WorldWideScience

Sample records for costa transit district

  1. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  2. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  3. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  4. Sustaining Community Partnership across Transition in District Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    This case of district turnover was developed as part of a project with state leaders and funders supporting local early education systems development. Understanding strategic and reactive activities during district leadership transition can be useful in assisting educators and their partners to prepare for sustainability. In this case, early…

  5. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  6. [Relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and professional quality of life with the achievement of occupational objectives in the costa del sol primary health care district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the transitional dynamics and duration of unemployment in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Castro Vincenzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that explain the duration of unemployment spells and the transitional dynamics between the state of employment, unemployment and inactivity in Costa Rican labor market, using the Continuous Employment Survey for the period between the first quarter of 2012 and the third quarter of 2013. This research focuses mainly on supply-side factors and uses binominal and multinomial logit models in order to determine which variables determine that some people are more likely to be unemployed, Markov matrixes to estimate a series of transitional probabilities for different states in the labor market, and a survival model to characterize the duration of the unemployment spells. We conclude that women are more likely to be unemployed than men, and have smaller probabilities of changing from unemployed to employed. Also, the duration of their unemployment spells is longer. Furthermore, a higher academic level decreases the probabilities for an individual of being unemployed, but increases the duration of the unemployment spell. A correlation between the performance of the economic activity and the probabilities of becoming employed and of becoming inactive is observed.

  8. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  9. Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ΔG + ΔS where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ΔG and ΔS are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/ΔI = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ΔI (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ΔS of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ΔG, and ΔS. Recent installation of piezometers will address ΔG. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

  10. Restructuring and regulating district heating and cogeneration in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In summer 2004, the World Energy Council published a Study on 'Regulating district heating and cogeneration in central and eastern Europe'2, prepared by representatives from eleven economies in transition and two Nordic countries. The Task Force analysed twelve regulatory issues, country-by-country, on all internationally comparable basis. Regulatory progress on the road to more efficient, profitable, competitive and service-oriented heat supplies was described. Common concerns were identified: the need for independence of the regulator from policy and industry, improved coordination between central and local regulators and between environmental and energy authorities, access to grids, and a 'fair' sharing of CHP benefits among heat and electricity generation. Looking forward, the Task Force advocated a continued dialogue between decision makers, regulators, regulated industries and customers on: 1)the internalisation of DH/CHP benefits; 2)the future reduction of the density of regulation; 3) Joint implementation; 4)the compensation for public service obligations; 5)the elimination of old debt and stranded investments; 6) DH/CHP taxation; 7)privatisation; 8)the integration of DH/CHP in urban planning. A concluding WEC workshop in Moscow in March 2004 addressed recommendations to policy makers('Moscow Statement'). (Author)

  11. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  12. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara...

  13. A transition perspective on alternatives to coal in Chinese district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available China accounts for half of the world’s annual coal consumption. Coal is the primary energy source for heating in urban areas, particularly in northern China. This causes significant challenges for urban air quality problems in China and greenhouse gases emissions. Urban district heating (DH systems penetration is very high in northern China. It supplies space heating to more than 80% of urban buildings in the area. Unlike the electricity and transportation sectors, the heating sector has received little attention from policy makers and researchers in China, DH systems are an enabling infrastructure which facilitates energy efficiency improvements and the use of renewable energy sources. This study explores the dynamics and possibility to expand alternative energy sources (natural gas, biomass, direct geothermal heat, ground-source heat pump, municipal waste heat, industrial waste heat for DH in China. We apply an analytical framework largely based on the multi-level perspective in socio-technical transitions theory, in which transitions are interpreted as the result of the functioning of niche, regime and landscape elements, and interactions between them. The study provides an integrated picture of the socio-technical structure and functioning of DH in China. The results show that an energy transition in Chinese DH systems has barely started. The system is characterised by stability of the coal-based DH regime, while a number of alternative niches are struggling to emerge. Among these, natural gas is the most successful example. However, at local level different niches present opportunities in terms of physical availability, economic viability and technical capacity to address changes in landscape pressures. A sustainable heat roadmap based on integrated energy planning and policy attention at the national level could be developed as one mechanism for instigating a much needed energy transition in DH in China.

  14. Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    politiques de la concurrence en Amérique centrale, financé par le CRDI (et qui englobait l'étude sur le Costa Rica susmentionnée), a permis de cerner ces manques et de déterminer quel genre de lois et d'autorités en matière de concurrence conviennent le mieux aux réalités politique, juridique et culturelle de chacun des ...

  15. The Transition of Special Needs Students to Kayenta from Outlying Communities: Partnerships between Schools and Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Begay, Mary Helen; Bradley, Brian; McCarty, Nellie; Nelson, Jacob; Gamble, Armanda; Medina, Catherine; Nelson, Bernita; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Sealander, Karen; Smith, Jody; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Whitehair, Marsha; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

    A study examined the challenges faced by Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) and outlying communities on the Navajo Reservation in their efforts to adequately provide educational opportunities for their transfer students with special needs. Interviews were conducted with six students from 4th grade through high school; seven parents; special…

  16. Rural and urban transit district benchmarking : effectiveness and efficiency guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and urban transit systems have sought ways to compare performance across agencies, : identifying successful service delivery strategies and applying these concepts to achieve : successful results within their agency. Benchmarking is a method us...

  17. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  18. Social Network Implications of Normative School Transitions in Non-Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah A.; Gest, Scott D.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark; Moody, James

    2018-01-01

    This article expands research on normative school transitions (NSTs) from elementary to middle school or middle to high school by examining the extent to which they disrupt structures of friendship networks. Social network analysis is used to quantify aspects of connectedness likely relevant to student experiences of social support. Data were…

  19. Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  20. CHILD FEEDING PATTERN DURING TRANSITIONAL PERIOD (6-8 MONTHS IN JONGGAT SUB DISTRICT, CENTRAL LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Rahmadia Ekawidyani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to assess child feeding knowledge and practice in transitional period (6-8 months, mother’s information exposure and the functioning of the health system in delivering complementary feeding programs. A cross sectional study was done to 175 children aged 6-8 months at 12 villages in Jonggat Sub-district, Lombok. Structured interview to the mothers, 24 hour recalls, and in-depth interview to the cadres of Integrated Health Posts were used throughout the study. Most mothers had poor knowledge and practice on child feeding (68.0% and 75.4%, respectively. Almost all children had received complementary food (98.9%, but only less than a half children were introduced to complementary food at the appropriate age i.e. 6 months (45.7%. Only few children had good dietary diversity i.e. ≥ 4 food type in the previous day (6.9%. More than half of the mothers (52% were exposed to information related to child feeding practice. The sources of information mostly were from health officers, cadres, mother and child health book and printed media (e.g. newspaper and magazine. The local health staff and cadres had basic knowledge on child feeding programs but the practice was not adequate. Mother’s knowledge and practice on child feeding within the transitional period in Jonggat sub-district was poor. The health system was not functioning well in delivering complementary feeding programs.Keywords: cadres, child feeding pattern, complementary feeding programsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengetahuan dan praktek pengasuhan makan pada anak selama masa transisi (6-8 bulan, sumber informasi ibu, dan keberhasilan sistem kesehatan dalam program MP-ASI. Cross sectional study dilakukan dengan subjek 175 anak usia 6-8 bulan di 12 desa di Kecamatan Jonggat, Lombok. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara terstruktur kepada ibu, food recall, dan wawancara mendalam kepada kader Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu

  1. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  2. Joaquim Da Costa Ribeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Professor Costa Ribeiro directed IAEA's Division of Exchange and Training from 15 February 1958 to 15 November 1959 - a period during which the Agency planned, initiated and established its operational programs, and it was largely due to his untiring effort and able handling that the training and fellowship program rapidly developed into one of the most important and fruitful of the Agency's activities

  3. Joaquim Da Costa Ribeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    Professor Costa Ribeiro directed IAEA's Division of Exchange and Training from 15 February 1958 to 15 November 1959 - a period during which the Agency planned, initiated and established its operational programs, and it was largely due to his untiring effort and able handling that the training and fellowship program rapidly developed into one of the most important and fruitful of the Agency's activities

  4. Nicolaou, Prof. Kyriacos Costa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2007 Honorary. Nicolaou, Prof. Kyriacos Costa. Date of birth: 1946. Address: Department of Chemistry & BRC, Rice University, 6100, Main Street, MS 602, Houston, TX 77005, U.S.A.. Contact: Residence: (+1-713) 348 8860. Fax: (+1-713) 348 8865. Email: kcn@rice.edu. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  5. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  6. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    and the aristocratic tradition. Romanza, opera, operetta, popular folk songs. He became famous thankfully to this last one, when the easy listening music industry was starting its productions. This is the first published biography on the artist and is based on original documents and sources.......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...

  7. Academic Vulnerability and Resilience during the Transition to High School: The Role of Social Relationships and District Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkamp, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to high school is a critical stage in students' academic trajectories and can be especially difficult for middle school students who struggle academically. Starting high school on a low academic track and with low academic performance often leads to dropping out of high school. This study investigates what might protect academically…

  8. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  9. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación (en español Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  10. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  11. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  12. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  13. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  14. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' behavioural intention towards adaptation to climate change in transitional climatic zones: A case study of Hwedza District in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamasiya, Byron; Nyikahadzoi, Kefasi; Mukamuri, Billy Billiard

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines factors influencing behavioural change among smallholder farmers towards adaptation to climate change in transitional climatic zones of Africa, specifically, Hwedza District in Zimbabwe. Data for this study were collected from 400 randomly-selected smallholder farmers, using a structured questionnaire, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The study used an ordered logit model to examine the factors that influence smallholder farmers' behavioural intention towards adaptation to climate change. Results from the study show that the gender of the household head, access to extension services on crop and livestock production, access to climate information, membership to social groups and experiencing a drought have a positive influence on farmers' attitude towards adaptation to climate change and variability. The study concluded that although the majority of smallholder farmers perceive that the climate is changing, they continue to habour negative attitudes towards prescribed climate change adaptation techniques. This study recommends more education on climate change, as well as adaptation strategies for both agricultural extension workers and farmers. This can be complemented by disseminating timely climate information through extension officers and farmers' groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  16. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  17. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  18. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  19. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  20. African Journals Online: Costa Rica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  1. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  2. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  3. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  4. Late-stage anhydrite-gypsum-siderite-dolomite-calcite assemblages record the transition from a deep to a shallow hydrothermal system in the Schwarzwald mining district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Mathias; Walter, Benjamin F.; Gerdes, Axel; Lanz, Maximilian; Markl, Gregor

    2018-02-01

    The majority of hydrothermal vein systems of economic interest occur at relatively shallow crustal levels, although many of them formed at significantly greater depths. Their present position is a consequence of uplift and erosion. Although, many aspects of their formation are well constrained, the temporal chemical evolution of such systems during uplift and erosion is still poorly understood. These vein minerals comprise calcite, dolomite-ankerite, siderite-magnesite, anhydrite and gypsum forming the last gangue assemblages in Jurassic and Tertiary sulphide-fluorite-quartz-barite veins of the Schwarzwald mining district, SW Germany. Mineral textures of samples from nine localities reveal that in these sequences, mineral precipitation follows a recurring pattern: early calcite is followed by anhydrite or gypsum, siderite and/or dolomite. This succession may repeat up to three times. In-situ (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb age dating of 15 carbonates from three subsequent generations of the late-stage vein assemblage yield robust ages between 20 and 0.6 Ma. Each mineral sequence forms in a distinctive period of about 2-5 Ma. These ages clearly relate these late-stage mineral phases to the youngest geological episode of the Schwarzwald, which is associated with the Cenozoic Rhine Graben rifting and basement uplift. Based on thermodynamic modelling, the formation of the observed mineral assemblages required an deeply sourced Mg-, Fe- and SO4-rich fluid (b), which was episodically mixed with a shallow crustal HCO3-rich fluid (a). As a consequence of fluid mixing, concentrations of Mg, Fe and SO4 temporarily increased and initiated the formation of the observed sulphate-carbonate mineral sequences. This discontinuous large-scale vertical fluid mixing was presumably directly related to episodes of active tectonics associated with the Cenozoic strike-slip regime of the Upper Rhine Graben. Analogously, episodic fluid mixing is a major key in the formation of older (Jurassic to early

  5. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  6. Transition Services: An Investigation of the Knowledge, Confidence, and Practice of Special Education Teachers in District of Columbia Public Charter High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wallace R., III

    2015-01-01

    This study was intended to enhance the limited research on the knowledge and confidence of special education teachers in public education regarding transition services and the quality of transition plans they develop. The key variables examined in this study are knowledge, confidence, and the quality of student transition plans. The sample…

  7. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  8. Effectiveness of the Costa Rican Central Bank forex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Espinoza Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an empirical approach to assess the effectiveness of foreign exchange interventions following the criteria by K. Domínguez (1998 using a GARCH model based on the work by C. Broto (2012. Analyses are conducted to evaluate the FOREX rules of intervention followed by the BCCR, and the probability of occurrence of an intervention is estimated using a LOGIT model.  In addition, the paper attempts to analyze what happened to the exchange arrangements applied in Costa Rica as a result of the 2006 exchange rate flexibility and transition to inflation targets.

  9. Impact of parking supply and demand management on central business district traffic congestion, transit performance measures and sustainable land use [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Parking is one of the thorniest problems facing local officials who wish to maintain the vitality of central business districts (CBD). Viewed in isolation, the solution often is seen as more parking, at least, and more free parking, if possible. But ...

  10. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  11. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  12. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  13. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  14. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  15. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  16. Seven songs from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Sàenz, Michèle S. de

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1973, through the benificence of Professor Juan de Dios Trejos, music teacher from Cartago, Costa Rica, I had the pleasure of meeting doña Leticia de Céspedes. This tiny woman was in her nineties, with neatly cropped snow white hair and blue eyes. She received me in her humble home in Tres Ríos, a town located between San José and Cartago. Sra. de Céspedes had learned to read and transcribe music. She taught piano and guitar. She too, was interested in music whi...

  17. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  18. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maineri-Hidalgo, Jose Alberto; Putvinsky, Vladimir; Mainieri-Breedy, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author) [es

  19. The Internationalization of SMEs in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Bonilla, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the internationalization process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Costa Rica. Its ultimate goal is to draw conclusions that might enable the various stakeholders in the process (businesses, government, support agencies, and academia) to make decisions based on better information. To do this we will review the current status of this business sector, compare the patterns of internationalization identified in the theory with those experienced by Costa Rican ...

  20. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits that...

  1. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  2. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  3. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  4. Computer-Based Junior High/Intermediate School Program of Transitional Bilingual Education, Community School District 3, Manhattan. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Diana L.

    The Computer-Based Junior High/Intermediate School Program of Transitional Bilingual Education was a federally funded program in its third year of operation in one intermediate school and two junior high schools in Manhattan (New York) in 1992-93. During this period, it served 244 native Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient (LEP) students…

  5. Çan Yöresi Geçiş Dönemi Uygulamalarından Olan Evlenme Ritüelleri Üzerine On the Marriage Rituals of Transition Period Traditions in Çan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi GÜLEÇ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Çan is one of the most developed districts of Çanakkale province. The exact date of the district’s foundation has not been determined. Ruins belonging to ancient age have been found in the district and around. Çan region was called Sergis in Roman period. This region was annexed to Ottoman in XIV century. At first, it was a sub-district center dependent to Biga sanjak, and then in 1945 it was separated from Biga and became a district center dependent to Çanakkale. The district land has a rugged terrain. 62% of district square is forest, 32% is agricultural land, and 3% is pasture land and settlement. The ground of Çan district is formed from volcanic and sedimentary. District has a very rich source of metal. Transition climate, between Mediterranean and Black-sea climates, usually dominates the district. It generally rains in fall, winter and spring (Briefing report of Çan administrative district within a province – Türker, 2010. As a result of rapid population, growth depending on industrialization, migrations to the district center have been occurred especially from the neighbor villages and other settlements. As the traditional cultural structure dominates to the district, people have a life style shaped by the religion and social customs. Charity activity of village is carried out in the months of spring and summer in the region. Everybody in the village participates in this organization, which is also called farmers’ holiday (Güleç and Türker 2012, 1334.Native population is called as Manav in district center and villages. And also, the people who immigrated from the Balkans and settled there are called muhajir. Some ethnics groups such as Pomak and Kırcali also exists in the region. People living in mountains and high regions are known as Yoruk (Briefing report of Çan administrative district within a province – Türker, 2010. Çan, the district of Çanakkale, is very rich and productive in Folklore. It has an important

  6. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Contreras; Henriette Raventós; Gloriana Rodríguez; Mauricio Leandro

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pat...

  7. de papa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidy Montero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan importantes daños al cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L alrededor del mundo. Su efecto puede ser directo al disminuir el rendimiento o indirecto al infectar los tubérculos y causar agallas o protuberancias, que les confiere una apariencia verrugosa, que afecta su calidad y reduce su valor comercial. En Capellades y Llano Grande de Cartago, Costa Rica, fueron encontrados tubérculos de papa, de la variedad Floresta y del clon Bananito, con numerosas protuberancias en su superficie. De las protuberancias se extrajo hembras ovígeras de Meloidogyne spp. Estudios morfológicos (diseño perineal de las hembras y moleculares (PCR y PCRRFLP mostraron que las hembras extraídas de las protuberancias pertenecen a la especie M. incognita. Se recomienda estudiar las causas que promueven la infección de los tubérculos en ambas localidades, ya que cerca del 90% del área cultivada de papa en el país corresponde a la variedad Floresta. En adición, se debe prestar especial atención a las zonas semilleristas, ya que los tubérculos-semilla podrían servir como fuente de inóculo y contribuir a la diseminación del patógeno a otras áreas.

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

  9. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  10. Agrochemical residues in rivers sediments, Poas, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis, Federico; Valdez, Juan; Leon, Sandra; Coto, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus and organochlorine agrochemical residues distribution in sediments of 3 rivers located in an ornamental plant production area were analyzed in Poas canton, Alajuela, Costa Rica. The study comprised 8 months in order to assure 3 seasonal episodes: dry, transitional, and rainy seasons. Sediments were taken in 10 sampling stations along the rivers and characterized by a determination of their organic matter and texture. In 7 out of 10 sampling stations pesticide residues were detected in at least 1 of 4 samplings, but quantified only in 4 stations. Agrochemical residues evaluated included 21 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides; however, we found residues of only 3 organochlorine pesticides, due their high persistence in the sediment. Residues corresponded to PCNB (80-800 μg.kg -1 ), Endosulfan-β (40-50 μg.kg -1 ), and Endosulfan-α (90 μg.kg -1 ). Chlorothalonil was detected in only one sample. (author) [es

  11. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  12. Use of a national reporting system for occupational injuries in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Susan; Krantz, Anne; Klempner, Sophia; Alvarado, Rebeca; Wesseling, Catharina; Fernández, Eduardo; Forst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Occupational injury surveillance in developing countries may be hindered by the lack of health data infrastructure as well the large numbers of informal-sector workers. The goal of this study was to elucidate the scope of occupational injury in the Monteverde district of Costa Rica using data collected through the national workers social security system. A list of occupational injuries occurring in the district reported to the National Insurance Institute (INS) central office between 1998 and 2002 was taken to the regional INS office, and the original injury reports for the cases were pulled. Specific data on the injuries were collected. There were 184 injuries reported during the five year period. Occupations with the highest number of injuries included production, building and grounds maintenance, and agricultural/forestry/fishing. Descriptive data showed that prevention efforts in this rural region should target food manufacturing, hotels, and construction.

