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Sample records for costa brasileira porifera

  1. Primeiro registro de Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 para a costa brasileira (Porifera, Demospongiae

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    Beatriz Mothes de Moraes

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of occurrence of Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 for the South Atlantic Ocean at shallow areas of the Brazilian coast (State of Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba Bay: 23º04'53"/44º00'34"W and State of Santa Catarina, Porto Belo: 27º09'12"S/48º29'30"W widely enlarges the distribution of the species, known only from the Indo-Pacific region. Detailed descriptions and ilustrations of the specimens are offered. A table of micrometric measurements and camera lucida drawings of spicules is also offered.

  2. Registros novos e adicionais de teleósteos marinhos na costa brasileira

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    Rodrigo Antunes Caires

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas novas informações sobre a distribuição geográfica de algumas espécies de peixes teleósteos que ocorrem na costa brasileira, incluindo duas espécies que nunca haviam sido registradas em nossas águas. Os serranídeos Pseudogramma gregoryi (assinalado da Flórida à Venezuela e Plectranthias garrupellus (registrado da Carolina do Norte ao Caribe foram encontrados, respectivamente, na costa do Ceará e na costa sudeste-sul do Brasil. São aqui mencionados e discutidos os dois primeiros registros do gênero Caristius (Caristiidae no Brasil, bem como os primeiros registros na costa sudeste-sul do Brasil das espécies Enchelycore carychroa (Muraenidae, e Chilomycterus antillarum (Diodontidae, e da espécie Neobythites brasiliensis(Bythitidae no nordeste do Brasil. É também assinalada a ocorrência mais setentrional do pargo Calamus mu (Sparidae, uma espécie até então circunscrita à região entre o Espírito Santo e São Paulo, e são discutidos os registros adicionais de Bascanichthys paulensis (Ophichthidae, Nezumia aequalis (Macrouridae, Antigonia combatia (Caproidae e Notolycodes schmidti (Zoarcidae na costa brasileira.New data of the geographical distribution of several species of teleost fishes assigned to the Brazilian coast, including some species never previously recorded, are presented. The serranids Pseudogramma gregoryi (recorded from Florida to Venezuela, and Plectranthias garrupellus (recorded from North Carolina to Caribbean Sea were found, respectively, in coast of Ceará and in southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. The two sole records the family Caristiidae in Brazilian coast are mentioned and discussed, and are given herein the first accounts of the species Enchelycore carychroa (Muraenidae and Chilomycterus antillarum (Diodontidae from southeastern Brazilian coast, and of Neobythites brasiliensis (Bythitidae from northeastern Brazilian coast. We have also discussed the northernmost occurrence of

  3. NÍVEL TRÓFICO DE PEIXES DA COSTA BRASILEIRA

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    Thiely Oliveira Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de entender o papel ecológico da fauna marinha de peixes e contribuir para a construção de modelos de balanço de massa trófica, o presente estudo determinou o nível trófico (TL para 131 espécies de peixe pertencentes a 52 famílias e 18 ordens. Todas as informações disponíveis (artigos de revistas científicas, assim como literatura cinza sobre conteúdo alimentar das espécies de peixes marinhos da costa brasileira foram tabuladas por espécies, área de estudo e ano. Os valores de TL foram calculados usando o TrophLab, que é um aplicativo para estimar o TL e seu erro padrão (SE, a partir de dados da composição de dieta. O TL variou de 2, como os herbívoros Gobionellus oceanicus (Gobiidae, a 4,80, para piscívoros Prionace glauca (Carcharhinidae. O valor médio de TL foi de 3,60. A maioria (38% dos valores de TL variou entre 3,0 e 3,5. Foram detectadas diferenças entre as estimativas de TL do presente estudo e aquelas disponíveis por algumas espécies no FishBase. As diferenças observadas podem ser explicadas por inúmeros fatores, incluindo procedimentos de amostragens, número total de estômagos analisados, variação do comprimento da população amostrada. Relações significativas foram determinadas entre as estimativas de TL do presente estudo com os disponíveis no FishBase, e com o comprimento máximo do corpo das espécies. Palavras-chave: Ecologia trófica. Ictiofauna. Nível trófico. Oceano Atlântico sudoeste. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p130-160

  4. Freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae in a benthic filter feeding community at the Guanacaste Dry Forest, Costa Rica Esponjas continentais (Porifera, Demospongiae em uma comunidade bêntica filtradora na Floresta Decidual de Guanacaste, Costa Rica

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    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater sponges Trochospongilla variabilis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago (1973, Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882, Spongilla cenota Penney & Racek (1968 and Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974 compose with the sphaerid bivalve Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1865 and several Phylactolaemata bryozoans a benthic filter feeding community living in seasonal lentic and lotic habitats with high Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, low conductivity and acid pH within the Costa Rica Dry Forest biome. The sponge specimens gathered led to the re-description of the four species.As esponjas de água doce Trochospongilla variabilis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago (1973, Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882, Spongilla cenota Penney & Racek (1968 e Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974 compõem, com o bivalve esferídeo Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1865 e diversos briozoários Phylactolaemata, uma comunidade bêntica de filtradores em ambientes sazonais lênticos e lóticos com alto Carbono Orgânico Particulado (POC, baixa condutividade e pH ácido no bioma da Floresta Decidual da Costa Rica. Os espécimes de esponjas coligidos conduziram à redescrição das quatro espécies.

  5. Composição de ácidos graxos do leite materno em mulheres residentes em área distante da costa litorânea brasileira

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    Renata Y. Nishimura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos do leite humano maduro de mulheres residentes em área distante da costa litorânea brasileira. MÉTODOS: Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas de 47 mulheres lactantes com idade entre 18 e 35 anos, que tiveram partos a termo e em aleitamento exclusivo ou predominante. A coleta de leite se deu a partir da 5ª semana pós-parto, por meio de ordenha manual. A composição de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a concentração de eicosapentaenoico (0,08% foi superior ao observado em estudos brasileiros prévios. Entretanto, o teor de docosahexaenoico (0,09% encontrado no leite humano foi um dos menores já verificados no mundo. O teor de ácidos graxos trans (2,05% foi similar ao relatado em estudos nacionais prévios à obrigatoriedade de declaração do teor deste em rótulos de alimentos, sugerindo que esta medida não surtiu efeito na redução de seu teor na dieta habitual das mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: Baixo teor de docosahexaenoico e elevada concentração de ácidos graxos trans foram verificados no leite materno maduro de mulheres residentes em área distante da costa litorânea brasileira.

  6. Total mercury in sharks along the southern Brazilian Coast Mercúrio total em tubarões capturados na costa brasileira

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    E.T. Mársico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se a concentração de mercúrio total na porção muscular de 39 exemplares de tubarões de três diferentes espécies Prionace glauca, Isurus oxyrhynchus, Sphyrna zygaena, capturados na costa sul do Brasil, Santa Catarina. O teor de mercúrio foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica por vapor frio. Observou-se ampla variação na concentração de mercúrio total com valor individual máximo excedendo o limite estabelecido pela legislação brasileira, de 1.0µg.g-1 em um exemplar fêmea de P. glauca. Nessa espécie, a concentração de Hg-total aumentou proporcionalmente ao comprimento total (r=0,62; P<0,0001. Não foi evidenciada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre exemplares fêmeas e machos.

  7. Detecção de atividade lectínica e atividade hemolítica em extratos de esponjas (Porifera nativas da costa atlântica do Brasil Detection of lectinic activity and hemolytic activity in extracts of native sponges (Porifera of atlantic coast of Brazil

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    R.R. Dresch

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos de vinte espécies de esponjas da costa Atlântica brasileira foram testados para verificação da presença de atividade lectínica e atividade hemolítica. Hemaglutinação para eritrócitos humanos e de distintos animais foi evidenciada em 12 dos 20 extratos testados. Os extratos das espécies Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrosia collectrix, Cinachyrella alloclada e Guitarra sp1. foram os que apresentaram maior atividade hemaglutinante. Dos doze extratos com atividade hemaglutinante dez tiveram a atividade inibida por um ou mais açúcares e/ou glicoproteínas. A lectina do extrato de Chondrilla nucula foi resistente à desnaturação térmica quando aquecida a 100 ºC por 60 minutos. Atividade hemolítica foi encontrada apenas nos extratos de Petromica citrina e Acervochalina sp. As espécies que apresentaram maior potencial para futuros estudos de suas lectinas foram Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula e Chondrosia collectrix, em vista da maior atividade hemaglutinante apresentada por seus extratos, aliada à maior atividade específica.Aqueous extracts of twenty species of sea sponges of the Brazilian Atlantic coast were tested with the aim of searching the presence of lectinic and hemolytic activity. Hemagglutinating activity for human erythrocytes and for distinct animals were found in 12 of the 20 tested extracts. The extracts of Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrosia collectrix, Cinachyrella alloclada and Guitarra sp1. were the ones that presented highest hemagglutinating activity. Ten of the 12 hemagglutinating extracts had the activity inhibited by one or more sugars or glycoproteins. The lectin from Chondrilla nucula was resistant to thermal denaturation when heated up to 100 ºC for 60 minutes. Hemolytic activity was only found in the extracts from Petromica citrina and Acervochalina sp. The species of sea sponges that showed major potential for futures studies of their lectins were

  8. Esponjas (Porifera, Demospongiae da plataforma continental ao largo do Estado do Amapá, Brasil Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the continental shelf off the coast of Amapá State, Brazil

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    Beatriz Mothes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As amostras foram coletadas com draga retangular ao largo da costa (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W, pela Comissão Pesca Norte I, em 1968, através da Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil com o N./Oc. " Almirante Saldanha" em profundidades que variaram de 56 a 95 m. Oito espécies são aqui registradas, entre as quais Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 e Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 são identificadas pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. As demais espécies, Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 e Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 são conhecidas pela primeira vez para a área estudada. Todas as espécies identificadas são também registradas para o Caribe. Os espécimes encontram-se depositados na Coleção de Porifera do Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The collections were dredged off the coast (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W. They were collected between 56 to 95 depths, during an oceanographic expedition, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil, by R/V " Almirante Saldanha" in 1968. Eight species are here registered, among which Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 and Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 represent new registers for Brazil. The other species: Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 and Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 represent new records to the studied area. All registered species are also known from Caribbean. Specimens are deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  9. Concentração de ácido eicosapentaenóico (EPA e ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA em peixes marinhos da costa brasileira

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    VISENTAINER Jesuí Vergilio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Análises experimentais foram realizadas objetivando a composição quantitativa dos ácidos graxos Eicosapentaenóico (EPA e Docosahexaenóico (DHA, em diferentes partes do corpo de espécies de peixes marinhos da costa brasileira (atum, bonito, olho de boi, cavalinha, sardinha e serra. Os teores de EPA e DHA foram analisados em duas partes distintas: olho (órbita ocular e material gorduroso da cavidade ocular e filés, sendo significativas as diferenças entre as mesmas. Os teores de DHA para uma determinada espécie foram sempre superiores no olho em relação ao filé, sendo o mesmo observado para o EPA em quatro das espécies (olho de boi, cavalinha, sardinha e serra. Comparando-se a mesma espécie e partes do corpo dos peixes, observou-se que os teores de DHA foram superiores aos teores de EPA, exceto para a sardinha. A somatória dos níveis de EPA e DHA em filés foram maiores para as espécies sardinha e bonito, mostrando serem uma boa fonte alimentar destes ácidos, especialmente a sardinha por ser uma fonte com preço acessível no Brasil.

  10. Global diversity of sponges (Porifera.

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    Rob W M Van Soest

    Full Text Available With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD, we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all 'known' sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future.

  11. Global diversity of sponges (Porifera).

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    Van Soest, Rob W M; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dohrmann, Martin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; De Voogd, Nicole J; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Vanhoorne, Bart; Kelly, Michelle; Hooper, John N A

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all 'known' sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future.

  12. LA COLECCIÓN NACIONAL DEL PHYLUM PORIFERA GERARDO GREEN

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    Patricia Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la importancia y el estado actual de la Colección Nacional del Phylum Porifera Gerardo Green, cuyo acervo alberga a los animales más primitivos de los metazoarios. Es la colección más completa y de mayor diversidad del país, al contener ejemplares provenientes de las costas de todos los estados que presentan litorales marinos y salobres y de algunos cuerpos de agua dulce. Las colecciones científicas son una herramienta básica para la investigación, no sólo proveen de la biodiversidad de especies pasadas y presentes, sino que también nos han permitido rehacer el pasado de la vida en la Tierra. Asimismo, brindan el estado ambiental en el que se desarrollaron lo cual permite compararlas con las actuales y resguardar especies de las cuales se ha obtenido un beneficio para el hombre.

  13. Análise da velocidade do vento e altura de onda em incidentes de naufrágio na costa brasileira entre os estados do Sergipe e do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Eduardo Vetromilla Fuentes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de naufrágios pode ser atribuída a vários fatores. Contudo, embarcações de pequeno porte usadas na pesca costeira, são geralmente mais suscetíveis aos fatores meteorológicos e oceânicos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar o comportamento da velocidade do vento e altura significativa de onda em relação à ocorrência de naufrágios na costa brasileira, entre os estados de Sergipe e Rio Grande do Sul. As frequências trimestral e mensal de naufrágios registrados entre Janeiro/2004 e Junho/2008 foram comparados com os ventos e com a altura significativa de ondas. As velocidades médias e máximas do vento nos dias e áreas de ocorrência, bem como a altura significativa de onda, foram comparadas aos valores históricos dessas variáveis. Foram observados ventos e ondas acima da climatologia em 54% e 46% das ocorrências de naufrágio, respectivamente. Em vários casos, o vento atingiu velocidades muito elevadas, sendo a provável causa para a ocorrência desses naufrágios. Os resultados apontaram para uma maior incidência de naufrágios em ambientes costeiros das regiões sudeste e sul do Brasil, com maior ocorrência entre os meses de março e agosto, envolvendo principalmente embarcações de pequeno porte (94%, utilizadas na pesca costeira. Os resultados encontrados reforçam a necessidade do envio de informações meteorológicas e oceanográficas para pequenas embarcações, em especial àquelas empregadas na atividade de pesca costeira.

  14. Filosofia brasileira?

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    Imaculada Kangussu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Como o tema proposto para nosso encontro deste ano foi “Brasil”, proponho discutirmos a possibilidade (e também seu contrário de pensarmos uma filosofia brasileira. Assim como existe um modo bastante próprio de abordar as questões filosóficas em alguns países, o que nos leva a conceber – através das diferenças evidentes – a existência de uma filosofia francesa, de uma filosofia alemã, inglesa, italiana, e, depois da globalização, de uma filosofia japonesa, árabe, e de outras nações cujas culturas são distintas da judaico-cristã; parece-me pertinente a questão: as singularidades de nosso pais podem produzir um pensamento original ao ponto de configurar um pensamento filosófico brasileiro? E ainda, encontramo-nos capazes, com nossa formação filosófica, de sermos intérpretes do Brasil?

  15. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist.

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    Voultsiadou, Eleni; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece.

  16. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

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    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  17. Costa Rica.

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    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  18. Behavioral patterns and movement intensity of Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae in two different areas on the Brazilian coast Padrões comportamentais e intensidade de movimentos de Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae em duas diferentes áreas da costa brasileira

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    Fábio G. Daura-Jorge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral patterns of the estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden, 1864, were compared between two populations along the Brazilian coast: Caravelas (Bahia, along the eastern coast, and Norte Bay (Santa Catarina, along the southern coast. Applying the focal-group sampling in both areas, information such as the geographic position (UTM of groups and predominant behavioral patterns were obtained. Geographic positions were used to calculate the total distance traveled by estuarine dolphin groups on each observation day. Since the distance traveled varies with time, the daily mean speed of the dolphin’s group was used as an index of movement intensity. Two comparable and easily recognizable behavioral patterns were considered: travelling and foraging. Overall movement intensity and behavioral pattern frequency were similar between both areas. However, a seasonal variation was observed in both parameters in Norte Bay, while in Caravelas these parameters were homogeneous throughout the year. Variation in the behavior of the estuarine dolphin was consistent with variations in environmental factors, such as water temperature.Os padrões comportamentais do botocinza, Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden, 1864, foram comparados entre duas populações da costa brasileira: Caravelas (Bahia, na costa leste, e Baía Norte (Santa Catarina, na costa sul. Utilizando o método de grupo-focal em ambas as áreas, informações como posições geográficas (UTM do grupo e padrão comportamental predominante foram coletadas. A posição geográfica foi utilizada para o cálculo da distância total percorrida por um grupo de botos-cinza em cada área de observação. Como a distância é uma medida que varia com o tempo, a velocidade média diária do grupo de botos foi usada como um índice de intensidade de movimento. Dois padrões comportamentais comparáveis e facilmente reconhecíveis foram considerados: deslocamento e forrageamento

  19. The sterols of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Andrea; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2008-11-01

    Sponges are sessile suspension-feeding organisms whose internal phylogenetic relationships are still the subject of intense debate. Sterols may have the potential to be used as independent markers to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Twenty representative specimens of calcareous sponges (class Calcarea, phylum Porifera) with a broad coverage within both subclasses Calcinea and Calcaronea were analysed for their sterol content. Two major pseudohomologous series were found, accompanied by some additional sterols. The first series encompassing conventional C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,22) sterols represented the major sterols, with ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol, C(28)Delta(5,7,22)) being most prominent in many species. The second series consisted of unusual C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,9(11),22) sterols. Cholesterol occurred sporadically, mostly in trace amounts. The sterol patterns did not resolve intraclass phylogenetic relationships, namely the distinction between the subclasses, Calcinea and Calcaronea. This pointed towards major calcarean lipid traits being established prior to the separation of subclasses. Furthermore, calcarean sterol patterns clearly differ from those found in Hexactinellida, whereas partial overlap occurred with some Demospongiae. Hence, sterols only partly reflect the phylogenetic separation of Calcarea from both of the other poriferan classes that was proposed by recent molecular work and fatty acid analyses.

  20. Contaminação por metais traço em mexilhões Perna perna da costa brasileira Trace metal contamination in mussel Perna perna from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli da Silva Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os metais traço apresentam grande toxicidade quando presentes em teores elevados nos organismos humano e animal. No ambiente aquático, alguns elementos formam compostos orgânicos que bioacumulam nos tecidos de organismos vivos. Os moluscos bivalves se destacam, pois possuem grande participação na dinâmica de contaminantes metálicos no ambiente marinho devido à capacidade de concentrá-los em níveis mais elevados que na água. Os mexilhões são moluscos bivalves que constituem bons indicadores de biodisponibilidade de metais, sendo amplamente utilizados como biomonitores em ecossistemas aquáticos. No Brasil, a espécie de mexilhão Perna perna é o mais cultivado devido à importância na alimentação de grande parte da população das regiões costeiras. Portanto, o consumo de mexilhões pode representar um risco à saúde humana quando proveniente de locais contaminados com metais traço, o que reforça a importância de se conhecer os teores desses elementos nos ambientes que fornecem alimento ao Homem. Devido à constante busca pela qualidade ambiental associada à utilização do mexilhão P. perna como biomonitor e como alimento, é importante conhecer o panorama de contaminação do território nacional a fim de auxiliar na prevenção de intoxicação por metais traço pelo consumo desse molusco por grande parte da população brasileira.Trace elements are considered toxic in high levels for human and animal organisms. In aquatic environment, some elements can form organic compounds and tend to bioaccumulate in organisms tissues. Bivalve mollusks participate on the metallic contaminants dynamics in aquatic environment due to capacity in concentrate trace elements in their soft tissues in higher levels than in water. Mussels are mollusks widely used as bioindicators of trace metal pollution in coastal areas because they can accumulate various elements as filter-feeders. In Brazil, Perna perna is one of the most commonly

  1. Trochospongilla horrida, een nieuwe spons voor Nederland (Porifera: Spongillidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Storm, B.; Swarte, M.B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Trochospongilla horrida, a new sponge species for The Netherlands (Porifera: Spongillidae) Trochospongilla horrida is recorded in the Netherlands for the first time. It was recently discovered during a survey of invertebrates of the river IJssel. A description of the sponge material is given and rec

  2. Mass occurrences of large sponges (Porifera) in Faroe Island (NE Atlantic) Shelf and slope areas: Characteristics, distribution and possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Anne B.; Tendal, Ole Secher; Westerberg, Håkan

    1997-01-01

    Zoologi, dyriske svampe(Porifera), masseforekomster, Nordatlanten, Færøerne, interne tidevandsbølger, udbredelser......Zoologi, dyriske svampe(Porifera), masseforekomster, Nordatlanten, Færøerne, interne tidevandsbølger, udbredelser...

  3. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  4. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  5. Entrevista com Alberto da Costa e Silva

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Eliane Veras; Mutzenberg,Remo

    2014-01-01

    Alberto da Costa e Silva é membro da Academia Brasileira de Letras, escritor, historiador e diplomata, Doutor Honoris Causa em Letras pela Universidade Obafemi Awolowo (ex-Universidade de Ifé), da Nigéria, em 1986, e em História pela Universidade Federal Fluminense em 2009. Como diplomata, entre outras atividades, representou o Brasil em numerosas reuniões internacionais, tendo sido delegado do Brasil na reunião da Comissão Econômica das Nações Unidas para a África, em Adis Abeba, em 1961. Fo...

  6. Progressos na viticultura brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Almeida Camargo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A viticultura brasileira nasceu com a chegada dos colonizadores portugueses, tornando-se uma atividade comercial a partir do início do século XX. Houve absoluto predomínio do cultivo de uvas americanas até meados do século XX, quando se iniciou o plantio de videiras europeias. Até a década de 1960, a viticultura brasileira ficou limitada às regiões Sul e Sudeste. A partir daí, a uva alastrou-se como alternativa econômica em diversas regiões tropicais do País e ganhou nova dimensão nas zonas temperadas de cultivo. Atualmente, a área vitícola brasileira situa-se ao redor de 83.700 ha, com uma produção anual oscilando entre 1.300.000 e 1.400.000 toneladas. Destacam-se, pelo volume de produção, os Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Pernambuco, Paraná, Bahia, Santa Catarina e Minas Gerais. A grande maioria das uvas e seus derivados são consumidos no mercado interno. O suco de uva concentrado e a uva de mesa são os principais produtos de exportação. A diversidade é a marca da viticultura brasileira: são diferentes condições ambientais, variados sistemas de cultivo e recursos genéticos com ampla variabilidade. Neste trabalho, é traçado o perfil da viticultura brasileira e são apresentados os principais avanços tecnológicos obtidos nas últimas décadas. Entre outros tópicos, destacam-se a criação de novas cultivares, o desenvolvimento de técnicas e sistemas de manejo da videira - especialmente para as zonas tropicais e o desenvolvimento de sistemas de certificação de produtos vitivinícolas.

