is resistant to anthropogenic stressors. Using Illumina RNAseq, we assembled a larval transcriptome and compared gene expression between swimming larvae and recently settled ones that had just commenced the process of calcification. As expected, we identified many ion transporter, pump and channel transcripts that were upregulated in settled larvae. It was surprising, however, to find that the most upregulated transcript appeared to encode a Na-dependent Vitamin C transporter (SLC23A). In vertebrates, SLC23A transporters play a vital role in bone morphogenesis where Vitamin C is an essential cofactor for enzymes that condition collagen precursors for assembly into mature molecules. In corals, collagen has been identified as a component of the skeleton's extracellular matrix. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that the P. astreoides SLC23A messages were expressed in regions adjacent to rapid skeleton formation, on the aboral surface and septa of settled larvae. To confirm that the coral clone is indeed a Vitamin C transporter, we expressed it in Xenopus oocytes and studied its activity using voltage-clamp. Preliminary data demonstrate that it induces a current that is activated by Na and Vitamin C. This approach will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying calcification and how they might respond to environmental change.

  11. Calcific Tendinitis of the Gluteus Maximus in a Golfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ariel A; Stang, Thomas S; Fritz, Jan; Papp, Derek F

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a relatively rare condition in which calcium is inappropriately deposited in tendons, resulting in a local inflammatory reaction that can cause severe symptoms in certain cases. The cause of this disease process is not completely understood, although repetitive microtrauma likely plays a role in its development. Although the disorder most often involves the rotator cuff, it can affect other structures throughout the body, such as the tendons about the ankle and hip-including the rectus femoris and gluteus maximus. Nonoperative management typically involves using an anti-inflammatory medication and activity modification and can be augmented with formal physical therapy and modalities. Although nonoperative management provides adequate relief for many patients, sometimes operative debridement of the calcific deposit with or without repair of the involved tendon is required. The authors report an unusual case of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus insertion in a golfer. The patient had tried nonoperative treatment for approximately 2 years with no real relief, and a recent exacerbation of the pain was significantly delaying his return to sport. Although plain radiographs did not show abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging showed a calcific deposit in the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon. After discussing further treatment options with the patient, the decision was made to remove the deposit and repair the insertion. He recovered completely and was able to return to play. The frequency, pathogenesis, and treatment of this condition are discussed in this case report, as well as the possible link to golf in this patient. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e997-e1000.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Genetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of tropical calcific pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapna Mahurkar; D Nageshwar Reddy; G Venkat Rao; Giriraj Ratan Chandak

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is known to be a heterogeneous disease with varied etiologies. Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a severe form of chronic pancreatitis unique to developing countries. With growing evidence of genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of TCP, this review is aimed at compiling the available information in this field. We also propose a two hit model to explain the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of TCP.

  13. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness.

  14. Fine-tuning Cartilage Tissue Engineering by Applying Principles from Embryonic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hellingman (Catharine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCartilage has a very poor capacity for regeneration in vivo. In head and neck surgery cartilage defects are usually reconstructed with autologous cartilage from for instance the external ear or the ribs. Cartilage tissue engineering may be a promising alternative to supply tissue for

  15. Enhanced cartilage repair in ‘healer’ mice—New leads in the search for better clinical options for cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Adult articular cartilage has a poor capacity to undergo intrinsic repair. Current strategies for the repair of large cartilage defects are generally unsatisfactory because the restored cartilage does not have the same resistance to biomechanical loading as authentic articular cartilage and degrades over time. Recently, an exciting new research direction, focused on intrinsic cartilage regeneration rather than fibrous repair by external means, has emerged. This review explores the new findings in this rapidly moving field as they relate to the clinical goal of restoration of structurally robust, stable and non-fibrous articular cartilage following injury. PMID:27130635

  16. Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K G; Zondervan, I; Gerringa, L J A; Timmermans, K R; Veldhuis, M J W; Riebesell, U

    2004-08-01

    The deposition of atmospheric dust into the ocean has varied considerably over geological time. Because some of the trace metals contained in dust are essential plant nutrients which can limit phytoplankton growth in parts of the ocean, it has been suggested that variations in dust supply to the surface ocean might influence primary production. Whereas the role of trace metal availability in photosynthetic carbon fixation has received considerable attention, its effect on biogenic calcification is virtually unknown. The production of both particulate organic carbon and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) drives the ocean's biological carbon pump. The ratio of particulate organic carbon to CaCO3 export, the so-called rain ratio, is one of the factors determining CO2 sequestration in the deep ocean. Here we investigate the influence of the essential trace metals iron and zinc on the prominent CaCO3-producing microalga Emiliania huxleyi. We show that whereas at low iron concentrations growth and calcification are equally reduced, low zinc concentrations result in a de-coupling of the two processes. Despite the reduced growth rate of zinc-limited cells, CaCO3 production rates per cell remain unaffected, thus leading to highly calcified cells. These results suggest that changes in dust deposition can affect biogenic calcification in oceanic regions characterized by trace metal limitation, with possible consequences for CO2 partitioning between the atmosphere and the ocean.