  13. Conferences on electronic waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa Gutierrez, Floria

    2006-01-01

    The management system of electronic waste is a project organized and financed by the bilateral agreement Costa Rica - Holanda, it is integrated by governmental and non-governmental enterprises. It was divided in two phases, first performed in 2003 which provided a diagnosis on the management of electronic resources, based on the diagnosis a propose of strategy for recycling was made. The second phase is given in 2005 with the implementation and realization of the project including two pilots plans located one at the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica and another in the community of Escazu, at the end some recommendations were given to strengthen the system. The electronic waste were divided in white line, gray and brown line; those with pollutants such as phosphorus, chromium, cadmium, barium, lead, beryllium, mercury are toxic and have different effects on human health. The project in Costa Rica has taken as examples several recycling plants in different countries, among them one installed in Belgica. As an outstanding figure of the diagnosis made it was determined that Costa Rica has no legal support regarding the handling of such materials. It has been accumulated in 2007 more than 24 260 tonnes and is growing rapidly year after year. Within the achieved progress in the implementation of the project are: the creation of a legal support, the organization of the compliance unit of the project, the valuation of environmental costs and the increase of enterprises offering the service of primary treatment [es

  14. Da Costa on ontology: a naturalistic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mariano Nogueira Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Da Costa's conception of being modifies that of Quine to incorporate relativization to non-classical logics. A naturalistic view of this conception is discussed. This view tries to extend to logic some ideas of Maddy's naturalism concerning mathematics.

  15. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  16. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  17. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa. La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas.Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts. Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific. The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  18. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  19. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  20. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  1. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  2. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  3. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  5. [USJ Herbarium of Costa Rica: history and contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos O

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized.

  6. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  7. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  8. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  9. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  10. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime García

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades in...

  11. Costa Rica: movimiento de mujeres y liderazgo

    OpenAIRE

    Torres García, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    En el estudio Costa Rica: movimiento de mujeres y liderazgo se evidencia cómo el movimiento feminista y amplio de mujeres utiliza formas singulares y creativas de liderazgo, en uno de los contextos sociales más igualitarios de la región y en una de las democracias más afianzadas, como lo es la costarricense. Se pone en evidencia el crecimiento de este movimiento y la relación que existe entre los logros legales y la visibilidad de la dimensión y de la persistencia de las diversas formas de vi...

  12. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  13. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  14. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  15. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  16. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Alvarez, Estela Yamileth

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author) [es

  17. Cerrando espacios, abriendo brechas. Urbanizaciones cerradas en San Rafael de Escazú, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvarado Alcázar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia el fenómeno de las urbanizaciones cerradas en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú, Costa Rica. La tesis central es que las urbanizaciones cerradas producen cambios en la urbanidad mediante la introducción de transformaciones socio-espaciales manifiestas en la materialidad de las urbanizaciones cerradas, las funciones de estas y el tipo de relaciones sociales que sus residentes mantienen entre sí y con su entorno cercano. El artículo cierra sugiriendo explorar la noción de “urbanidad privada” como una forma de entender la producción de espacio promovida desde los intereses privados expresados en la construcción de conjuntos inmobiliarios cerrados, de los cuales las urbanizaciones cerradas son una de sus manifestaciones más visibles. Los resultados presentados en este ensayo, son producto de la investigación titulada “Urbanizaciones cerradas en Costa Rica: transformaciones socio-espaciales en la urbanidad y segregación socio-residencial en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú (1990-2012”. This paper examines the phenomenon of gated communities in Costa Rica, specifically in the district of San Rafael, Escazú. The central thesis is that gated communities to changes in urbanity by introducing socio-spatial transformations evident in the materiality of gated communities, the functions of these communities and the type of social relations that its residents have with one another and with their immediate environment. The article suggests exploring the notion of “private urbanity” as a way to understand the production of space promoted by private interests and expressed in the construction of closed real estate developments, most visibly manifested by gated communities.. The results presented are the product of research entitled “Urbanizaciones cerradas en Costa Rica: transformaciones socio-espaciales en la urbanidad y segregación socio- residencial en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú (1990

  18. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  19. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  20. Impact of parking supply and demand management on central business district (CBD) traffic congestion, transit performance measures and sustainable land use : a study of the impact of parking supply and demand management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Parking is one of the thorniest problems facing local officials who wish to maintain the vitality of central business districts (CBD). Viewed in isolation, the solution often is seen as more parking, at least, and more free parking, if possible. But ...

  1. Forest Structure and Biomass Data, La Selva, Costa Rica: 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides field measurements of diameter, tree height, and crown dimensions for 1,513 trees in 30 plots at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa...

  2. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  3. Nomenclatural problems among Thysanoptera (Insecta of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Goldarazena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data to argue that several recent papers on the Thysanoptera of Costa Rica are affected by unsatisfactory technical procedures, including failure to recognize intraspecific structural variation. Fourteen new synonyms are recognized for Costa Rica Thysanoptera, nine generic and five specific. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 961-968. Epub 2008 June 30.Presentamos datos para apoyar nuestro argumento de que varios artículos recientes sobre los Thysanoptera de Costa Rica se han visto afectados por procedimientos técnicos insatisfactorios, incluyendo el no reconocer la variación estructural intraespecífica. Presentamos nueve sinonimias en los tisanópteros de Costa Rica: nueve a nivel de género y cinco a nivel de especie.

  4. Manual of Inorganic Accustomed to Fertilizers of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Cabezas, E.; Murillo Soto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The manual of inorganic solid fertilizers of Costa Rica presents as first the description of some nutritious characteristics of the main ones, such as functions, content, forms, symptoms of deficiency among others. Some of the chemical physical characteristics of the included materials were used as prime materials. There is also in the Manual a listing of the main sources fertilizers used in Costa Rica, as well as the main processes of production of fertilizers, while they are considered several listings with the products that the different commercial houses have to disposition of the publish. Finally a summary of the imports of fertilizers is made in Costa Rica during the years 1998, 1999 and 2000, to finish with the general listing of all the products fertilizers registered in Costa Rica, under the order N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O. (Author) [es

  5. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  6. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  7. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  8. Los insectos invasores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta una recopilación preliminar de los insectos introducidos en Costa Rica. Se estima que existen al menos 300 especies exóticas. Los medios más comunes de introducción son: suelo y hojarasca, desechos, madera, granos almacenados, plantas, vertebrados y otros insectos. Se nota la escasez de especies exóticas entre los insectos acuáticos y ciertos grupos de insectos fitófagos (Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera, Chrysomelidae). Los insectos introducidos pueden tener un impacto negativo o pos...

  9. Study of solar potential in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A evaluation on the research of solar radiation in Costa Rica is performed to determine the potential as an energy source and learn how it is distributed spatially and temporally. The calculation and mapping of contours of the global solar radiation in the country are focused. Experimental values and predicted global solar radiation has been used in the contouring. The highest values were observed in the northern section of the Pacific slope and west of the Valle Central; the north and along the Caribbean coast have the lowest values. Quantitative data are not limited to the direct use of solar energy for power generation, also for other activities such as meteorological sciences, agriculture, irrigation and forest architecture. This information is important for specialists, teachers and professionals interested in harnessing solar energy. (author) [es

  10. La apertura comercial en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Bustos Alvarado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los diferentes modelos contemporáneos implementados en Costa Rica, cuyo objetivo ha sido el de generar un desarrollo hacia fuera, es decir, basado en un fuerte impulso a las exportaciones y a la búsqueda de nuevos mercados. Todas estas medidas tomadas por las distintas administraciones, unas con más convicción que otras, han desembocado en un proceso de apertura comercial que ha quedado plasmado en la negociación y firma de diferentes tratados de libre comercio con países y regiones, como una manera de ampliar el mercado y de esta forma acelerar el desarrollo económico del País.

  11. Uses of solar energy in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, Shyam S. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Heredia, P.O. Box 728, 3000 Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2006-04-15

    Costa Rica, a small country with the population of 4 million, and without military and hence no military expenditure, promotes the use of renewable sources like Hydro, Mini hydro, Wind, Geothermal and Sun, mainly for electricity generation. Almost 90% of the electricity is produced from these renewable sources. Through different policies and some incentives, etc., private generation is also encouraged and there are some decentralized systems like solar water heaters, swimming pool heaters, cookers, dryers and stills and also photo voltaic panels. The last ones are mostly for the population where there is no electric grid. Depending on the province, 91-99.5% of the population is electrified. Government also encourages the use of energy saving devices specially at domestic and industrial sector. In addition to provide these data, some of the solar energy systems are mentioned. [Author].

  12. Escuela Normal de Costa Rica: Historia y legado

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Jiménez, Vivian; Ruiz-Badilla, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    On the centennial of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) of Costa Rica, this paper discusses its role and its legacy in teacher training. It is structured in three parts. Firstly, it presents a brief historical background of the origin and profile of normal schools in various parts of the world. Secondly, it describes the development of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) in Costa Rica, refers to various personalities and significant elements that have set the course and prestige of the institu...

  13. Report on the Application of Ionizing Radiations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Araya, J.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the different public and private institutions, that in any form applies ionizing radiations. In total a sample of 387 was considered; it offers a great reliability, considering the size of Costa Rican market. Fundamentally the information was taken from the archives of the Atomic Energy Commision of Costa Rica; also from reports of labors and surveys carried out during 1991, tending to justify the Project ARCAL XVI: Industrial Applications of the Nuclear Technology. (author)

  14. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  15. Afro-Costa Rican women and delayed multiculturalism: constitutional reform of the (white republic of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela MUÑOZ MUÑOZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the reform of Article 1 of the Political Constitution of Costa Rica to acknowledge the multicultural and pluriethnic character of the nation, in terms of its protagonists and timing of approval. On the one hand, it suggests a relationship between racial formation processes and a constitutional multicultural delay. On the other, it recognizes the challenges and strategies of Afro-Costa Rican women to reframe this reform in terms of social justice.

  16. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  17. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  18. Assessing the impact of future climate change on groundwater recharge in Galicia-Costa, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Juan Ramón; Dafonte, Jorge; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Climate change can impact the hydrological processes of a watershed and may result in problems with future water supply for large sections of the population. Results from the FP5 PRUDENCE project suggest significant changes in temperature and precipitation over Europe. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge in the hydrological district of Galicia-Costa, Spain. Climate projections from two general circulation models and eight different regional climate models were used for the assessment and two climate-change scenarios were evaluated. Calibration and validation of the model were performed using a daily time-step in four representative catchments in the district. The effects on modeled mean annual groundwater recharge are small, partly due to the greater stomatal efficiency of plants in response to increased CO2 concentration. However, climate change strongly influences the temporal variability of modeled groundwater recharge. Recharge may concentrate in the winter season and dramatically decrease in the summer-autumn season. As a result, the dry-season duration may be increased on average by almost 30 % for the A2 emission scenario, exacerbating the current problems in water supply.

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Caribbean coastal plain of Costa Rica, with the Cordillera Central rising in the background and the Pacific Ocean in the distance. The prominent river in the center of the image is the Rio Sucio, which merges with the Rio Sarapiqui at the bottom of the image and eventually joins with Rio San Juan on the Nicaragua border.Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices

  20. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Contreras

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  1. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  2. REDD+ IN COSTA RICA, WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED?: Indigenous Peoples Human Rights within REDD+

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Mejia, Monica Judith

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the development of REDD+ in Costa Rica. It sets out to analyse what the obligations of Costa Rica are under International Human Rights Law with regard to Indigenous Peoples at the moment of implementing REDD+; what laws should be changed before implementing REDD+ whether Costa Rica wants to fulfil its international obligations towards Indigenous Peoples; what impact the Payment for Environmental Services programme has had on Indigenous Peoples; and how the Costa Rican gov...

  3. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  4. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  5. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  6. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  7. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  8. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  9. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  10. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  11. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  12. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  13. Assessment of mammography in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation of national mammographic equipment was conducted, due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in Costa Rican women. From June 2002 to October 2003, 2 of the 3 global indicators of image quality were evaluated, (mean glandular dose and phantom image) in 26 mammography machines facilitated by radiologists in charge of the same. The mean glandular dose found was 1.75 ± 0.60 mGy with a range of 0.8 a 2.56. Regarding quality image, 73% of the evaluated equipment was able to see 4 or more fibers, 53% saw 3 or more groups of microcalcifications and 82% saw 3 or more mass groups. All mean glandular doses were below the international reference dose value of 3 mGy. However, the analysis of phantom images showed that only 54% of all the equipment had a total score (sum of mass groups, fibers and microcalcifications) superior or equal to 10, as expected. A correct diagnosis that could eventually save the patient's life is the main objective of a mammogram; the factors that are degrading the images must be found and it might be necessary to increase the doses to achieve this. This study demonstrates the urgent necessity to introduce permanent quality control programs that will provide excellent images with the lowest internationally recommended doses.(author) [es

  14. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  15. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  16. WEEE Resource Management System in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica followed different steps in order to organise and implement a waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE management system. This paper summarises the challenges, successes, and limitations of its implementation. Two phases were needed to set up the system. The first phase created a baseline followed by the designing of a strategy. The second phase promoted a Decree for WEEE management that prohibits discarding WEEE together with household waste, as well as the creation of a National Executive Committee with representatives of importers, consumers, and government, which will establish the quotes and treatment fees, and so on. Another outcome was the development of a strategy for the implementation of WEEE management for the country, the promotion of population awareness about their responsibility for WEEE management, and an example set up for other Latin American countries. This paper draws conclusions from the regulation and notes the required consistency with the existing national waste legislation in order to reduce approval times. Additionally, the importance of the participation of stakeholders representing different electric and electronic equipment (EEE sectors with the purpose of obtaining consensus on agreements is highlighted.

  17. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  18. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  19. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  20. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  1. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author) [es

  2. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in adult Costa Rican population

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Sánchez, Oscar; Holst Schumacher, Ileana; Boza Oreamuno, Sandra; Barrantes Santamaría, Mauro; Chinchilla Monge, Ricardo; Alvarado Ulate, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La disfunción tiroidea subclínica es un desorden común que puede representar la etapa temprana de una franca enfermedad tiroidea. Objetivo. Conocer la prevalencia de disfunción tiroidea subclínica en una población de adultos costarricenses. Diseño. Investigación de tipo transversal y descriptiva. Lugar. Área urbana de Costa Rica. Participantes. Adultos costarricenses de un área urbana de Costa Rica. Intervenciones. A 297 individuos de ambos géneros con edades entre 30 y 87 años ...

  3. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. Buddleja filibracteolata se diferencia por sus hojas sesiles, láminas foliares amplexicaules y por sus inflorescencias espiciformes con numerosas y conspicuas brácteas filiformes.

  4. Agrotourism and Agro-Ecotourism in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbado Morales, Félix

    2010-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible. 2010 Agrotourism is a form of tourism that encourages visitors to experience rural culture as a tourist attraction. The term “agro-ecotourism” was used for the first time in Costa Rica in 1994, and it is generally used as synonym of agrotourism. Nonetheless, not all cases of agrotourism display sufficient concern for the environment to be considered agro-ecotourism. The aim of the ...

  5. Mentored and inspired by Mimo: a tribute to Erminio Costa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Floyd E

    2011-06-01

    Throughout his long productive scientific career, Erminio Costa demonstrated several scholarly traits that illustrate a pattern for paths of successful achievement that should guide young scientists. Not only did he seek excellent training, he got and gave good mentoring. That guidance allowed him to ask important questions and to develop the methods necessary to obtain definitive answers by pursuing those questions in depth. Without question, he blazed trails in neuropharmacology that have been an inspiration to many others and me. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  6. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  7. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  8. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  9. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  10. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  11. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  12. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  13. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  14. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  15. The genera of Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wills Flowers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Keys in Spanish and English are given for the genera of Chrysomelinae known from Costa Rica. For each genus, a list of species compiled from collections in the University of Costa Rica, the National Biodiversity Institute, and the entomological literature is presented. The genus Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 is recorded for the first time from Central America, and the genus Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 is synonymized with Stilodes Chevrolat 1843Se presenta claves en español y inglés para los géneros de Chrysomelinae conocidas de Costa Rica. Para cada género, se presenta una lista de especies compiladas de las colecciones de la Universidad de Costa Rica, el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, y la literatura entomológica. El género Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 está registrado por primera vez de América Central, y el género Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 está sinonomizado con Stilodes Chevrolat 1843

  16. Education in Costa Rica. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    As Costa Rica's economy has developed in recent decades, the education system that helped propel the country to upper middle-income status now needs reform to respond to rising expectations and changing demands for skills. New challenges are emerging: economic growth has recently slowed, inequality is widening and productivity growth is weak. How…

  17. Environmental indicators and bio monitoring: Costa Rica experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hidalgo, K.

    2012-01-01

    An experience carried out on rice, watermelon and melon crops were applied in Costa Rica. In sediment and water samples using bio monitoring techniques were found pesticides and pollution levels.The water bodies, sediments and ecological quality was determined by the BMWP- CR Index technique.

  18. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  19. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  20. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  1. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  2. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  3. Monitoreo del manglar de Gandoca, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Fonseca E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El manglar de Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribe de Costa Rica, se ha monitoreado desde 1999. La especie dominante es el mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle. El pico de productividad y producción de flores a lo largo de los años se dio en julio. La productividad del manglar disminuyó desde el 2001 y la temperatura del agua aparentemente aumentó. La biomasa (14 kg/m² y densidad (9 árboles por 100 m² en Gandoca son relativamente bajas comparados con otras manglares dentro del Programa CARICOMP, mientras que la productividad encontrada para julio en Costa Rica (4 g/m²/día es intermedia, similar a lo que se encontró en la mayoría de los sitios CARICOMP.Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m² and density (9 trees/10 m² in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m²/day was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 23-31. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  4. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  5. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  6. Translating measures of sustainable development to urban districts of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    overviews on the current baselines as well as stages in a transition process. The Dutch tool DPL (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for locations’) is a tool for mapping sustainability profiles of urban districts through a set of environmental, social...