  7. Macrofauna inhabiting the sponge Paraleucilla magna (Porifera: Calcarea) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    André Padua; Emilio Lanna; Michelle Klautau

    2013-01-01

      Sponges (phylum Porifera) are important components of the benthic marine fauna known for their interactions with vertebrates and a large number of invertebrates seeking for food, shelter or substrate for attachment...

  8. Occurrence of a silicatein gene in glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremeichik, Galina N; Shkryl, Yuri N; Bulgakov, Victor P; Shedko, Sergey V; Kozhemyako, Valery B; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Kulchin, Yuri N

    2011-08-01

    Silicatein genes are involved in spicule formation in demosponges (Demospongiae: Porifera). However, numerous attempts to isolate silicatein genes from glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) resulted in a limited success. In the present investigation, we performed analysis of potential silicatein/cathepsin transcripts in three different species of glass sponges (Pheronema raphanus, Aulosaccus schulzei, and Bathydorus levis). In total, 472 clones of such transcripts have been analyzed. Most of them represent cathepsin transcripts and only three clones have been found to represent transcripts, which can be related to silicateins. Silicatein transcripts were identified in A. schulzei (Hexactinellida; Lyssacinosida; Rosselidae), and the corresponding gene was called AuSil-Hexa. Expression of AuSil-Hexa in A. schulzei was confirmed by real-time PCR. Comparative sequence analysis indicates high sequence identity of the A. schulzei silicatein with demosponge silicateins described previously. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the AuSil-Hexa protein belongs to silicateins. However, the AuSil-Hexa protein contains a catalytic cysteine instead of the conventional serine.

  9. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Christine; Cárdenas, Paco

    2015-01-01

    Demospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered. And yet, despite a few taxonomical changes, the overall framework of the Systema Porifera classification still stands and is used as it is by the scientific community. This has led to a widening phylogeny/classification gap which creates biases and inconsistencies for the many end-users of this classification and ultimately impedes our understanding of today's marine ecosystems and evolutionary processes. In an attempt to bridge this phylogeny/classification gap, we propose to officially revise the higher taxa Demospongiae classification. We propose a revision of the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on molecular data of the last ten years. We recommend the use of three subclasses: Verongimorpha, Keratosa and Heteroscleromorpha. We retain seven (Agelasida, Chondrosiida, Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, Verongiida) of the 13 orders from Systema Porifera. We recommend the abandonment of five order names (Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Halisarcida, lithistids, Verticillitida) and resurrect or upgrade six order names (Axinellida, Merliida, Spongillida, Sphaerocladina, Suberitida, Tetractinellida). Finally, we create seven new orders (Bubarida, Desmacellida, Polymastiida, Scopalinida, Clionaida, Tethyida, Trachycladida). These added to the recently created orders (Biemnida and Chondrillida) make a total of 22 orders in the revised classification. We propose the abandonment of the haplosclerid and poecilosclerid suborders. The family

  10. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-07

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  11. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rios

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea. It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data.This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS. The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodivers­ity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author’s collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO in the city of Gijón (Spain. The data are available in GBIF.

  12. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE SPONGES IN THIS DATASET IS DERIVED FROM THE SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING FIVE SPANISH ANTARCTIC EXPEDITIONS: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using various sampling gears. The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides information for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea). It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data. This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities. The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS). The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodiversity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author's collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in the city of Gijón (Spain). The data are available in GBIF.

  13. Phylogeny and evolution of glass sponges (porifera, hexactinellida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Martin; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim; Collins, Allen G; Worheide, Gert

    2008-06-01

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of sponges (Porifera) is one of the remaining challenges to resolve the metazoan Tree of Life and is a prerequisite for understanding early animal evolution. Molecular phylogenetic analyses for two of the three extant classes of the phylum, Demospongiae and Calcarea, are largely incongruent with traditional classifications, most likely because of a paucity of informative morphological characters and high levels of homoplasy. For the third class, Hexactinellida (glass sponges)--predominantly deep-sea inhabitants with unusual morphology and biology--we present the first molecular phylogeny, along with a cladistic analysis of morphological characters. We collected 18S, 28S, and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of 34 glass sponge species from 27 genera, 9 families, and 3 orders and conducted partitioned Bayesian analyses using RNA secondary structure-specific substitution models (paired-sites models) for stem regions. Bayes factor comparisons of different paired-sites models against each other and conventional (independent-sites) models revealed a significantly better fit of the former but, contrary to previous predictions, the least parameter-rich of the tested paired-sites models provided the best fit to our data. In contrast to Demospongiae and Calcarea, our rDNA phylogeny agrees well with the traditional classification and a previously proposed phylogenetic system, which we ascribe to a more informative morphology in Hexactinellida. We find high support for a close relationship of glass sponges and Demospongiae sensu stricto, though the latter may be paraphyletic with respect to Hexactinellida. Homoscleromorpha appears to be the sister group of Calcarea. Contrary to most previous findings from rDNA, we recover Porifera as monophyletic, although support for this clade is low under paired-sites models.

  14. Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörheide, G; Dohrmann, M; Erpenbeck, D; Larroux, C; Maldonado, M; Voigt, O; Borchiellini, C; Lavrov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are largely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a

  15. COMO? PALETAS MEXICANAS BRASILEIRAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maria Alves Chaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As informações sobre alimentação estão mais acessíveis e democráticas. As tendências alimentares são inspiradas por diversos fatores, mas sempre estão associados à moda, mídia e como forma de conjectura de um estilo de vida. Há pouco tempo, as grandes cidades brasileiras foram invadidas por uma nova mania: as paletas mexicanas, que, na verdade, não são “tão mexicanas”. Esses sorvetes apresentam qualidades organolépticas marcantes, em virtude, entre outros fatores, ao alto teor de açúcar e, em alguns casos, de gorduras. A concepção gourmetizada e natural dessa iguaria, seu custo e as propriedades nutricionais são peculiares e, aparentemente, um modismo. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a composição desses produtos, a partir das informações nutricionais contidas nos sites das empresas produtoras, bem como as suas peculiaridades e concepções. Apesar da conotação natural e gastronômica, alto valor calórico, gorduras (especialmente na versão recheada sabor brigadeiro e elevadas quantidades de açúcares, foram encontrados, em média, por unidade: 207,2 Kcal; 38,4g de carboidratos; 3,9g de proteínas e 5,3g de gorduras. Uma rica ênfase na cultura mexicana, religiosidade e identidade visual marcante foram identificadas nos sites dos produtos pesquisados.

  16. Sobre a identidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz Sodré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na condição de sujeitos de um patrimônio civilizatório colonial, as elites brasileiras sempre tentaram pautar-se por padrões de identificação coletiva afinados com a Europa, o continente da civilização branca. A branquitude é o paradigma antropológico hegemônico. Entretanto, a miscibilidade ou virtude da mistura é a estratégia que dá margem aos discursos de conciliação das diferenças de classe e de padrão fenotípico. As fábulas do “homem cordial”, da “convivialidade”, do “caráter pacífico” e da “consciência não-racista” referem-se a representações sensíveis e imagens do mundo decorrentes dessa estratégia identitária. As subjects of a colonial civilizing heritage, the Brazilian elites always tried to represent themselves by means of collective identification models borrowed from Europe, the continent of white civilization. “Whiteness” and the hegemonic anthropological paradigm. While “mixturism” or the virtue of mixture is the strategy that gives occasion for discourses of conciliation of class and phenotypic pattern differences. The fables of “cordial man”, “coexistence”, “pacific character” and “non-racist consciousness” refer to sensitive representations and images of the world stemming from this identity strategy.

  17. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  18. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  19. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  20. New Leucettidae de Laubenfels, 1936 (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocorny, Pedro; Alencar, Aline; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-10-17

    This paper reports four new Leucettidae (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia, with two representatives of Leucetta and two of Pericharax: L. foliata sp. nov., L. purpurea sp. nov., Pericharax crypta sp. nov., and P. vallii sp. nov. This is the first time tripods have been described within Pericharax. In addition, one species (L. foliata sp. nov.) has an external morphology not previously reported for Leucetta, and for the first time tetractines of the inhalant and exhalant canals have been distinguished. Leucettidae now comprises 28 species, eight of them occur in Western Australia, which means this Australian State has the highest species richness for this family in Australia. The WA coastline has been largely unexplored for Calcarea so it is likely that further collecting will yield additional species. Leucetta microraphis is the most widespread species of Leucettidae in Australia, occurring in all States except the Northern Territory and Tasmania. We highlight the importance of a revision of the Leucettidae using molecular and morphological characters to determine which morphological characters have a phylogenetic signal.

  1. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Gardères

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  2. The fatty acids of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Andrea; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-nine specimens of calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea, Phylum Porifera), covering thirteen representative species of the families Soleneiscidae, Leucaltidae, Levinellidae, Leucettidae, Clathrinidae, Sycettidae, Grantiidae, Jenkinidae, and Heteropiidae were analysed for their fatty acids. The fatty acids of Calcarea generally comprise saturated and monounsaturated linear (n-), and terminally methylated (iso-, anteiso-) C(14)-C(20) homologues. Furthermore, polyunsaturated C(22) fatty acids and the isoprenoic 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid were found. The most prominent compounds are n-C(16), iso-C(17), iso-C(18), n-C(18), n-C(20). In addition, a high abundance of the exotic 16-methyloctadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(19)) appears to be a characteristic trait of Calcarea. Long-chain 'demospongic acids', typically found in Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, are absent in Calcarea. The completely different strategy of calcarean fatty acid synthesis supports their phylogenetic distinctiveness from a common Demospongiae/Hexactinellida taxon. Both intraspecific and intraclass patterns of Calcarea showed great similarity, suggesting a conserved fatty acid composition that already existed in the last common ancestor of Calcinea and Calcaronea, i.e. before subclasses diverged.

  3. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  4. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular and the aristocr......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...

  5. A new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia robertballardi sp. nov. (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) from two Northeast Atlantic seamounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobo, J.; Rios, P.; Pomponi, S.A.; Xavier, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) are a particularly interesting group of species typically occurring in deep-sea habitats. In this study a new species, Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) robertballardi sp. nov., is described from specimens collected on two large north-east Atlantic seamounts

  6. A new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia robertballardi sp. nov. (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) from two Northeast Atlantic seamounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobo, J.; Rios, P.; Pomponi, S.A.; Xavier, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) are a particularly interesting group of species typically occurring in deep-sea habitats. In this study a new species, Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) robertballardi sp. nov., is described from specimens collected on two large north-east Atlantic seamounts

  7. A new species oc Cladocroce Topsent, 1892 (Porifera, Haplosclerida) from the Gulf of Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putchakarn, Sumaitt; Weerdt, de Wallie H.; Soncheang, Pichai; Soest, van Rob W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new sponge species, Cladocroce burapha n. sp. (Chalinidae, Haplosclerida, Porifera), is described from Chonburi province, eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand, Thailand. The new species can be separated from other Cladocroce species by a combination of characters, including growth form, form and

  8. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just;

    2009-01-01

    Sponges [porifera], the most ancient metazoans, contain modules related to the vertebrate immune system, including the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). The components of the antiviral 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2–5A) system (OAS, 2′-Phosphodiesterase (2′-PDE) and RNAse L) of vertebrates have...

  9. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  10. Novos registros e ampliação de limites meridionais de distribuição de poríferos (Porifera, Demospongiae no Atlântico sudoeste New records and southern boundaries enlargement of sponge distribution (Porifera, Demospongiae from southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Lerner

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ampliam-se os limites meridionais de sete espécies de poríferos para costa brasileira. Duas espécies representam novos registros: Chalinula zeae de Weerdt, 2000 e Terpios manglaris Rützler & Smith, 1993 e cinco são novas ocorrências para o estado de Santa Catarina: Callyspongia (Toxochalina pseudotoxa Muricy & Ribeiro, 1999; Mycale (Carmia magnirhaphidifera van Soest, 1984; Hymeniacidon heliophila Parker, 1910; Monanchora arbuscula (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 e Scopalina ruetzleri (Wiedenmayer, 1977. Apresenta-se também a descrição taxonômica das espécies em questão e as três últimas são descritas pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira, uma vez que foram apenas citadas por outros autores.The southern boundaries of seven species of Brazilian coast sponges were enlarged. Two of them represent new records: Chalinula zeae de Weerdt, 2000 e Terpios manglaris Rützler & Smith, 1993 and five were registered for the first time from the state of Santa Catarina: Callyspongia (Toxochalina pseudotoxa Muricy & Ribeiro, 1999; Mycale (Carmia magnirhaphidifera van Soest, 1984; Hymeniacidon heliophila Parker, 1910; Monanchora arbuscula (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 and Scopalina ruetzleri (Wiedenmayer, 1977. The taxonomic description of species is also provided and the three latter were described for the first time from the Brazilian coast, since other authors only cited it.

  11. Brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Soares Magdaleno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la cuestión de la división territorial del poder en Brasil. El tema central de la investigación es la dualidad centralización-descentralización presente en las distintas Constituciones brasileñas y las acciones territoriales derivadas de las normas en ellas concretizadas. Con base en la concepción de que la Constitución refleja la forma de organización de los poderes en el espacio, la suposición utilizada es la de que las diversas Constituciones brasileñas determinan diferentes posibilidades de recortes territoriales para la acción. La repartición de los recursos tributarios es acá encarada como un elemento de crucial importancia para el entendimiento de las relaciones entre las distintas esferas de poder público, ya que como son la base de la estructura federativa, actúan como factores causadores de gran parte de los roces que marcan las relaciones entre los gobiernos federal, estadual y municipal en el sistema republicano brasileño.

  12. The Porifera Ontology (PORO): enhancing sponge systematics with an anatomy ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Robert W; Díaz, Maria Cristina; Kerner, Adeline; Vignes-Lebbe, Régine; Segerdell, Erik; Haendel, Melissa A; Mungall, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Porifera (sponges) are ancient basal metazoans that lack organs. They provide insight into key evolutionary transitions, such as the emergence of multicellularity and the nervous system. In addition, their ability to synthesize unusual compounds offers potential biotechnical applications. However, much of the knowledge of these organisms has not previously been codified in a machine-readable way using modern web standards. The Porifera Ontology is intended as a standardized coding system for sponge anatomical features currently used in systematics. The ontology is available from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/poro.owl, or from the project homepage http://porifera-ontology.googlecode.com/. The version referred to in this manuscript is permanently available from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/poro/releases/2014-03-06/. By standardizing character representations, we hope to facilitate more rapid description and identification of sponge taxa, to allow integration with other evolutionary database systems, and to perform character mapping across the major clades of sponges to better understand the evolution of morphological features. Future applications of the ontology will focus on creating (1) ontology-based species descriptions; (2) taxonomic keys that use the nested terms of the ontology to more quickly facilitate species identifications; and (3) methods to map anatomical characters onto molecular phylogenies of sponges. In addition to modern taxa, the ontology is being extended to include features of fossil taxa.

  13. Porifera a reference phylum for evolution and bioprospecting: the power of marine genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Schwertner, Heiko; Müller, Isabel M

    2004-09-01

    The term Urmetazoa, as the hypothetical metazoan ancestor, was introduced to highlight the finding that all metazoan phyla including the Porifera [sponges] derived from one common ancestor. Analyses of sponge genomes, from Demospongiae, Calcarea and Hexactinellida have permitted the reconstruction of the evolutionary trail from Fungi to Metazoa. This has provided evidence that the characteristic evolutionary novelties of Metazoa existing in Porifera share high sequence similarities and in some aspects also functional similarities to related polypeptides found in other metazoan phyla. It is surprising that the genome of Porifera is large and comprises substantially more genes than Protostomia and Deuterostomia. On the basis of solid taxonomy and ecological data, the high value of this phylum for human application becomes obvious especially with regard to the field of chemical ecology and the hope to find novel potential drugs for clinical use. In addition, the benefit of efforts in understanding molecular biodiversity with focus on sponges can be seen in the fact that these animals as "living fossils" allow to stethoscope into the past of our globe especially with respect to the evolution of Metazoa.

  14. Evolutionary relationships of Metazoa within the eukaryotes based on molecular data from Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, J; Krasko, A; Custodio, M R; Efremova, S M; Müller, I M; Müller, W E

    1999-01-01

    Recent molecular data provide strong support for the view that all metazoan phyla, including Porifera, are of monophyletic origin. The relationship of Metazoa, including the Porifera, to Plantae, Fungi and unicellular eukaryotes has only rarely been studied by using cDNAs coding for proteins. Sequence data from rDNA suggested a relationship of Porifera to unicellular eukaryotes (choanoflagellates). However, ultrastructural studies of choanocytes did not support these findings. In the present study, we compared amino acid sequences that are found in a variety of metazoans (including sponges) with those of Plantae, Fungi and unicellular eukaryotes, to obtain an answer to this question. We used the four sequences from 70 kDa heat-shock proteins, the serine-threonine kinase domain found in protein kinases, beta-tubulin and calmodulin. The latter two sequences were deduced from cDNAs, isolated from the sponge Geodia cydonium for the phylogenetic analyses presented. These revealed that the sponge molecules were grouped into the same branch as the Metazoa, which is statistically (significantly) separated from those branches that comprise the sequences from Fungi, Plantae and unicellular eukaryotes. From our molecular data it seems evident that the unicellular eukaryotes existed at an earlier stage of evolution, and the Plantae and especially the Fungi and the Metazoa only appeared later. PMID:10081159

  15. Asteropsin A: an unusual cystine-crosslinked peptide from porifera enhances neuronal Ca2+ influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayue; Bowling, John J; Fronczek, Frank R; Hong, Jongki; Jabba, Sairam V; Murray, Thomas F; Ha, Nam-Chul; Hamann, Mark T; Jung, Jee H

    2013-03-01

    Herein we report the discovery of a cystine-crosslinked peptide from Porifera along with high-quality spatial details accompanied by the description of its unique effect on neuronal calcium influx. Asteropsin A (ASPA) was isolated from the marine sponge Asteropus sp., and its structure was independently determined using X-ray crystallography (0.87 angstroms) and solution NMR spectroscopy. An N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, uncommon cis proline conformations, and absence of basic residues helped distinguish ASPA from other cystine-crosslinked knot peptides. ASPA enhanced Ca2+ influx in murine cerebrocortical neuron cells following the addition of the Na+ channel activator veratridine but did not modify the oscillation frequency or amplitude of neuronal Ca2+ currents alone. Allosterism at neurotoxin site 2 was not observed, suggesting an alternative to the known Na+ channel interaction. Together with a distinct biological activity, the origin of ASPA suggests a new subclass of cystine-rich knot peptides associated with Porifera. The discovery of ASPA represents a distinctive addition to an emerging subclass of cystine-crosslinked knot peptides from Porifera.

  16. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  17. null Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  18. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación (en español Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  19. Costa Rica saves infants’ lives

    OpenAIRE

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    1988-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1988 Costa Rica covers an area of about 50 000 square kilometres. Approximately half of its 2.5 million inhabitants live in rural areas. The economy is based on exports of tropical products, predominantly coffee and bananas. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$ 1020. The country is more developed socially than economically. The increased life expectancy seen ...

  20. Pasárgada enegrecida: encruzilhando as poéticas brasileiras e cabo-verdianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Ramos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe um estudo comparativo a partir da exposição de pontos de vista das autorias negras nas literaturas brasileira e cabo-verdiana, apresentando nos poemas dos brasileiros Cuti e Éle Semog e dos cabo-verdianos, José Luis Hopffer C. Almada e Abraão Vicente, temáticas que valorizem os negros, sinalizem problemas do cânone literário, revisem a história oficial, critiquem a memória coletiva e o projeto de identidade homogênea dos seus países, e como a discriminação racial atua na subjetividade dos corpos negros. O suporte teórico é formado, dentre outros, por Carlos Moore, Kabengele Munanga, Stuart Hall, Cuti, Jesus Chucho García, Jurandir Freire Costa, Michael Pollak e Frantz Fanon.

  1. A new species of Lophophysema (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Hyalonematidae) from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lin; Li, Xinzheng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2014-11-19

    We describe Lophophysema eversa sp. nov. (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Hyalonematidae) based on a single specimen collected from the South China Sea at a depth of 3683 m. The new species can be distinguished from the three known congeners by its unusual body shape with basalia on the side of the body, the lack of macramphidiscs, the combination of the pinular pentactins having spiny tangential rays and the pinular ray of atrialia longer than dermalia and canalaria. This is the first record of the genus Lophophysema from the South China Sea. We also use a partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to confirm the family assignment of the new specimen.

  2. Haliclona (Haliclona) Epiphytica n. sp. (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida), a seaweed-dwelling sponge from the Colombian Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zea, Sven; Weerdt, de Wallie H.

    1999-01-01

    Haliclona (Haliclona) epiphytica n.sp., a new species of seaweed-dwelling sponge of the family Chalinidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) from the Colombian Caribbean, is described. As the only member of the subgenus Haliclona (hitherto referred to as the ‘oculata’ group by De Weerdt, 1989)

  3. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  4. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  5. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  6. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  7. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  8. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  9. Molecular fingerprinting of carbohydrate structure phenotypes of three porifera proteoglycan-like glyconectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerardel, Yann; Czeszak, Xavier; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Karamanos, Yannis; Popescu, Octavian; Strecker, Gerard; Misevic, Gradimir N

    2004-04-01

    Glyconectins (GNs) represent a new class of proteoglycan-like cell adhesion and recognition molecules found in several Porifera species. Physico-chemical properties of GN carbohydrate moieties, such as size, composition, and resistance to most glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes, distinguish them from any other type of known glycoproteins. The molecular mechanism of GN-mediated self/non-self discrimination function is based on highly species-specific and Ca(2+)-dependent GN to GN associations that approach the selectivity of the evolutionarily advanced immunoglobulin superfamily. Carbohydrates of glyconectins 1, 2, and 3 are essential for species-specific auto-aggregation properties in three respective Porifera species. To obtain a structural insight into the molecular mechanisms, we performed carbohydrate structural analyses of glyconectins isolated from the three sponge model systems, Microciona prolifera (GN1), Halichondria panicea (GN2), and Cliona celata (GN3). The glycan content of all three GNs ranged between 40 and 60% of their total mass. Our approach using sequential and selective chemical degradation of GN glycans and subsequent mass spectrometric and NMR analyses revealed that each glyconectin presents novel and highly species-specific carbohydrate sequences. All three GNs include distinct acid-resistant and acid-labile carbohydrate domains, the latter composed of novel repetitive units. We have sequenced four short sulfated and one pyruvilated unit in GN1, eight larger and branched pyruvilated oligosaccharides in GN2, which represent a heterogeneous but related family of structures, and four sulfated units in GN3.