  17. A case of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Gulati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts (LCC is a recently reported rare disease named ′Labrune syndrome′ after the first case was reported in 1996 by Labrune et al. Herein, we report a case of a 36-year-old man with mild right-sided weakness and seizures for 5 years. CT of brain revealed extensive calcification involving bilateral basal ganglia, right thalamus and bilateral deep cerebellar nuclei. A supratentorial cystic lesion with blood fluid level was seen in left occipitotemporal region. MRI examination revealed diffuse symmetric white matter hyperintensity suggesting leukoencephalopathy. On follow-up, patient reported improvement in the weakness and no further seizure episodes. However, follow-up of MRI revealed persistence of lesions. Differential diagnosis considered were parasitic infections (hydatid, cysticercosis, Coat′s plus disease and causes of diffuse cerebral calcification like Fahr′s disease and post-radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Serology for parasitic infections was negative. No history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in the past could be elicited in the history. Another close differential is Coat′s plus disease which can mimic LCC pathologically.

  18. Calcification provides mechanical reinforcement to whale baleen alpha-keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, L J; de Kerckhove, D G; Grime, G W; Fudge, D S

    2010-09-01

    Hard alpha-keratins such as hair, nail, wool and horn are stiff epidermal appendages used by mammals in a variety of functions including thermoregulation, feeding and intraspecific competition. Hard alpha-keratins are fibre-reinforced structures consisting of cytoskeletal elements known as 'intermediate filaments' embedded in an amorphous protein matrix. Recent research has shown that intermediate filaments are soft and extensible in living keratinocytes but become far stiffer and less extensible in keratinized cells, and this stiffening may be mediated by air-drying. Baleen, the keratinous plates used by baleen whales during filter feeding, is an unusual mammalian keratin in that it never air dries, and in some species, it represents the most heavily calcified of all the hard alpha-keratins. We therefore tested the hypothesis that whale baleen is stiffened by calcification. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive description of baleen material properties and show that calcification contributes to overcoming the shortcomings of stiffening this hard alpha-keratin without the benefit of air-drying. We also demonstrate striking interspecies differences in the calcification patterns among three species of baleen whales and provide novel insights into the function and evolution of this unusual biomaterial.

  19. Consideration of coastal carbonate chemistry in understanding biological calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Feifel, Kirsten M.

    2016-05-01

    Correlations between aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and calcification have been identified in many laboratory manipulation experiments aiming to assess biological responses to ocean acidification (OA). These relationships have been used with projections of ΩAr under continued OA to evaluate potential impacts on marine calcifiers. Recent work suggests, however, that calcification in some species may be controlled by the ratio of bicarbonate to hydrogen ion, or the substrate-to-inhibitor ratio (SIR), rather than ΩAr. SIR and ΩAr are not always positively correlated in the natural environment, which means that ΩAr can be a poor indicator of the calcifying environment when ΩAr->1. Highly variable carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone challenges our ability to monitor fluctuations in ΩAr, SIR, and the ΩAr-SIR relationship making it difficult to assess biological OA exposures and vulnerability. Careful consideration of natural variability throughout ocean environments is required to accurately determine the influence of OA on biological calcification.

  20. Fijación quirúrgica de fracturas costales con placas de titanio: reporte de dos casos Surgical repair of rib fractures using titanium plates: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Fica D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracturas costales son lesiones frecuentes en los traumatismos torácicos contusos. Sin contar aquellas lesiones asociadas con la alta absorción de energía, las fracturas costales causan característicamente dolor intenso, complicaciones respiratorias y ausentismo laboral significativo. Una de las estrategias terapéuticas es la estabilización quirúrgica del foco de fractura, la cual tiene múltiples ventajas teóricas como la disminución del dolor y la restauración de la función de la pared costal. Existen múltiples formas de fijación costal, pero su indicación, técnica quirúrgica y resultados son muy disímiles. Presentamos dos casos de reparación de pared torácica con material de osteosíntesis especialmente diseñado para este efecto (Synthes® MatrixRIB, Solothurn, Suiza, y se discuten sus alcances en las indicaciones y resultados clínicos.Rib fractures are common lesions in blunt chest trauma. Disregarding the severity of other high energy associated lesions, chest wall trauma characteristically causes intense pain, respiratory complications and long-term disability. Pain relief and chest wall function restoration are obtained by surgical stabilization of rib fractures. In nowdays still there is a considerable variability in surgical techniques and devices, as well as in their results and clinical indications. We report two cases of chest wall trauma and rib fractures repaired with osteosynthesis (Synthes® system MatrixRIB. Solothurn, Switzerland and we discuss their new clinical indications and results.