  7. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  8. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.Con 51 100km2 de área terrestre y 589 000km² de aguas jurisdiccionales, Costa Rica es considerado uno de los países con mayor biodiversidad. Posee aproximadamente 3.5% de las especies marinas del mundo. En las últimas cuatro décadas, Costa Rica ha dedicado un esfuerzo significativo para la creación de Áreas Protegidas (AP, principalmente terrestres. Aquí presentamos un diagnóstico de la situación actual de las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMP en Costa Rica, a través de un análisis histórico, su distribución, cobertura y categorías de manejo. Costa Rica posee 166 áreas protegidas que cubren 50% de la l

  9. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  10. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  11. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  12. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.L.; Trocki, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica

  13. Cáncer de piel en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Antillón, Orlando; de la Cruz Martínez, Rafael; Sierra Ramos, Rafaela

    1986-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1986 Se describe la incidencia del cáncer de la piel por sexo, edad y localización de todos los casos notificados en el Registro Nacional de Tumores de Costa Rica, en el periodo 1979-1980. El cáncer de piel presentó el 7,6 % del total de cánceres reportados en 1979 y el 14,5% en 1980. Después del cáncer gástrico, el cáncer de piel fue el más frecuente en 1980. Las provincias de San José, Alajuela y Her...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-06

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. 3rd congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Costa da Caparica, Portugal, February 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Miguel

    2017-03-25

    The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications. With the aid of synthetic biology, production costs of chemicals, metabolites and food products are expected to decrease, by generating sustainable biochemical production of such resources. Also, such synthetic biological advances could be applied for medical purposes, as in pharmaceuticals and for biosensors. Recurrent, linked themes throughout the meeting were the shortage of resources, the world's transition into a bioeconomy, and how synthetic biology is helping tackle these issues through cutting-edge technologies. While there are still limitations in synthetic biology research, innovation is propelling the development of technology, the standardisation of synthetic biological tools and the use of suitable host organisms. These developments are laying a foundation to providing a future where cutting-edge research could generate potential solutions to society's pressing issues, thus incentivising a transition into a bioeconomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    García, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    More than hundred plant species reported to have some kind of pesticide effect in Costa Rica are cited. The current situation of supply and demand of these products is presented, emphasizing the principal limitations for the development at commercial level, as well as the potential that the country possesses based on its extraordinary biodiversity. A listing of the institutions related to this matter is given. Finally, additional considerations are made about the toxicity of theses products a...

  17. Chondrichthyan Diversity, Conservation Status, and Management Challenges in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding key aspects of the biology and ecology of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimeras, as well as the range of threats affecting their populations is crucial given the rapid rate at which some species are declining. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP, the lack of knowledge, unreliable (or non-existent landing statistics, and limited enforcement of existing fisheries regulations has hindered management and conservation efforts for chondrichthyan species. This review evaluated our current understanding of Costa Rican chondrichthyans and their conservation status. Specifically, we (1 provide an updated checklist on the species richness, habitat use, and distribution patterns, (2 summarize the most relevant chondrichthyan studies (scientific publications, theses, and official technical reports, (3 identify knowledge gaps, (4 discuss fisheries-related threats, and (5 highlight the management challenges and research needs to effectively protect their populations. A total of 99 chondrichthyan species are formally recorded in Costa Rican waters, from which 15% are threatened with extinction and 41% are “Data Deficient” based on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. A total of 121 studies were published between 1891 and 2017; 82% in the Pacific (24% from Isla del Coco and only 18% from the Caribbean Sea. These results highlight the need to redirect research efforts on specific taxonomic groups and geographic regions (i.e., Caribbean. Based on our review, improving the quality and quantity of fisheries landing statistics, as well as determining the degree of overlap between chondrichthyans and Costa Rican fisheries remains a priority. We proposed an adaptive management framework for chondrichthyan fisheries in data-poor countries where management goals/targets are clearly defined. This framework could strengthen the conservation of chondrichthyan populations in Costa Rica and the region.

  18. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  19. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ram?rez-Fern?ndez, Jos? D.; Fuchs, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird comm...

  20. Situation in the radiation protection field in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the radiation protection infrastructure in Costa Rica and makes reference to the existing legal framework. The national inventory of significant radiation sources and structure of the Ministry of Health as the national regulatory authority for radiation safety is illustrated; information is also provided on the radiation monitoring equipment available, on programme activities related to the control of radiation sources by authorization and inspection, and on technical support services. (author)

  1. Comunidades y territorio en la costa del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Burgos, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Se propone una definición teórica de la comunidad territorial sustentada en el concepto de identificación y la teoría del desarrollo rural territorial con el objeto de analizar las principales cadenas productivas que surcan la costa centro sur del Ecuador. Además se estudia a los principales movimientos agrarios que caracterizan un territorio que es sobre todo agrario y rural.

  2. Mesoscale primary production and bio-optical variability off Antofagasta (23-24º S during the transition to El Niño 1997-1998 Variabilidad de la producción primaria y bio-óptica a mesoescala frente a las costas de Antofagasta (23-24º S durante la transición a El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMITA PIZARRO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of primary production (PP, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and the photosynthetic parameters were studied off Antofagasta, Chile (23-24ºS, 70-72º W during austral summer and winter. Between cruises (January and July 1997, significant changes occurred in the water column, including higher temperatures in the euphotic zone (Zeu deepening of thermocline below Zeu, an increase of oxygen concentration and the intrusion of Subtropical Waters with potential limitation of nutrients. These strong physical anomalies due to the transition period of El Niño 1997-1998 appeared in this study area during March 1997. During the July cruise, the El Niño event 1997-1998 was in the middle of its development (IOS-2. The hypothesis that chlorophyll-a concentrations and primary production differ significantly in the coastal areas in the Antofagasta region due to year-round coastal upwelling was tested in this study. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-E experiments were performed daily, using simulated in situ incubations with samples collected within the Zeu. Also in vitro incubations were done at several selected stations. For results analyses, stations were pooled in coastal and oceanic sites according to distance from the narrow shelf and differential influence of local upwelling. Integrated Chl-a values during both cruises were significantly higher at the coastal stations, and since between cruises no differences were found, a mean value of 44 mg Chl-a m-2 can be reported for the coastal area. Daily PP values were significantly different in space and time (P Durante el verano e invierno austral, se estudió la variabilidad espacial de la producción primaria (PP, clorofila-a (Cl-a y los parámetros fotosintéticos en las costas de Antofagasta, Chile (23-24º S, 70-72º O. Entre ambos cruceros (enero y julio 1997 hubo cambios significativos en la columna de agua, los que incluyeron aumento de la temperatura en la zona eufótica (Zeu, profundizaci

  3. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  4. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  5. District Heating Expansion Potential with Low-Temperature and End-Use Heat Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Grundahl, Lars

    2018-01-01

    District heating has the potential to play a key role in the transition towards a renewable energy system. However, the development towards reduced heat demands threatens the feasibility of district heating. Despite this challenge, opportunity exists in the form of fourth generation district...... heating, which operates at lower temperatures and enables better renewable integration. This article investigates this challenge by examining the district heating potential within three scenarios: The first is a reference scenario with current heat demand and temperatures, the second includes heat demand...... costs. The models are applied using an example case of The Northern Region of Denmark. The article concludes that the district heating potential is highest in the reference scenario. When heat savings are introduced, district heating expansions, in most cases, will not be feasible. Introducing low...

  6. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  7. The seismogenic zone in the Central Costa Rican Pacific margin: high-quality hypocentres from an amphibious network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivonne G.; Husen, Stephan; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2014-10-01

    Transition from subduction of normal to thickened oceanic crust occurs in the central portion of the Costa Rican margin, where large interplate earthquakes ( M ~ 7) and abundant interseismic seismicity have been associated with subduction of bathymetric highs. We relocated ~1,300 earthquakes recorded for 6 months by a combined on- and offshore seismological network using probabilistic earthquake relocation in a 3D P-wave velocity model. Most of the seismicity originated at the seismogenic zone of the plate boundary, appearing as an 18° dipping, planar cluster from 15 to 25-30 km depth, beneath the continental shelf. Several reverse focal mechanisms were resolved within the cluster. The upper limit of this interseismic interplate seismicity seems to be controlled primarily by the overlying-plate thickness and coherency, which in turn is governed by the erosional processes and fluid release and escape at temperatures lower than ~100 to 120 °C along the plate boundary. The downdip limit of the stick-slip behaviour collocates with relative low temperatures of ~150 to 200 °C, suggesting that it is controlled by serpentinization of the mantle wedge. The distribution of the interseismic interplate seismicity is locally modified by the presence of subducted seamounts at different depths. Unlike in northern Costa Rica, rupture of large earthquakes in the last two decades seems to coincide with the area defined by the interseismic interplate seismicity.

  8. Evaluación del impacto de la reforma del sector de la salud en Costa Rica mediante un estudio cuasiexperimental Assessing the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica through a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rosero Bixby

    2004-02-01

    mortalidad de adultos debida a enfermedades transmisibles o desencadenadas por procesos infecciosos, nulo en la debida a causas sociales y similar al total (2% en la mortalidad debida a enfermedades crónicas. Se estima que la reforma salvó aproximadamente 120 vidas de niños y 350 vidas de adultos en el año 2001 únicamente. La reforma se puso en marcha primero en las zonas menos densamente pobladas y de menor desarrollo socioeconómico. Como resultado, la brecha en la equidad del acceso a los servicios de salud en el primer nivel de atención se redujo significativamente. El porcentaje de personas sin acceso equitativo a los servicios de salud del primer nivel de atención se redujo en 15% entre 1994 y 2000 en las áreas que adoptaron la reforma en 1995-1996, mientras que en las áreas que no habían adoptado la reforma en 2000, la reducción fue solo de 3%. CONCLUSIÓN: La reforma redujo significativamente la mortalidad en Costa Rica y puso fin a una década de estancamiento en algunos indicadores, como la esperanza de vida. El efecto de la reforma se produjo probablemente gracias a su focalización en las regiones menos desarrolladas del país, lo cual dio lugar a un mejoramiento en la equidad de acceso al primer nivel de atención médica.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica on that country's child and adult mortality rates and on the people's access to primary health care. METHODS: Health sector reform was initiated in Costa Rica in 1995 in some districts, but in others reforms were adopted later. This made it possible to perform a time series analysis, using a quasi-experimental study design, in which observations were made annually from 1985 through 2001 for each of the 420 districts that existed in Costa Rica in 1984. The time series were divided into three periods that allowed all districts to be grouped into three categories (pioneer, intermediate, and late according to the year when they first implemented health sector reform

  9. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  10. Aging in the Americas: Disability-free Life Expectancy Among Adults Aged 65 and Older in the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F

    2018-01-11

    To estimate and compare disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and current age patterns of disability onset and recovery from disability between the United States and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disability is measured using the activities of daily living scale. Data come from longitudinal surveys of older adult populations in Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Age patterns of transitions in and out of disability are modeled with a discrete-time logistic hazard model, and a microsimulation approach is used to estimate DFLE. Overall life expectancy for women aged 65 is 20.11 years in Costa Rica, 19.2 years in Mexico, 20.4 years in Puerto Rico, and 20.5 years in the United States. For men, these figures are 19.0 years in Costa Rica, 18.4 years in Mexico, 18.1 years in Puerto Rico, and 18.1 years in the United States. Proportion of remaining life spent free of disability for women at age 65 is comparable between Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States, with Costa Rica trailing slightly. Male estimates of DFLE are similar across the four populations. Though the older adult population of Latin America and the Caribbean lived many years exposed to poor epidemiological and public health conditions, their functional health in later life is comparable with the older adult population of the United States. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Attention to Diversity: the Experience of UNA Quality Education Project, from the National University of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana-Hernández, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, the educational Costa Rican system has experienced significant changes, due to the legal framework, so much in the national and international levels, since the promulgation of the Law 7600 Equality of Opportunities for the Persons with Disability in Costa Rica (Costa Rica, Asamblea Legislativa,1996) to the proposal of the Law 8661 Convention on the Human rights of the Persons with Disability (Costa Rica. Asamblea Legislativa, 2008). Due to the temporary space in whic...

  12. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  13. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  14. Inventario de las macroalgas dulceacuícolas y marinas de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bernecker Lucking, Andrea; Morales Zurcher, María

    2011-01-01

    Contiene un listado sobre los diferentes grupos de algas, sobre todo las macro algas de agua dulce y marinas para aumentar la lista de especies de algas de Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Ciencias Básicas::Facultad de Ciencias::Escuela de Biología

  15. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  16. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  17. A Tale of Two Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  18. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  19. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  20. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration that includes 13 advanced-d...

  1. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1976-01-01

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  2. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  3. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  4. Financial Law (By: Lecturer PhD Cosmin Flavius Costas)

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan, Ionel

    2018-01-01

    Through these lines we will stop on a specialty written by a young university student, an exponent of the Superior Law School in Cluj-Napoca. This is the book entitled Drept Financiar [Financial Law], published by Lecturer PhD Cosmin Flavius Costas. On the volume entitled Financial Law, which was published at the end of the year 2016 (ISBN:978-606-673-816-3, Pages: 396) we mention here a radiography "made from four perspectives - national finances, local finance, social security finances and ...

  5. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  6. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  7. Costa Rica – “Bogate Wybrzeże” = Costa Rica – „Rich Coast”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Napierala

    2016-02-01

    Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy   Słowa kluczowe: turystyka, Kostaryka, parki narodowe. Key words: tourism, Costa Rica, national parks.   Streszczenie Materiał stanowi dokument z obserwacji autora z pobytu w Kostaryce. Pobyt miał miejsce na przełomie 2015 i 2016 roku i był okazją do zwiedzenia miejsc ciekawych w klimacie podrównikowym. Podróżowanie to odwieczne ludzkie marzenie. Treścią wielu wyjazdów staje się odkrywanie nieznanego, szukanie odmienności w klimacie, florze i faunie, kulturze i zwyczajach ludzi. Można tu spotkać wiele gatunków zwierząt jak: małpy, krokodyle, liczne odmiany barwnych papug, kolibrów, tukany, ciekawe gatunki jaszczurek, węży, bogato ubarwione żaby, żółwie czy legwany. Ciekawe są także chrząszcze i wiele gatunków motyli. Kostaryka zostanie w pamięci miejscem fantastycznych krajobrazów, wakacyjny fenomenem.   Abstract The material is a document from the observation of the author's stay in Costa Rica. Visit took place at the turn of 2015 and 2016 years and was an opportunity to visit interesting places in equatorial climates. Travelling to the eternal human dream. The content of many trips becomes discovering the unknown, looking for differences in climate, flora and fauna, culture and customs of people. You can meet many animal species as .: monkeys, crocodiles, numerous varieties of colorful parrots, hummingbirds, toucans, interesting species of lizards, snakes, richly colored frogs, turtles and iguanas. Interesting are also many species of beetles and butterflies. Costa Rica is in the memory of the place fantastic landscapes, house phenomenon.

  8. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  9. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  10. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980's, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public.

  11. Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht Vatke (Lamiaceae collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were -pinene (26.6%, cis -pinocamphone (25.1%, -3-carene (6.1%, trans -pinocamphone (4.0%, camphor (3.8% and -caryophyllene (3.7%.Se estudiaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron 51 compuestos (que representan ca. del 93% del aceite. El aceite se caracteriza por la presencia de gran cantidad de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45.9% y de monoterpenos oxigenados (39.7%. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron -pineno (26.6%, cis -pinocanfona (25.1%, -3-careno (6.1%, trans -pinocanfona (4.0%, alcanfor (3.8% y -cariofileno (3.7%.

  12. Costa Rica Rainfall in Future Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Rodriguez, R. A., Sr.; Amador, J. A.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of intraseasonal and annual cycles of meteorological variables, using projections of climate change, are nowadays extremely important to improve regional socio-economic planning for countries. This is particularly true in Costa Rica, as Central America has been identified as a climate change hot spot. Today many of the economic activities in the region, especially those related to agriculture, tourism and hydroelectric power generation are linked to the seasonal cycle of precipitation. Changes in rainfall (mm/day) and in the diurnal temperature range (°C) for the periods 1950-2005 and 2006-2100 were investigated using the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) constructed using the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5) data. Differences between the multi-model ensembles of the two prospective scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and the retrospective baseline scenario were computed. This study highlights Costa Rica as an inflexion point of the climate change in the region and also suggests future drying conditions.

  13. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  14. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; differences by gender are also analyzed. Based on an ex post facto design, a standardized instrument was used to measure five types of aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal-emotional, physical, sexual, relational and threats in a sample of 468 adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica. Results show that most participants had committed or suffered aggressions in dating relationships, especially verbal-emotional or both verbal-emotional and sexual abuse, but the mean frequency of reported aggression was low; some significant intersex differences were also found. Results obtained indicate that adolescents have difficulties to deal with conflicts in their romantic relationship; thus this problem needs to be addressed holistically in order to increase the impact of prevention programs for youth.

  15. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Setzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forestsSe realizó un análisis farmacológico de plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica, que incluye 165 especies representantes de 61 familias. Se probó in-vitro la actividad bactericida y fungicida, así como la actividad citotóxica y anti-herpes de extractos crudos de plantas. De estos, 123 extractos exhibieron una notable citotoxicidad, 62 mostraron actividad antibacterial, 4 presentaron actividad antihongos, y 8 mostraron una promisoria actividad antiviral. Así, de las 101 especies de plantas examinadas en este trabajo, 62% presentaron una marcada actividad biológica en uno o más de los bioensayos. Estos resultados subrayan el potencial fitomédico de los bosques nubosos Neotropicales

  16. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition [es

  17. Radioactivity levels in three regions of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Salazar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the first radioactivity levels of natural radiation was carried out during the period 1991 to 1994 in three different regions of Costa Rica. The radionuclides studied belong to different soil types related to each selected region. Utilizing low level counting techniques the specific activity of the natural radioactive chains 238 U daughters, 232 Th and the element 40 K were measured for a total of 120 samples during this period. The amount of 137 Cs, a fall out radionuclide, was also studied. The average national values in Bq.kg -1 measured for 238 U were 11.66 for 214 Bi, 34.42 for 226 Ra and 10.73 for 232 Pb, for 232 Th daughters were 4.08 for 208 Tl, 9.65 for 212 Bi and 7.62 for 228 Ac. The specific activity value for 40 K was 95.14 Bq.kg -1 and for 137 Cs was 2.38 Bq.kg -1 . It is found that Costa Rica is not highly natural radioactive country and that the values for 137 Cs are well below international reported values [es

  18. [Unnecessary premature and avoidable mortality in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca Castro, Fernando; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    With the intention of establishing economic inequities, the article analyzes the variations of the Unnecessarily Premature and Sanitarily Avoidable Mortality (MIPSE) of each of the 81 cantons of Costa Rica during 2000-2005. It is important to identify those inequities, to establish policies and strategies trying to mitigate them. It applies the MIPSE classification proposed by members of the Information and Studies Service, of the Catalunya's Sanitary Resources Headquarter, Spain. By an Indicator of Socioeconomic Development (IDSE) of a University of Costa Rica economist's team, it organised each canton in groups of quintiles (I for the richest, V for the poorest), previous people standardization. We found as a major causes of mortality MIPSE in the country: Heart Isquemic Disease (19,55% MIPSE causes), Traffic Accidents with Motor Vehicles (11,60%), Brain Vascular Disease (6,95%), Perinatal (6,92%) and Suicide (5,14%). The VIH infection - AIDS mortality, the Best Cancer in Women, Uterus Cancer, Skin Cancer and Hepatic Disease Secondary to Alcohol Consumption, affects more the cantons with better financial conditions and the Prostate Benign Hyperplasia mortality, Mothers mortality related with Pregnancy, Childbirth or Puerperal Stage and the Abdominal Hernia mortality, affects more to those with worst economic level. Two MIPSE groups were identified with similar inequality: Leukaemia and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease.