  10. Costa Rica; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Costa Rica during 1995–97. Costa Rica faced a slump in economic activity in 1995–96 following a sharp deterioration in the public finances and higher inflation associated with the 1993–94 political–economic cycle. To avert a balance-of-payments crisis in early 1995, the authorities increased interest rates, imposed temporary import surcharges, and raised excise taxes, while tightening expenditure and shifting some outlays to 1996. The econom...

  11. ACOSO LABORAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS MORÚA, ELIZARDA

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  12. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  13. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  14. The integrative taxonomic approach applied to porifera: a case study of the homoscleromorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Lavrov, Dennis V; Ruiz, César A; Pérez, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    The two main scientific tasks of taxonomy are species' delineation and classification. These two tasks are often treated differently, with classification accomplished by newly-developed phylogenetic methods, often based on molecular sequences, while delimitation of species is conducted by what is often considered to be an "old-fashioned" typological approach based on morphological description. A new "integrative taxonomy" has been proposed which maintains that species delimitation should be a multidisciplinary undertaking combining several independent datasets. Here we argue that the same principle is relevant to the classification of species. In the past 20 years, we assembled various datasets based on the external morphology, anatomy, cytology, spicule shapes, geography, reproduction, genetic sequences, and metabolomics of homoscleromorph sponges. We show how we used these datasets to describe new species of homoscleromorph sponges and to elucidate their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogenetic position within the phylum Porifera.

  15. A new shallow water species of Artemisina Vosmaer, 1885 (Microcionidae, Demospongiae; Porifera) from Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Thaynã; Santos, George Garcia; Hajdu, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2016-11-03

    Artemisina is a microcionid characterized by lacking a distinctive choanosomal skeleton or definite spongin fibres, lacking also echinating spicules, and with a nearly radial ectosomal skeleton (Hooper 2002). The genus currently has 19 valid species, six of which are recorded from the Atlantic Ocean (Van Soest et al. 2016): A. erecta Topsent, 1904, A. incrustans van Soest et al., 2013, A. melana van Soest, 1984, A. melanoides van Soest et al., 2013, A. transiens Topsent, 1890 and A. vulcani Lévi, 1963. The present study describes a new species of Artemisina from Northeastern Brazil. Four specimens of Artemisina brasili sp. nov. were collected by snorkelling at Pernambuco State. All specimens were preserved in 80% ethanol and deposited in the Porifera Collections at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEPOR) and Museu Nacional of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ).

  16. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Porifera and Coelenterata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    An ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Based on this extensive research, marine invertebrates now represent a rich source of novel substances with significant anti-neoplastic activities. As the current approach of synthesizing new and chemically modifying old drugs seems to have slowed down, and the identification of new anticancer drugs is not too promising, a new approach is clearly needed. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date data on these newer compounds. Based on the data summarized in this short review, it is clear that marine invertebrates represent an extremely important source of compounds with potential anti-cancer effects. Considering that we tested only a tiny number of Porifera and Coelenterata, the best is yet to come. PMID:22087433

  17. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike; Uriz, Maria Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Sponges [porifera], the most ancient metazoans, contain modules related to the vertebrate immune system, including the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). The components of the antiviral 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) system (OAS, 2'-Phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) and RNAse L) of vertebrates have not all been identified in sponges. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that in addition to the OAS activity, sponges possess a 2'-PDE activity, which highlights the probable existence of a premature 2-5A system. Indeed, Suberites domuncula and Crella elegans exhibited this 2-5A degrading activity. Upon this finding, two out of three elements forming the 2-5A system have been found in sponges, only a endoribonuclease, RNAse L or similar, has to be found. We suspect the existence of a complex immune system in sponges, besides the self/non-self recognition system and the use of phagocytosis and secondary metabolites against pathogens.

  18. Biodiversity of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Spongillina) from northeast Brazil: new species and notes on systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicacio, Gilberto; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-07-03

    Systematics and distribution of freshwater sponges is still poorly understood worldwide. This may be due to the scarcity of records, and the limited information about morphological traits used for taxonomy. Brazil has reportedly high species richness in the Neotropical Region; however, this diversity is likely to be significantly underestimated given that there are still many unexplored and poorly sampled areas, mainly in the north and northeast regions. We present here new locality records and taxonomic notes on three families and ten species of freshwater Porifera from northeast Brazil: Metaniidae (1), Potamolepidae (2) and Spongillidae (7). A new species of freshwater sponge is described here (Ephydatia caatingae sp.nov.). Additional notes on the systematics and biogeography of most of these species are also presented.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Paco; Xavier, Joana R.; Reveillaud, Julie; Schander, Christoffer; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2011-01-01

    Background The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species) covering the deep- and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial sequence and the 5′ end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains). The resulting tree suggested that i) the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii) the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii) the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv) the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least), and finally that v) many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella). Conclusion The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification) and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current classification can

  20. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  1. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  2. Jubilados en la costa alicantina

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Cascales, Rosario Isabel; Ribera Domene, Dolores; Reig Ferrer, Abilio

    1997-01-01

    La costa alicantina es uno de los lugares del mundo donde reside el mayor porcentaje de personas mayores en relación a la población total; encontramos en ella jubilados autóctonos, jubilados de otras regiones españolas con un clima menos benigno, y jubilados extranjeros procedentes en su mayoría de los países europeos.

  3. Diretrizes brasileiras para o tratamento da narcolepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Alóe, Flávio; ALVES, Rosana Cardoso; Araújo, John F.; Azevedo, Alexandre; Bacelar, Andrea; Bezerra,Márcio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; BUSTAMANTE, Guilherme; CARDOSO, Tania Aparecida Marchiori de Oliveira; ECKELI, Alan L.; Fernandes, Regina Maria França; Goulart, Leonardo; Pradella-Hallinan,Márcia; Hasan,Rosa; Sander, Heidi Haueisen

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo relata as conclusões da reunião de consenso da Associação Brasileira de Sono com médicos especialistas brasileiros sobre o tratamento da narcolepsia, baseado na revisão dos artigos sobre narcolepsia publicados entre 1980 e 2010. Os objetivos do consenso são valorizar o uso de agentes avaliados em estudos randomizados placebo-controlados, emitir recomendações de consenso para o uso de outras medicações e informar pontos importantes a respeito da segurança e efeitos adversos das med...

  4. Accountability vertical das empresas estatais federais brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Louzada, Sergio Vinicius

    2010-01-01

    O estudo investiga a accountability vertical das empresas estatais federais brasileiras realizadas através dos portais web. Para tanto, foram levantadas, na literatura, informações relevantes para a melhor compreensão do alcance do termo accountability, de forma a permitir o desenvolvimento de modelo de análise a ser utilizado no trabalho. O modelo proposto compreende 3 dimensões: “Transparência”, “Interação e Participação” e “Prestação de Contas e Resultado” a cada dimensão co...

  5. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  6. Biodiversity in South East Asia: an overview of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that South East (SE Asia is considered as a biodiversity hotspot, knowledge of sessile invertebrates such as freshwater sponges (Porifera: Haplosclerida: Spongillina in this region is poor and scarcely reported. For this synopsis, diversity and distribution of SE Asian inland water sponges is reported on the basis of available literature and a recent biodiversity assessment of the Lower Mekong basin. A diagnostic key of families/genera from SE Asia is provided together with Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy protocols to prepare the basic spicular complement for taxonomic identification. So far, SE Asian freshwater sponges consist of widespread and/or endemic species belonging to the families Metaniidae, Potamolepidae, and Spongillidae. The highest diversity is recorded from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Myanmar, respectively. Data from the other countries are necessary for our understanding of their diversity and distribution. Biodiversity in SE Asia is strongly underestimated, as indicated by recent new records and the discovery of new species of freshwater sponges in Thailand. Further investigations should reveal higher values of taxonomic richness, highlighting biogeographic patterns at the family/genus/species levels. A cooperative network involving Thai, Laotian and Italian researchers, was set up to contribute and fulfil knowledge on taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potentialities of these neglected filter feeders, playing a key role in water purification and biomass production in both lentic and lotic ecosystems in the tropics.

  7. Carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) from the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Rapp, Hans Tore; Xavier, Joana

    2017-03-01

    The family Cladorhizidae (Porifera) comprises a particularly interesting group of sponges that has developed a carnivorous feeding strategy unique within the phylum. Cladorhizids are typically considered deep-sea sponges, are frequently found at oceanic ridges and seamount systems, and new species are continuously discovered as new areas are explored. In this study we describe nine new cladorhizid sponges collected on three seamounts of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge (SWIOR) during the RRS ;James Cook; cruise JC066: Abyssocladia boletiphora, Ab. corniculiphora, Ab. hemiradiata, Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) unguiferata, As. (A.) jamescooki, As. (A.) laminachela, As. (A.) pseudoisochela, As. (A.) ramuscula and Chondrocladia (Meliiderma) rogersi; and re-describe four species, viz. Ab. symmetrica, Ch. (M.) stipitata, Cladorhiza moruliformis and Cl. tridentata collected during the ;Challenger; expedition in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Barcodes and a phylogenetic analysis showing the systematic position of the new species are included as additional information. Our results show that the cladorhizid fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean is diverse and seems to be bathymetrically structured with no observed overlap between the newly reported upper bathyal species ( 1000 m) and previously described lower bathyal and abyssal species from the area. While the upper bathyal SWIOR species are unique and represent a regionally endemic cladorhizid fauna, similarities in morphology and spicule characters as well as molecular evidence suggests biogeographical affinities to species from the SW Pacific and SW Atlantic, but no similarities to previously reported Antarctic fauna were found. A table of cladorhizid species from the Southwest Indian Ocean and neighboring areas is provided.

  8. Fibronectin-like protein in Porifera: its role in cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L; Auger, C; Lethias, C; Garrone, R

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a freshwater sponge (Ephydatia mulleri) in order to demonstrate the presence of fibronectin in Porifera. By using antibodies to highly purified human plasma fibronectin, the presence of a similar or identical protein could be demonstrated in the membranes of E. mulleri cells such as epithelial cells, fibroblast-like cells, and choanocytes. The reaction was specific, could be abolished by the addition of excess fibronectin, and was not observed with nonimmune rabbit serum. The immune fluorescent reaction became stronger when the sponge cells were pretreated with acetone and could also be observed, although with a less intense staining, on the intercellular matrix. This shows the predominant presence of a sponge fibronectin-like protein in the cell membranes and also its presence to a lesser extent in the intercellular matrix. When dissociated sponge cells were led to reassociate under the microscope, reassociation could be completely inhibited by anti-human fibronectin antiserum up to a dilution of 1:120 and partially inhibited up to a dilution of 1:240. The reassociation of dissociated sponge cells could also be inhibited by the addition of purified gelatin but not with serum albumin or with a normal, nonimmune rabbit serum. These results clearly indicate that a sponge cell fibronectin-like protein may play an important role as the (or one of the) recognition site(s) of the aggregation factor(s) and can therefore be directly involved in cell association, morphogenesis, and differentiation. Images PMID:7031644

  9. Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M M; Sorokin, Shirley J; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP) validated by a sample of 37 sponge species belonging to 10 orders from South Australia. The universal barcode COI mtDNA, 28S rRNA gene (D3-D5), and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were evaluated for their suitability and capacity for sponge identification. The highest Bit Score was applied to infer the identity. The reliability of SIP was validated by phylogenetic analysis. The 28S rRNA gene and COI mtDNA performed better than the ITS region in classifying sponges at various taxonomic levels. A major limitation is that the databases are not well populated and possess low diversity, making it difficult to conduct the molecular identification protocol. The identification is also impacted by the accuracy of the morphological classification of the sponges whose sequences have been submitted to the database. Re-examination of the morphological identification further demonstrated and improved the reliability of sponge identification by SIP. Integrated with morphological identification, the multilocus-based SIP offers an improved protocol for more reliable and effective sponge identification, by coupling the accuracy of different DNA markers.

  10. The hypothetical ancestral animal. the Urmetazoa: telomerase activity in sponges (Porifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL M. MÜLLER

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Sponges (Porifera represent the lowest metazoan phylum, characterized by a pronounced plasticity in the determination of cell lineages, and they are the closest related taxon to the hypothetical ancestral animal, the Urmetazoa, from which the metazoan lineages diverged. In a first approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the switch from the cell lineage with a putative indefinite growth capacity to senescent, somatic cells, the activity of the telomerase as an indicator for immortality has been determined. The studies were performed with the marine demosponges Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium, in vivo with tissue but also in vitro using the primmorph system. Primmorphs are formed from dissociated cells which have retained their proliferation potency. It was found that the activity of telomerase in tissue of both sponges is high. Based on this and additional findings it is assumed that the separation of the senescent sponge cell lineage from the immortal germ-/somatic cell lineage is triggered by the loss of contact to cell adhesion factors. First evidence is included which suggests that the final progress of the senescent, telomerase-negative cells to cell death is caused by apoptosis.

  11. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just

    2009-01-01

    Sponges [porifera], the most ancient metazoans, contain modules related to the vertebrate immune system, including the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). The components of the antiviral 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2–5A) system (OAS, 2′-Phosphodiesterase (2′-PDE) and RNAse L) of vertebrates have...... not all been identified in sponges. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that in addition to the OAS activity, sponges possess a 2′-PDE activity, which highlights the probable existence of a premature 2–5A system. Indeed, Suberites domuncula and Crella elegans exhibited this 2–5A degrading activity....... Upon this finding, two out of three elements forming the 2–5A system have been found in sponges, only a endoribonuclease, RNAse L or similar, has to be found. We suspect the existence of a complex immune system in sponges, besides the self/non-self recognition system and the use of phagocytosis...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Wnt pathway-related genes from Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Teresa; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-09-01

    The Wnt signal acts by binding to Frizzled receptors, with the subsequent activation of two different signal transduction cascades, the canonical and the non-canonical Wnt pathways, involved in cell growth, differentiation, migration and fate. The canonical pathway functions through the translocation of beta-catenin to the nucleus and the activation of TCF/LEF transcription factors; it plays an important role in developmental patterning and cell fate decisions during embryogenesis. The non-canonical Wnt pathway is responsible for the planar cell polarity process in invertebrates, and for the convergent-extension movements during vertebrate gastrulation. The final effect of the non-canonical Wnt pathway is the rearrangement of the cell cytoskeleton, through the activation of the subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases. In a recent report we described for the first time the isolation of a Wnt-related gene, Sd-Frizzled, from the most basal animal phylum, the Porifera. In the present study we report the isolation and phylogenetic characterization of several Wnt pathway-related genes from the sponge Suberites domuncula: Sd-TCF/LEF, Sd-GSK3, a recently discovered molecule with a putative function as a Wnt regulator (Sd-LZIC), the small Rho GTPases Sd-RhoA, Sd-Cdc42, and their effector Sd-mrlc. Also the isolation of a secreted frizzled related protein sFRP from another sponge species (Lubomirskia baicalensis) is reported.

  13. Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M. M.; Sorokin, Shirley J.; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP) validated by a sample of 37 sponge species belonging to 10 orders from South Australia. The universal barcode COI mtDNA, 28S rRNA gene (D3–D5), and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were evaluated for their suitability and capacity for sponge identification. The highest Bit Score was applied to infer the identity. The reliability of SIP was validated by phylogenetic analysis. The 28S rRNA gene and COI mtDNA performed better than the ITS region in classifying sponges at various taxonomic levels. A major limitation is that the databases are not well populated and possess low diversity, making it difficult to conduct the molecular identification protocol. The identification is also impacted by the accuracy of the morphological classification of the sponges whose sequences have been submitted to the database. Re-examination of the morphological identification further demonstrated and improved the reliability of sponge identification by SIP. Integrated with morphological identification, the multilocus-based SIP offers an improved protocol for more reliable and effective sponge identification, by coupling the accuracy of different DNA markers. PMID:28150727

  14. Heterologous expression of DsRed2 in young sponges (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are currently considered to be the first branch off the Urmetazoa, common ancestors of all multicellular animals or metazoa. Research in the field of the developmental biology of sponges was restricted to morphological observations. Nowadays, research is mainly concentrated on larval development, primarily dealing with tissue formation. Already since 1907, methods for developing functional sponges from stem cells have been at hand. Functional freshwater sponges can be grown from stem cell populations originating from gemmulae. A number of poriferan sequences with high similarity to regulative genes in higher metazoa have already been found. We have now succeeded in heterologously expressing the red fluorescent protein DsRedN1 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter in young specimens of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. The protein folded correctly, polymerized and subsequently was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Reporting this expression system, we now consider this appealing system for early meatazoan development to be ready for molecular developmental biology and functional genetics research.

  15. Estimation of desmosponge (Porifera, Demospongiae) larval settlement rates from short-term recruitment rates: Preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Sven

    1992-09-01

    During a study of the spatial and temporal patterns of desmosponge (Porifera, Demospongiae) recruitment on rocky and coral reef habitats of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean Sea, preliminary attempts were made to estimate actual settlement rates from short-term (1 to a few days) recruitment censuses. Short-term recruitment rates on black, acrylic plastic plates attached to open, non-cryptic substratum by anchor screws were low and variable (0 5 recruits/plate in 1 2 days, sets of n=5 10 plates), but reflected the depth and seasonal trends found using mid-term (1 to a few months) censusing intervals. Moreover, mortality of recruits during 1 2 day intervals was low (0 12%). Thus, short-term censusing intervals can be used to estimate actual settlement rates. To be able to make statistical comparisons, however, it is necessary to increase the number of recruits per census by pooling data of n plates per set, and to have more than one set per site or treatment.

  16. Redescription of the rare species Podospongia loveni (Porifera) from the Cantabrian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobo, Javier; Ríos, Pilar; Sánchez, Francisco; Anadón, Nuria

    2009-05-01

    Podospongia [du Bocage, B., 1869. Eponges siliceuses nouvelles du Portugal et de l'Île Saint-Iago (Archipel de Cap-Vert). Jornal de Sciencias mathematicas, physicas e naturais 2, 159-162], which at present includes only five species, is a rare genus generally found in deeper waters down to 600 m depth from Natal coast in South Africa, to New Caledonia, the Central and North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Species of this genus are characterised by a choanosomal skeleton composed of tracts of megascleres radiating from a centrum and stipitate body. Microscleres are spinorhabds and aciculospinorhabds packed in a vertical arrangement in the ectosome and scattered throughout choanosome. As a result of two oceanographic projects (Ecomarg, date; Cocace, date) on the continental shelf of the Cantabrian Sea, ten stipitate sponge specimens were collected and assigned to Podospongia loveni [du Bocage, B., 1869. Eponges siliceuses nouvelles du Portugal et de l'Île Saint-Iago (Archipel de Cap-Vert). Jornal de Sciencias mathematicas, physicas e naturais 2, 159-162]. Since the holotype was destroyed [Kelly, M., Samaai, T., 2002. Family Podospongiidae de Laubenfels, 1936. In: Hooper, J.N.A., Soest, RW.M., (Eds.), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges, New York, pp. 694-702] and with the existence of several specimens from a close region, we hereby redescribe this species. scanning electron microscopy pictures of the spicules and skeletal architecture of P. loveni are for the first time provided.

  17. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  18. A ginga brasileira e o marketing global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Sovik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  A partir de um outdoor da campanha publicitária da Brahma na Inglaterra, este artigo explora os possíveis sentidos da mudança da imagem do Brasil no exterior, onde o país não mais se resume ao erotismo de sol, praia e mar. O trabalho analisa o contexto londrino da imagem, os novos usos da imagem do corpo brasileiro e a promoção da nacionalidade brasileira em uma época em que as oposições binárias entre o nacional e o estrangeiro são difusas, com implicações para a maneira como entendemos o imaginário da comunidade nacional e as hierarquias globais.

  19. Discursos literarios en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pacheco Solórzano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El título del presente artículo es pretencioso, “Discursos literarios en Costa Rica”. Sin embargo, se trata de mostrar que hay referentes históricos y literarios que son consulta obligada para las investigaciones en el campo de la literatura como Historia de la literatura costarricense (Abelardo Bonilla; el papel de la imprenta en Costa Rica, el Archivo Nacional y el texto del maestro Álvaro Quesada Soto Uno y los otros. Así, esta primera parte se subtitula como Tradición histórica y literaria. La segunda parte se ha titulado Espejo de las vanguardias, que da cuenta de los principales movimientos vanguardistas de Europa y de América Latina y su influencia en el discurso literario costarricense. Un tercer subtítulo, Renovación discursiva, presenta una heterogeneidad de voces literarias posvanguardista e incorporación de la literatura gótica y de ciencia ficción en la producción literariacostarricense de nuestros días.

  20. Effects of fibre-surface morphology on the mechanical properties of Porifera-inspired rubber-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Stillfried, Daniela Graf; Celli, Jessika; Toivakka, Martti

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, mineralised organic fibre morphologies, inspired by the structures of Porifera (sponges) are correlated to the mechanical performance of fibre reinforced rubbers. The mineralised structures are rich in calcium carbonate and silica. These compounds nucleate and precipitate on the fibre surfaces yielding different morphologies as a function of mineral ion concentrations. Smaller mineralised precipitates manifestly improve the mechanical performance of composites while thicker precipitates enveloping the fibres give rise to inferior properties. Mechanisms and evidenced reasoning for these differences are reported herein.

  1. A(s Musicologia(s na Atualidade Brasileira: o Jogo do Saber e seus Paradoxos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Hansen Sant ’ Ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto visa tratar sobre algumas questões e problemas que concernem à atuação da(s Musicologia(s na atual conjuntura brasileira. Alguns questionamentos são levantados à luz de Denis Laborde, musicólogo francês; Paulo Costa Lima, compositor e musicólogo crítico brasileiro; e José D’Assunção Barros (2013, músico, escritor, teórico, e historiador brasileiro. Complementarmente desenvolvo perguntas e afirmações no sentido de pleitear uma pesquisa em Música mais empírica e mais especulativa propondo uma visão libertária em relação aos modelos e às teorias estanques provindas dos centros acadêmicos dominantes, entretanto evidenciando a importância da lógica teórico-metodológica, ouso apresentar uma postura inovadora e inventiva no que tange às novas buscas, interpretações e associações de teorias aparentemente díspares, na sugestão de tornar os estudos em Música mais coerentes à postura de uma “ciência da música” que se comporte como ‘ciência’.

  2. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Maria José do Nascimento; RIBEIRO, José Moacir Ferreira; Peiró,Douglas Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Na Amazônia brasileira são registradas dezenove espécies de Leptophlebiidae, distribuídas em dez gêneros. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de todos os gêneros de Leptophlebiidae ocorrentes na Região Neotropical, o numero de espécies de cada gênero no Brasil e um catálogo das espécies registradas na Amazônia brasileira.