  19. La maestra Alda Costa: un mártir antifascista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cagnolati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sector interesante al que aplicar nuevas categorías de la investigación histórica y social es, sin duda, el de la educación de las mujeres. Maestras, educadoras, pedagogas fueron revolucionarias en diversas épocas de la historia dedicando su existencia a la difusión de conocimientos que pudiesen ser aprovechados por otras mujeres. Para ello fundaron escuelas, escribieron libros y publicaron periódicos. En este sentido las maestras socialistas italianas fueron pioneras al difundir palabras claves como derechos, democracia e igualdad de sueldo. Una figura muy importante fue la maestra antifascista Alda Costa (1876-1944, que luchó contra el militarismo italiano antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial y asumió encargos de gran relevancia en el Partido Socialista. Además fue amiga de Giacomo Matteotti, asesinado por los fascistas en Roma en junio de 1925. Alda Costa fue encarcelada, por su oposición al régimen, y los sufrimientos padecidos precipitaron su muerte.

  20. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  1. Large-Scale Transit Signal Priority Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kevin S.; Lozner, Bailey

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) deployed Transit Signal Priority (TSP) at 195 intersections in highly urbanized areas of Washington, DC. In collaboration with a broader regional implementation, and in partnership with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), DDOT set out to apply a systems engineering–driven process to identify, design, test, and accept a large-scale TSP system. This presentation will highlight project successes and lessons learned.

  2. Initial Assessment and Modeling Framework Development for Automated Mobility Districts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Stanley E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Garikapati, Venu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-07

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displaces private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This paper examines a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMD). This paper reviews several such districts, including airports, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit-based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs

  3. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  4. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  5. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  6. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  7. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  8. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Mujeres esclavas en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII: Estrategias frente a la esclavitud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Acuña León

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La esclavitud formaba parte de la vida cotidiana en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII. De ahí nuestro interés en visibilizar a la mujer esclava en dicha sociedad. Por tanto en este trabajo se indicará porqué razones y por cuales rutas llegaron estas mujeres a la provincia de Costa Rica y se analizaran los mecanismos de acción y negociación utilizados por estas mujeres esclavas para enfrentar y sobrevivir la maquinaria esclavista. Esto significa el examinar y analizar sus experiencias, sus respuestas y actitudes ante la esclavitud, en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII.

  10. Leading Change: Transitioning to the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    For many school districts in the United States, making the transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is proving to be a challenge at a time when they are already facing many obstacles, not the least of which is dwindling financial resources. A change of this magnitude cannot be made haphazardly; to be successful in its goal of helping…

  11. Vietnam’s forest transition in retrospect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankersen, Jeppe; Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    factors like forest degradation and the lack of linearity in forest cover transitions challenge the accuracy of such scenarios. Here we predict and validate such BAU scenarios retrospectively based on forest cover changes at village and district level in North Central Vietnam. With the government...

  12. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  13. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  14. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe

    2014-01-01

    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  15. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  16. Evaluation of transitional and modern hives for honey production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Adami Tulu and Arsi Negelle districts from September 2009 to June 2012 to evaluate productivity performance of transitional and modern box bee hives. Based on farmers' capacity, one modern box hive and one transitional hive made from locally available materials were used at each of the ...

  17. Transition of Navajo Special Education Students in a Rural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsley, Virginia; Dugi, Audrelia; Gonnie, Pat; Heimbecker, Connie; Jennings, Marianne; Medina, Catherine; Sorgnit, Heather; Watt, Carolyn; Prater, Greg

    The Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD)(Arizona) transition program helps prepare Dine (Navajo) special education students for postsecondary opportunities within their own communities and outside the Navajo Reservation. The senior transition class entails a year-long course that focuses on the application process for tribal and federal…

  18. Del Horizonte Medio al Horizonte Tardío en la Costa Sur Central: el caso del valle de Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available DE L’HORIZON MOYEN A L’HORIZON RECENT SUR LA COTE CENTRALE : LE CAS DE LA VALLEE DE ASIA. La vallée de Asia, située à quelque 100 km au sud de Lima, a joué un rôle important durant l’Horizon moyen. En effet, les contextes funéraires de la Huaca Malena et les textiles élaborés qui en sont issus, suggèrent d’étroites relations avec Huari, Pachacamac, et les côtes centrale et nord. L’étude des textiles nous permet de voir que la transition de l’Horizon moyen à la période Intermédiaire récent se marque par une croissance des relations avec la côte centrale. Selon les données ethnohistoriques, la vallée de Asia était durant la période Intermédiaire récent habitée par les Coyallo, qui versaient tribut à Pachacamac. À l’Horizon récent, les Incas construisirent d’importants centres administratifs dans la vallée, et durant cette période le matériel céramique montre de fortes relations avec les styles des vallées voisines au nord, comme Mala, Chilca, et la côte aux alentours de Lima. El valle de Asia, situado a 100 kilómetros al sur de Lima, jugó un rol de importancia durante el Horizonte Medio. En efecto, los contextos funerarios de Huaca Malena, así como los finos textiles que los acompañan indican una fuerte relación con Wari, Pachacamac, la Costa Central y la Costa Norte. De acuerdo con la evidencia textil, el tránsito del Horizonte Medio al periodo Intermedio Tardío incrementó las relaciones con la costa central. Para el periodo Intermedio Tardío, de acuerdo a la información etnohistórica, el valle estuvo habitado por los coayllo, quienes tributaban a Pachacamac. Durante el Horizonte Tardío, los incas construyen importantes centros administrativos en el valle, y la cerámica durante este periodo se relacionó fuertemente con los estilos propios de los vecinos valles norteños de Mala, Chilca y la costa de Lima. FROM THE MIDDLE HORIZON TO THE LATE HORIZON ON THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST: THE CASE OF THE

  19. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de los Angeles Valverde, Maria; Goris, M. G. A.; González, V.; Anchia, M. E.; Díaz, P.; Ahmed, A.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in

  20. NEW SPECIES OF AGRILUS FROM NICARAGUA AND COSTA RICA (COLEOPTERA, BUPRESTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Curletti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of the genus Agrilus Curtis, 1825 from Costa Rica and Nicaragua are described: A. barriesi n. sp., A. maesi n. sp., A. ursus n. sp., A. tyrannus n. sp. and A. pumilio n. sp.

  1. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  2. CASE STUDY: Costa Rica — Consumer Choice at the Corner Store ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-17

    Dec 17, 2010 ... But people in Costa Rica noticed when a competition authority ruling forced ... on such issues as the defendants' price, marketing, and sales policies. ... the CPC lumped non-alcoholic carbonated beverages with canned and ...

  3. Enseñanza del Derecho Electoral en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La ponencia pretende revisar cuál ha sido el tratamiento académico que los estudios electorales (en general y el derecho electoral (en particular han recibido en Costa Rica, así como profundizar en la importancia de la enseñanza del derecho electoral en nuestro país. Mediante un repaso a la reconocida autonomía del derecho electoral, así como los abordajes que su estudio ha tenido en los contextos universitario y profesional, la ponencia concluye que el plan de estudios de la carrera de licenciatura en Derecho debe contemplar al menos un curso de Derecho Electoral, sea mediante uno específico en la materia (preferiblemente, o bien, mediante el reconocimiento expreso de la enseñanza del derecho electoral como parte medular e integral del curso de Derecho Constitucional (en su defecto.

  4. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  5. Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.

  6. Transformación productiva y desigualdad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica termina la primera década del siglo XXI sin haber sido capaz de superar las limitaciones estructurales e institucionales que le impiden transitar con paso firme hacia mayores y crecientes niveles de desarrollo económico y bienestar social. Las últimas tres décadas se han caracterizado por un proceso en el cual el modelo de desarrollo ha puesto particular énfasis en la estabilización macroeconómica y en una estrategia de crecimiento económico basada en el sector externo de la economía. Los resultados de la reforma económica y la estrategia de desarrollo, impulsadas desde la década de los 1980s, han sido insuficientes para retomar el camino de la transformación productiva con equidad.

  7. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  8. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  9. Comparison Of Development: Ireland, South Korea, Finland And Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The article compares the development followed by Finland, South Korea and Ireland and compares in some ways with which Costa Rica has had. The initial situation starts in the 1960s, the policies pursued by each country in the context of their models and then, sets the current situation of these countries. Finally, define some lessons learned by the nations, the result of the achievements and challenges of development. El artículo compara, en ciertos aspectos, el desarrollo que ha tenido Fi...

  10. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  11. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  12. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

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    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. Mediante el empleo de el Indicador de Desarrollo Socioeconómico (IDSE establecido por economistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, previa estandarización de la población, se ordenaron los cantones en grupos por quintiles (I el más rico, Vel más pobre. Resultados: Se encontraron como causas principales de mortalidad MIPSE la enfermedad isquémica del corazón (19,55% causas MIPSE, accidentes de tránsito con vehículos a motor (11,60%, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (6,95%, perinatal (6,92% y suicidios (5,14%. Conclusión: La mortalidad por HIVy el Sida, el cáncer de mamá en mujeres, cáncer de cuerpo de útero, cáncer de piel y por hepatitis secundaria al consumo de alcohol, afectan más a los cantones con mayores ingresos. La mortalidad por hiperplasia benigna de próstata, la materna asociada al embarazo, parto o puerperio y la hernia abdominal afectan más a los de menor nivel económico. Se identificaron dos grupos de MIPSE con desigualdad equidistribuida: leucemia y enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas.

  13. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  14. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

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    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.

  15. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  16. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  17. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, J. Francisco; González, José

    2007-01-01

    Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. B...

  18. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Diaz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author) [es

  19. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  20. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Capariniaspp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete l...

  1. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Andrés; Troyo,Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas,Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  2. THE DETERMINATION OF THE COSTA RICA COLON/USD EXCHANGE RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare four major exchange rate models for the Costa Rica Colon. We examine exchange rate data for the Costa Rica/U.S. dollar relationship from 1981-2007 and find that monetary models have a higher explanatory ability whereas the Mundell-Fleming model performs better in forecasting exchange rates than other models. The coefficient of the interest rate differential in the uncovered interest parity model has a wrong sign.

  3. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  4. Comparative cytogenetics of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965 is comprized of five valid species (F. pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, F. zonatus, F. simplex, F. obscurus Costa, 1996, and F. palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999, which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type F. pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of F. zonatus and F. simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and F. simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but F. zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic.

  5. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  6. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  7. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  8. Energy Neutral Districts in 2050. The Dutch Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Roossien, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Visser, H.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Willems, E. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    According to the EPBD, from the end of 2020 on all new buildings should be built as nearly zero energy buildings. Instead of focusing on buildings only, a district approach to energy supply and consumption can be advantageous as regards the energy performance and economics. The potential of renewable energy technologies can be utilized to a larger extent while fewer energy generators are needed. An example is a so called energy-hub, in which exchange, conversion and seasonal storage of energy can lead to energy neutral districts before 2050. The Dutch study Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development (Transep-DGO), financed largely by the AgentschapNL, has shown that this is possible. For energy neutral district development in 2050, six innovative energy concepts have been elaborated and the extent of energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 calculated. Three concepts are based on an idea of an energy hub - bio hub, geo hub and a solar hub. Other concepts are all-electric, conventional and hydrogen concepts. Calculations show that implementation of each of the concepts can lead to energy neutral districts in 2050 or even earlier. When personal transport is included, energy neutrality in 2050 is not feasible. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts tailored for four Dutch cities have been elaborated as pilots, in close cooperation with municipality representatives. Solar hub has been dynamically simulated in order to show the added value of the exchange, conversion and storage of energy flows on a district scale. Energy Pattern Generator (EPG) has been applied for simulation of a virtual district with 1,000 dwellings of various categories. A solar hub with collective heat storage can reduce the demanded storage capacity by 26%, and the total required solar collector surface by 30% at maximum compared to individual seasonal heat storage capacity in dwellings that are not connected in an energy hub. Energy hub

  9. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  10. Spatial variation in basic chemistry of streams draining a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, C.M.; Triska, F.J.; Browder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variability in selected chemical, physical and biological parameters was examined in waters draining relatively pristine tropical forests spanning elevations from 35 to 2600 meters above sea level in a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope. Waters were sampled within three different vegetative life zones and two transition zones. Water temperatures ranged from 24-25 ??C in streams draining lower elevations (35-250 m) in tropical wet forest, to 10 ??C in a crater lake at 2600 m in montane forest. Ambient phosphorus levels (60-300 ??g SRP L-1; 66-405 ??g TP L-1) were high at sites within six pristine drainages at elevations between 35-350 m, while other undisturbed streams within and above this range in elevation were low (typically <30.0 ??g SRP L-1). High ambient phosphorus levels within a given stream were not diagnostic of riparian swamp forest. Phosphorus levels (but not nitrate) were highly correlated with conductivity, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg and SO4. Results indicate two major stream types: 1) phosphorus-poor streams characterized by low levels of dissolved solids reflecting local weathering processes; and 2) phosphorus-rich streams characterized by relatively high Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, Ca and other dissolved solids, reflecting dissolution of basaltic rock at distant sources and/or input of volcanic brines. Phosphorus-poor streams were located within the entire elevation range, while phosphorus-rich streams were predominately located at the terminus of Pleistocene lava flows at low elevations. Results indicate that deep groundwater inputs, rich in phosphorus and other dissolved solids, surface from basaltic aquifers at breaks in landform along faults and/or where the foothills of the central mountain range merge with the coastal plain. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  11. Early Stages of Morpho amathonte (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Morphinae and its Variation on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Pacific Coast of Costa Rica shows some local variations in its four Morpho species. The goal of this article is to compare the life cycle of M. amathonte from different areas in Costa Rica and South America. The immature stages were found on Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. and then photographed and described so as to illustrate its morphology and behavior. It is clear, that M. amathonte from the South Pacific side of Costa Rica comes from one isolated population and demonstrates a cryptic nature between the two forms present in Costa Rica.

  12. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.Los arrecifes coralinos, pastos marinos y manglares de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica han sido monitoreados desde 1999 siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP. La cobertura de coral vivo en el arrecife de Meager Shoal (7 a 10m de

  13. Familial Breast Cancer in Costa Rica: An Initial Approach

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    Adriana Ramírez Monge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records, in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 531-536. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El cáncer es un problema a nivel mundial porque posee altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. Para el año 2000 más de 6.2 millones de personas murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. El cáncer de mama es uno de los tipos de cáncer más estudiados en el mundo por las mismas razones. Cada año, se diagnostican más de un mill

  14. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems

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    Glen Arrieta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita, and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa. In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Cararait was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%,oval (20%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and cubic (1%, bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%. Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Río Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed ä -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with

  15. Las actitudes lingüísticas en el español de San José, Costa Rica

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    Annette Calvo Shadid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de cuatro distritos de la capital, San José, frente al español Costa Rica y el español de los otros países hispanohablantes. La presente investigación constituye un estudio sociolingüístico cuantitativo y es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 404 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. En el artículo se abordan las actitudes lingüísticas desde tres tipos de percepciones, a saber, percepciones cognitivo-lingüísticas y actitudes afectivas sobre el español nacional, opiniones sobre la corrección lingüística y los medios de comunicación y sobre la unidad o diversidad del español; percepciones cognitivo-lingüísticas sobre el español de los otros países, y actitudes afectivas y preferencias por otras variedades lingüísticas del idioma. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of Spanish speakers from four districts of the capital, San José, towards Spanish spoken in Costa Rica and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is based on a quantitative sociolinguistic study and is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 404 respondents based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The linguistic attitudes are studied from three types of perceptions, namely, cognitive-linguistic perceptions and affective attitudes on national Spanish, opinions about the linguistic correction and the media, and about the unity or diversity of the Spanish language

  16. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  17. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  18. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  19. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  20. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  1. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarria, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  2. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  3. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  4. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  5. VT Data - Overlay District 20170228, Richmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following overlay districts are included in the data:Shoreline Protection OverlayFlood Hazard OverlayDetails about these overlay districts, as well as zoning...

  6. The declining effect of sibling size on children's education in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Costa Rica experienced a dramatic fertility decline in the 1960s and 1970s. The same period saw substantial improvement in children's educational attainment in Costa Rica. This correlation is consistent with household-level quantity-quality tradeoffs, but prior research on quantity-quality tradeoff magnitudes is mixed, and little research has estimated quantity-quality tradeoff behaviors in Latin America. Objective: This study explores one dimension of the potential demographic dividend from the fertility decline: the extent to which it was accompanied by quantity-quality tradeoffs leading to higher educational attainment. Specifically, we provide the first estimate of quantity-quality tradeoffs in Costa Rica, analyzing the increase in secondary school attendance among Costa Rican children as the number of siblings decreases. Furthermore, we advance the literature by exploring how that tradeoff has changed over time. Methods: We use 1984 and 2000 Costa Rican census data as well as survey data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES. To address endogenous family size, the analysis uses an instrumental variable strategy based on the gender of the first two children to identify the causal relationship between number of siblings and children's education. Results: We find that, among our earlier cohorts, having fewer siblings is associated with a significantly higher probability of having attended at least one year of secondary school, particularly among girls. The effect is stronger after we account for the endogeneity of number of children born by the mother. For birth cohorts after 1980 this relationship largely disappears. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a declining quantity-quality (Q-Q tradeoff in Costa Rica. This result suggests one potential explanation for the heterogeneous findings in prior studies elsewhere, but more work will be required to understand why such tradeoffs might vary

  7. Aves marinas de las costas e islas colombianas

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    Dugand Armando

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista de aves marinas que presento en este artículo se refiere en su mayor parte a especies que varios autores (véase Obras citadas han señalado en las costas e islas marítimas de Colombia o en las aguas extraterritoriales del Mar Caribe y del Océano Pacífico inmediatamente próximas a este país. Los ejemplares examinados que menciono fuera de tales referencias pertenecen casi todos a la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y se señalan con las siglas ICN. Unos pocos son del museo de historia natural del Colegio Biffi, en Barranquilla, a cuyo custodio, el Hermano Hildeberto María, doy las gracias por haberme permitido examinarlos. Los que señalo con las palabras Exped. Askoy, seguidas de un numero (de la serie del American Museum of Natural History, forman parte de una interesante colección que nos envió en 1942 el doctor Robert Cushman Murphy, actual Director del Departamento de Aves del American Museum of Natural History, Nueva York. Estos fueron obtenidos por la expedición oceanográfica que, bajo la dirección del doctor Murphy, realizaron en la goleta "Askoy" varios miembros de aquel museo, acompañados por el Comandante Eduardo Fallon, de la Marina Colombiana, en aguas del Pacifico desde Panamá hasta el Ecuador. La Expedición de la "Askoy", que duró de febrero a mayo de 1941, exploró varias bahías y ensenadas en el litoral del Chocó y del Departamento del Valle, así como las islas de Gorgona y Gorgonilla al norte de la costa de Nariño, y el peñón inhabitado de Malpelo, posesión oceánica colombiana situada a unos 500 kilómetros al occidente de Buenaventura, en la latitud de 3° 59' 07" N. y la longitud de 81° 34' 27" W. de Greenwich, según posición determinada por Murphy (1936, I, p. 319, fig. 49 .

  8. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  9. Antioxidant activity of Costa Rican propolis: a multivariate analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umana Rojas, Eduardo; Solado, Godofredo; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is produced by Apis mellifera bees from resins of plants that are found around the apiary. The chemical composition is highly variable and Costa Rica has reported without studies of characterization to define the types of propolis in the country. 119 samples were collected from beekeeping areas of the country. The spectrum of 1 H-NMR and its antioxidant activity against DPPH radical were measured. The spectra have been divided into 243 blocks of 0,04 ppm and processed with the Minitab software for multivariate analysis. 99 of the samples collected were used for construction of models for the valuation of the predictive ability of the model have been used coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of prediction by the software and the remaining 20 samples. The existence of three types of propolis with chemically different metabolomes were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). A prediction model was constructed by analysis of partial least squares (PLS). The prediction model has allowed to classify a propolis according to the level of antioxidant activity (AAO), high (type I and II) or low (type III) from the spectrum of 1 H-NMR. The R 2 has been 0.88 and R 2 prediction of 0, 718 for new samples. The nconiferyl benzoate of group I and nemorosone of the group II as two discriminated antioxidants among the groups I and II were isolated and high concentration levels of these compounds have been differentiated with respect to type III. This has allowed the construction of a linear discriminant model with a success rate of 100% for the samples used for formulation and 92,9 for the prediction of different samples. The classification systems could be applied to the standardization of the quality of propolis from Costa Rica for future medicinal or cosmetic applications that take advantage of its antioxidant properties. Also, the methylated derivative has isolated and identified of the nconiferyl benzoate thereof propolis than was obtained his counterpart

  10. VIABILIDAD DEL SEGURO DE DEPÓSITOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Durán V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es estimar si el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito en Costa Rica es viable o no, así como, exponer las principales características de dicho sistema de protección.Adicionalmente, se considera oportuno iniciar el debate sobre un tema que ha sido postergado y que debería ser de interés en el ámbito financiero nacional. Por tanto, es necesario animar la discusión de este tema en foros bancarios para ir generando ideas alternativas y conclusiones que contribuyan con el fortalecimiento y desarrollo del sistema financiero y no esperar hasta que la crisis sistémica (peligro latente de contagio sobre el resto del sistema se muestre a la vuelta de la esquina.El riesgo de las crisis sistémicas ha llevado a muchos países a estudiar e implementar sistemas de seguro de depósitos (SSD, con el interés de minimizar el efecto dominó o contagio que podría generar una corrida de fondos bancarios, dada una situación de desconfianza en los depositantes por la pérdida de sus recursos, producto de la quiebra de un banco.En Costa Rica, el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito debe formar parte de la agenda de estudio de las Reformas del Sistema Financiero, puesto que el SSD junto con la función de prestamista de última instancia y la supervisión prudencial conforman los cimientos de seguridad básica de un sistema financiero moderno e inmerso en la globalización.Por su parte, los resultados de la estimación del seguro de depósitos para nuestro país, mostraron que la implementación es viable desde el punto de vista financiero, según criterio de expertos. Además, el impacto estimado sobre el margen financiero se considera insignificante para los participantes en el sistema bancario. Por tanto, se estaría rompiendo con el mito de que el seguro de los depósitos vendría a ser un impuesto adicional importante, sino más bien un beneficio, en el sentido de la mayor confianza y

  11. CADENA DEL CAFÉ DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Carranza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La operación de las actividades económicas y su competitividad, analizadas desde una perspectiva de cadenas globales de mercancías, dependen del funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito, tanto nacionales como internacionales. La operación normal de los negocios requiere crédito para fortalecer sus recursos propios y hacer las compras de materia prima, insumos, pago de salarios e inversión. En todos los casos, el crédito puede ser utilizado para mejorar el diseño de productos, impulsar el acceso a nuevos mercados y aumentar la competitividad. A los productores de la región de Los Santos en Costa Rica se les reconoce por innovadores, y al café de la zona por ser un café de altura y de gran calidad. El artículo explora las necesidades de financiamiento de productores, beneficiadores y exportadores de café de Los Santos, sus fuentes de financiamiento y el uso dado a los recursos obtenidos. Entre las necesidades orientadas al mejoramiento de la competitividad se encontraron la renovación de cafetales entre los productores, el mantenimiento de proyectos y tecnología entre los beneficios y la generación de microbeneficios y búsqueda de nichos de mercado entre los exportadores. Abstract From a global commodity chains perspective, economic activities and their competitiveness depend upon the functioning of credit markets, both international and domestic. Current businesses operations require credit to enhance their own resources in order to buy raw material and inputs, pay wages and make investment. Credit may also be used to improve product design, enter new markets and boost competitiveness as a result. High altitude grown coffee from Los Santos, Costa Rica is widely known for its quality, and their growers as innovative. This paper addresses credit needs of coffee growers, processors and exporters in Los Santos, the credit sources they have access to, and the kind of uses the credit is given. Improving competitiveness uses

  12. Geology of Tapanti quadrangle (1:50 000), Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojo, Dennis; Denyer, Percy; Gazel, Esteban; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2017-01-01

    A geologic map scale 1:50 000, stratigraphic and structural of the 509 km 2 of the Tapanti quadrangle is presented. The Tapanti quadrant is located in the central region of Costa Rica and belongs to the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB). The CCRDB was a consequence of the interaction of the Cocos Ridge and the Western edge of the Panama microplate. Petrographic, geochemistry and paleontological analyzes were performed by selecting samples collected in the more than 100 field visits, with more than 300 outcrops raised. The geological information was compiled in a Geographical Information System. Lambert North coordinate system was employed. Aerial and topographic photographs from the TERRA Project 1997 and Digital Elevation Model were used. 18 rock samples were analyzed petrographically to discard altered samples. Rock samples were screened. The gravels or grains obtained were washed with deionized water in an ultrasonic stack. Gravel with signs of alteration were discarded by stereoscopic microscope. The powder obtained from the spraying of 25 mg of gravel each sample was melted and combined with Lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) and poured into glass discs. The discs were analyzed to determine concentrations of major elements and traced through of X-Ray Fluorescence in a Bruker S4 Pioner, and by a mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) in a Micromass Platform ICP-MS, respectively. The oldest rocks mapped in this work are Miocene in age and they belongs to Pacacua, Pena Negra and Coris formations, than form the western edge of the Candelaria basin. Three igneous events were distinguished. First, the Miocene volcanic arc, which is represented by the rocks of La Cruz Formation and the clasts of Pacacua Formation. Another period of igneous activity was recorded in Grifo Alto and Doan formations and the Tapanti Intrusive, with an age range of 0.6-0.03 Ma. From a geochemical point of view a change in the composition of magmatism was remarkable between 10 to 6 Ma, expressed

  13. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  14. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  15. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (2) changes in the relative position of existing districts with respect to onion production; (3) the... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... Districts. (a) For the purpose of selecting committee members, the following districts of the production...

  16. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  17. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  18. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grower districts. 982.31 Section 982.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... importance of production in each district and the number of growers in each district; (2) the geographic...

  19. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  20. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA (RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BENEFITS FOR NICARAGUANS WHO LIVE IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas Carmen Grace

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.Abstract:Costa Rica has become a multicultural country. Many people immigrated to it looking for a better lifestyle. Most of these people are Nicaraguans, who are three quarters of the total amount of immigrants in Costa Rica. In 2007, the School of Physical Education and Sports at the University of Costa Rica conducted a research to study how this Nicaraguans recreated before and after they immigrated to Costa Rica. The research conducted was qualitative, phenomenological, and included 13 Nicaraguans, who lived in the Metropolitan Area. This article is the first of several papers that will report the result of the research. The information of this article was collected with

  1. Regional District Attorney's Offices - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    District Stephen B. Wallace, District Attorney Physical Address: 204 Chief Eddie Hoffman Hwy. Bethel, AK Hours M-TH 8-4:30, F 8-12 Kenai - 3rd Judicial District Scot H. Leaders, District Attorney Trading Bay

  2. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Shallow, well- Deep alluvial Deep to moderate Mostly shallow drained, residual soils, with clay, depth... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... Adelaida District viticultural area are hillside residual soils, which generally have shallow rooting...

  3. Moving Theory to Practice: One State's Role in Professional Learning for School and District Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine-Shaw, Donna

    2016-01-01

    As a continuum of professional learning for building and district leaders transitioning from leadership preparation programs into practice, the state of Kansas enacted mentoring and induction requirements as part of their role in supporting development of leadership skills important to on-the-job application of essential knowledge. One approved…

  4. Percepción de la biotecnología en estudiantes universitarios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una encuesta para estudiar la percepción y el grado de conocimiento sobre biotecnología y organismos modificados genéticamente (OMGs, en una muestra de estudiantes (n=750 de tres universidades públicas de Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, Universidad Nacional (UNA e Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR. Se encontró que un 88% mostraron un conocimiento satisfactorio de la biotecnología moderna, y que un 79% expresaron una posición favorable y una buena aceptación de esa tecnología. Además, los estudiantes encuestados aceptarían ciertos riesgos asociados a la biotecnología, siempre y cuando, ésta mejore la capacidad competitiva de Costa Rica. El área de estudio de los estudiantes entrevistados parece estar relacionada con el grado de aceptación debido a que los estudiantes de disciplinas sociales mostraron una mayor percepción negativa hacia los productos biotecnológicos y OMGs, si se compara con la percepción expresada por los estudiantes encuestados de disciplinas de ciencias naturales y de áreas tecnológicas.Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica. A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs in a sample (n = 750 of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modern biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of

  5. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  6. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  7. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  8. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Acuna, M.

    2011-01-01

    Participation of the Univ. of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H p (10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs. (authors)

  9. Trace metals in coastal sediments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Cespedes, J.; Acuna Gonzalez, J.; Vargas Zamora, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moin Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe> Zn> Cu> Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 μg / g, respectively) and lower in Moin Bay (3.4% and 52 μg / g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 μg / g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 μg / g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moin Bay (6.4 μg / g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 μg / g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moin Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition. (Author) [es

  10. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P; Acuña, M

    2011-09-01

    Participation of the University of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H(p)(10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs.

  11. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  12. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  13. Volcanic gas impacts on vegetation at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, R.; Jenkins, M.; Pushnik, J.; Houpis, J. L.; Brown, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Turrialba volcano is an active composite stratovolcano that is located approximately 40 km east of San Jose, Costa Rica. Seismic activity and degassing have increased since 2005, and gas compositions reflect further increased activity since 2007 peaking in January 2010 with a phreatic eruption. Gas fumes dispersed by trade winds toward the west, northwest, and southwest flanks of Turrialba volcano have caused significant vegetation kill zones, in areas important to local agriculture, including dairy pastures and potato fields, wildlife and human populations. In addition to extensive vegetative degradation is the potential for soil and water contamination and soil erosion. Summit fumarole temperatures have been measured over 200 degrees C and gas emissions are dominated by SO2; gas and vapor plumes reach up to 2 km (fumaroles and gases are measured regularly by OVSICORI-UNA). A recent network of passive air sampling, monitoring of water temperatures of hydrothermal systems, and soil pH measurements coupled with measurement of the physiological status of surrounding plants using gas exchange and fluorescence measurements to: (1) identify physiological correlations between leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of plants under long term stress induced by the volcanic gas emissions, and (2) use measurements in tandem with remotely sensed reflectance-derived fluorescence ratio indices to track natural photo inhibition caused by volcanic gas emissions, for use in monitoring plant stress and photosynthetic function. Results may prove helpful in developing potential land management strategies to maintain the biological health of the area.

  14. Seroprevalence of viral infections in domestic cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Prendas, Jorge; Cortes, Rocío; Jimenez, Carlos; Dolz, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of domestic cats from Costa Rica's greater metropolitan area was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Blood samples were collected from at least 96 cats from June 1998 to December 2001; data related to the individual cats and household variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Antibodies against FHV-1 were found in 71.9% of the cats sampled, but only 25.0% of them had a history of previous vaccination. The prevalence of FPV was 92.8%, and all positive cats showed protective antibodies titres; however, only 16.5% of them were previously vaccinated. Antigens of FeLV were detected in 16.7% of the sampled cats; 11 (64.7%) of the 17 positive cats were older than 1 year at the time of testing. No differences were found between the percentage of seropositive males and females. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 8.8% of the samples tested; 8 (88.8%) of the seropositive cats were older than 1 year of age, and a greater proportion of seropositive males (66.6%) was found.

  15. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  16. Referéndum en Costa Rica: la primera experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Alberto Esquivel Faerron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los distintos mecanismos de democracia directa regulados en el ordenamiento jurídico costarricense, profundizando en el instituto del referéndum. Se centra en analizar, con apoyo en datos estadísticos, la primera experiencia de la aplicación del referéndum en Costa Rica, relativo a la aprobación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. Como parte de este estudio, el autor desarrolla, desde el punto de vista doctrinario y de derecho comparado, temas medulares del referéndum que fueron motivo de amplia discusión, tales como: el carácter excepcional de este instituto -contra poniéndolo con el listado de las solicitudes de recolección de firmas presentadas ante el Tribunal-, la fiscalización del proceso, la posición del Poder Ejecutivo a favor de una de las tesis en contienda, el financiamiento de las campañas propagandísticas, la información ciudadana sobre el tema de la consulta y la participación de los medios de comunicación.

  17. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  18. Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e o ensino secundário brasileiro - Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and secondary education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Spitz Alcoforado de Abreu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta a circulação do intelectual paranaense Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa nas discussões sobre os rumos da educação brasileira, em particular, sobre o ensino secundário, nas décadas de1920 e 1930, destacando as conexões e deslocamentos tecidos numa rede de relações, ou seja, suas vinculações com intelectuais de outros estados, em particular com os intelectuais paulistas e cariocas. Esse estudo constatou que a relação entre Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e pessoas pertencentes ao grupo católico deu-se mais por questões políticas, do que por vias religiosas. Pelo que se apreende do estudo de sua sociabilidade, pode-se dizer que conservou, em seu círculo de amizades, católicos, protestantes e pessoas de crenças diversas, desde que essas não se opusessem, diante de circunstâncias de tomada de decisão e partido, aos seus interesses políticos. Palavras-chave: Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa; intelectuais da educação; ensino secundário.   LYSIMACO FERREIRA DA COSTA AND SECONDARYEDUCATION IN BRAZIL Abstract This article presents the insertion of Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa in the discussions concerning the direction of Brazilian education. He was an intellectual born in the state of Paraná. The period of the analysis ranges from 1920 and 1930 and its focus is the discussion of the secondary school. It emphasizes the ties and connections established in Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa’s network of relationships, his associations with intellectuals of other states, mainly from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Through the data obtained in this study, it is possible to say that the affiliation between Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and the Catholic group took place primarily due to political reasons rather than religious grounds. According to the study of his sociability, he maintained in his circle of friends both Catholics, Protestants and people of several beliefs, as long as they did not oppose to his political interests

  19. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  20. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  1. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Most parts of Costa Rica, except for the Quaternary volcanic belt, have neither been studied or mapped in detail. Concerning past exploration limited uranium exploration took place in the late 1960's but details are lacking. No additional information is available. A bibliography of Costa Rican geology (Dengo, 19t>2a) and the metallogenic map of Central America (1CAITI, 1970) do not report any uranium occurrences. Data on current exploration activities for uranium are lacking. Mining is essentially regulated by a 1953 code and a 1964 supplement, but the production and use of radioactive materials are controlled by the Costa Rican Atomic Energy Commission. New raining and petroleum laws reportedly are being considered. Mining rights are available with few restrictions to foreign nationals and corporations. Costa Rica contains no rocks older than Cretaceous. The Mesozoic continental clastic sequences of Honduras and northern Nicaragua do not extend this far south. The massive intrusions of acidic granites and syenites in the Talamanca ranges are probably older than the oldest formations now seen adjacent to them and could not have contributed to their mineralization except through weathering. There may be a faint possibility for uranium deposition in lodes and fracture zones within the granitic rocks, but no such deposits have been reported. Insofar as the sediments are concerned, only the shallow water faces of the marine sediments of the Caribbean coastal region offer the remotest possibilities. The uranium potential of Costa Rica is estimated, at less than 1,000 tonnes

  3. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  4. Using geographical information systems to identify populations in need of improved accessibility to antivenom treatment for snakebite envenoming in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hansson

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Snakebite accidents are an important health problem in rural areas of tropical countries worldwide, including Costa Rica, where most bites are caused by the pit-viper Bothrops asper. The treatment of these potentially fatal accidents is based on the timely administration of specific antivenom. In many regions of the world, insufficient health care systems and lack of antivenom in remote and poor areas where snakebites are common, means that efficient treatment is unavailable for many snakebite victims, leading to unnecessary mortality and morbidity. In this study, geographical information systems (GIS were used to identify populations in Costa Rica with a need of improved access to antivenom treatment: those living in areas with a high risk of snakebites and long time to reach antivenom treatment. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Populations living in areas with high risk of snakebites were identified using two approaches: one based on the district-level reported incidence, and another based on mapping environmental factors favoring B. asper presence. Time to reach treatment using ambulance was estimated using cost surface analysis, thereby enabling adjustment of transportation speed by road availability and quality, topography and land use. By mapping populations in high risk of snakebites and the estimated time to treatment, populations with need of improved treatment access were identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the usefulness of GIS for improving treatment of snakebites. By mapping reported incidence, risk factors, location of existing treatment resources, and the time estimated to reach these for at-risk populations, rational allocation of treatment resources is facilitated.

  5. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  6. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that

  7. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and... United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES... interim rule. The interim rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade...

  8. A Cross-Country Comparison of Virtual Discussion Board Use in United States and Costa Rican Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Kari; Saxon, Terrill F.; Trumble, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of virtual discussion boards in various educational settings in the United States and Costa Rica. Participants included professors of education, in-service and pre-service teachers in the United States and Costa Rica where a survey was used that included demographic, knowledge, attitude, and…

  9. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  10. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.

    1975-09-01

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  11. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America.

  12. Guidelines for District Heating Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The present guidelines contain a set of recommendations focusing on planning, installation, use and maintenance of district heating (DH) substations within district heating systems throughout Europe. The recommendations were developed in order to enable readers to develop well-functioning substations and an effective heat and domestic warm water delivery. These guidelines are intended to give the most effective overall solutions for various parts of the customer installation. The guidelines are not meant to specify the different components of the substation such as meters or heat exchangers. The guidelines deal with a wide variety of issues concerning both present systems of today and district heating systems of the future. Specific handling and maintenance recommendations are mainly focused on present modern systems but are also intended to cover the future situation as much as is feasible. For this reason, certain existing systems are not dealt with in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines do not cover steam systems, systems with temperatures exceeding 110 deg C and pressure levels above 1.6 MPa. The guidelines include a chapter on the heat meter, as the meter and especially the meter installation is always installed simultaneously with the rest of the substation. These guidelines aim to provide best-practice and easy-to-handle recommendations for: - those who are responsible for relations between district heating utilities and customers; - those who own or maintain a building connected to the district heating network; - those who manufacture, plan, purchase, test and install substations. These guidelines do not deal with investment or cost aspects, but in general, Euroheat and Power recommends looking at the lifetime cost of all components of the substation, instead of investment costs alone. An example of this is provided in Chapter 7.8. The Guidelines were developed based on the most optimal operating principles of substations and meters

  13. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Meziat Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTADOS: A dor nas costas idiopática foi a primeira causa de invalidez entre as aposentadorias previdenciárias e acidentárias. A maioria dos beneficiários residia em área urbana e era comerciário. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez no Brasil foi de 29,96 por 100.000 contribuintes. Esse valor foi mais elevado entre os homens e entre as pessoas mais velhas. Rondônia exibiu taxa quatro vezes superior ao esperado (RT = 4,05 e a segunda maior taxa, referente à Bahia, foi de aproximadamente duas vezes o esperado (RT = 2,07. Os comerciários foram responsáveis por 96,9% dos dias perdidos por invalidez. CONCLUSÕES: A dor nas costas foi uma importante causa de invalidez em 2007, sobretudo entre comerciários, com grandes diferenças entre os estados.