  3. Two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) from the deep Antarctic Eckstrom Shelf and a revised list of species found in Antarctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Göcke, Christian; Tendal, Ole Secher;

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) from the Antarctic Weddell Sea, Clathrina brandtae sp. nov. and Leucetta delicata sp. nov., collected at 600 m depth during the ANT XXIV/2-SYSTCO expedition in January 2008. The new species are described based...

  4. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits tha...

  5. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  6. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  7. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Micha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria, in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera. Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida. This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis.

  8. Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation of Classification and Scenarios of Character Evolution in Calcareous Sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  9. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée

    2006-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis. PMID:16972986

  10. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  11. Molecular evidence of cryptic speciation in the "cosmopolitan" excavating sponge Cliona celata (Porifera, Clionaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J R; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Parra-Velandia, F; Schönberg, C H L; Breeuwer, J A J; van Soest, R W M

    2010-07-01

    Over the past several decades molecular tools have shown an enormous potential to aid in the clarification of species boundaries in the marine realm, particularly in morphologically simple groups. In this paper we report a case of cryptic speciation in an allegedly cosmopolitan and ecologically important species-the excavating sponge Cliona celata (Clionaidae, Hadromerida). In the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean C. celata displays a discontinuous distribution of its putative growth stages (boring, encrusting, and massive) leading us to investigate its specific status. Phylogenetic reconstructions of mitochondrial (COI, Atp8) and nuclear (28S) gene fragments revealed levels of genetic diversity and divergence compatible with interspecific relationships. We therefore demonstrate C. celata as constituting a species complex comprised of at least four morphologically indistinct species, each showing a far more restricted distribution: two species on the Atlantic European coasts and two on the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coasts (Macaronesian islands). Our results provide further confirmation that the different morphotypes do indeed constitute either growth stages or ecologically adapted phenotypes as boring and massive forms were found in two of the four uncovered species. We additionally provide an overview of the cases of cryptic speciation which have been reported to date within the Porifera, and highlight how taxonomic crypsis may confound scientific interpretation and hamper biotechnological advancement. Our work together with previous studies suggests that overconservative systematic traditions but also morphological stasis have led to genetic complexity going undetected and that a DNA-assisted taxonomy may play a key role in uncovering the hidden diversity in this taxonomic group.

  12. Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-03-01

    During evolution and with the emergence of multicellular animals, the need arose to ward off foreign organisms that threaten the integrity of the animal body. Among many different receptors that participate in the recognition of microbial invaders, toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in mediating the innate immune response. After binding distinct microbial components, TLRs activate intracellular signaling cascades that result in an induced expression of diverse antimicrobial molecules. Because sponges (phylum Porifera) are filter feeders, they are abundantly exposed to microorganisms that represent a potential threat. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and deduced protein sequence from 3 major elements of the poriferan innate response (to bacterial lipopeptides): the TLR, the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4-like protein (IRAK-4l), and a novel effector caspase from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Each molecule shares significant sequence similarity with its homologues in higher Metazoa. Sequence homologies were found in particular within the family-specific domains toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TLR family), Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase domain (IRAK family), and CASc (caspase family). In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistological analyses revealed an abundance of SDTLR (TLR) transcripts in epithelial layers of the sponge surface (exopinacoderm and endopinacoderm). Furthermore, it is shown that both SDTLR and SDIRAK-4 like (IRAK) are expressed constitutively, regardless of treatment with synthetic triacyl lipopeptide Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4). In contrast, SDCASL (caspase) expression is highly Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4) inducible. However, blocking of the lipopeptide with recombinant TLR prior to its application completely prevented the induced expression of this poriferan caspase. These results underscore that the phylogenetically oldest extant metazoan phylum is provided already with the signaling pathways of the antimicrobial

  13. Expansion, diversification, and expression of T-box family genes in Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstien, Kay; Rivera, Ajna; Windsor, Pam; Ding, Siyu; Leys, Sally P; Hill, Malcolm; Hill, April

    2010-12-01

    Sponges are among the earliest diverging lineage within the metazoan phyla. Although their adult morphology is distinctive, at several stages of development, they possess characteristics found in more complex animals. The T-box family of transcription factors is an evolutionarily ancient gene family known to be involved in the development of structures derived from all germ layers in the bilaterian animals. There is an incomplete understanding of the role that T-box transcription factors play in normal sponge development or whether developmental pathways using the T-box family share similarities between parazoan and eumetazoan animals. To address these questions, we present data that identify several important T-box genes in marine and freshwater sponges, place these genes in a phylogenetic context, and reveal patterns in how these genes are expressed in developing sponges. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that sponges have members of at least two of the five T-box subfamilies (Brachyury and Tbx2/3/4/5) and that the T-box genes expanded and diverged in the poriferan lineage. Our analysis of signature residues in the sponge T-box genes calls into question whether "true" Brachyury genes are found in the Porifera. Expression for a subset of the T-box genes was elucidated in larvae from the marine demosponge, Halichondria bowerbanki. Our results show that sponges regulate the timing and specificity of gene expression for T-box orthologs across larval developmental stages. In situ hybridization reveals distinct, yet sometimes overlapping expression of particular T-box genes in free-swimming larvae. Our results provide a comparative framework from which we can gain insights into the evolution of developmentally important pathways.

  14. Adesao ao guia alimentar para populacao brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Verly Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a adesão ao Guia Alimentar para População Brasileira. MÉTODOS : Amostra composta por participantes do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (n = 1.661 que preencheram dois recordatórios de 24 horas. Foi utilizado modelo bivariado de efeito misto para a razão entre o consumo de energia do grupo de alimentos e o consumo calórico total. A razão estimada foi utilizada para calcular o percentual de indivíduos com consumo abaixo ou acima da recomendação. RESULTADOS : Pelo menos 80,0% da população consome abaixo do recomendado para: leite e derivados; frutas e sucos de frutas; e cereais, tubérculos e raízes; aproximadamente 60,0% para legumes e verduras; 30,0% para feijões; e 8,0% para carnes e ovos. Adolescentes apresentaram a maior inadequação para legumes e verduras (90,0%, e o estrato de maior renda foi associado à menor inadequação para óleos, gorduras e sementes oleaginosas (57,0%. CONCLUSÕES : Foi observado consumo inadequado dos grupos de alimentos relacionados com aumento do risco de doenças crônicas.

  15. Abner Vicentini: um pioneiro da Biblioteconomia brasileira

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    Murilo Bastos Cunha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio biobibliográfico analisa a trajetória profissional do bibliotecário Abner Vicentini (23/08/1929 – 9/08/1976. Dentre vários cargos ocupados, Abner Vicentini foi presidente da Associação Paulista de Bibliotecários (1958-1961; professor de Biblioteconomia na Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971; conselheiro da Federação Internacional de Documentação; consultor da FAO para a implantação da Biblioteca Nacional da Agricultura e do Sistema Nacional de Informação e Documentação Agrícola (1975-1976. Como diretor na área de bibliotecas, Vicentini passou pela seguinte trajetória: Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (1952-1953, Centro Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (1954-1963, Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971, Ministério das Minas e Energia (1972-1975. Abner Vicentini foi ainda, um grande divulgador da Classificação Decimal Universal e editor da primeira edição brasileira do Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR-1, lançada em 1969

  16. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 casos reportados de mesotelioma pleural, durante el período comprendido entre 1972 y 2002. Se estimó una tasa para 2002, de 1 caso por cada 2 millones de habitantes. Quince casos estudiados fueron mujeres y 14, hombres, con una edad promedio de 54 años. La presentación clínica fue, en 20 casos, derrame pleural, y los síntomas más frecuentes fueron disnea, dolor torácico, tos, fiebre y deterioro del estado general. La enfermedad se detectó en todos los pacientes por radiografía de tórax y el método para obtener la muestra para diagnóstico histológico, en 15 casos, fue la toracotomía; en 8, la biopsia pleural; en 4, la toracoscopía, y en 2, la autopsia. En 5 casos la biopsia pleural fue reportada inicialmente como adenocarcinoma. El diagnóstico histológico fue de mesoteliomas fibrosos en 16, (10 malignos y 6 benignos; 11 mesoteliomas epiteliales, todos malignos, y 2 mesoteliomas mixtos malignos. El tratamiento en los casos benignos fue cirugía y ninguno recidivó. Dos casos de mesoteliomas malignos se resecaron, uno de ellos con una neumonectomía extrapleural con pericardiectomía y resección del diafragma, pero la supervivencia no fue mejor que del resto de los malignos, ya que ningún caso superó los 6 meses. La quimioterapia y la radioterapia tampoco demostraron mejorar significativamente la evolución de la enfermedad.

  17. Gilberto Freyre e a singularidade cultural brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto procura enfatizar o conteúdo macrossociológico da obra dos anos trinta de Gilberto Freyre. Ao invés dos temas classicamente vinculados à obra de Gilberto Freyre, como a mestiçagem e a história da vida privada, o ponto principal da argumentação é reconstruir o embate entre valores ocidentais da Europa já burguesa, que tomam o país de assalto a partir de 1808, e os valores tradicionais que Freyre chama de orientais para se referir ao conjunto de valores africanos, portugueses e rurais da vida colonial brasileira. Gilberto Freyre desenvolve em Sobrados e mucambos uma historiografia da institucionalização desses novos valores ocidentalizantes que se contrapõe, com vantagens, à versão dominante do Brasil como ainda dominado por valores pessoais e semi-tradicionais.This article intends to emphasize the macro-sociological content of Gilberto Freyres work in the 30s. Instead of the themes classically linked to his work, such as inter-racial mixing and the history of private life, the main point of this paper is different: it aims to reconstruct the clash between the already bourgeois European western values, which take over the country in 1808, and the traditional ones which Freire calls oriental to refer to the set of African, Portuguese and rural values of Brazilian Colonial life. In Sobrados e mucambos Gilberto Freyre develops a historiography of the institutionalization of these new westernizing values which go against the prevaling idea of Brazil as still being ruled by personal and semi-traditional values.

  18. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  19. 77 FR 25644 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira...) that apply to all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 airplanes... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  20. 77 FR 24342 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-250-AD; Amendment 39-17014; AD 2012-07-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... (75 FR 30284, June 1, 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2012-07-08 Empresa Brasileira de...) Applicability (1) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170-100...

  1. 77 FR 16155 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ...-035-AD; Amendment 39-16980; AD 2012-05-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... directive (AD) for all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 airplanes. This AD... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-05-08 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica...

  2. 75 FR 52263 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...; AD 2010-18-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-18-04 Empresa Brasileira de..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060),...

  3. 75 FR 19201 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...-212-AD; Amendment 39-16261; AD 2010-08-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-08-06 Empresa Brasileira de...)(2) of this AD; certificated in any category. (1) Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  4. 77 FR 36224 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 airplanes, and Model EMB-145... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  5. 76 FR 27237 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-153-AD; Amendment 39-16684; AD 2011-10-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2011-10-03 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16684... Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170-100 LR, -100 STD, -100 SE, and -100...

  6. 76 FR 7511 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  7. 78 FR 66258 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...-194-AD; Amendment 39-17650; AD 2013-22-18] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... directive (AD) for certain Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER, - 135KE, -135KL... information identified in this AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER),...

  8. Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae, Porifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickel Michael

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sponges (Porifera are nerve- and muscleless metazoa, but display coordinated motor reactions. Therefore, they represent a valuable phylum to investigate coordination systems, which evolved in a hypothetical Urmetazoon prior to the central nervous system (CNS of later metazoa. We have chosen the contractile and locomotive species Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae, Hadromerida as a model system for our research, using quantitative analysis based on digital time lapse imaging. In order to evaluate candidate coordination pathways, we extracorporeally tested a number of chemical messengers, agonists and antagonists known from chemical signalling pathways in animals with CNS. Results Sponge body contraction of T. wilhelma was induced by caffeine, glycine, serotonine, nitric oxide (NO and extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. The induction by glycine and cAMP followed patterns varying from other substances. Induction by cAMP was delayed, while glycine lead to a bi-phasic contraction response. The frequency of the endogenous contraction rhythm of T. wilhelma was significantly decreased by adrenaline and NO, with the same tendency for cAMP and acetylcholine. In contrast, caffeine and glycine increased the contraction frequency. The endogenous rhythm appeared irregular during application of caffeine, adrenaline, NO and cAMP. Caffeine, glycine and NO attenuated the contraction amplitude. All effects on the endogenous rhythm were neutralised by the washout of the substances from the experimental reactor system. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that a number of chemical messengers, agonists and antagonists induce contraction and/or modulate the endogenous contraction rhythm and amplitude of our nerveless model metazoon T. wilhelma. We conclude that a relatively complex system of chemical messengers regulates the contraction behaviour through auto- and paracrine signalling, which is presented in a hypothetical model. We assume

  9. Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae, Porifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Kornelia; Nickel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background Sponges (Porifera) are nerve- and muscleless metazoa, but display coordinated motor reactions. Therefore, they represent a valuable phylum to investigate coordination systems, which evolved in a hypothetical Urmetazoon prior to the central nervous system (CNS) of later metazoa. We have chosen the contractile and locomotive species Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae, Hadromerida) as a model system for our research, using quantitative analysis based on digital time lapse imaging. In order to evaluate candidate coordination pathways, we extracorporeally tested a number of chemical messengers, agonists and antagonists known from chemical signalling pathways in animals with CNS. Results Sponge body contraction of T. wilhelma was induced by caffeine, glycine, serotonine, nitric oxide (NO) and extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The induction by glycine and cAMP followed patterns varying from other substances. Induction by cAMP was delayed, while glycine lead to a bi-phasic contraction response. The frequency of the endogenous contraction rhythm of T. wilhelma was significantly decreased by adrenaline and NO, with the same tendency for cAMP and acetylcholine. In contrast, caffeine and glycine increased the contraction frequency. The endogenous rhythm appeared irregular during application of caffeine, adrenaline, NO and cAMP. Caffeine, glycine and NO attenuated the contraction amplitude. All effects on the endogenous rhythm were neutralised by the washout of the substances from the experimental reactor system. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that a number of chemical messengers, agonists and antagonists induce contraction and/or modulate the endogenous contraction rhythm and amplitude of our nerveless model metazoon T. wilhelma. We conclude that a relatively complex system of chemical messengers regulates the contraction behaviour through auto- and paracrine signalling, which is presented in a hypothetical model. We assume that adrenergic

  10. Monitoraggio del relitto della nave Costa Concordia

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    Massimiliano Toppi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In seguito al disastro della Costa Concordia, le autorità locali e la Protezione Civile, che guidarono le operazioni di salvataggio, contattano il topografo Mauro Alessandroni e gli conferiscono l’incarico di monitorare gli eventuali movimenti della nave, per garantire l’incolumità delle squadre di soccorso durante la ricerca di superstiti intrappolati nel relitto.Costa Concordia wreck monitoringIn the aftermath of the Costa Concordia disaster, local authoritiesand the Civil Protection, leading the rescue operation,contacted the surveyor Mauro Alessandroni to monitor anymovement of the ship, to ensure the safety of teams assistanceduring the search for survivors trapped in the wreck.

  11. Isolation and identification of chitin from heavy mineralized skeleton of Suberea clavata (Verongida: Demospongiae: Porifera) marine demosponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Debitus, Cecile; de Voogd, Nicole; Galli, Roberta; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Wysokowski, Marcin; Meissner, Heike; Bulut, Esra; Kaya, Murat; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-02-07

    Since the discovery of chitin in skeletal structures of sponges (Porifera) in 2007, studies on search of novel species which possess this structural aminopolysaccharide continue up today. The most potential source of chitin is suggested to be localized in the four families of sponges related to the order Verongida (Demospongiae) which nevertheless require further clarification. Here, we report for the first time the isolation and identification of α-chitin from the Suberea clavata demosponge (Aplysinidae: Verongida). Raman spectroscopy, Calcofluor White staining, chitinase test and ESI-MS techniques were used to identify chitin. We suggest that the presence of chitin within fibrous skeletons of diverse species of Verongida order, and, especially in all species of the Aplysinidae family, may be useful for the identification of novel, previously unidentified marine demosponges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional chitin-based scaffolds from Verongida sponges (Demospongiae: Porifera). Part I. Isolation and identification of chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, H; Ilan, M; Maldonado, M; Muricy, G; Bavestrello, G; Kljajic, Z; Carballo, J L; Schiaparelli, S; Ereskovsky, A; Schupp, P; Born, R; Worch, H; Bazhenov, V V; Kurek, D; Varlamov, V; Vyalikh, D; Kummer, K; Sivkov, V V; Molodtsov, S L; Meissner, H; Richter, G; Steck, E; Richter, W; Hunoldt, S; Kammer, M; Paasch, S; Krasokhin, V; Patzke, G; Brunner, E

    2010-08-01

    Marine invertebrate organisms including sponges (Porifera) not only provide an abundant source of biologically active secondary metabolites but also inspire investigations to develop biomimetic composites, scaffolds and templates for practical use in materials science, biomedicine and tissue engineering. Here, we presented a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of three-dimensional skeletal scaffolds of the marine sponges Aiolochroia crassa, Aplysina aerophoba, A. cauliformis, A. cavernicola, and A. fulva (Verongida: Demospongiae). We show that these fibrous scaffolds have a multilayered design and are made of chitin. (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, NEXAFS, and IR spectroscopy as well as chitinase digestion and test were applied in order to unequivocally prove the existence of alpha-chitin in all investigated species.

  13. A new species of Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida) from deeper waters off the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Thaynã; Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-11-18

    The members of Lissodendoryx Topsent, 1892a are recognized by a spicule combination of ectosomal tylotes or strongyles, isodictyal reticulate architecture, arcuate isochelae and sigmas (Hofman & Van Soest 1995; Van Soest 2002). Five subgenera of Lissodendoryx, are recognized (Van Soest 2002): Lissodendoryx (Acanthodoryx) Lévi, 1961, L. (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934, L. (Ectyodoryx) Lundbeck, 1909, L. (Lissodendoryx) Topsent, 1892a, and L. (Waldoschmittia) de Laubenfels, 1936. Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) is defined by the presence of a single megasclere type (Van Soest 2002). Currently has six recognized species (Van Soest et al. 2014) including two from Brazil (Muricy et al. 2011): L. (A.) recife (Boury-Esnault, 1973) and L. (A.) tylota (Boury-Esnault, 1973). In this paper, a new species of L. (Anomodoryx) is described from the mesophotic zone off Bacia Potiguar (Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil). The specimen was preserved in ethanol 80% and deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEPOR).

  14. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 casos reportados de mesotelioma pleural, durante el período comprendido entre 1972 y 2002. Se estimó una tasa para 2002, de 1 caso por cada 2 millones de habitantes. Quince casos estudiados fueron mujeres y 14, hombres, con una edad promedio de 54 años. La presentación clínica fue, en 20 casos, derrame pleural, y los síntomas más frecuentes fueron disnea, dolor torácico, tos, fiebre y deterioro del estado general. La enfermedad se detectó en todos los pacientes por radiografía de tórax y el método para obtener la muestra para diagnóstico histológico, en 15 casos, fue la toracotomía; en 8, la biopsia pleural; en 4, la toracoscopía, y en 2, la autopsia. En 5 casos la biopsia pleural fue reportada inicialmente como adenocarcinoma. El diagnóstico histológico fue de mesoteliomas fibrosos en 16, (10 malignos y 6 benignos; 11 mesoteliomas epiteliales, todos malignos, y 2 mesoteliomas mixtos malignos. El tratamiento en los casos benignos fue cirugía y ninguno recidivó. Dos casos de mesoteliomas malignos se resecaron, uno de ellos con una neumonectomía extrapleural con pericardiectomía y resección del diafragma, pero la supervivencia no fue mejor que del resto de los malignos, ya que ningún caso superó los 6 meses. La quimioterapia y la radioterapia tampoco demostraron mejorar significativamente la evolución de la enfermedad.After reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costarrican Social

  15. Banco Central de Costa Rica

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    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  16. Molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae(p reveals an unexpected high level of spicule homoplasy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco Cárdenas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae(p is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species covering the deep- and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene partial sequence and the 5' end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains. The resulting tree suggested that i the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least, and finally that v many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella. CONCLUSION: The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current

  17. The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph F; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2010-10-04

    The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera) are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. Comparisons of gene content between organismal lineages have been identified as a potentially useful methodology for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, these comparisons require complete genomes that, until now, did not exist for the ctenophore lineage. The homeobox superfamily of genes is particularly suited for these kinds of gene content comparisons, since it is large, diverse, and features a highly conserved domain. We have used a next-generation sequencing approach to generate a high-quality rough draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and subsequently identified a set of 76 homeobox-containing genes from this draft. We phylogenetically categorized this set into established gene families and classes and then compared this set to the homeodomain repertoire of species from the other four early branching metazoan lineages. We have identified several important classes and subclasses of homeodomains that appear to be absent from Mnemiopsis and from the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. We have also determined that, based on lineage-specific paralog retention and average branch lengths, it is unlikely that these missing classes and subclasses are due to extensive gene loss or unusually high rates of evolution in Mnemiopsis. This paper provides a first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome. We have characterized the full complement of Mnemiopsis homeodomains from this species and have compared them to species from other early branching lineages. Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Based on this analysis, we also propose a new name - ParaHoxozoa - for the remaining group that includes Placozoa, Cnidaria and

  18. The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Joseph F

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. Comparisons of gene content between organismal lineages have been identified as a potentially useful methodology for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, these comparisons require complete genomes that, until now, did not exist for the ctenophore lineage. The homeobox superfamily of genes is particularly suited for these kinds of gene content comparisons, since it is large, diverse, and features a highly conserved domain. Results We have used a next-generation sequencing approach to generate a high-quality rough draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and subsequently identified a set of 76 homeobox-containing genes from this draft. We phylogenetically categorized this set into established gene families and classes and then compared this set to the homeodomain repertoire of species from the other four early branching metazoan lineages. We have identified several important classes and subclasses of homeodomains that appear to be absent from Mnemiopsis and from the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. We have also determined that, based on lineage-specific paralog retention and average branch lengths, it is unlikely that these missing classes and subclasses are due to extensive gene loss or unusually high rates of evolution in Mnemiopsis. Conclusions This paper provides a first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome. We have characterized the full complement of Mnemiopsis homeodomains from this species and have compared them to species from other early branching lineages. Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Based on this analysis, we also propose a new name - ParaHoxozoa - for

  19. The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera) are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. Comparisons of gene content between organismal lineages have been identified as a potentially useful methodology for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, these comparisons require complete genomes that, until now, did not exist for the ctenophore lineage. The homeobox superfamily of genes is particularly suited for these kinds of gene content comparisons, since it is large, diverse, and features a highly conserved domain. Results We have used a next-generation sequencing approach to generate a high-quality rough draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and subsequently identified a set of 76 homeobox-containing genes from this draft. We phylogenetically categorized this set into established gene families and classes and then compared this set to the homeodomain repertoire of species from the other four early branching metazoan lineages. We have identified several important classes and subclasses of homeodomains that appear to be absent from Mnemiopsis and from the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. We have also determined that, based on lineage-specific paralog retention and average branch lengths, it is unlikely that these missing classes and subclasses are due to extensive gene loss or unusually high rates of evolution in Mnemiopsis. Conclusions This paper provides a first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome. We have characterized the full complement of Mnemiopsis homeodomains from this species and have compared them to species from other early branching lineages. Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Based on this analysis, we also propose a new name - ParaHoxozoa - for the remaining group that

  20. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  1. Entrevista com Horácio Costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geylson Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p213   Entrevista com Horácio Costa a respeito da tradução do poeta José Gorostiza e de outras questões da tradução da literatura mexicana no Brasil.

  2. Mujer inmigrante: de Nicaragua a Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio de la mujer nicaragüense en Costa Rica. Se hace un recuentohistórico del fenómeno migratorio femenino nicaragüense; así como expone el caso de la inmigración enla región pacífica, del país.

  3. Musgos de Costa Rica : nuevos registros

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Clotilde

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of mosses are reported as new to Costa Rica, five of those are new to Central America. These are: Paraleucobryum albicans (Schwaegr.) Loeske, Philonotis elongata (Dism.) Crum & Steere, Leskeodon cubensis (Mitt.) Thér., Hookeriopsis dimorpha (C.M.) Broth. and Isopterygium machrisianum (Crum) Irel.

  4. Actividades biológicas del extracto acuoso de la esponja Aplysina lacunosa (Porifera: Aplysinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kazanjian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos el extracto acuoso y precipitado de proteínas de Aplysina lacunosa, en relación con su actividad hemaglutinante, hemolizante, antibacteriana y antimicótica. Los ejemplares de la esponja marina fueron recolectados en el Morro de Tigüitigüe, Santa Fe, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. La proteína activa fue separada por cromatografía de exclusión molecular; y su masa molar fue estimada por electroforesis SDS-PAGE. La esponja A. lacunosa posee una proteína con masa molar aproximada de 4.000 Daltons capaz de aglutinar fuertemente y de manera inespecífica los eritrocitos humanos de los grupos sanguíneos A, B y O. No se observó actividad hemolizante por parte de las muestras ensayadas. Únicamente el extracto acuoso fue capaz de inhibir el crecimiento de Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli y Salmonella enteritidis con halos de inhibición de 24, 20, 24, 22 mm, respectivamente; ninguna de las muestras exhibió actividad antifúngica. El análisis químico del extracto acuoso reveló la presencia de diversos metabolitos secundarios. Se presume que la actividad hemaglutinante se deba a la presencia de proteínas aglutinantes. La actividad antibacteriana podría atribuirse a la presencia de saponinas, alcaloides, taninos y polifenoles, compuestos altamente antimicrobianos. Los poríferos constituyen una fuente rica de compuestos bioactivos que pueden ser utilizados para el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos.Biological activity of an aqueons extract of the sponge Aplysina lacunosa (Porifera: Aplysinidae. The aqueous extract and protein precipitate of Aplysina lacunosa (Pallas, 1776 were studied to assess their hemagglutinating, hemolysing, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Specimens of the marine sponge were collected in El Morro de Tigüitigüe, Santa Fe, Sucre state, Venezuela. The active protein was separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and its molar mass estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The sponge A

  5. LANDSLIDES CAUSED BY THE CINCHONA, COSTA RICA EARTHQUAKE OF 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes-Castillo, Gustavo; Jiménez-Campos, Cristina; Ocón-García, María José

    2014-01-01

    On January 8, 2009, an earthquake in Costa Rica caused many landslides, resulting in severe environmental and social damage. The cloudiness of the affected area allowed only approximate mapping of area. Collaboration between the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) and the School of Geographic Sciences at National University of Costa Rica (UNA) made it possible to take a detailed inventory of the landslides through image analysis via Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A compre...

  6. O nascimento da Revista Brasileira de Criminalística

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Tonietto; Bruno Telles; Charles Albert Andrade; Claudemir Rodrigues Dias Filho; Elvis Medeiros; Juliano de Andrade Gomes; Maria Paula Oliveira Valadares

    2011-01-01

    Nasce a Revista Brasileira de Criminalística (RBC): uma publicação periódica de um antigo anseio da comunidade de Peritos Criminais em ver a produção científica divulgada em revista especializada genuinamente brasileira. A RBC destina-se à publicação de artigos que contribuam para a promoção, a divulgação e o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico das ciências forenses, referentes aos resultados de pesquisas, avanços, projetos técnico-científicos e relatos de caso relacionados à criminalíst...

  7. O nascimento da Revista Brasileira de Criminalística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Tonietto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasce a Revista Brasileira de Criminalística (RBC: uma publicação periódica de um antigo anseio da comunidade de Peritos Criminais em ver a produção científica divulgada em revista especializada genuinamente brasileira. A RBC destina-se à publicação de artigos que contribuam para a promoção, a divulgação e o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico das ciências forenses, referentes aos resultados de pesquisas, avanços, projetos técnico-científicos e relatos de caso relacionados à criminalística, incluindo as interfaces com outros ramos da ciência, como Física, Química, Biologia, Odontologia, Farmacologia, Informática, Contabilidade, Engenharias, entre outras.

  8. O nascimento da Revista Brasileira de Criminalística

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Tonietto; Bruno Telles; Charles Albert Andrade; Claudemir Rodrigues Dias Filho; Elvis Medeiros; Juliano de Andrade Gomes; Maria Paula Oliveira Valadares

    2011-01-01

    Nasce a Revista Brasileira de Criminalística (RBC): uma publicação periódica de um antigo anseio da comunidade de Peritos Criminais em ver a produção científica divulgada em revista especializada genuinamente brasileira. A RBC destina-se à publicação de artigos que contribuam para a promoção, a divulgação e o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico das ciências forenses, referentes aos resultados de pesquisas, avanços, projetos técnico-científicos e relatos de caso relacionados à criminalíst...

  9. Planning for tourism in Costa Smeralda

    OpenAIRE

    Cappai, Alesandra

    2012-01-01

    Studying tourism planning means understanding and assuming that tourism is not just a flux of tourists who move without leaving a trace, but a motor that physically transforms the territory due to the need to build infrastructure and tourist accommodation like hotels, second homes, attractions etc, which have contributed to major changes in previously untouched territories. Among them, the Costa Smeralda resort represents the most iconic and best known tourist destination of Sardinia. In...

  10. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  11. Taxonomy of the Caribbean sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida), with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Sven; Pulido, Alejandra

    2016-05-25

    Although there is a long history of taxonomic investigation in Caribbean sponges, there are still many undescribed species. Furthermore, field observations and corroborating morphological analyses are revealing that what was believed to be single, somewhat variable species, may consist of two or more species, often easier to distinguish once well characterized. This is the case for Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida, Axinellidae), a rather well-known sponge, with an ample distribution and presence in rocky and reef environments of the tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic, with local records in the majority of the countries of the area, from Bermuda to Brazil. Field observations and a detailed review of material from different areas, including some type specimens, led us to the distinction of two different species in terms of external morphology, size of spicules, and skeletal architecture. The distinction was confirmed in the Bahamas and Santa Marta, Colombia, where the two species coexist. One of the species is Dragmacidon reticulatum sensu stricto, but for the other there is need to erect a new name, for which we propose Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp. The purpose of the present work is to describe, illustrate and compare these two species.

  12. First evidence of chitin as a component of the skeletal fibers of marine sponges. Part I. Verongidae (demospongia: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Maldonado, Manuel; Spindler, Klaus-Dieter; Eckert, Carsten; Hanke, Thomas; Born, René; Goebel, Caren; Simon, Paul; Heinemann, Sascha; Worch, Hartmut

    2007-07-15

    The Porifera (sponges) are often regarded as the oldest, extant metazoan phylum, also bearing the ancestral stage for most features occurring in higher animals. The absence of chitin in sponges, except for the wall of peculiar resistance bodies produced by a highly derived fresh-water group, is puzzling, since it points out chitin to be an autapomorphy for a particular sponge family rather than the ancestral condition within the metazoan lineage. By investigating the internal proteinaceous (spongin) skeleton of two demosponges (Aplysina sp. and Verongula gigantea) using a wide array of techniques (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray, Calcofluor White Staining, Immunolabeling, and chitinase test), we show that chitin is a component of the outermost layer (cuticle) of the skeletal fibers of these demosponges. FTIR and Raman spectra, as well as X-ray difractograms consistently revealed that sponge chitin is much closer to the alpha-chitin known from other animals than to beta-chitin. These findings support the view that the occurrence of a chitin-producing system is the ancestral condition in Metazoa, and that the alpha-chitin is the primitive form in animals.

  13. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges (Porifera): an ancestor cell-cell adhesion event based on the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Eduardo; Coutinho, Cristiano C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-08-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are ancient and simple eumetazoans. They constitute key organisms in the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals. We now demonstrated that pure sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges are responsible for the species-specific cell-cell interaction in these invertebrates. This conclusion was based on the following observations: (1) each species of marine sponge has a single population of sulfated polysaccharide, which differ among the species in their sugar composition and sulfate content; (2) sulfated polysaccharides from sponge interact with each other in a species-specific way, as indicated by an affinity chromatography assay, and this interaction requires calcium; (3) homologous, but not heterologous, sulfated polysaccharide inhibits aggregation of dissociated sponge cells; (4) we also observed a parallel between synthesis of the sulfated polysaccharide and formation of large aggregates of sponge cells, known as primmorphs. Once aggregation reached a plateau, the demand for the de novo synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides ceased. Heparin can mimic the homologous sulfated polysaccharide on the in vitro interaction and also as an inhibitor of aggregation of the dissociated sponge cells. However, this observation is not relevant for the biology of the sponge since heparin is not found in the invertebrate. In conclusion, marine sponges display an ancestor event of cell-cell adhesion, based on the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

  14. Conservation and phylogeny of a novel family of non-Hox genes of the Antp class in Demospongiae (porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle-Maurer, Evelyn; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Itskovich, Valeria B; Manuel, Michaël; Pomponi, Shirley A; Van de Vyver, Gisèle; Borchiellini, Carole

    2006-08-01

    A survey across the most basal animal phylum, the Porifera, for the presence of homeobox-containing genes led to the isolation of 24 partial or complete homeobox sequences from 21 sponge species distributed in 15 families and 6 orders of Demospongiae. All the new sequences shared a high identity/similarity with EmH-3 (Ephydatia muelleri), a non-Hox gene from the Antp class. The Demox sequences, EmH-3, and related homeodomains formed a well-supported clade with no true affinity with any known bilaterian family, including the Tlx/Hox11 family, suggesting that the EmH-3 family of genes, comprising 31 members, represents a novel family of non-Hox genes, called the Demox family, widespread among Demospongiae. The presence of the Tlx/Hox11 specific signature in the Demox family and common regulatory elements suggested that the Demox and Tlx/Hox11 families are closely related. In the phylogenetic analyses, freshwater Haplosclerida appeared as monophyletic, and Haplosclerida and Halichondrida as polyphyletic, with a clade comprising Agelas species and Axinella corrugata. As for their expression, high levels of Demox transcripts were found in adult tissues. Our data add to the number of published poriferan homeobox sequences and provide independent confirmation of the current Demospongiae phylogenies.

  15. Taxonomic review of Hadromerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent waters, with the description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; Mcdaniel, Neil G

    2014-06-26

    The history of sponge collecting and systematics in British Columbia is reviewed over the period 1878 to 1966. Recent additions and changes are provided in an on-line species list: www.mareco/org/kml/projects/NEsponges.asp. Hadromerids are the focus of this paper as eight of 19 species in British Columbia are considered new. An additional new species is described from southern California to clarify the status of Tethya californiana in BC. An update is timely for hadromerids in BC as there is new material and renewed interest, while existing descriptions are often inadequate. We describe new species and provide additions to previous descriptions for sponges of the order Hadromerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the cold temperate NE Pacific off British Columbia and adjacent waters. We propose one range extension and one new species in Clionaidae; two range extensions and five new species in Polymastiidae; one range extension, two name changes and two new species in Suberitidae; and one new species in Tethyidae. New species include Pione gibraltarensis n.sp., Polymastia piscesae n. sp., Radiella endeavourensis n. sp., Sphaerotylus raphidophora n. sp., Sphaerotylus verenae n. sp., Weberella perlucida n. sp., Prosuberites saanichensis n. sp., Suberites lambei n. sp., and Tethya vacua n. sp..

  16. Phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida within the phylum Porifera based on the amino acid sequence of the protein kinase C from Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, M; Leys, S P; Müller, I M; Müller, W E

    1998-06-01

    Recent analyses of genes encoding proteins typical for multicellularity, especially adhesion molecules and receptors, favor the conclusion that all metazoan phyla, including the phylum Porifera (sponges), are of monophyletic origin. However, none of these data includes cDNA encoding a protein from the sponge class Hexactinellida. We have now isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a protein kinase C, belonging to the C subfamily (cPKC), from the hexactinellid sponge Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni. The two conserved regions, the regulatory part with the pseudosubstrate site, the two zinc fingers, and the C2 domain, as well as the catalytic domain were used for phylogenetic analyses. Sequence alignment and construction of a phylogenetic tree from the catalytic domains revealed that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei are at the base of the tree, while the hexactinellid R. dawsoni branches off first among the metazoan sequences; the other two classes of the Porifera, the Calcarea (the sequence from Sycon raphanus was used) and the Demospongiae (sequences from Geodia cydonium and Suberites domuncula were used), branch off later. The statistically robust tree also shows that the two cPKC sequences from the higher invertebrates Drosophila melanogaster and Lytechinus pictus are most closely related to the calcareous sponge. This finding was also confirmed by comparing the regulatory part of the kinase gene. We suggest, that (i) within the phylum Porifera, the class Hexactinellida diverged first from a common ancestor to the Calcarea and the Demospongiae, which both appeared later, and (ii) the higher invertebrates are more closely related to the calcareous sponges.

  17. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  18. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado; Mynor Mora; María Laura Arias; Norman Rojas; Carolina Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos...

  19. 75 FR 26883 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ...-045-AD; Amendment 39-16286; AD 2010-10-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2010-10-07 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment...

  20. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  1. 76 FR 64785 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...-159-AD; Amendment 39-16838; AD 2011-21-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira...: 2011-21-15 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16838. Docket No. FAA-2011...) becomes effective November 23, 2011. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to...

  2. 75 FR 47190 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-212-AD; Amendment 39-16378; AD 2010-16-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 Airplanes; and Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-16-02...

  3. 77 FR 58761 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ...-266-AD; Amendment 39-17201; AD 2012-19-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) all Empresa... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-19-06 Empresa Brasileira...

  4. 76 FR 81894 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa... the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA-...

  5. 76 FR 72855 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 airplanes. This proposed AD results... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact...

  6. 75 FR 260 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100 STD, -100... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  7. Litispendencia internacional y costas del proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FRANCISCO CARRILLO POZO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on costs of proceedings in cases of international lis pendens can not be an automatic result of the application of the rule that costs follow the event, but must take into account the regulatory environment in which it arises, because there are so many rules on lis pendens as disciplines on international jurisdiction. La condena en costas en los casos de litispendencia internacional no puede ser resultado automático del criterio del vencimiento, sino que debe tener en cuenta el ámbito normativo en el que se plantea, porque existen tantas reglas sobre litispendencia como disciplinas sobre competencia judicial internacional.

  8. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  9. AS EXPORTAÇÕES BRASILEIRAS DE MANUFATURADOS DE MADEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata das exportações brasileiras de madeira serrada de não coníferas, laminados e compensados durante o período de 1961 a 2002. Os dados referentes aos três produtos estudados foram agregados pelo método de Fisher para que pudesse ser feita uma avaliação econométrica do mercado dos três produtos. Foram especificados modelos de oferta e demanda das exportações brasileiras e estas estimados pelo método de Mínimos Quadrados Ordinários (MQO. Os resultados foram satisfatórios e condizem com a literatura. A oferta de exportações apresentou uma resposta positiva em relação à remuneração do exportador, à produção, à utilização da capacidade instalada e à tendência, e negativo em relação à demanda interna. A demanda pelas exportações brasileiras foi positivamente influenciada pela renda mundial, índice de participação e tendência, e negativamente pelo preço relativo. A baixa elasticidade-preço da demanda encontrada pode ter implicações na conservação dos recursos florestais brasileiros, pois os exportadores poderão aumentar os preços, diminuir as quantidades e ainda terem um aumento das receitas.

  10. Hepatite fulminante na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor faz uma revisão e atualização sobre os resultados das pesquisas envolvendo a hepatite de Lábrea e outras hepatites fulminantes da Amazônia ocidental brasileira, com ênfase nas características epidemiológicas, clínicas e histopatológicas e na etiologia viral, como os vírus das hepatites B e D. O potencial envolvimento de alguns outros vírus hepatotrópicos é considerado.

  11. O PENSAMENTO DE JOSUÉ DE CASTRO E A GEOGRAFIA BRASILEIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Litwin Prestes, Mateus

    2012-01-01

    No período entre 1930 e 1960, emerge no cenário intelectual brasileiro a figura de Josué de Castro, um dos grandes nomes da Geografia brasileira. Seus estudos sobre a alimentação e a fome se tornaram referência para os debates sobre as relações entre agricultura e desenvolvimento, num contexto histórico conturbado, marcado pela II Guerra Mundial, pela Revolução Popular Chinesa, reconstrução da Europa e convulsões sociais diversas ao redor do mundo. Naquele contexto, a fome era um fenômeno cen...

  12. O apagamento da oralidade na historiografia da literatura brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Sabrina; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS)

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo tem, por objetivo, mostrar como a oralidade tem sido abordada – quando é abordada – pelos historiadores da literatura brasileira. Trabalha com a hipótese de que a historiografia, por meio de estratégias discursivas, tem marginalizado a oralidade, bem como a contribuição das tradições ágrafas africana e indígena. Para verificá-la, perfaz um trajeto que tem início em Ferdinand Denis, cujo "Resumo da história literária do Brasil" foi publicado em 1826, e termina em Alexei Bueno, que ...

  13. O ensino do Rorschach em uma amostra brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco de Castro

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma descrição de um levantamento realizado sobre as características do ensino do Psicodiagnóstico de Rorschach em uma amostra de Instituições de Ensino Superior brasileiras. Serão enfocados aspectos da caracterização das Instituições e de suas disciplinas; além disto, serão apresentados dados sobre o sistema de classificação adotados, sobre a metodologia de ensino adotada e uma descrição das atividades práticas.

  14. Identidade e imagem organizacional em uma empresa brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Crédico, Rosângela Gamba

    2010-01-01

    O trabalho apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica sobre identidade organizacional e analisa uma empresa brasileira com base nos conceitos identificados na investigação teórica. A revisão bibliográfica inclui a origem dos estudos sobre identidade organizacional, os conceitos e as principais premissas de algumas abordagens da Psicologia e da Sociologia, utilizadas como base conceitual para os estudos do tema. O estudo de caso realizado para a dissertação identifica os aspectos que compõem a identi...

  15. 75 FR 9816 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER... adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA-...

  16. 76 FR 5298 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... identified in this proposed AD, contact EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance.... 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de...

  17. 76 FR 26959 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...--Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de... docket. Relevant Service Information Embraer--Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. has issued...

  18. 75 FR 19193 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...-063-AD; Amendment 39-16257; AD 2010-08-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2010-08-02 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16257... Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170-100 LR, -100 STD, -100 SE, -100 SU, -200...

  19. 76 FR 21822 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de...

  20. 76 FR 40286 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira...), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira...) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 airplanes, all...

  1. 75 FR 2060 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ...-021-AD; Amendment 39-16171; AD 2010-01-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-01-12 Empresa Brasileira de.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  2. 75 FR 42585 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...-186-AD; Amendment 39-16359; AD 2010-14-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... new AD: 2010-14-14 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16359. Docket No...)(2) of this AD, certificated in any category. (1) Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  3. 75 FR 43049 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...-038-AD; Amendment 39-16375; AD 2010-15-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... 2009-23-11, Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued service bulletin 500-27- 0003... (74 FR 58195; November 12, 2009), and adding the following new AD: 2010-15-09 Empresa Brasileira...

  4. 76 FR 437 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...-118-AD; Amendment 39-16554; AD 2011-01-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2011-01-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16554..., Amendment 39-15578. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  5. 75 FR 7929 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 LR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...-16201; AD 2010-04-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-04-08 Empresa Brasileira de... ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  6. 75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...; AD 2010-23-16] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... identified in this AD, contact EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeron[aacute]utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-23-16 Empresa Brasileira...

  7. 76 FR 13539 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER.... 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de...

  8. 75 FR 13689 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER... 35904, June 25, 2008) and adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  9. 75 FR 52238 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...; AD 2010-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... new AD: 2010-18-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16414. Docket No... Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170-100 LR, -100 STD, -100 SE, and -100...

  10. 75 FR 9811 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER...: Empresa Brasileira De Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA- 2010-0176; Directorate Identifier...

  11. 75 FR 27403 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ...-041-AD; Amendment 39-16290; AD 2010-10-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2010-10-11 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16290... Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ, -135ER, -135KE, -135KL, -135LR,...

  12. 75 FR 13684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... 35908, June 25, 2008) and adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  13. 76 FR 37244 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...-215-AD; Amendment 39-16659; AD 2011-08-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2011-08-09 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16659... all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER, -120FC, -120QC, and...

  14. 75 FR 63048 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...-039-AD; Amendment 39-16475; AD 2010-21-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2010-21-15 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16475... Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) Service Bulletin 500-57-0001, dated April 28, 2010....

  15. 76 FR 20503 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...-152-AD; Amendment 39-16658; AD 2011-08-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2011-08-08 Empresa Brasileira de... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  16. 76 FR 55781 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...-16786; AD 2011-18-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... the following new AD: 2011-18-04 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16786... to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) airplanes as identified in paragraphs (c)(1)...

  17. 75 FR 47184 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-116-AD; Amendment 39-16377; AD 2010-16-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... new AD: 2010-16-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16377. Docket No... 39-15577. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER)...

  18. 75 FR 31332 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: ] Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  19. 76 FR 2279 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  20. 75 FR 45558 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira.... Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued Service Bulletin...: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA- 2010-0754; Directorate Identifier...

  1. 75 FR 30277 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...-187-AD; Amendment 39-16319; AD 2010-11-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-11-14 Empresa Brasileira de... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  2. 75 FR 14333 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...-055-AD; Amendment 39-16248; AD 2010-07-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... by adding the following new AD: 2010-07-04 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER... applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170-100 LR, -100 STD, -100 SE,...