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  15. Metales traza en sedimentos costeros de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo García-Céspedes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la concentración de hierro, plomo, cobre y zinc, en sedimentos de cuatro ecosistemas costeros de Costa Rica, por espectroscopia de absorción atómica, con llama o con horno de grafito. En el Pacífico se escogieron Bahía Culebra (Golfo de Papagayo, el Golfo de Nicoya y la bahía de Golfito (Golfo Dulce y en el Caribe la bahía de Moín. Las muestras fueron recolectadas entre los años 2000 y 2002, y los valores promedio de las concentraciones de los elementos, en todos los ecosistemas, siguieron una misma tendencia: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No se encontró ningún tipo de patrón temporal de distribución de los metales en ninguno de los ecosistemas. Las concentraciones medias de hierro y de cobre fueron mayores en la bahía de Golfito (5.8% y 87 µg / g, respectivamente y menores en la bahía de Moín (3.4% y 52 µg / g. respectivamente. La concentración media de zinc fue mayor también en la bahía de Golfito (96 µg / g, pero menor en Bahía Culebra (66 µg / g. La concentración de plomo fue mayor en la bahía de Moín (6.4 µg / g y menor en Bahía Culebra (3.0 µg / g. La concentración de plomo fue alta en el Caribe y en la bahía de Golfito; los valores de concentración promedio obtenidos para el hierro, el plomo, el cobre y el zinc, fueron máximos en la bahía de Golfito, comparados con los otros ecosistemas. Con base en los datos obtenidos, se concluyó que la Bahía Culebra fue la zona más limpia; la bahía de Golfito la más contaminada y en un lugar intermedio la bahía de Moín y el Golfo de NicoyaMarine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf, Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf, were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal

  16. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bonilla

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica’s Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA. Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1 with a seasonal component of the Yt = lambda a t + gamma S12 + a t typeEn este trabajo, se analizaron los datos de desembarque de tiburón de la flota pesquera artesanal en el Pacífico costarricense entre 1988 y 1997. Los datos provienen de un sistema de facturas administrado por el Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca (INCOPESCA. En el Pacífico, la pesca de tiburón en el período de estudio representó aproximadamente el 20% del volumen total de pesca a nivel nacional. De acuerdo con los datos del sistema de facturas, la región del Pacífico Norte fue la más productiva, reportando un 58% de los desembarques de tiburón a nivel nacional. En esta región, la pesca de tiburón en la zona del Golfo de Papagayo reportó 91% y 53% de los

  17. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Maria; Herrera-Murillo, Franklin; Chaves-Barrantes, Nestor; Hernandez-Diaz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations was observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim has exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim has showed a deficient control (R population). Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0,5X, 1,0X, 1,5X and 2,0X), being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control has been satisfactory (S), and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R). Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim. (author) [es

  18. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberyan, Kurt A; Horn, Sally P; Umaña, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2, but low in dissolved O2; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic). The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1), Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.

  19. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  20. Genetic diversity in cattle from eight regions in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero-Solorzano, Juan Miguel; Leon-Rodriguez, Bernal; Chacon-Gonzalez, Idania; Vargas-Leiton, Bernardo; Martinez-Pichardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The degree of inter-regional genetic diversity is explored in cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected of eight different regions of the country during the year 2013. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters are calculated for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance is performed. The genetic distances between cattle of different regions are calculated. A high degree of diversity, with an average number of 14,6±1,01 alleles observed and 5,6+0,37 effective alleles per marker is observed at the national level. The heterozygosity observed (Ho) has been 0,76±0,01 and the expected (He) 0,81±0,01. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and inbreeding index (F_I_S) have been of 0,79±0,06 and 0,06±0,004, respectively. At the regional level, HO has varied from 0,73 ± 0,02 in the Central Sur region to 0,78 ±0,01 in the Huetar Norte region. Three clearly differentiated groups are shown by the dendrogram , with the Central Metropolitana and Central Occidental regions in a group: Huetar Caribe, Central Sur, Pacifico Central and Chorotega in a second group; and Huetar Norte and Brunca in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation R_S_T have been significant between regions of different groups and among regions of the same group have remained without being significant. Genetic differences between regions are related with differentiated proliferation of racial types according to their adaptability to the agroecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region. (author) [es

  1. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.

  2. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  3. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  4. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  5. Estrategia para Aumentar la Capacidad de Desarrollo de la Empresa Del Monte en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Guerrero, Evike

    2004-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas con énfasis en Gerencia, 2004 El objetivo general del trabajo es analizar en profundidad la situación comercial de Del Monte en Costa Rica, identificando con exactitud las causas y focos de problema que han generado el decrecimiento en las ventas y participación de la marca. Posteriormente, se diseñará un plan estratégico que pe...

  6. Cyberl@b: a platform for learning english in Costa Rican public high schools

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Quesada Pacheco

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper covers the design and development of a noncommercial software for learning and practicing English called CyberL@b. It was developed at the School of Modern Languages at the University of Costa Rica. Its target population focuses on 7th, 8th and 9th graders at six public high schools in diverse urban and rural settings in Costa Rica.CyberL@b uses interactive media resources designed to engage student in learning English within authentic contexts.Cyberlab was designed to cr...

  7. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Nishida; Ichiro Nakamura; Carlos O Morales

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the vall...

  8. COSTA RICAN MEAT VALUE CHAIN DESCRIPTION: PRICE TRANSMISSION AS A TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodríguez Lizano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Price transmission analysis is an increasing research topic, especially for price taking countries such as Costa Rica. We describe the beef supply chain and provide a numerical implementation of Vector Error Correction Model (VECM of price transmission for the meat market in order to observe the relationship between import prices of meat and their effects on national retail prices. To restore equilibrium, retail prices correct 8% of the error term monthly. Since the meat imports market of Costa Rica is complex, the analysis of others business partners as Nicaragua should be included in order to compare the influence of these in local retail prices

  9. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  10. Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (II). Talk of Crime and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that a formerly explicitly nonviolent nation has been transformed into a battleground for social violence—that is, on the belief that an alarming “crime wave” is occurring today while there was no crime at all in the past. On the basis of this assumption, the fear of crime and the call for zero tolerance and drastic law enforcement actions have been increasing. In this paper I discuss the Costa Rican talk of crime from a h...

  11. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  12. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads de Costa Rica, the NASA Airborne Science and Earth Surface & Interior Programs, the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil de Costa Rica, and FH Düsseldorf for their support.

  13. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  14. A good year for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, high prices on electric power have caused economic progress for the district heating companies. The price of district heating is determined by the prices of power and fuel oil. However, the government wants to remove the tax on electricity to the industry, which is the district heating companies' major group of customers, along with public buildings. This is likely to entail a great loss of income

  15. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.

    1975-08-01

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de

  16. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  17. Demand management by means of substitution energetics in home cooking: Costa Rica's metropolitan area; Gerenciamento da demanda mediante substituicao energetica na coccao residencial: regiao metropolitana da Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Alfonso Herrera

    1996-07-01

    The electric power system management in Costa Rica is analyzed. The possibility of substitution of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) for electric power, in home cooking, are identified as one of the most important program in order to reduce increasing load peak and energy requirements in electric power system of Costa Rica. The sustain ability of the substitution program stands on the current process of electric power supply. The primary power sources used in generating electric power in rush hours are oil-based; this process is less efficient than directly using LPG for home cooking. Large scale substitution with LPG in home cooking will reduce increasing electric power demand in peak hours, reducing subsidized electricity sales, with better use of combustibles presently imported, improving the country commercial balance and preventing or postponing electric power system expansion investments. Three different perspectives have been considered in evaluating economical effectiveness in substituting power sources: user, utility and society perspectives. Due to subsidized electric power prices, residential users do not enough interest in substituting of LPG for power source; unless LPG cookers are also subsidized. However, positive results for the distribution utility are enough in order to offer these kind of incentives. Explicit treatment of these kind of programs, including the efficiency increment as an available resource for electric power utilities in Costa Rica, will avoid the implantation of most of combustion plants now planned in current National Electric Power Plant expansion program. (author)

  18. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  19. Reinstating district nursing: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    As policy directives gather pace for service provision to be delivered in primary care, district nursing has not been recognised as a valuable asset to facilitate this agenda. Investment in district nursing and specialist district nursing education has fallen. This is concurrent with an ageing district nursing workforce, a lack of recruitment and growing caseloads, as district nursing adapts to meet the challenges of the complexities of contemporary healthcare in the community. The district nurse role is complex and multifaceted and includes working collaboratively and creatively to coordinate care. Redressing the shortages of specialist district nurse practitioners with increased numbers of health care support workers will not replace the skill, knowledge, experience required to meet the complex care needs of today's society. District nursing needs to be reinstated as the valuable asset it is, through renewed investment in the service, research development and in specialist practice education. To prevent extinction district nurses need to be able to demonstrate and articulate the complexities and dynamisms of the role to reinstate themselves to their commissioners as a valuable asset for contemporary practice that can meet current health and social care needs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  1. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  2. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  3. Outdoor and indoor dose assessment using environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Costa Rica lies at the intersection of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in Central America. It has mountain ranges with many active volcanoes along its territory. Its soils are predominantly of volcanic origin. Natural radiation measurements utilising environmental CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters were used for the first time in Costa Rica by the Dosimetry Section of the Atomic, Nuclear and Molecular Sciences Research Center of the University of Costa Rica. Seven hundred outdoor measurements were obtained in a 3.5-year period at eight different sites throughout the country. One hundred and seventy-four indoor readings were also collected at four sites for a 2-year period. Population-weighted averages give 82 nGy h -1 for outdoors and 130 nGy h -1 for indoors. The values lie on the upper range of worldwide reported values due to reported soil characteristics rich in uranium and potassium. A preliminary population-weighted value of 0.74 mSv/year for the effective dose is calculated for natural terrestrial gamma radiation in Costa Rica

  4. Blood parasites (Haemoproteus and microfilariae) in birds from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedikt, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.; Literák, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 197-204 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Blood parasites * microfilariae * birds * Costa Rica * Haemoproteus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.070, year: 2009

  5. Lecto- and Paralectotype Designations and Redescription of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaynara S. Martins; Felipe F. F. Moreira; Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2016-01-01

    The lecto- and a paralectotype of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 are designated to enhance nomenclatural stability. A redescription based on the type material from Rio de Janeiro deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil, is presented. Specimens are illustrated and measured in detail for the first time.

  6. The monitoring and control systems in cooperatives: application to the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alonso Hernández Vargas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Rican government through the Cooperative Development Institute encourages, promotes, finances, reports and supports the cooperative movement at all levels, promoting the requisite conditions and the essential elements to a greater and more effective participation of the population in the development of economic and social activity.

  7. Forest Conservation in Costa Rica: when nonuse benefits are uncertain but rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Soest, van D.P.; Kooten, van G.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic dynamic programming is used to investigate optimal holding of primary tropical forest in humid Costa Rica when future nonuse benefits of forest conservation are uncertain and increasing. The quasi-option value of maintaining primary forests is included as a component of investment in

  8. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  9. Learning from Others: Service-Learning in Costa Rica and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David D.; Eiserman, William D.

    1997-01-01

    An exploration of the roles service learning plays in universities in Indonesia and Costa Rica invites policymakers in the United States to re-examine university service, research, and teaching responsibilities. Increased faculty involvement is a key to expanding service learning as part of the university agenda. (SLD)

  10. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  11. Protoptila (Trichoptera) of Costa Rica and a Review of the Central American Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahnik, R. J.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    Protoptila is the most diverse of the genera in the subfamily Protoptilinae of the family Glossosomatidae, currently with 80 species, but many more from the Neotropics awaiting description. Fourteen species occur in the United States, only one of which is also known to occur in Mexico. This compares to 38 species and one subspecies (or about half of the total for the genus) currently known from Central America, mostly described in papers by Mosely and Flint. Although the majority of these, or some 27 species, occur in Mexico, this probably more closely reflects the historical intensity of collecting rather than the real diversity by region. In Costa Rica, 11 species are currently known, 8 of which are restricted in distribution to Costa Rica, or Costa Rica and Panama, and only 3 with distributions extending to Mexico. We are describing an additional 8 species from Costa Rica, bringing to 19 the number of species now known from the country. This represents an incredible diversity for such a small country and also a very high level of implied endemism, even considering the likelihood that some of the species will be found to have wider distributions.

  12. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  13. An insight into the antibiofilm properties of Costa Rican stingless bee honeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora, L.G.; Beukelman, C.J.; Berg, van den A.J.J.; Aerts, P.C.; Quarles van Ufford, H.C.; Nijland, R.; Arias, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: There is an increasing search for antibiofilm agents that either have specific activity against biofilms or may act in synergy with antimicrobials. Our objective is to examine the the antibiofilm properties of stingless bee honeys. Method: Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were

  14. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of

  15. Wood anatomy of Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae) from Southern Pacific, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Moya Roque; Manuel Morales Salazar; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Poveda Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar (Canellaceae) is an endemic species from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica. It is rare and is considered to be a living fossil. The wood of P. costaricense has high density (0.92 Kg/cm3, air dry) with little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. The growth rings are marked...

  16. Bioeconomic modeling to support management and breeding of dairy cows in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas Leitón, B.

    2000-01-01

    During the past decades, genetic improvement of dairy cattle in Costa Rica has depended upon massive importation of germplasm from temperate countries. This may not be an optimal alternative if genetic x environment interactions are significant or production goals differ among countries. The purpose

  17. Breeding seasons, molt patterns, and gender and age criteria for selected northeastern Costa Rican resident landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Peter Pyle; C. John. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Detailed accounts of molt and breeding cycles remain elusive for the majority of resident tropical bird species. We used data derived from a museum review and 12 years of banding data to infer breeding seasonality, molt patterns, and age and gender criteria for 27 common landbird species in northeastern Costa Rica. Prealternate molts appear to be rare, only occurring...

  18. Eliminating War By Eliminating Warriors: A Case Study in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    religious authority of the Spanish Crown and was able to exert pressure on all aspects of Spanish governance. The church encouraged a much weaker...such a cash cow in shipping, Costa Rica has managed to diversify its economy from commodities into tourism and most recently into personal computing

  19. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  20. Appraisal of the Epidemiology of Neospora caninum Infection in Costa Rican Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Zúñiga, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica, milk production has increased gradually during the twentieth century, in which the activity developed from a non-technical to a technical activity. Together with the evolution of the dairy sector, the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases

  1. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  2. A complete genome screen for genes predisposing to severe bipolar disorder in two Costa Rican pedigrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInnes, LA; Escamilla, MA; Service, SK; Reus, [No Value; Leon, P; Silva, S; Rojas, E; Spesny, M; Baharloo, S; Blankenship, K; Peterson, A; Tyler, D; Shimayoshi, N; Tobey, C; Batki, S; Vinogradov, S; Meza, L; Gallegos, A; Fournier, E; Smith, LB; Barondes, SH; Sandkuijl, LA; Freimer, NB

    1996-01-01

    Bipolar mood disorder (BP) is a debilitating syndrome characterized by episodes of mania and depression. We designed a multistage study to detect all major loci predisposing to severe BP (termed BP-I) in two pedigrees drawn from the Central Valley of Costa Rica, where the population is largely

  3. Register and Forms of Address in Costa Rica: Sociolinguistic Realities and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; LeLoup, Jean W.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of sociolinguistic research investigating the use of second-person singular pronouns in Costa Rica. The study was carried out onsite and involved 132 interviewees from all seven provinces of the country. These subjects reacted to scenarios in which they had to choose their preferred pronoun of use…

  4. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  5. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with

  6. Peace Education: Perspectives from Costa Rica and Japan. Peace Education Miniprints No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Abelardo; Ito, Takehiko

    This publication explores the views of two present members of the International Peace Research Association: Abelardo Brenes and Takehiko Ito. Brenes and Ito answer 13 questions related to peace education issues in their individual interviews. Abelardo Brenes is a professor at the University of Costa Rica and a consultant to the University for…

  7. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  8. A new isidiate species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Umaña-Tenorio, Loengrin

    2004-01-01

    The new corticolous species Arthonia isidiata is described from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. A. isidiata is characterized by minute, cylindrical to coralloid isidia produced on the thallus surface. The species currently is known only from the type locality in Corcovado National Park, where it occurs abundantly in the coastal rainforest around Sirena Biological Station.

  9. Taavet võidab Koljati targalt tegutsedes / Costas Markides ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markides, Costas

    2007-01-01

    London Business Schooli professor Costas Markides vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema raamatus "Fast Second" esitatud väidet, mille kohaselt esimesena uuele turule tulnud ettevõttest saab harva pikas perspektiivis turuliider, kuid samas on edukad just teisena turule sisenevad ettevõtted

  10. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph; R. Mark Brigham

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover...

  11. Diet of some spring migrant landbirds on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Spring dietary patterns of migrants in tropical latitudes are largely unknown. Here I present diet data derived from an analysis of fecal samples for six migrant landbird species during spring migration along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. High levels of insectivory were detected for all six species captured. The nature of the data presented is discussed in light...

  12. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  13. A Preliminary Study of Riparian Songbirds in Costa Rica, with Emphasis on Wintering Louisiana Waterthrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Master; Robert S. Mulvihill; Robert C. Leberman; Julio Sanchez; Ernesto Carmen

    2005-01-01

    We made preliminary observations on the winter distribution, ecology and behavior of Louisiana Waterthrushes (Seiurus motacilla) in Costa Rica during January 1999 and 2000. We visited 24 headwater streams in three of the four principal mountain ranges in the country (Cordilleras Tilarán, Central, and the Talamanca) and confirmed the...

  14. Educational Leadership for Social Justice in Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez Gorosave, Gema; Cerdas, Victoria; Torres, Nancy; Antunez, Serafin; Briceno, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school leaders to provide social justice in three contexts: Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted under the interpretative tradition characterized by a search for an understanding of the social world from the point of view of a…

  15. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  16. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente

  17. Análisis de la desigualdad socioeconómica en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes that explain the increasing levels of socioeconomic inequality in a country is crucial for the design and implementation of public policies and institutional arrangements capable to promote virtuous cycles between economic growth, social equality and democracy. This article provides an analysis of the different dimensions of socioeconomic inequality in Costa Rica for the last 15 years

  18. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  19. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary

  20. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Joenje, M.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical

  1. Le ultime tecnologie hanno aiutato i primi soccorsi alla Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Faccioli

    2012-04-01

    Thanks to the Geomatics, the Costa Concordia operations are conducted in conditions of extreme security to protect both the lives of rescue workers and the delicate environment.All technologies involved (Lidar, Multibeam, GNSS, INS, ecc…, while having a primary role in real life, have always worked quietly behind the scenes.