  3. Mitochondrial genome of the homoscleromorph Oscarella carmela (Porifera, Demospongiae) reveals unexpected complexity in the common ancestor of sponges and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2007-02-01

    Homoscleromorpha is a small group in the phylum Porifera (Sponges) characterized by several morphological features (basement membrane, acrosomes in spermatozoa, and cross-striated rootlets of the flagellar basal apparatus) shared with eumetazoan animals but not found in most other sponges. To clarify the phylogenetic position of this group, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela (Porifera, Demospongiae). O. carmela mtDNA is 20,327 bp and contains the largest complement of genes reported for animal mtDNA, including a putative gene for the C subunit of the twin-arginine translocase (tatC) that has never been found in animal mtDNA. The genes in O. carmela mtDNA are arranged in 2 clusters with opposite transcriptional orientations, a gene arrangement reminiscent of those in several cnidarian mtDNAs but unlike those reported in sponges. At the same time, phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences from 12 mitochondrial (mt) protein genes strongly support the phylogenetic affinity between the Homoscleromorpha and other demosponges. Altogether, our data suggest that homoscleromorphs are demosponges that have retained ancestral features in both mt genome and morphological organization lost in other taxa and that the most recent common ancestor of sponges and other animals was morphologically and genetically more complex than previously thought.

  4. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  5. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  6. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  7. LA DEUDA PUBLICA INTERNA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conejo Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El déficit fiscal es una de las variables macroeconómicas que ha adquirido mayor importancia desde la década de los años ochenta y particularmente en los años noventa, en la economía costarricense. Una consecuencia directa de la existencia de déficits fiscales sostenidos es la acumulación de una deuda pública creciente.Antes de los años ochenta el déficit fiscal en Costa Rica se cubrió fundamentalmente con deduda externa; la cual era de fácil acceso en los mercados financieros internacionales, ante la existencia de una sobre oferta de fondos prestables, generado por los petrodólares. Sin embargo, con la crisis económica que experimentó Costa Rica en los primeros años de la década pasada y con el endurecimiento del acceso al financiamiento externo, el país empezó a recurrir cada vez con más frecuencia al endeudamiento interno.

  8. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  9. Physiology and Evolution of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Early Diverging Animal Phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Adriano; Raiss, Hamad; Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca(2+)-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: Ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera, and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it.

  10. Physiology and evolution of voltage-gated calcium channels in early diverging animal phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium (Cav channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling, gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling, pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling, regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when many of these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it.

  11. First evidence of the presence of chitin in skeletons of marine sponges. Part II. Glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Krautter, Manfred; Hanke, Thomas; Simon, Paul; Knieb, Christiane; Heinemann, Sascha; Worch, Hartmut

    2007-07-15

    Sponges (Porifera) are presently gaining increased scientific attention because of their secondary metabolites and specific skeleton structures. In contrast to demosponges, whose skeletons are formed from biopolymer spongin, glass sponges (hexactinellids) possess silica-organic composites as the main natural material for their skeletal fibres. Chitin has a crystalline structure and it constitutes a network of organized fibres. This structure confers rigidity and resistance to organisms that contain it, including monocellular (yeast, amoeba, diatoms) and multicellular (higher fungi, arthropods, nematodes, molluscs) organisms. In contrast to different marine invertebrates whose exoskeletons are built of chitin, this polysaccharide has not been found previously as an endogenous biopolymer within glass sponges (Hexactinellida). We hypothesized that glass sponges, which are considered to be the most basal lineage of multicellular animals, must possess chitin. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of skeletal fragments of the glass sponge Farrea occa. We show that these fibres have a layered design with specific compositional variations in the chitin/silica composite. We applied an effective approach for the demineralization of glass sponge skeletal formations based on an etching procedure using alkali solutions. The results show unambiguously that alpha-chitin is an essential component of the skeletal structures of Hexactinellida. This is the first report of a silica-chitin's composite biomaterial found in nature. From this perspective, the view that silica-chitin scaffolds may be key templates for skeleton formation also in ancestral unicellular organisms, rather than silica-protein composites, emerges as a viable alternative hypothesis.

  12. Physiology and Evolution of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Early Diverging Animal Phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Adriano; Raiss, Hamad; Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: Ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera, and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it. PMID:27867359

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among the Caribbean members of the Cliona viridis complex (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Dairo; Zea, Sven; Sánchez, Juan A

    2012-08-01

    Species complexes - groups of closely related species in which intraspecific and interspecific variability overlap - have generated considerable interest and study. Frequently, members of a species complex do not have complete reproductive isolation; therefore, the complex may go through extensive gene flow. In the Caribbean Sea, some encrusting and excavating sponges of the genus Cliona (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae) are grouped within the great "Cliona viridis" complex because of their morphological similarities. This study examined the evolutionary relationships of the Caribbean members of this complex (C. caribbaea, C. tenuis, C. aprica and C. varians) and related taxa based on nuclear (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (3' end of ND6) DNA sequences. The intragenomic ITS variation and its secondary structures were evaluated using a mixed approach of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing and secondary structure prediction. Considerable intragenomic variation was found in all the species, with apparently functional ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures. Despite the subtle but clear morphological differentiation in these excavating sponges, the intragenomic copies of C. caribbaea, C. tenuis and C. aprica had a polyphyletic placement in the ITS1 and ITS2 genealogies and very low divergence. Therefore, it is clear that these species constitute a species complex (herein called Ct-complex). Genetic distances within the Ct-complex revealed that an important part of the interspecific variation overlapped with intraspecific variation, suggesting either incomplete lineage sorting or extensive gene flow. In contrast, C. varians and an unidentified "Pione" species emerged as monophyletic clades, being the closest sister groups to the Ct-complex. Additionally, our results support that C. laticavicola and C. delitrix conform a monophyletic group, but absence of reciprocal monophyly in these species suggests they may be life stages or ecophenotypes of

  14. As religiões afro-brasileiras e seus seguidores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prandi, Reginaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Na última década, muita coisa mudou no Brasil, também no âmbito das religiões. O censo de 2000 nos diz que o País está hoje menos católico, mais evangélico e menos afro-brasileiro. Velhas tendências foram confirmadas, novas direções vão se impondo. Religiões recém-criadas se enfrentam com as mais antigas, velhas religiões assumem novas formas e veiculam renovados conteúdos para enfrentar a concorrência mais acirrada no mercado religioso. Vou tratar aqui de um ramo religioso pequeno demograficamente, porém importante do ponto de vista de seu significado para a cultura brasileira e da visibilidade que transborda de seu universo de seguidores: as religiões afrobrasileiras. Trata-se de acompanhar as mudanças numéricas encontradas pelos censos para dimensionar os seguidores das religiões afro-brasileiras, e de examinar algumas de suas características, como cor e scolaridade, para então avançar, sem perder de vista as peculiaridades constitutivas e organizacionais dos cultos e terreiros, alguma explicação sobre mudanças pelas quais vêm passando essas religiões nos dias de hoje

  15. Raízes e estruturas da sociedade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Natividade de Campos Medeiros

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e refletir as raízes e estruturas da sociedade brasileira, na visão de dois grandes pensadores: Sérgio Buarque de Holanda com Raízes do Brasil e Gilberto Freyre com Casa-Grande & Senzala. Holanda dividiu o Brasil em duas fases a primeira da colonização portuguesa e a segunda uma critica ao Estado Novo. Freyre mostra a organização social, política e econômica da época da colonização e desenvolve seus estudos ao final da década de 1920, época em que o ambiente intelectual brasileiro está sob a força do modernismo. Conclui-se que o pensamento de Holanda e Freyre se assemelha em alguns aspectos e diverge em outros.   Sociologia de Freyre; Sociologia de Holanda; Raízes da sociedade brasileira

  16. Elis Regina e a música televisual brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rocha da Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o modo pelo qual a televisão brasileira construiu Elis Regina como ator televisivo. Parte da idéia proposta por Augusto de Campos e Caetano Veloso de que Elis foi a primeira cantora efetivamente produzida pela televisão brasileira para investigar semioticamente o que aqui se denomina mundo televisivo. Este estudo aborda, ainda, as articulações entre gêneros, subgêneros e formatos como níveis que tecem as malhas do propriamente televisivo. Palavras-chave: mundos televisivos; audiovisualidades; imagem-música; semiótica; Elis Regina Abstract Elis Regina and Brazilian televised music - This paper discusses how Brazilian television built singer Elis Regina into a television actress. Starting from the idea proposed by Augusto de Campos and Caetano Veloso that Elis was the first singer effectively produced by Brazilian television, this paper makes a semiotic investigation into what is known as the world of television. This study also discusses the articulations between genres, subgenres and formats as levels that weave the mesh of television itself. Keywords: world of television; audiovisualities; image-music; semiotics; Elis Regina

  17. Vampiros: algumas faces do monstro em narrativas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Menon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2011v16n2p185 O vampiro, ao que tudo indica, configura-se como um ser atemporal, seja ocupando as crenças de determinadas sociedades, seja apresentando-se como personagem na literatura, na TV ou no cinema. Da sua concepção arcaica até as modernas figurações ele sofreu (e ainda sofre inúmeras metamorfoses, cada cultura apresenta-o sob formatos diferentes, afirmando ou negando valores de épocas distintas. Neste trabalho,  analisam-se algumas incursões do vampiro pela literatura brasileira, mais precisamente entre 1849 (ano da publicação de Otávio e Branca ou a Maldição Materna – de João Cardoso de Menezes e Souza e 1908 (ano da publicação de Esfinge – de Coelho Neto. Procura-se, com isso, evidenciar quais foram as faces que a literatura brasileira emprestou ao mito e perceber se a sua presença em território nacional, de meados do século XIX ao alvorecer do século XX, firmou-se ou se apenas constituiu algo passageiro.

  18. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  19. Historia de la dermatología en Costa Rica History of dermatology in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo Antillón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la historia de la medicina, la dermatología tiene grandes contribuciones, sin embargo, para nuestro país existen pocos datos que documenten los apartes de estos excelentes dermatólogos en la salud pública costarricense. Se realizó este estudio, con el objetivo de presentar una revisión histórica del desarrollo de la dermatología en Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas personales y a familiares de los que se mencionan en el documento. Se revisaron memorias de congresos y publicaciones de revistas nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: La dermatología clínica en Costa Rica,se inició en el Hospital San Juan de Dios. El Dr. Emilio Echeverría y Aguilar fue el primer dermatólogo en Costa Rica. El que más influencia tuvo en el desarrollo de la dermatología tropical fue el Dr. Antonio Peña Chavarría. El Dr. Julio César Ovares Arias se destacó como primer Presidente del Colegio de Médicos y Cirujano y primer Director Médico de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. El Dr. Elfrén Solano Aguilar fue el primer profesor de dermatología, en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El Dr. Orlando Jaramillo Antillón creó el primer programa de posgrado en dermatología. Conclusiones: La dermatología ha cambiado mucho, se inició luchando contra las enfermedades tropicales y nutricionales, actualmente luchamos con el alarmante aumento del cáncer de la piel, enfermedades autoinmunes, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y enfermedades iatrogénicas medicamentosas. Hemos aprendido de aquellos que nos precedieron en esta especialidad y debemos aprender para poder practicar la ciencia y el arte de la dermatología modernaIntroduction: Throughout medical history, dermatology has made great contributions, although for our country there is little data concerning the contributions made by the excellent dermatologists in Costa Rican public health care. Materials and methods: In order to obtain this

  20. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2010-12-01

    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  1. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  2. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  3. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  4. The 2008 Trade Fairs of China in Costa Rica Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Trade Fairs of the People's Republic of China in Costa Rica, host-ed by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, opened grandly on September 11 local time in San Jose International Confer-ence Center.

  5. Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

    1997-05-12

    The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

  6. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  7. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  8. El arrecife coralino de Punta Cocles, costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe al arrecife de Punta Cocles (Limón, Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen por medio de un muestreo con nueve transectos, paralelos a la costa y por observaciones directas durante buceos a pulmón entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre del 2002. Este arrecife consta aproximadamente de 10.5 hectáreas, en las que se identifican 13 especies de corales, 39 de macroalgas, dos de pastos marinos, dos de zoántidos, una anémona, un coralimorfario y una esponja. Se observa un incremento en la cobertura de corales vivos (16% con respecto a otros años (5% en 1985, y 13.2% en 1995, y una baja cobertura de coral muerto (0.2%. Las macroalgas presentan la cobertura más alta (59%, particularmente las algas pardas con una distribución en parches de Sargassum y Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta constituye una nueva adición para la flora ficológica de Costa Rica. El arrecife de Punta Cocles, funciona como un refugio para los organismos, debido a la ausencia de centros de población y desembocaduras de los ríos, además, del tipo de formación costera, lo que se ve favorecido por la conciencia ambiental que viven cerca del arrecifeThis paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica. Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%, was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995, and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%. Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%, particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns

  9. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  10. Perfil de salud ocupacional Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Costa Rica limita al norte con Nicaragua, al sur con Panamá, al oeste con el Océano Pacífico y al este con el Mar Caribe. Su población es de 4 614 489 personas y el 2,4% está compuesta por 8 grupos étnicos que hablan 6 idiomas indígenas. La densidad poblacional es de 84,2 habitantes por km2, siendo la tercera de Centroamérica. Su población urbana representa un 63,5%, con una tasa de migración de 1,1 por mil habitantes, lo que corresponde a la segunda más baja de la región, por encima de Panam...

  11. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  12. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

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    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  13. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez; Fernando Garc\\u00EDa-Santamar\\u00EDa

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la ...

  14. Principios generales de UNIDROIT. El caso de costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Pérez, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss aspects related to UNIDROIT’s principles within the respective juridical framework and the acceptance that these principles have had in Costa Rica during this introductory and consolidation phase. Se indicará lo relativo a los principios UNIDROIT en el marcojurídico respetivo y la recepción que ha tenido Costa Rica a estosprincipios, en esta fase de introducción y consolidación.

  15. Developmental Enamel Lesions, classification in Costa Rican Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose and classify developmental enamel lesions in patients examined at the School of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica and the community of Llano Grande, Cartago. A total of 15 children (age range 9-17) and 2 adults from Costa Rican families were recruited. General medical and dental histories were elicited. Clinical examination was undertaken; dental radiographs and clinical photographs were obtained. Dental defects were classified according to po...

  16. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El riesgo de muerte es parte de la vivencia cotidiana de muchas mujeres, 58% han sentido peligro de morir en manos de su agresor, 47% han pensado suicidarse, 48% ha tenido que dejar su hogar por miedo de morir. En el presente estudio se detectan 44 homicidios de mujeres (Femicidio, que no aparecen en los anuarios del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, haciendo del subregistro de agresiones otra forma de hacer violencia contra las mujeres.For many women and young girls, the family circle is the most violent and harmful enviroment to be in. Contrasting more than 70000 women died in their own homes to the 57685 american soldiers who died in Vietnan during the war, we realize this is a big issue. In Costa Rica, land of peace, from all the women to go to CEFEMINA for help, 15% were harmed with gums, 31 % with knifes, 24% with others objects. The risk of dying is part of the daily life of many women, 58% have felt the danger of dying in the hands of their aggressor, 47% consider suicide, 48% have lo leave their homes from fear of dying. In this study we detect 44 cases of homicide of women (Femicide which were not inciuded in the yearbook of the Organismo de lnvestigacion Judicial, thus, making this subregistry, another way to make violence against women.

  17. Ciclos econômicos na agricultura Brasileira

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    Cassiano Bragagnolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar o papel dos choques de produtividade para a agricultura brasileira. Os choques de produtividade foram subdivididos em dois tipos, choques de produtividade advindos de avanços tecnológicos e choques não tecnológicos, devidos a variações climáticas. O referencial teórico tem como base um modelo de Small Open Economy fundamentado na teoria RBC. Na estimação do modelo fez-se uso de econometria bayesiana. Os resultados demonstram que um maior grau de endividamento do setor agrícola geraria um estoque de capital superior, o que poderia ter potencializado os choques de produtividade e melhorado o desempenho econômico da agricultura.

  18. Há politica ambiental para a indústria brasileira?

    OpenAIRE

    Neder,Ricardo Toledo

    1992-01-01

    Existe "política ambiental" na indústria brasileira? Uma possível resposta é aqui explorada. Houve as seguintes constatações a partir de entrevistas com 48 organizações industriais: baixa integração das ações de controle com as de higiene e segurança; forte presença coatora do Estado como determinante para a modernização da área; forte internalização das ações de controle como atividade meio subordinada à engenharia produtiva; baixo impacto das ações sobre o formato organizacional das empresa...

  19. O Corpo Queer Como "Imagem-Mentira" na Telenovela Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ribeiro Pinto Bravo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de propor a materialidade do corpo queer como um produto estilizado pela telenovela brasileira, justamente, por este corpo pertencer a um processo de montagem que prioriza na imagem a evidência de certa ausência. Dessa forma, a representação do corpo queer é um elemento visual de uma montagem ideológica coerente. Portanto, é preciso analisar as estruturas textuais televisivas, os aportes teóricos queer e as próprias definições de montagem e ausência. A partir do conceito de “Imagem-Mentira” de Didi-Huberman, nomes como John Fiske, John Hartley, Judith Butler, Michel Foucault e Jacques Rancière servirão de base teórica para a discussão.

  20. O Leviathan declinante: a crise brasileira dos anos 80

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Este artigo faz um balanço da crise brasileira dos anos 80. Busca analisar a interação entre crise econômica e transformação política, enfatizando a importância da distinção conceituai entre Estado e regime político. Usa sistematicamente tais conceitos para explicar a natureza da crise e as dificuldades da transição para a democracia. E salientada a ruptura das alianças que sustentaram o velho Estado desenvolvimentista surgido nos anos 30 e a extensão das dificuldades que retardaram a emergên...

  1. Uma alternativa para a política nutricional brasileira?

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    Bittencourt Sonia Azevedo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo focaliza a proposta de alimentação alternativa enquanto tema da política pública. Para isso, são assinaladas questões importantes e controvertidas quanto à eficácia e segurança da multimistura. Analisa também seis estudos epidemiológicos enfocando aspectos metodológicos relevantes à avaliação da confiabilidade dos resultados encontrados. Conclui-se que as muitas ambigüidades, lacunas e contradições do conhecimento não sustentam a incorporação da intervenção proposta no nível de política alimentar e nutricional brasileira.

  2. IDENTIDADES SONORAS NA DITADURA MILITAR BRASILEIRA (1964-1985

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    Prof. Dr. Marcos Júlio Sergl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre música e política sempre esteve presente nas manifestações sonoras de nosso país. As opções e acontecimentos políticos repercutem nas obras dos compositores. Estes, por sua vez, tendem a discutir e criticar esses acontecimentos, pela sátira inclusa nas marchinhas carnavalescas, por mensagens subliminares ou até mesmo de forma direta. A partir do período do Estado Novo (1937-1945, a interferência de censores torna-se clara em relação às mensagens contidas nas canções. O Departamento de Imprensa e Propaganda (DIP controla, por meio de cooptação e repressão, os ímpetos crítico musicais dos compositores. O período da ditadura militar brasileira é marcado pela censura, repressão e cerceamento à liberdade de expressão. Muitos artistas, diante das violências praticadas contra a crítica na criação artística, se mobilizam em oposição à ditadura, pela criação de canções de protesto velado, inserido nas mensagens subliminares, como na obra de Chico Buarque de Hollanda, ou de forma direta, a exemplo da canção Prá não dizer que não falei das flores, de Geraldo Vandré. Analisamos neste artigo o ambiente musical brasileiro entre 1964 e 1985, pelo viés de olhar dos compositores e da censura e as especificidades de cada movimento musical, que tecem a trama das identidades sonoras nesse momento tão rico e criativo da música popular brasileira.

  3. United States: political debate, mythologies and representations. Commentaries to the articles written by Mary A. Junqueira, Cecília Azevedo and Tânia da Costa Garcia Estados Unidos: debate político, mitologias e representações. Comentários aos artigos de Mary A. Junqueira, Cecília Azevedo e Tânia da Costa Garcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Gerab Baggio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to comment the articles written by Mary A. Junqueira, Cecília Azevedo e Tânia da Costa Garcia about James Fenimore Cooper, William James and Carmen Miranda. The articles are representative works of Brazilian historiography about the United States, more specifically about some essential elements of the political cultures in face with the North American political, intellectual and artistically debates, in the 19th and 20th centuries.Neste texto, comento os artigos de Mary A. Junqueira, Cecília Azevedo e Tânia da Costa Garcia sobre James Fenimore Cooper, William James e Carmen Miranda, respectivamente. São trabalhos representativos da recente produção historiográfica brasileira sobre os Estados Unidos, que abordam elementos essenciais das culturas políticas em confronto nos debates políticos, intelectuais e artísticos norte-americanos, nos séculos XIX e XX.

  4. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

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    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  5. Non-monophyly of most supraspecific taxa of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) revealed by increased taxon sampling and partitioned Bayesian analysis of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Martin; Voigt, Oliver; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2006-09-01

    Calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) play an important role for our understanding of early metazoan evolution, since several molecular studies suggested their closer relationship to Eumetazoa than to the other two sponge 'classes,' Demospongiae and Hexactinellida. The division of Calcarea into the subtaxa Calcinea and Calcaronea is well established by now, but their internal relationships remain largely unresolved. Here, we estimate phylogenetic relationships within Calcarea in a Bayesian framework, using full-length 18S and partial 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Both genes were analyzed separately and in combination and were further partitioned by stem and loop regions, the former being modelled to take non-independence of paired sites into account. By substantially increasing taxon sampling, we show that most of the traditionally recognized supraspecific taxa within Calcinea and Calcaronea are not monophyletic, challenging the existing classification system, while monophyly of Calcinea and Calcaronea is again highly supported.

  6. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

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    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  7. O desempenho das universidades brasileiras nos rankings internacionais: áreas de destaque da produção científica brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Maria dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Em menos de dez anos, os rankings universitários mundiais tornaram-se muito potentes, têm alcançado importância crescente, influenciando políticas, processos avaliativos, decisões de investimento e reestruturação institucional. No cerne da comparação global por eles realizada está o desempenho em pesquisa. Com isso, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência da produção científica brasileira e suas áreas de destaque no desempenho das universidades brasileiras nos principais ranki...

  8. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

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    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  9. El primer equipo interdisciplinario de Costa Rica

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    Pablo David Navarro Villalobos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El abuso sexual es un conjunto de actitudes de un sujeto que realiza en detrimento de otro, generalmente menor, para su autosatisfacción. Las estadísticas de los diferentes países apuntan a que se está convirtiendo en una epidemia que nos está asfixiando. La prevención de la revictimización, una política establecida en el Poder Judicial de Costa Rica desde hace más de diez años, dio como fruto la conformación de los equipos interdisciplinarios. Al inicio, estos abarcaron una serie de disciplinas tan disímiles entre sí, que comprendían tanto el derecho, como la medicina, la psicología, el trabajo social y la psiquiatría. Con el paso de los años los equipos se fueron reduciendo hasta quedar conformados por el psicólogo, el trabajador social y el médico forense, que asiste a una reunión semanal con ellos y en donde se discuten las diferentes conclusiones de las tres disciplinas. Hoy en día son equipos establecidos prácticamente en todas las cabeceras de provincia de nuestro país con funciones periciales muy específicas en el tratamiento legal de las causas de los delitos sexuales.Sexual Abuse is series of actitudes of a subject, Which he realize in detriment of other, usually younger, for his self satisfaction. The statistics of differents countries shows that this issue is torning into epidemics amounts ant its suffocating us. Prevention in revictimation is a policy established in Costa Rica for over a decade and for this we has had form interdisciplinary teams. In early times those temas had a lot of uncompatible disciplines soch as team is formed by only three members: the forensic doctor, the psychologist and the social worker, ehom attent to a weekly metting to analize the different conclusions of each especiallist. Actually there are teams established in almost all head of province in our country with percial function well established in the legal treatment of the causes of these crimes.

  10. Costa rican international cooperative biodiversity group: using insects and other arthropods in biodiversity prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Sittenfeld-Appel, Ana; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Jiménez, Allan; Hurtado, Priscilla; Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero-Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Mora, María Auxiliadora; Rojas, Miguel; Blanco, Roger; Alvarado, Eugenio; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, José María; Janzen, Daniel Hunt

    1999-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica. Facultad de Microbiología. Departmento Parasitología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Clodomiro Picado, 1999. Este documento es privado debido a limitaciones de derechos de autor. This paper describes the Costa Rican International Collaborative Biodiversity Group (ICBG), which was designed to introduce insects and other arthropods as a source of pharmaceutical compounds, and to generate knowledge and...

  11. Analysis of the impact of harmonic interference circuit Costas

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    B.I. Shakhtarin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of influence of harmonic interference on the phase error in the Costas circuit is carried out. Differential equations of the circuit are obtained. Are obtained in the zero and first approximation the equations of the phase error for the Costas circuit. The simulation in MatLab environment of phase error introduced by the Costas circuit in the first approximation and the graphs of this error is carried out. On the basis of mathematical model, by the phase error counts were obtained graphs of probability density functions of the signal errors introduced by the model. A simulation model of the Costas circuit in the Simulink environment is given. In the simulation model, by the phase error counts in MatLab, were obtained graphs of probability density functions of the signal error due to the simulation model. The comparison of the obtained results of the Costas circuit analysis obtained by mathematical modeling of the phase error equation in the first approximation with simulation results in Simulink environment shows that the results of mathematical modeling rather accurately coincide with the simulation results. On the basis of simulation were obtained the graphs of the average time before mistracking for various values of the interference to signal ratio

  12. los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

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    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas es el más visitado de Costa Rica, dado su fácil acceso, cercanía relativa a los grandes centros de población del país y buenas carreteras. Entre Marzo y Abril del 2006 producto de unas erupciones intra-cratéricas el parque tuvo que ser cerrado por tres semanas. El estudio reportado estima el impacto económico del cierre del parque en los negocios que sirven a los turistas en las comunidades vecinas, durante las tres semanas que el parque permaneció cerrado. Los resultados presentados son producto de un censo económico efectuado a los 28 negocios directamente afectados. Esta clase de información y metodología permite a las comunidades que pasará en términos de impacto económico en pequeñas comunidades y así evitar frustraciones en las mismas en materia de beneficios económicos esperados y no materializados.

  13. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

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    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  14. Diabetes mellitus neonatal en Costa Rica

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    Francis Ruiz-Salazar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus neonatal es un raro desorden metabólico usualmente desarrollado en las primeras 6 semanas de vida, secundario a un grupo de mutaciones y defectos del desarrollo pancreático que puede desembocar en una catástrofe clínica si no se identifica tempranamente; se divide en una variante transitoria y una permanente, siendo la primera la más frecuente, con cerca de un 60% de los casos. El manejo inicial de ambas variantes es la insulinoterapia intensiva, que en la variante transitoria puede suspenderse usualmente en los primeros meses de vida. El síndrome de disregulación inmunológica, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía ligada a X (IPEX por sus siglas en inglés, es una causa extremadamente rara de la variante permanente, casi siempre mortal, caracterizada por un inmunocompromiso severo, enteropatía, diabetes y dermatitis. En el estudio se describen 4 casos de diabetes mellitus neonatal diagnosticados en el Hospital Nacional de Niños de San José, Costa Rica: 2 correspondientes a una diabetes mellitus neonatal transitoria, 2 a una diabetes mellitus neonatal permanente y 1 de ellos correspondiente a un síndrome de IPEX.

  15. Cultivo protegido de hortalizas en Costa Rica

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    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La horticultura en Costa Rica se ha desarrollado principalmente a campo abierto y se ha concentrado en el Valle Central donde predominan las actividades de expansión urbanística y comercial. Muchos de los problemas asociados a la producción hortícola se centran en la alta presencia de plagas y enfermedades que obligan al productor a utilizar plaguicidas químicos con consecuencias nocivas para el ambiente: la horticultura a campo abierto se vuelve muy contaminante e insostenible. Una alternativa productiva pueden ser los sistemas de cultivos protegidos, en los que se usan estructuras, materiales y equipo; posibilitan la producción de hortalizas en climas adversos y facilitan el control de plagas y enfermedades. Estos sistemas se han usado ampliamente a nivel mundial con gran éxito, pero a nivel del trópico es necesaria la investigación en este campo con el objetivo de implementar o modificar el sistema para que favorezca la producción sostenible de hortalizas.

  16. Insensatos afetos: homossexualidade e homofobia na telenovela brasileira

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    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga o modo como a temática homossexual tem sido retratada na telenovela brasileira Insensato Coração, veiculada em 2011. Por meio de um núcleo constituído por personagens gays, os autores da trama descrevem a diversidade das questões homoafetivas, desde o processo de reconhecimento da homossexualidade pelo sujeito, a “saída do armário”, passando pelo preconceito, pela homofobia e busca do reconhecimento dos direitos civis. Fato inédito na teledramaturgia brasileira, os personagens com orientação divergente da heteronormatividade não apenas são destaques na arquitetura da trama, como os seus dramas acabam sendo expressos de modo a explicitar uma visibilidade anteriormente negligenciada ou interdita. Para além desse movimento diferenciado de inclusão da temática homoafetiva na telenovela, destacam-se os efeitos formadores de opinião pública da televisão, como mecanismo de comunicação de massa. Embora alguns personagens ainda retratem movimentos que em nada contribuam efetivamente para a mudança de posicionamentos, favorecendo visões unívocas dos homossexuais como pessoas libertinas e em risco psicossocial, identificamos outros movimentos, que trazem para o domínio familiar dramas anteriormente escamoteados pela teledramaturgia. Abstract This study investigates how the theme of homosexuality has been portrayed in the Brazilian soap opera Foolish Heart, aired in 2011. Through a core made up of gay characters, the authors describe the plot homosexual the diversity of issues, from the recognition process by the subject of homosexuality, the "coming out", through prejudice, homophobia and demanding the recognition of rights civilians. Unprecedented in Brazilian soap operas, the characters with divergent orientation of heteronormativity, are not only highlights the architecture of the plot, as his plays end up being expressed in order to explain a previously neglected or forbidden visibility. In addition to

  17. Uso de medicamentos por gestantes em seis cidades brasileiras

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    Sotero S Mengue

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os medicamentos utilizados por gestantes que fizeram o pré-natal em serviços do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde em cidades brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Utilizando-se um questionário estruturado, foram entrevistadas 5.564 gestantes entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas de gravidez, que se apresentaram para consulta em serviço de pré-natal do SUS em seis grandes cidades brasileiras. As perguntas foram agrupadas em "uso orientado" para dor, cólica, enjôo, tosse e outros e em "medicamento orientado" para vitamina, ferro e flúor. Foi adotada a classificação de risco do FDA (Food and Drug Administration, entre 1991 e 1995. RESULTADOS: Do total de 5.564, 4.614 (83,8% das gestantes usaram pelo menos um medicamento durante a gestação, somando 9.556 medicamentos. Os medicamentos mais utilizados foram as vitaminas associadas a antianêmicos (33,5%, os medicamentos que atuam sobre o aparelho digestivo (31,3%, os analgésicos/antiinflamatórios (22,2%, os antianêmicos (19,8% e os antimicrobianos (11,1%. Quanto à classificação de risco para a gestação, 3.243 (34,0% foram incluídos na categoria A, 1.923 (22,6% na categoria B, 3.798 (39,7% na categoria C, 289 (3,0% na categoria D e 55 (0,6% na categoria X. CONCLUSÕES: Foram observadas grandes variações quanto ao uso de medicamentos, principalmente antianêmicos e vitaminas associadas a antianêmicos, entre as várias cidades estudadas, mostrando a ausência de um padrão nacional quanto ao uso desses medicamentos na gestação. Para uma proporção de 12,9% dos medicamentos utilizados, não foi localizada qualquer informação na literatura sobre a segurança para o uso durante a gestação. Essa proporção, somada aos 26,9% dos medicamentos classificados no grupo "C", mostra que 40% do uso de medicamentos na gestação são feitos sem bases definidas de segurança. Entretanto, medicamentos claramente contra-indicados durante a gestação corresponderam a apenas 3% dos 9

  18. Uso de medicamentos por gestantes em seis cidades brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengue Sotero S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os medicamentos utilizados por gestantes que fizeram o pré-natal em serviços do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde em cidades brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Utilizando-se um questionário estruturado, foram entrevistadas 5.564 gestantes entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas de gravidez, que se apresentaram para consulta em serviço de pré-natal do SUS em seis grandes cidades brasileiras. As perguntas foram agrupadas em "uso orientado" para dor, cólica, enjôo, tosse e outros e em "medicamento orientado" para vitamina, ferro e flúor. Foi adotada a classificação de risco do FDA (Food and Drug Administration, entre 1991 e 1995. RESULTADOS: Do total de 5.564, 4.614 (83,8% das gestantes usaram pelo menos um medicamento durante a gestação, somando 9.556 medicamentos. Os medicamentos mais utilizados foram as vitaminas associadas a antianêmicos (33,5%, os medicamentos que atuam sobre o aparelho digestivo (31,3%, os analgésicos/antiinflamatórios (22,2%, os antianêmicos (19,8% e os antimicrobianos (11,1%. Quanto à classificação de risco para a gestação, 3.243 (34,0% foram incluídos na categoria A, 1.923 (22,6% na categoria B, 3.798 (39,7% na categoria C, 289 (3,0% na categoria D e 55 (0,6% na categoria X. CONCLUSÕES: Foram observadas grandes variações quanto ao uso de medicamentos, principalmente antianêmicos e vitaminas associadas a antianêmicos, entre as várias cidades estudadas, mostrando a ausência de um padrão nacional quanto ao uso desses medicamentos na gestação. Para uma proporção de 12,9% dos medicamentos utilizados, não foi localizada qualquer informação na literatura sobre a segurança para o uso durante a gestação. Essa proporção, somada aos 26,9% dos medicamentos classificados no grupo "C", mostra que 40% do uso de medicamentos na gestação são feitos sem bases definidas de segurança. Entretanto, medicamentos claramente contra-indicados durante a gestação corresponderam a apenas 3% dos 9

  19. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  20. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems: Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, G. W. S. V.

    A case study of Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia, an Open University school with a distance learning system, is presented. Areas of discussion include characteristics of the country, the educational system of Costa Rica, and the university. Specific topics include: the physical setting of Costa Rica; the population; the economy;…

  1. Notes on Costa Rican Pterichis (Orchidaceae) – new taxa and additions to national orchid flora

    OpenAIRE

    Kolanowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the orchid genus Pterichis, P. herrerae, and a new variety of P. habenarioides, P. habenarioides var. costaricensis, are described and illustrated based on Costa Rican material. Information about new Costa Rican records of P. pauciflora and P. parvifolia is provided. An updated key to Costa Rican species of Pterichis is presented.

  2. Internacionalização das redes de franquias brasileiras: uma análise organizacional e institucional

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2012-01-01

    Mesmo que apenas 4,7% das redes de franquias brasileiras atuem internacionalmente, na última década o processo de internacionalização das redes de franquias brasileiras apresentou um crescimento de 300%. Existem atualmente cerca 70 redes de franquias brasileiras em operação em todos os continentes, representando cerca de 49 países, constituindo mais de 700 unidades franqueadas. Esta tese realizou uma análise organizacional e institucional envolvendo as redes de franquias brasileiras com opera...

  3. Análise músico-literária dos poemas de Walt Whitman, Antônio Francisco da Costa e Silva e Léopold Sédar Senghor

    OpenAIRE

    Gondim Cavalcanti Souza, Marly

    2006-01-01

    Esta tese examina a presença da música na poligrafia poética de Walt Whitman, de Antonio Francisco da Costa e Silva e de Léopold Sédar Senghor, diferentes na época, abrangendo os séculos XIX e XX; na cultura: americana, brasileira, francesa e senegalesa; e na língua: inglês, português e francês, mas, semelhantes no processo criativo que solicita o léxico sonoro-musical como elemento integrante e essencial, não se caracterizando como adorno literário. Arte de caráter dinamogênic...

  4. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  5. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

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    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  6. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

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    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  7. Consumo Adolescente: Construindo a Identidade de Jovens Brasileiras.

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    Andrya Verena Silva Rosa de Carvalho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva compreender a construção da identidade em brasileiras de 12 a 17 anos tomando como pressuposto a influência do consumo sob tal fenômeno. A abordagem teórica retrata aspectos da identidade individual e coletiva e refere-se a cultura de consumo nos preceitos da Consumer Culture Theory – CCT, como disposta por Arnould & Thompson (2005, dentre outros estudos.  Com método qualitativo, a pesquisa utilizou-se da ferramenta Grupos de Foco em uma amostra de 33 informantes de classes sociais variadas, regionalizadas em 13 estados brasileiros e dentro da faixa etária determinada. O estudo identificou particularidades de consumo deste público, segmentando os resultados em três dimensões: Psicossocial, Comportamental e Cultural. Os principais influenciadores encontrados a partir dos depoimentos das informantes foram divididos em: Classe Social, Família, Grupos de Pares, Mídia e Instituições de Ensino como aspectos relevantes da cultura de consumo das adolescentes e consequentemente na construção de sua identidade.

  8. ESCRITÓRIOS TÉCNICOS DAS UNIVERSIDADES BRASILEIRAS

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    Ester Buffa

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Quando, a partir dos anos 1960, o território das universidades brasileiras passou a ter o câmpus por modelo, foi preciso criar escritórios técnicos responsáveis por sua construção. Neste artigo, pretendemos mostrar a atuação de equipes técnicas no projeto e na construção do câmpus. Trata-se de uma tarefa complexa, que envolve inúmeros profissionais de variada formação, técnicos e acadêmicos, várias instâncias de decisão e de autorização. Escolhemos, como exemplo, o Escritório de Desenvolvimento Físico da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar. Utilizamos como fonte, além dos conhecimentos adquiridos em mais de uma década com pesquisas neste tema, uma bibliografia geral e uma específica.

  9. Joint ventures e a política antitruste brasileira

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    Ana Paula Avellar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As políticas de defesa da concorrência integram atualmente o conjunto fundamental de instituições necessárias à promoção do crescimento e a busca das sociedades por arranjos mais eficientes. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma análise da política antitruste brasileira concentrando-se no tratamento dado pelas autoridades à constituição de joint ventures. Na realização dessa tarefa, foram feitas revisões teóricas, constatações acerca dos procedimentos de autoridades internacionais sobre o assunto e um estudo empírico abordando casos julgados no Brasil entre os anos de 2002 e 2010. O resultado encontrado revela a inexistência de normatização específica para o tratamento das joint ventures no Brasil, culminando, assim, em uma relativa discricionariedade por parte dos órgãos do SBDC na análise desses atos.

  10. Dez anos de MERCOSUL: uma visão brasileira

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    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical assessment of the first ten years of MERCOSUL, from a Brazilian perspective, dealing with the following questions: brief historical information on the backround process of the integration between Brazil and Argentina, the decision-making process in the context of the 1991 Asuncion treaty, the development of MERCOSUL in the 1990’s, its achievements and shortcomings, its political underpinnings and its legal-institutional structure, as well as its unfinished agenda, together with the challenges ahead in the regional, hemispheric and global contexts, in particular the FTAA question.Avaliação crítica dos primeiros dez anos do MERCOSUL, numa visão brasileira, tratando das seguintes questões: breve digressão histórica sobre os antecedentes do esquema integracionista, a decisão integracionista adotada pelo Brasil e pela Argentina, o desenvolvimento do MERCOSUL nos anos 1990, suas realizações materiais e frustrações econômicas, seus pressupostos políticos e sua estrutura jurídico-institucional, assim como as lacunas remanescentes do processo integracionista, em face dos desafios existentes nos planos regional, hemisférico e global, com destaque para a questão da ALCA.

  11. O Leviathan declinante: a crise brasileira dos anos 80

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    Brasilio Sallum Jr.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo faz um balanço da crise brasileira dos anos 80. Busca analisar a interação entre crise econômica e transformação política, enfatizando a importância da distinção conceituai entre Estado e regime político. Usa sistematicamente tais conceitos para explicar a natureza da crise e as dificuldades da transição para a democracia. E salientada a ruptura das alianças que sustentaram o velho Estado desenvolvimentista surgido nos anos 30 e a extensão das dificuldades que retardaram a emergência de um novo pacto hegemônico.This article evalvates the Brazilian crisis in the Eighties, analysing the feedback between economic crisis and political change. Its approach emphatizes the importance of the difference between the concepts of State and political regime. These two concepts are used in a systematic way to explain the nature of the crisis and the difficulties of the transition tomards democracy. The rupture of the alliances that supported the old developmental State of the thirties in undescored, as well as the extent of the difficulties that delay the emergence of a new hegemonic pact.

  12. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-01-01

    La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laborato...

  13. SOLID WASTE RECYCLIN IN COSTA RICA: BALANCE AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, Rosendo; Solano, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Reciclaje en Costa Rica: Balance y perspectivas.Este artículo explora las realidades del reciclaje en Costa Rica, así como su evolución es los últimos años. Se concentra en evaluar los flujos de materiales y los aspectos económicos de dos productos: papel y vidrio. Brevemente evalúa los mismos aspectos para el plástico y el acero. Muestra las siguientes tazas de recuperación: Para papel el 22,22% y para el vidrio 15.5%. Hay tres factores que dificultan el mejoramiento de estas tasas de recupe...

  14. Fecundidad y uso de anticonceptivo en Costa Rica, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, Mark W.; Sosa, Doris; Madrigal Pana, Johnny; Becker, Stan; Morris, Leo; ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    1989-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1989 La prevalencia de anticonceptivos en Costa Rica es una de las más altas de América Latina: el 70 por ciento de las mujeres actualmente casadas utilizan algún método anticonceptivo. Los diferenciales en el uso de anticonceptivos en función del nivel educativo y entre las zonas rurales y urbanas resultan en efecto muy reducidos en comparación con otros países latinoamericanos. Si bien los niveles de...

  15. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  16. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández; Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo) en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos ...

  17. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández; Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo) en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos ...

  18. Hemoglobinopatías poco comunes en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Entre las hemoglobinopatías poco comunes detectadas en Costa Rica se encuentran las de cadenas alfa, beta y delta. Dentro de ellas se destaca en particular la Hb Cubujuquí como una variante hemoglobínica no descrita hasta el momento. Existe una asociación entre los diversos síndromes talasémicos y sus combinaciones con hemoglobinas anormales presentes en nuestra población. Among the rare hemoglobinopathies found in Costa Riea are those of the Alfa, Beta, and Delta chains. Among these, Hb C...

  19. Panbiogeographical analysis of Costa Rican freshwater fishes

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    Jonathan Herrera-Vásquez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Track analysis and Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE were performed to analyze the distribution pattern of Costa Rican freshwater fishes. A basic matrix (presence/absence was prepared using the distribution of 77 freshwater fish. The data were analyzed with CLIQUE software in order to find generalized tracks (cliques. Data also were analyzed with the software NONA and Winclada version 1.00.08 in order to perform the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE. Fourteen equally probable cliques were found with 31 species in each and the intersection of the amount was selected as a generalized track dividing the country in two main zones: Atlantic slope from Matina to Lake Nicaragua and Pacific slope from the Coto River to the basin of the Tempisque River connected with some branches oriented to the central part of the country. PAE analysis found ten cladogram areas (72 steps, CI=0.45, RI=0.64, using the "strict consensus option" two grouping zones were identified: Atlantic slope and Pacific slope. Both PAE and Track Analysis show the division of the two slopes and the orientation of the generalized track suggests new biogeographical evidence on the influence of both old and new southern elements to explain the migrations of freshwater fish into Central America during two different geological events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 165-170. Epub 2008 March 31.Con el objetivo de analizar el patrón de distribución de peces de agua dulce de Costa Rica se aplicó un análisis de trazos y de parsimonía de endemismos (PAE. Se construyó una matriz básica utilizando la distribución de 77 especies. Se utilizó el programa CLIQUE con la intención de encontrar los trazos generalizados y NONA y Winclada, versión 1.00.08, con el fin de llevar a cabo el PAE. Se encontró un total de 14 cliques igualmente probables con 31 especies. De esta cantidad se construyó un trazo generalizado que constituye la intersección del total, dividiendo el país en dos zonas: Atl

  20. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

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    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  1. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

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    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  2. An investigation of habitual and incidental physical activity among Costa Rican and Costa Rican American teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Cortese, Lauren B

    2007-07-01

    A comparative survey design was used to examine habitual and incidental physical activity among native Costa Rican (CR) and Costa Rican American (CRA) adolescent girls. The purposive sample included 17 girls (ages 12-19 years) living in Limon, Costa Rica (n = 11), and the metropolitan New York/New Jersey area (n = 6). Participants in the CR group had significantly higher levels of habitual (p = .04), incidental (p = .02), and combined (p = .03) physical activity as compared with those on the CRA group. Dance was a preferred form of activity for both groups. The relationship between habitual and incidental physical activity was not significant, underscoring the need to address both variables in assessment of total physical activity. The findings suggest a need to prioritize the promotion of physical activity among immigrant teenage girls using culturally valued methods.