  2. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  3. Carbon Neutral by 2021: The Past and Present of Costa Rica’s Unusual Political Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Flagg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has pledged to become the first nation to become carbon neutral. This event raises the important question of how to understand this contemporary form of climate politics, given that Costa Rica has made an almost negligible contribution to the problem of global climate change. To understand this pledge, a case study spanning about 200 years situates the pledge within the country’s unique historical profile. An analysis of interview data, archival research, and secondary data reveals that the pledge is the latest instance in Costa Rica’s unusual political tradition. This political tradition dates back to the area’s experience as a Spanish colony and as a newly independent nation. Several events, including the abolition of the army, the work on green development, and being awarded a Nobel Peace Prize were all foundational in forming Costa Rica’s tradition as a place that leads by example and stands for peace and protection of nature. The carbon neutral pledge extends the political tradition that has been established through these earlier events. This case highlights the importance of understanding contemporary environmental politics through an analysis of long-term, historical data.

  4. San Jerónimo de Moravia, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinar en forma sostenible el patrimonio histórico cultural, el desarrollo turístico y la calidad ambiental es sin duda alguna el reto que enfrentan muchas comunidades latinoamericanas que en años recientes han hecho toda clase de esfuerzos por atraer turistas. El estudio aquí reportado analizó las condiciones socio-económicas de tres comunidades vecinas al Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo (PNBC, en Costa Rica, identificó los problemas ambientales de los residentes de las mismas que se podrían agravar por causa del desarrollo turístico y determinó cómo y bajo qué condiciones los habitantes de la zona querían que se realizara el desarrollo turístico de las comunidades. Se entrevistaron 123 de un total de un total de 155 casas en las tres comunidades, y se utilizó una combinación de componentes principales y análisis factorial para analizar los datos. Los resultados indican que los vecinos entrevistados desean que el desarrollo turístico sea hecho sosteniblemente, y que además, se planifique, se establezcan requisitos claros, que la comunidad sea periódicamente informada, que sus lideres comunales participen activamente en el proceso, se establezcan programas para ayudar al desarrollo de micro-empresas eco-turísticas, y que se les brinde asistencia técnica y capacite en el desarrollo de proyectos eco-turísticos. Los problemas eventuales asociados a la calidad ambiental que habría que prestarles atención preferente son: ruido y tráfico excesivo, manejo de aguas negras y deforestación. El desarrollo turístico sostenible relacionado con el primer componente implicaría que este es un requisito básico de la calidad ambiental, la conservación y el uso sostenible del patrimonio histórico.

  5. Uranium districts in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1981-01-01

    A short review is given of reconnaissance work in South Greenland. The work has demonstrated that there are areas in the Motzfeldt centre of at least 1 km 2 with continuously high radioactivity. If the uranium content of these radioactive zones are sufficiently high, then potential ore tonnages could prove to be substantial. The reconnaissance exploration has proved that uranium mineralization is widely distributed in the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq district. It is, no doubt, responsible for the high uranium values in the exploration geochemical samples. Although the size of the pitchblende occurences which have been found so far are small, the high grade of the mineralisation, the great frequency of the fracturing and the evidence for an all pervasive mineralising event over a wide area indicate that there is a good possibility of finding economic mineralisation within the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq area. The area as a whole may, perhaps, be termed a ''uranium mineral district''. As the potential targets are small, only detailed follow-up exploration will establish this. At the same time more detailed work on individual showings, and geological mapping to demonstrate the relative ages of the various petrological and mineralising events, will establish the possible origin of this uranium mineralisation. (author)

  6. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  7. The costa of trichomonads: A complex macromolecular cytoskeleton structure made of uncommon proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Caruso, Marjolly Brigido; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Gonzaga, Luiz; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene

    2017-06-01

    The costa is a prominent striated fibre that is found in protozoa of the Trichomonadidae family that present an undulating membrane. It is composed primarily of proteins that have not yet been explored. In this study, we used cell fractionation to obtain a highly enriched costa fraction whose structure and composition was further analysed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed that the costa, which is a periodic structure with alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent bands, displays three distinct regions, named the head, neck and body. Fourier transform analysis showed that the electron-lucent bands present sub-bands with a regular pattern. An analysis of the costa fraction via one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 54 hypothetical proteins. Fourteen of those proteins were considered to be major components of the fraction. The costa of T. foetus is a complex and organised cytoskeleton structure made of a large number of proteins which is assembled into filamentous structures. Some of these proteins exhibit uncharacterised domains and no function related according to gene ontology, suggesting that the costa structure may be formed by a new class of proteins that differ from those previously described in other organisms. Seven of these proteins contain prefoldin domains displaying coiled-coil regions. This propriety is shared with proteins of the striated fibres of other protozoan as well as in intermediate filaments. Our observations suggest the presence of a new class of the cytoskeleton filaments in T. foetus. We believe that our data could auxiliate in determining the specific locations of these proteins in the distinct regions that compose the costa, as well as to define the functional roles of each component. Therefore, our study will help in the better understanding of the

  8. Determinantes de la utilización de servicios de salud en Costa Rica Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera Salas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una primera aproximación a los determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas en Costa Rica. Método: Los datos proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud para Costa Rica 2006. En el análisis econométrico se utilizó un modelo binomial negativo estándar ligado al enfoque de producción de salud de Grossman y un modelo en dos partes congruente con el enfoque agente-principal. Resultados: Los factores determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas fueron el nivel educativo, el estado de salud percibida, el número de enfermedades crónicas declaradas y la región de residencia. Conclusiones: El hecho de que las variables de necesidad de salud expliquen de forma significativa la probabilidad de contacto con las consultas médicas y que, además, no se registren diferencias significativas de utilización entre quintiles de ingreso y situación de seguro, es un resultado esperable y deseable en un sistema público solidario y casi universal como el costarricense. No se obtienen resultados concluyentes de la influencia del médico en la frecuencia de utilización de las consultas que postula el modelo de agente-principal.Objective: To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. Results: The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. Conclusion: The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that

  9. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  10. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  11. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  12. Pura Vida: Teacher Experiences in a Science Education Study Abroad Course in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Stephanie Rae

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of classroom teachers who participated in a science-focused study abroad during their time as a preservice teacher and to explore how they are using their study abroad experiences in science curriculum planning and in classroom instruction. This study is guided by two research questions: 1) what are the study abroad experiences that have influenced classroom teachers; and, 2) how do classroom teachers incorporate study abroad experiences into science curriculum planning and instruction in the classroom? Participants were two in-service science teachers from schools located in the Southwestern United States. The participants were enrolled in the course, Environmental Science and Multicultural Experience for K-8 Teachers offered through the Department of Educational Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction during their time as preservice teachers. The course included a two-week study abroad component in Costa Rica. Participants spent their mornings observing a monolingual, Spanish-speaking elementary classroom followed by a faculty-led multicultural seminar. Afternoons during the study abroad experience were dedicated to field science activities such as quantifying plant and animal biodiversity, constructing elevation profiles, determining nutrient storage in soil, and calculating river velocity. Throughout the course students participated in science-focused excursions. A cross case study design was used to answer the two research questions guiding this dissertation study. Data collection included participant-created concept maps of the science experiences during the study abroad experience, in-depth interviews detailing the study abroad experience and classroom instruction, and participant reflective journal entries. Cross-caseanalysis was employed to explore the uniqueness of each participant's experience and commonalities between the cases. Trustworthiness was established by utilizing multiple sources of data

  13. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  14. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District § 3.25-1 Fifth district. (a) The District Office is in Portsmouth, Va. (b) The Fifth Coast Guard District is comprised of: North Carolina; Virginia; District of Columbia; Maryland; Delaware; that part of... boundary at the shoreline at the North Carolina-South Carolina border, point located at approximately 30°55...

  15. El diagnóstico prenatal de defectos cromosómicos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro Volio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una breve reseña histórica del diagnóstico prenatal citogenético en Costa Rica. Se realiza únicamente en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud de la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 1984. Sirve a los hospitales de la seguridad social y a la medicina privada. Trabajamos con muestras de líquido amniótico y de sangre fetal enviadas por los perinatólogos, provenientes de embarazos de alto riesgo, ya sea por presentar alteraciones en el ultrasonograma, marcadores sonográficos de aneuploidía o edad materna avanzada, entre otras indicaciones menos frecuentes. El diagnóstico se realiza en el segundo y en el tercer trimestre de gestación. Como la interrupción del embarazo no es permitida, el personal médico y la familia se prepara con tiempo para recibir de la mejor manera al neonato afectado. En los casos de cariotipo normal, esta información alivia la preocupación de los padres.Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomic defects in Costa Rica. This is an historical overview of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in Costa Rica. It started in 1984 at the Institute for Health Research of the University of Costa Rica. This is the only fetal cytogenetic diagnosis facility in the country and serves social security as well as private patients. Perinatologists send amniotic fluid and fetal blood samples from high risk pregnancies, mainly due to abnormal ultrasound assessment, sonographic markers of aneuploidy and advanced maternal age. Second and third trimester diagnosis allows the development of coping strategies for the families of affected fetuses, since pregnancy interruption is not permitted. Normal fetal cytogenetic results provide reassurance to the parents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 545-549. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

  16. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  17. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  18. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  19. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F González-Maya

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26% of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5% in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  20. [Attitude of primary care professionals to gender violence. A comparative study between Catalonia and Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Loría, Kattia; Gutiérrez Rosado, Teresa; Alvarado, Ricardo; Fernández Sánchez, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Describe the relationship between the attitude towards violence against women (VAW) of professionals of the health of primary care with variables such professional satisfaction, workload, orientation of professional practice, knowledge, training and use of network in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Cross-exploratory and comparative study. Primary care in Barcelona and nearby counties and the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. 235 primary health professionals of Medicine, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work. Questionnaire with eight sections about attitudes, professional satisfaction, and orientation of professional practice, workload, knowledge, training and use of network. Three types of analysis were carried out: a descriptive one by country; a bivariate analysis; and a multivariable linear regression model. Primary Health Professionals attitudes towards VAW health were similar in both contexts (Catalonia: 3.90 IC 95% 3.84-3.96; Costa Rica: 4.03 IC 95% 3.94-4.13). The variables associated with attitudes towards VAW were: Use of network resources (B=0.20, 95% CI -0.14-0.25, P=<.001), Training (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17, P=<0.001), and country, Costa Rica (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25, P=<0.001). There was no interaction between the country and the other variables, suggesting that the association between the variables and the attitude is similar in both countries. The results suggest that increased use of network resources and training are related to a positive attitude towards VWA in primary health professionals, both in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. INFLACIÓN E INCERTIDUMBRE INFLACIONARIA: EVIDENCIA PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Solera Ramírez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se estima una medida de la incertidumbre inflacionaria. Un modelo de inflación señala incertidumbre cuando los errores de pronóstico son heteroscedásticos. Por medio de la especificación de una ecuación GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity, para la varianza del término de error de un modelo de inflación, es posible estimar una proxy de incertidumbre inflacionaria. La estimación simultánea del modelo de inflación y de la ecuación GARCH, produce un nuevo modelo de inflación en el cual los errores de pronóstico son homocedásticos. Existe consenso en la literatura económica en que hay una correlación positiva entre incertidumbre inflacionaria y la magnitud de la tasa de inflación, lo cual, como lo señaló Friedman (1977, representa uno de los costos asociados con la persistencia inflacionaria. Esto es porque tal incertidumbre dificulta la toma de decisiones óptimas por parte de los agentes económicos.La evidencia empírica, para el periodo 1954:01-2002:08, apoya la hipótesis de que para el caso de Costa Rica mientras mayor es la inflación mayor es la incertidumbre respecto a esta variable. En los últimos siete años (1997-2002 la incertidumbre presenta la variación media más baja de todo el periodo. Además, se identifica un efecto asimétrico de la inflación sobre la incertidumbre inflacionaria, es decir, la incertidumbre inflacionaria tiende a incrementarse más para el siguiente periodo cuando la inflación pronosticada está por debajo de la inflación actual, que cuando la inflación pronosticada está por arriba de la tasa observada de inflación. Estos resultados tienen una clara implicación para la política monetaria. Para minimizar la dificultad que la inflación causa en la toma óptima de decisiones de los agentes económicos es necesario perseguir no solamente un nivel bajo de inflación sino que también sea estable.AbstractThis paper estimates a measure of

  2. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Haberyan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2 , but low in dissolved O2 ; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic. The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1, Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.Se visitaron 51 lagos en Costa Rica como parte de un sondeo de lagos más amplio, con el fin de documentar sus carácteristicas físicas y químicas y las relaciones entre estas carácteristicas y el modo

  3. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  4. Transition to Teaching in Nebraska: Findings from the First Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's alternative teacher certification program, Transition to Teaching, is housed at the University of Nebraska at Kearney. After 10 years in operation, program evaluation was deemed necessary to assess responsiveness to the needs of teacher candidates and the school districts within the state and effectiveness in meeting those needs.…

  5. Continuums of Precarity: Refugee Youth Transitions in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Julia Ann; Bonet, Sally Wesley

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the pre-migratory experiences of 90 Bhutanese, Burmese, and Iraqi refugee youth shape their aspirations, needs and capabilities as they transition to postsecondary education and work in the American urban context. It further explores how their schooling experiences in precarious urban school districts influence their…

  6. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.

  7. 7 CFR 920.131 - Redistricting of kiwifruit districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... include the counties of San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Contra Costa, Alameda, Santa Clara, Monterey, San Benito, San Joaquin, Calaveras, Alpine, Mono, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Merced, Mariposa, Madera, and...

  8. Crafting Legitimacy in District-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Partnering across districts, schools, and other community organizations has become ubiquitous as a policy for promoting change. Despite growing attention to and scholarship on district-community partnerships, there is little examination of the organizational mechanisms involved in sustaining them. Purpose/Objectives: This study…

  9. Smallholder agricultural technology development in Soroti district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    National Agricultural Advisory and Development Services (NAADS) in Soroti district. The study shows that .... important additions are HIV/AIDS, basic principles of nutrition ... in supplying inputs to farmers and technology delivery, while the .... Table 3. Social differentiation of NAADS and FFS groups in Soroti district 2004.

  10. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  11. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  12. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  13. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  14. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  15. the creation of new districts in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    However, it focuses also on the financial burden that these newly created districts place on the locality and ..... Reports on one of the newly created districts paint a grim picture: “For more than 10 .... of the Consolidated Fund for such grants.80.

  16. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  17. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  18. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  19. Improving the performance of district heating systems by utilization of local heat boosters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, A.; Dominkovic, D. F.; Pedersen, A. S.

    was to evaluate the possibilities to lower the forward temperature of the heat supply in order to reduce the heat losses of the system. Booster heat pumps are introduced to increase the water temperature close to the final users. A Matlab model was developed to simulate the state of the case study DH network...... was set to minimize the system heat losses. * Corresponding author 0303-1 1 This goal was achieved by lowering the forward temperature to 40°C and relying on the installed heat pumps to boost the water temperature to the admissible value needed for the domestic hot water preparation. Depending......District Heating (DH) plays an important role into the Danish energy green transition towards the future sustainable energy systems. The new, 4 th generation district heating network, the so called Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH), tends to lower the supply temperature of the heat down to 40...

  20. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  1. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  2. Content of heavy metals in the sediments of the rivers and adjacent gullies to Relleno de Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica it is not had studies that have documented heavy the fluvial sediment metal concentrations, caused by point sources of polluting agents, as they are the sites of I deposit of been accustomed to remainders. The potential source of heavy metal concentrations in the study area, it is an active sanitary filling, known like Sanitary Landing Azul River, which is located to the Southeastern of the city of San Jose, in the District of Azul River, Corner of the Union. The site where this made up of a sequence of materials of volcanic origin is located to the filling of Azul River, which could be affected by local fault, this fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of underground waters of the region, then the geological faults constitute very permeable means, able to put in contact the polluting agents of the water-bearing filling with some. The mass of metals deposited in the site, from 1978 to date, metric ton has calculated between 70000 to 100000, which turns it an environmental preoccupation of first order. The results of x-rays fluorescence show the presence of elements like vanadium, chromium, manganese, it receives, zinc rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a tendency to present/display high concentrations but in the fine fraction (d [es

  3. Steps for Implementing a State-Level Professional Development Plan for Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Simonsen, Monica; Boaz, Bonnie; VanAvery, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    To scale up and sustain the use of evidence-based practices, it is imperative that state education agencies systematically implement professional development that represents best practice. By delivering quality professional development to local districts, it is more likely that transition personnel will implement transition programs and practices…

  4. Evaluation of Achieving a College Education Plus: A Credit-Based Transition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gaye; Fowler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This ex post facto study evaluated Achieving a College Education (ACE) Plus program, a credit-based transition program between a high school district and a community college. Achieving a College Education Plus is an early outreach program. It is designed to aid at-risk students in graduating from high school and making a smooth transition to…

  5. A trajetória profissional de Flora Costa Marques: ex-aluna da Escola de Enfermagem Aurora de Afonso Costa (1950-1983 La trayectoria profesional de Flora Costa Marques: ex-alumna de la Escuela de Enfermería Aurora de Afonso Costa (1950-1983 The professional trajectory of Flora Costa Marques: former student of the Aurora de Afonso Costa School of Nursing (1950-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenith Rosa Silvino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de cunho histórico social descreve a trajetória de Flora Costa Marques, uma ex-aluna da antiga Escola de Enfermagem do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, atual Escola de Enfermagem Aurora de Afonso Costa, na Saúde Pública do município de Niterói, destacando as contribuições da Escola à formação de enfermeiras para atuação no campo da saúde pública. O recorte temporal é de 1950, ano de formatura da segunda turma do curso de graduação em enfermagem da referida escola, a 1983, ano da aposentadoria da enfermeira. Utilizamos o método história de vida e como técnica de coleta a entrevista aberta. Ao analisarmos a trajetória da enfermeira, observamos que as atividades desenvolvidas na época remetem aos Programas atuais: Programa Saúde da Família, Programa Médico da Família e Programa Agentes Comunitários de Saúde. Assim, as contribuições da Escola, com ênfase na área da saúde pública, consolidaram-se através do preparo de enfermeiras que lidam com as mais variadas adversidades no campo da saúde.La investigación de enfoque histórico y social describe la trayectoria de Flora Costa Marques, una ex-alumna de la antigua Escuela de Enfermería del Estado de Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, actual Escuela de Enfermería Aurora de Afonso Costa, en la Salud Pública del municipio de Niteroi, destacando las contribuciones de la Escuela a la formación de enfermeras para actuación en el campo de la salud pública. El tiempo va desde 1950, año de la licenciatura de la segunda turma del curso de graduación de enfermeros de la referida escuela, hasta 1983, año de la jubilación de la enfermera. Utilizamos el método historia de vida y como técnica de colecta la entrevista abierta. Al analizar la trayectoria de la enfermera, se ha observado que las actividades a la época remiten a los Programas actuales: Programa Salud de la Familia, Programa Médico de Familia y Programa Agentes Comunitarios de Salud. Así, las contribuciones

  6. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  7. Some effects of temperature and starvation on the bivalve @iDonax vittatus@@ (da Costa) in experimental laboratory populations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansell, A.D.; Sivadas, P.

    The effect of temperature on the body weight and composition, and on respiration, filtration and NH, excretion of the bivalve Donax uittatus (da Costa) has been investigated in laboratory-maintained populations under conditions of starvation In all...

  8. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  9. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or

  10. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  11. Heavy metal and selenium levels in endangered wood storks Mycteria americana from nesting colonies in Florida and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Rodgers, J A; Gochfeld, M

    1993-05-01

    Colonially-nesting birds often nest in coastal areas, along rivers, or near other bodies of water that also are potentially polluted from industrial, agricultural or urban development. The levels of heavy metals and selenium were examined in the feathers of young wood storks Mycteria americana nesting in Northeastern Florida and from adult and young storks nesting on the Tempisque River on the west coast of Costa Rica. There were no significant yearly differences among the chicks from Costa Rica. Concentration of mercury, cadmium, and lead were significantly higher in the chicks from Florida compared to those from Costa Rica. Adult wood storks at Costa Rica had significantly higher levels of lead, cadmium, selenium, and manganese than young from the same colony.

  12. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez Quesada

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicionalmente la moneda local se aproxima a través de varios indicadores basados en razones de depósitos en moneda extranjera con respecto a sus similares en moneda local con frecuencia mensual de 1990 al 2002. Además, se identifican los factores que explican la demanda relativa de los depósitos bancarios según su grado de liquidez y se buscan evidencias de irreversibilidad del proceso (histéresis mediante variables de tipo “ratchet”.Como factores explicativos del fenómeno, se plantean la probable influencia de elementos institucionales y de los estímulos económicos derivados de la globalización de la economía y de los diferenciales de rendimientos financieros. Pero se sostiene también que las políticas monetaria y cambiaria han tenido efectos en el nivel de dolarización alcanzado por la economía costarricense; por una parte, la política deencajes llevada a cabo desde 1996 favoreció la constitución de depósitos en moneda extranjera (y la intermediación de esos fondos ha debido generar la expansión secundaria de esos recursos y, por otra, el ajuste cambiario siempre alcista bajo el régimen de minidevaluaciones ha estimulado la sustitución de activos.Se concluye en general que la dolarización de depósitos bancarios ha alcanzado niveles muy elevados (50% del total y la significancia de la variable “ratchet” da indicios de que el proceso es de difícil reversión por lo que es de esperar que se mantenga en el futuro la

  13. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Lopez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854 fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum, and Vismia constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi. All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 301-313. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos los hábitos alimentarios de 15 especies de murciélagos frugívoros en la Estación Biológica La Selva. Se analizó 854 muestras de heces y 169 muestras de restos de frutos y semillas en comederos. Durante ocho meses de estudio, se identificó 47 especies de frutos, que fueron consumidos por los murciélagos. Cinco géneros de plantas (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum y Vismia constituyeron el 85% de los hallazgos en las muestras de heces y los comederos. La amplitud de nicho trófico difirió significativamente entre las seis especies de murciélagos frugívoros más frecuentemente capturados (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata

  14. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people, in order to confirm the diagnosis with

  15. Basidiomicetes de Costa Rica: nuevas especies de Exobasidium (Exobasidiaceae y registros de Cryptobasidiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis D. Gómez P

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen seis nuevas especies (Exobasidiales, Exobasidiaceae: Exobasidium aequatorianum parásito de Vaccinium crenatum (Don Sleumer en los Andes ecuatorianos; Exobasidium jamaicense como parásito de Lyonia jamaicensis (Sw.D.Don de Jamaica, Exobasidium disterigmicola como parásito de Disterigma huboldtii (Klz. Nied., de Costa Rica y que forma distrofias del tipo escoba de bruja, Exobasidium sphyrospermii de Costa Rica, como parásito de Sphyrospermum cordifolium Bentham, Exobasidium poasanum, de Costa Rica y que forma gigantescas pseudoagallas en hojas y yemas de Cavendishia bracteata (R. & P. ex St.-Hil. Hoer., Exobasidium pernettyae, de Costa Rica y parásito foliar de Pernettya prostrata (Cav. DC. Es muy posible que esas especies de parásitos se extiendan en todo el ámbito geografico de las plantas que parasitan, como lo demuestra el hallazgo de Exobasidium escalloniae Gómez & Kisimova, descrito de Costa Rica, en Escallonia myrtilloides var. patens, en Ecuador de donde tambien se registra Exobasidium vaccinii (Fkl. Wor. Como parásito de las especies costarricenses de Arctostaphylos y Comarostaphylos, se registra, describe e lustra la especie Exobasidium arctostaphyli Hark., descrita de la coasta occidental de los E.E.U.U. lo que constituye un nuevo registro neotropical. La exploración en búsqueda de criptobasidiáceas eleva el número de Cryptobasidiales registrados en Costa Rica a tres: Clinoconidium bullatum Sydow, originalmente descrito de las inmediaciones de Grecia, Alajuela, ahora se conoce también de Monteverde, Puntarenas, como parásito de Cinnamomum spp., Clinoconidium farinosum (P.Henn. Pat., de la misma localidad y como parásito de Ocotea monteverdensis Burger. En la Cordillera de Talamanca, se localizó una población de Aiouea costaricensis (Mez Kosterm., con numerosas agallas foliares y caulinares causadas por Drepanoconis larviformis (Speg. Speg. Con excepción de C. bullatum, todos son nuevos registros

  16. Implementing energy transition - A legal deciphering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain-Thouverez, Justine; Romi, Raphael; Chautard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    As the French law on energy transition reconfigures many parameters of implementation of public action, the authors propose a cross-referenced reading of this law, of the law for new organisation of territories (NOTRe) in its environmental dimension, and of the regulation which results from these legal standards, in order to have a better view on public action in terms of abilities, and of action and financial levers. In a first part, the author discuss the relationships of energy transition with State, regions, districts, EPCI (communal collaboration public body), communes, and public bodies. In the second part, they address the new levers for action, and finally address the financing of energy transition (financing funds, third-party financing companies)

  17. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  18. Ontario Power Authority district energy research report : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This paper presented an analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of district energy in Ontario. The market context for district energy was evaluated, and institutional issues that may influence the future development and operation of district energy systems in Ontario were explored. Technical, economic, and environmental analyses of district energy based on different neighbourhood sizes, types, and district energy systems were presented. Three case studies were included to demonstrate real world district energy applications. A set of interviews conducted with representatives of the province's district energy supply chain was also provided in order to provide a framework for district energy opportunities and challenges within the province. 22 tabs., 16 figs.

  19. Patrones diferenciales de mortalidad entre inmigrantes nicaragüenses y residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring, Andrew A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  20. La población con discapacidad en los censos del siglo XX en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Vargas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se logró conocer los criterios de clasificación empleados para definir a la población con discapacidad en los registros censales del siglo XX en Costa Rica y, por consiguiente, una aproximación a las formulaciones conceptuales para referirse al grupo en estudio. Además, se caracterizó a ese segmento poblacional a partir de diferentes variables: sexo, edad, estado civil y distribución geográfica. También se abordaron otros aspectos como fueron: alfabetismo, nivel de educación, ocupación, jefatura de hogar y vivienda. Entre los hallazgos más destacables se encuentra la permanencia, en los registros censales del siglo XX, de un concepto de discapacidad basado en la deficiencia, lo que definió los criterios de clasificación para esa población en esas fuentes. Asimismo se constató, por una parte, la asociación entre discapacidad e inequidad en esa centuria y, por la otra, la fragilidad de los vínculos de parentesco en ese grupo poblacional con respecto al conjunto de hogares de Costa Rica a fines de ese siglo. Las fuentes empleadas en esta investigación fueron los censos de población de Costa Rica del siglo XX. En el procedimiento con los datos, se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo de distribución de frecuencias.This research discloses the classification criteria used to define the population with disability in the twentieth century census records in Costa Rica and therefore gives an approximation of the conceptual formulations needed to refer to the examined group. Additionally, a segment of the population has been characterized by sex, age, marital status and geographical distribution. Other aspects like literacy rate, education level, occupation, head of household and housing were also dealt with. The disability concept based on deficiency, which defined the classification criteria for the population in those data sources, is among the most significant findings of this research. Furthermore, it was found

  1. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  2. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  3. Avances en la reducción del consumo de sal y sodio en Costa Rica Advances in reducing salt and sodium intake in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes

  4. Energy transition: towards landscape devastation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posokhow, Andre

    2013-09-01

    The author criticizes some aspects of the content of the French policy for energy transition. He states that the objective of reduction of greenhouse emissions is unreachable and moreover useless when China keeps on opening new coal-fired power stations. He states that temperatures do not increase any longer and that it is not sure that CO 2 emissions are responsible for past increases. He outlines that the power of wind turbines is only a quarter of their theoretical one, that replacing nuclear energy by wind energy would require the installation of 33.000 wind turbines. He states that objectives of energy saving are not credible, and that the energy mix predictions are fuzzy. He outlines contradictions about the nuclear power station life duration, states that the installation of 210 wind turbines per district would devastate the French landscape

  5. 78 FR 53675 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Boomsday Festival; Tennessee River 646.0-649.0...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Boomsday Festival; Tennessee River 646.0-649.0... Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Boomsday Festival Fireworks on the Tennessee River 646.0-649.0... Festival Fireworks. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in the Safety Zone...

  6. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort... Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of Independence event in the Santa Rosa Sound, Fort... during the Sound of Independence. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in...

  7. Examining Behavioral, Relational, and Cognitive Engagement in Smaller Learning Communities: A Case Study of Reform in One Suburban District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of Smaller Learning Community reform on students' behavioral, relational, and cognitive engagement in a suburban school district experiencing urbanization. We describe a project in which we evaluated the engagement of a cohort of 8th grade students as they transitioned to high school (n = 605).…

  8. Legislative Districts, Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US Senate district showing the locations in the County of Polk, WI., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US...

  9. Caracterización del uso de medicamentos en personas adultas mayores, Costa Rica 2007 Characterization of medication use in the eldery, Costa Rica 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Jiménez Herrera; Xinia Fernández Rojas

    2008-01-01

    El proceso de utilización de medicamentos es complejo y las personas adultas mayores tienden a tener un mayor número de entidades patológicas y de medicamentos que complica el uso racional, adecuado y seguro de los medicamentos. Se caracterizó la utilización de medicamentos y se identificaron algunos factores asociados que le determinan en la persona adulta mayor mediante las bases de datos del estudio Costa Rica Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CRELES) en su primera ronda. U...

  10. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  11. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  12. Effective team management by district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  13. Costa Rica as a source of emigrants: a reading from a political economy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gatica López

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Available data shows an increase in international migration departing from Costa Rica, mainly to the United States. Based on the data obtained from two surveys conducted with potential emigrants and families with members living abroad, this paper is aimed at understanding their reasons for emigrating. In addition, some socio-economic impacts in four suburbs with high rates of emigration are identified. From a political economy approach, the most appropriate framework to better understand these emigration cases is discussed.  Moreover, the transformation of the employment and productive matrix followed by Costa Rica during the last three decades, as well as the country’s form of insertion into the international economy are two structural factors strongly linked to the emigration of the subjects studied in this paper.

  14. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  15. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements.Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal management concerning MSMEs, calculated the correlation among semi-formality, competitiveness, and development, and finally, proposed a cluster design to deal with the state of affairs. It should be noted that this type of analysis has never been undertaken in the country.

  16. Teachers of Language and Culture: A Thoughtful Look and Review of the Costa Rican Indigenous Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Guevara-Víquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay is part of the products from the Reconstruction of Knowledge project –attached to the Division of Rural Education of the National University of Costa Rica. This work seeks to create a thoughtful look regarding the existing indigenous education model in Costa Rica in general– and particularly in Talamanca. A methodology based on collaborative action research with indigenous teachers in the region of Talamanca Bribri and Talamanca Cabécar was used as a starting point. This methodology combined focus group discussions and individual interviews with a qualitative approach that allowed generating a series of critical impressions about the education system where they work. All this will lead to a summary of insights and specific recommendations that would strengthen the educational system for the indigenous population of Talamanca and would allow moving towards a true model of Intercultural Bilingual Education.

  17. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  18. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  19. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga; Liliana Pazos Sanou

    1998-01-01

    Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunología, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 19...

  20. Helminths of hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examination of a stranded hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata from Pacific coast of Costa Rica revealed the presence of a rich digenean fauna including Carettacola stunkardi (Spirorchiidae, Enodiotrema reductum (Plagiorchiidae, Cricocephalus albus, Adenogaster serialis, Epi-bathra crassa, Pleurogonius lobatus, P. trigonocephalus, P. linearis, and Pyelosomum posterorchis (Pronocephalidae. All helminths except C. albus and P. lobatus represent new geographical records for Costa Rica. Carettacola stunkardi is reported for first time in an Eastern Pacific hawksbill turtle and its pathological changes are here described. Histologically, nodular lesions on the serosal surface of intestine revealed a mixed infiltrate of heterophils, lymphocytes, and histiocytes within necrotic debris. Granulomas with spirorchiid eggs were observed in the mucosa, sub-mucosa and muscular layers of stomach and intestine, gallbladder and liver.

  1. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  2. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. I - Biphase Costas loop with passive arm filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) is an attractive means for transmitting two digital data streams which in general have different average powers, data rates, and data formats. Previous analyses of the tracking performance of Costas loop demodulators of unbalanced QPSK have accounted only for the filtering effect produced by the loop's two arm filters on the equivalent additive noise perturbing the loop. When the bandwidth of these filters is selected on the basis of the order of the data rate, as is typical of optimum Costas loop design, the filtering degradations of the data modulations themselves and the cross-modulation noise produced by their multiplication in the loop often cannot be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate these additional filtering effects into the analysis. Many of the results obtained herein are in the form of closed-form expressions which can easily be evaluated numerically for design and performance prediction purposes.

  3. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  4. New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae from Costa Rica and Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte H. Jordal

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Scolytodes (tribe Ctenophorini are described as new to science: S. concavus and S. circumsetosus (from Ficus branches, La Selva, S. montanus (Monteverde, S. nudifrons (Las Cruces near San Vito, and S. triangulus (fogging sample, La Selva, all from Costa Rica, and S. ungulatus (Cerro Punta and S. punctifrons (from Astronium graveolens, Canal Zone, both from Panama. New distributional and host plant data are given for the following species: S. amoenus (Ficus branch, La Selva, and the first record south of Mexico, S. immanis (Cerro de La Muerte, S. impressus (Xylopia branch, Peninsula de Osa, S. ochromae (Ochroma branch, La Selva, S. piceus (fogging sample, La Selva, the first low altitude record, and S. swieteniae (fogging sample, La Selva and Braulio Carrillo, the first exact locality data, all from Costa Rica, and S. nanellus (Barro Colorado Island from Panama.

  5. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  6. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  7. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital." excerpt

  8. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero-Campos, Virginia; Quesada-Kimsey, Jaime; Ledezma-Espinoza, Aura; Sandoval-Mora, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author) [es

  9. Breadwinning women: Economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to Costa Rican households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Salazar Mayorga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to the household income, in comparison to the income their partners generate, in Costa Rica.  From a perspective of gender roles, human capital theory and female labor participation, this paper examines what variables influence the probability of contribution.  Based on data by the 2014 National Household Survey, this study found that 51% percent of married or cohabiting women do not generate any income, which shows there is an unequal economic relationship in half of Costa Rican households and the males assume the breadwinning role.  Household chores and the number of children reduce the probability of economic contribution.  On the other hand, women with more years of schooling have a higher probability to contribute equally to the couple’s total income.

  10. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  11. Mapas de inundación por tsunamis en Playas del Coco y Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Sauma, Natalia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación presenta algunos de los resultados obtenidos por el proyecto "Mapa de inundación por tsunamis para Costa Rica, primera fase, Puntarenas y Playas del Coco". Muestra los resultados obtenidos con respecto a simulaciones realizadas. Explica información del ambiente tectónico de la zona. Finalmente, expone algunas de las acciones de reducción del riesgo de inundación por tsunami y mitigación This investigation includes some of the results obtained in the project "Flood Map by Tsunamis in Costa Rica, First Stage: Puntarenas and Playas del Coco." It shows the results obtained as a result of simulations. It explains information about the tectonic environment of the zone. Finally, it exposes some of actions to reduce tsunami flood risk and mitigation

  12. Diccionario histórico-toponímico de la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Eduardo Díaz Bolaños

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron de distintas fuentes documentales los nombres de setenta y seis topónimos correspondientes a los principales accidentes topográficos del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Estos se pueden agrupar en cuatro grupos principales, como son aquellos pertenecientes a las visitas de navegantes británicos, la vida republicana en Costa Rica y aquellos de la flora y fauna, tanto terrestre como marina. La metodología empleada ha permitido identificar setenta y uno de estos topónimos. Conceptualmente, el dinamismo del abordaje metodológico y la divulgación de sus resultados sugieren tener implícito un proceso de retroalimentación.

  13. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  14. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  15. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  16. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  17. Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, J. Maarten; Aiuppa, A.; Avard, G.; Wehrmann, H.; Dunbar, N.; Muller, C.; Tamburello, G.; Giudice, G.; Liuzzo, M.; Moretti, R.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.

    2016-08-01

    Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use high-frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived CO2-rich gas (CO2/Stotal > 4.5) precede explosive activity, providing a clear precursor to eruptive periods that occurs up to 2 weeks before eruptions, which are accompanied by shallowly derived sulfur-rich magmatic gas emissions. Degassing modeling suggests that the deep magmatic reservoir is 8-10 km deep, whereas the shallow magmatic gas source is at 3-5 km. Two cycles of degassing and eruption are observed, each attributed to pulses of magma ascending through the deep reservoir to shallow crustal levels. The magmatic degassing signals were overprinted by a fluid contribution from the shallow hydrothermal system, modifying the gas compositions, contributing volatiles to the emissions, and reflecting complex processes of scrubbing, displacement, and volatilization. H2S/SO2 varies over 2 orders of magnitude through the monitoring period and demonstrates that the first eruptive episode involved hydrothermal gases, whereas the second did not. Massive degassing (>3000 T/d SO2 and H2S/SO2 > 1) followed, suggesting boiling off of the hydrothermal system. The gas emissions show a remarkable shift to purely magmatic composition (H2S/SO2 < 0.05) during the second eruptive period, reflecting the depletion of the hydrothermal system or the establishment of high-temperature conduits bypassing remnant hydrothermal reservoirs, and the transition from phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptive activity.

  18. Análisis de la relación comercial entre la República de Colombia y la República de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Escobar, Juán Sebastián; Bermudez Monroy, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Dadas las relaciones de cooperación internacional que presentan las Repúblicas de Colombia y Costa Rica, que se evidencia en los fuertes vínculos comerciales existentes entre las dos naciones, Proexport por medio de su oficina comercial en Costa Rica, ha mantenido al tanto la situación en la que se desenvuelve la alianza comercial entre Colombia y Costa Rica. Él último de estos informes, demuestra la potencialidad de Costa Rica como un mercado para los bienes colombianos y una posibilidad par...

  19. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  20. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae): call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Caty Frenkel

    2006-01-01

    Call frequency and movements of the gecko Hemidactylus frenatus were studied in Punta Morales, Costa Rica from April 1999 through May 2000. Call activity of H. frenatus was positively related to air temperature at night and throughout the year. Higher activity was at dusk, dawn, and during the hottest months. Call frequency was related with gecko abundance per month, although not during the night. More males and females had a regenerated tail compared to juveniles, the last ones could have it...