  3. Literatura brasileira: dependência e libertação

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    Célio Antonio Sardagna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute aspectos relacionados à Literatura Brasileira, na sua trajetória entre uma produção que seguia os modelos ditados pela Europa e sua busca de independência, na medida em que os autores buscaram uma autonomia, apropriando-se da realidade nacional como inspiração. Nesse sentido, procura-se compreender essa busca de autonomia à luz do conceito de entre-lugar, cunhado este por Silviano Santiago, nos anos setenta. Durante muito tempo, a literatura brasileira – como também as demais literaturas latino-americanas em si – foram consideradas inferiores, por isso, marginalizadas, já que superior era considerada a literatura europeia. O grito de independência da literatura brasileira, em relação à da Europa, deu-se com o advento do Modernismo, o qual enxergou na realidade e na linguagem brasileira a fonte de expressão artístico-literária. A partir de então, concebendo o elemento nacional como fonte, a expressão literária brasileira passa a ocupar o seu lugar, a traçar seu destino.

  4. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

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    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  5. A cidade brasileira como espaço cultural

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    Barbara Freitag-Rouanet

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma tese polêmica do filósofo tcheco Vilém Flusser, que viveu mais de 30 anos em São Paulo, depois de escapar aos nazistas que ocuparam Praga. De todas as cidades brasileiras, São Paulo é a que menos merece o título de cidade. Falta-lhe um espaço cultural inovador, apesar da riqueza e dinâmica de sua economia e de sua força política. O conceito de cidade subjacente ao pensamento de Flusser orienta-se pelo modelo da pólis grega e da cidade de Praga, antes da Segunda Guerra. Além disso, Flusser valoriza os novos códigos (de linguagem, de expressão arquitetônica, estética, musical, pictoral, capazes de integrar as influências multiculturais da história brasileira. A autora procura compreender a argumentação de Flusser, hoje comparado a um Walter Benjamin da pós-modernidade, mostrando contudo que sua tese foi precipitada. Saiu nos anos 70 de São Paulo, antes do fim da ditadura; não conheceu as grandes realizações da Bienal de Arte Moderna; não conheceu o ciclo de realizações Arte e Cidade no fim da década de 90, essencialmente baseado nas tecnologias da micro eletrônica da era digital, do PC e da internet, que ela festejava como novas linguagens.This article discusses Vilém Flussers controversial thesis. The Czech philosopher lived in São Paulo for over 30 after having fled the Nazi occupation of Prague. Of all Brazilian towns, São Paulo is the one which least deserves to be called a city. It lacks an innovative cultural space, in spite of its rich and dynamic economy and political strength. The concept of city subjacent to Flussers view is based on the model of the Greek polis and on Prague before the Second World War. Flusser also values the new codes (of language, architectural, aesthetic, musical and pictorial expression which are parts of the multicultural influences on Brazilian history. The author analyses Flussers reasoning and shows how his was a hasty thesis. Flusser, who is considered to

  6. O estado da blogosfera científica brasileira

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    Sibele Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga quantitativamente a trajetória da blogosfera científica brasileira através de dados estatísticos. A amostra é constituída por 346 blogs científicos do banco de dados Anel de Blogs Científicos, que compreende grande parte dos blogs científicos no Brasil, verificando a atividade destes entre as datas da primeira postagem e a postagem mais recente até novembro de 2015. São analisados dados sobre gêneros de blogueiros, temática científica, distribuição regional e tempo de atividade dos blogs, e curva de crescimento dos blogs ativos. Os resultados mostram que em 37% dos blogs participam mulheres e em 74% dos blogs participam homens; a temática predominante é a de Ciências da Vida; a maioria dos blogs se concentra nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do país; e a vida média sobre todos os blogs é de 4,8 anos, com um coeficiente de variação de 0,58. Um achado importante é que o número de blogs ativos parece ter diminuído nos últimos anos. Conjecturamos que esse fenômeno é devido à concorrência com outras mídias sociais (Facebook, Twitter e video blogs, entre outras possíveis causas.

  7. A construção da geografia brasileira

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    Manuel Correia de ANDRADE

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisando-se a situação atual da geografia brasileira, observa-se que ela é uma das mais ativas que temos conhecimento, de vez que ela é ministrada em nível superior e em nível de pós-graduação em dezenas de universidades situadas nos mais diversos pontos do país. Os geógrafos contribuem com uma vasta produção científica, em livros, em revistas especializadas e não especificamente geográficas, realizam seminários, congressos e reuniões científicas várias vezes por ano e em pontos diversos do território nacional. Além disto, participam ativamente, contribuindo com trabalhos que são apresentados em congressos e simpósios internacionais e desenvolvem trabalhos de planejamento e consultoria em órgãos públicos e privados. Os congressos e encontros promovidos pela Associação de Geógrafos Brasileiros (AGB reúnem milhares de participantes, não só geógrafos como também especialistas de disciplinas afins e estudantes; a Associação Nacional de Pesquisa em Geografia (Anpege realiza congressos bianuais, com grande participação e elevadas discussões científicas, e nos encontros latino- americanos de geografia, realizados geralmente de dois em dois anos, a delegação brasileira é das mais numerosas, muitas vezes suplantando 50% dos participantes, como ocorreu em Buenos Aires, em 1997. Partindo destes pressupostos, podemos refletir como a geografia, ciência que existe desde os tempos mais antigos, mas que se estruturou de forma académica a partir da segunda metade do século XIX, teve um desenvolvimento tão expressivo no país. Como, em um país com tradições universitárias relativamente recentes, pôde esta ciência despertar tão grande interesse, atingindo os limites que atingiu? Quais as razões e os rumos do simples conhecimento geográfico ou a percepção das paisagens geográficas que levaram os estudiosos e pessoas observadoras a estruturar e construir um conhecimento científico? Quais as rela

  8. 76 FR 55783 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...-197-AD; Amendment 39-16796; AD 2011-18-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2011-18-14 Empresa..., 2011. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de...

  9. 75 FR 53609 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 2010-CE-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER... further information by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Empresa.... 39.13 [Amended] 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira...

  10. 75 FR 34357 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-127-AD; Amendment 39-16328; AD 2010-12-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-12-07 Empresa..., 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de...

  11. 75 FR 30287 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...-081-AD; Amendment 39-16306; AD 2010-11-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Explanation of Revised Service Information Empresa... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-11-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica...

  12. 75 FR 5685 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...-060-AD; Amendment 39-16191; AD 2010-03-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-03-07 Empresa..., 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica...

  13. 75 FR 74670 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av...), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa...

  14. 75 FR 30284 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...-201-AD; Amendment 39-16318; AD 2010-11-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-11-13 Empresa..., 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de...

  15. 75 FR 9814 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD:...

  16. 75 FR 8557 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER.... 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD:...

  17. 76 FR 444 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...-055-AD; Amendment 39-16557; AD 2011-01-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira...., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2011-01-04...

  18. 76 FR 52220 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ...-072-AD; Amendment 39-16779; AD 2011-17-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer--Empresa... Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose...--Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A.: Amendment 39-16779; Docket No. FAA-2011-0088;...

  19. 75 FR 63422 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer--Empresa... AD docket. Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  20. 76 FR 59240 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... 2011-CE-023-AD; Amendment 39-16810; AD 2011-20-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa... (AD) for Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 airplanes. This AD results... the following new AD: 2011-20-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment...

  1. 75 FR 7998 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  2. 75 FR 57666 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...-211-AD; Amendment 39-16432; AD 2010-19-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... corrosion reported at the rod terminal. EMBRAER also states that there is no evidence that Empresa... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-19-04 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica...

  3. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  4. Rural equity in Costa Rica: myth or reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Peek P; Raabe C

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on nature and trends of rural area poverty and income distribution in Costa Rica - briefly outlines historical background to the agricultural economy; discusses recent trends in agricultural production, agricultural mechanization, farm size, etc.; examines land reform, effect of economic recession in the 1970s and agricultural income. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  5. Capital Inflows in a Small Open Economy: Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This document illustrates the inflows of capital to a small and open economy such as Costa Rica using the Metzler Diagram. The simplicity of the Metzler Diagram provides clarity to understand the motivation for the inflows of capital, as well as a framework to analyze the policy options available to the policy-makers.

  6. Interdisciplinary Team Teaching on Sustainable Development in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessor, Roberta; Reeves, Margaret; Andrade, Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of an interdisciplinary field course in Costa Rica focused on sustainable development. The semester-long curriculum integrated sociology, political economy, and agricultural ecology. The curriculum was empirically based and involved faculty members and students working collaboratively on different…

  7. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    successful social protection programs that have been implemented elsewhere in Latin America, such as Oportunidades in Mexico and Bolsa Familia in Brazil, and...Ministerio Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at http://www.sinac.go.cr/ planificacionasp.php. 31 “Costa Rica

  8. Ten new bird species for Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos, José (Coordinador); Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We report ten new bird species for Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. All observations were conducted during one-month period (October 2010) during autumn migration of birds to South America. These observations increase the number of bird species recorded on the island to 129.

  9. El Camino Inca de la Costa en Tumbes

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Carrasco, Carolina; Ministerio de Cultura

    2015-01-01

    Artículo descriptivo sobre el camino inca de la costa de Tumbes y sus tres subtramos: en la cordillera de Amotapes, en las colinas miocénicas y en la planicie litoral. Abarca temas como el medio geográfico, los antecedentes del estudio y la historia del tramo.

  10. Acrokerato - elastoidosis of costa: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Renu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa are reported. All the patients were females with marginal keratodermas composed of cornified papules, some of which were umbilicated, distributed along the borders of the hands and feet. A positive family history was present in all the cases.

  11. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Costarricense de Electricidad -ICE) furnishes electricity either directly or ,4 through sale to private or government companies. Authority in each canton...34 San Jos6: 1979. Costa Rica. Servicio Nacional de Electricidad . Estadistica elkc- trica, 1972. n. pl.: n. d. * Estadistica elctrica, 1978. n. pl

  12. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  13. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC and the drug information services (DIS. Objective: To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods: Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results: In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions: The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened.

  14. Science and Mathematics Education Research in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berty, Rolando; Esquivel, Juan M.

    Increased emphasis on science and mathematics education research in Costa Rica since 1973 is reported. The majority of the studies carried out in the past 12 years have been diagnostic studies. General findings are listed, under the headings of certification, supervision, basic skills, teaching methods, attitudes, and curriculum. The diagnostic…

  15. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces.

  16. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  17. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  18. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  19. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  20. The unique skeleton of siliceous sponges (Porifera; Hexactinellida and Demospongiae that evolved first from the Urmetazoa during the Proterozoic: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. G. Müller

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Sponges (phylum Porifera had been considered as an enigmatic phylum, prior to the analysis of their genetic repertoire/tool kit. Already with the isolation of the first adhesion molecule, galectin, it became clear that the sequences of the sponge cell surface receptors and those of the molecules forming the intracellular signal transduction pathways, triggered by them, share high similarity to those identified in other metazoan phyla. These studies demonstrated that all metazoan phyla, including the Porifera, originate from one common ancestor, the Urmetazoa. The sponges evolved during a time prior to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary (542 million years ago (myr. They appeared during two major "snowball earth events", the Sturtian glaciation (710 to 680 myr and the Varanger-Marinoan ice ages (605 to 585 myr. During this period the aqueous milieu was silica rich due to the silicate weathering. The oldest sponge fossils (Hexactinellida have been described from Australia, China and Mongolia and were assessed to have existed coeval with the diverse Ediacara fauna. Only little younger are the fossils discovered in the Sansha section in Hunan (Early Cambrian; China. It has been proposed that only the sponges had the genetic repertoire to cope with the adverse conditions, e.g. temperature-protection molecules or proteins protecting them against ultraviolet radiation. The skeletal elements of the Hexactinellida (model organisms Monorhaphis chuni and Monorhaphis intermedia or Hyalonema sieboldi and Demospongiae (models Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium, the spicules, are formed enzymatically by the anabolic enzyme silicatein and the catabolic enzyme silicase. Both, the spicules of Hexactinellida and of Demospongiae, comprise a central axial canal and an axial filament which harbors the silicatein. After intracellular formation of the first lamella around the channel and the subsequent extracellular apposition of

  1. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU r

  2. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836, a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges and Calcarea (calcareous sponges. We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early

  3. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: first comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-02-27

    The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa.Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU rRNA secondary

  4. The unique skeleton of siliceous sponges (Porifera; Hexactinellida and Demospongiae that evolved first from the Urmetazoa during the Proterozoic: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. G. Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sponges (phylum Porifera had been considered as an enigmatic phylum, prior to the analysis of their genetic repertoire/tool kit. Already with the isolation of the first adhesion molecule, galectin, it became clear that the sequences of sponge cell surface receptors and of molecules forming the intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered by them, share high similarity with those identified in other metazoan phyla. These studies demonstrated that all metazoan phyla, including Porifera, originate from one common ancestor, the Urmetazoa. The sponges evolved prior to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary (542 million years ago [myr] during two major "snowball earth events", the Sturtian glaciation (710 to 680 myr and the Varanger-Marinoan ice ages (605 to 585 myr. During this period the ocean was richer in silica due to the silicate weathering. The oldest sponge fossils (Hexactinellida have been described from Australia, China and Mongolia and are thought to have existed coeval with the diverse Ediacara fauna. Only little younger are the fossils discovered in the Sansha section in Hunan (Early Cambrian; China. It has been proposed that only the sponges possessed the genetic repertoire to cope with the adverse conditions, e.g. temperature-protection molecules or proteins protecting them against ultraviolet radiation. The skeletal elements of the Hexactinellida (model organisms Monorhaphis chuni and Monorhaphis intermedia or Hyalonema sieboldi and Demospongiae (models Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium, the spicules, are formed enzymatically by the anabolic enzyme silicatein and the catabolic enzyme silicase. Both, the spicules of Hexactinellida and of Demospongiae, comprise a central axial canal and an axial filament which harbors the silicatein. After intracellular formation of the first lamella around the channel and the subsequent extracellular apposition of further lamellae the spicules are completed in a net formed of collagen fibers. The

  5. The unique skeleton of siliceous sponges (Porifera; Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) that evolved first from the Urmetazoa during the Proterozoic: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W. E. G.; Li, Jinhe; Schröder, H. C.; Qiao, Li; Wang, Xiaohong

    2007-05-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) had been considered as an enigmatic phylum, prior to the analysis of their genetic repertoire/tool kit. Already with the isolation of the first adhesion molecule, galectin, it became clear that the sequences of sponge cell surface receptors and of molecules forming the intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered by them, share high similarity with those identified in other metazoan phyla. These studies demonstrated that all metazoan phyla, including Porifera, originate from one common ancestor, the Urmetazoa. The sponges evolved prior to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary (542 million years ago [myr]) during two major "snowball earth events", the Sturtian glaciation (710 to 680 myr) and the Varanger-Marinoan ice ages (605 to 585 myr). During this period the ocean was richer in silica due to the silicate weathering. The oldest sponge fossils (Hexactinellida) have been described from Australia, China and Mongolia and are thought to have existed coeval with the diverse Ediacara fauna. Only little younger are the fossils discovered in the Sansha section in Hunan (Early Cambrian; China). It has been proposed that only the sponges possessed the genetic repertoire to cope with the adverse conditions, e.g. temperature-protection molecules or proteins protecting them against ultraviolet radiation. The skeletal elements of the Hexactinellida (model organisms Monorhaphis chuni and Monorhaphis intermedia or Hyalonema sieboldi) and Demospongiae (models Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium), the spicules, are formed enzymatically by the anabolic enzyme silicatein and the catabolic enzyme silicase. Both, the spicules of Hexactinellida and of Demospongiae, comprise a central axial canal and an axial filament which harbors the silicatein. After intracellular formation of the first lamella around the channel and the subsequent extracellular apposition of further lamellae the spicules are completed in a net formed of collagen fibers. The data

  6. Dosilia (Porifera, Demospongiae redefined

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    Jairo Luís Cândido

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dosilia plumosa (Carter, 1849, type species of the genus, and D. brouni (Kirkpatrick, 1906, with distribution respectively in the Oriental and Ethiopic regions, are revised based on a SEM analysis of spicules, gemmules and skeletal structure. The lectotype here designated for D. plumosa is illustrated as well as the holotype by monotypy determined for D. brouni. Dosilia palmeri (Potts, 1885 and D. radiospiculata (Mills, 1888 distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions and D. pydanieli Volkmer-Ribeiro, 1992, found in the Neotropical region, are revised based on a SEM analysis of spicules, gemules and skeletal structure. The holotype by monotypy is determined for D. radiospiculata. Heteromeyenia plumosa Weltner,1895 is synonymyzed with D. radiospiculata. Upon the revision of its five species, the genus is redefined and a key presented.

  7. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

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    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  8. Exclusão social fenômeno totalitário na democracia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Escorel

    1993-01-01

    O artigo distingue conceitualmente três abordagens da temática da democracia e o desenvolvimento de cada uma delas na sociedade brasileira: democracia como valor, como processo e como conteúdo substantivo. Detendo-se nessa última abordagem, apresenta a categoria de exclusão social, construída e analisada por Hannah Arendt em Origens do totalitarismo, como elemento conceitual que permite refletir e compreender melhor a situação de amplas parcelas da população brasileira. A análise permite iden...

  9. Accessibility to ICTs in Costa Rica: A Disruptive Change in the Mind of the Costa Rican Society

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    Darío Ríos Navarro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the definition of the concept of universal accessibility, considering the current state of accessibility in Costa Rica, especially in the field of technology. It aims to raise awareness and provide guidance to the public reader, pointing out some of the myths present within the definition of accessibility, taking into account different perspectives from other studies, and exemplifying situations related to web accessibility, mainly. We analyze the data generated by the National Statistics and Census Institute (INEC on the population with disabilities in Costa Rica. This analysis is done through statistical information provided by the past censuses carried out during the decades of the present century, considering the importance of improving ICTs for people who have some type of disability, caused by nature or by time. The paper reviews different projects that, at present, are being promoted in ICTs and are considered important advances to improve the conditions of people with disabilities.  It promotes the inherent need to work on the development of ICTs in Costa Rica from different frameworks. In the political and legal frameworks, it identifies the need to extend the rules promoting the laws in favor of disability in the country. In conclusion, the article analyzes that Costa Rica could become one of the first countries in Central America and the Caribbean covering the needs of people with disabilities, through the strengthening and recognition of ICTs that give added value to build a universal accessibility.

  10. Atuação da delegação brasileira na formulação do Acordo Internacional de Bretton Woods (1942-1944 The Brazilian delegation in the making of the Bretton Woods International Agreements (1942-1944

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    Daniel de Pinho Barreiros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar pensamento e ação dos delegados brasileiros na Conferência Monetária e Financeira das Nações Unidas, realizada em Bretton Woods, em julho de 1944, com destaque para a atuação de Octavio Gouvea de Bulhões, de Eugênio Gudin, e do Ministro Souza Costa. Analisa-se a visão brasileira acerca da nova ordem financeira internacional em construção, e suas estratégias pragmáticas de alinhamento com os interesses em choque durante a Conferência, particularmente organizados segundo as propostas do Plano White (norte-americano e do Plano Keynes (britânico. Conclui-se que, apesar de incapaz de impedir a aprovação quase que integral do Plano White, a delegação brasileira foi capaz de garantir espaço para o Brasil na gestão no aparato econômico institucional criado em Bretton Woods.The aim of this article is to analyse the economic ideas and the diplomatic action of the Brazilian delegates in the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, which took place in Bretton Woods, in July, 1944. The article highlights the experience of Octavio Gouvea de Bulhões, Eugenio Gudin and the Brazilian Minister of Finance at that time, Souza Costa. The study is centered on the new economic order conception displayed by the Brazilian delegates, as well as on their pragmatic alignment with the forces in struggle, organized according to the White Plan (North-american and the Keynes Plan (British. The article concludes that, in spite of being unable to halt the integral approval of the White Plan, Brazilian delegates were able to assure seats in the new economic institutional mechanisms created in the Bretton Woods Conference.

  11. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

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    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  12. A reserva de vagas para negros nas universidade brasileiras

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    Yvonne Maggie

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O GOVERNO do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, depois de votada por aclamação na Assembléia Legislativa, adotou em 2001 uma política de cotas para "negros e pardos" nas suas instituições de ensino superior. Na trilha da preparação da III Conferência Mundial das Nações Unidas de Combate ao Racismo, Discriminação Racial, Xenofobia e Intolerância Correlata que teve lugar em Durban, na África do Sul, em 2001, esta política e aquelas decretadas pelo governo federal não foram objeto de um amplo debate público. Este debate começa agora fracamente depois dos fatos consumados. Os autores analisam os caminhos dessa mudança de rumo radical do paradigma racial brasileiro através da descrição de cartas de leitores ao jornal O Globo. Estes leitores, os nossos "nativos", são ponto de partida para avaliar as dificuldades e as conseqüências que uma tal política de Estado impõe à população brasileira, especialmente àqueles que, longe do poder das elites, serão obrigados a se definir "racialmente" para serem tratados desigualmente na luta por vagas no serviço público e na universidade.IN 2001, a law obliging the institutions of higher learning of the State of Rio de Janeiro to reserve 40% of all places for "blacks and browns" was passed by acclamation and without debate. Along the path of the preparations for the III United Nations World Conference against Racism, which was held in Durban in 2001, this policy and other similar ones decreed by the federal government came into being without ample public debate. Ex post facto this debate is now only beginning. The authors analyze the sequence of this radical change in Brazil's racial paradigm through a description of readers' letters published in the newspaper O Globo. These readers, our "natives" lead us to evaluate the difficulties and the consequences that this government policy imposes on the Brazilian population, especially those poorer citizens, who, far from the power elites, will

  13. A trajetória do negro na literatura brasileira

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    Domício Proença Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available ESTE ARTIGO busca traçar o percurso do negro na literatura brasileira, como objeto, numa visão distanciada, e como sujeito, numa atitude compromissada. Destaca, de um lado, textos literários sobre o negro e, de outro, literatura do negro. Identifica, na produção literária ao longo do processo literário brasileiro, estereótipos reduplicadores da visão preconceituosa, explícita ou velada. Procura marcar a ultrapassagem do estereótipo e a assunção do negro como sujeito do seu discurso e de sua ação em defesa da identidade cultural. Nessa direção, seleciona autores e textos representativos produzidos notadamente a partir dos anos de 1970, momento de efervescência dos movimentos de auto-afirmação da etnia. Discute a designação literatura negra, entendida como aparentemente valorizadora, mas passível de converter-se em risco de fazer o jogo do preconceito velado.THIS ARTICLE outlines the trajectory of blacks in Brazilian literature, both as an object, with a distant perspective, and as a subject, with a more assertive attitude. As result it addresses the literary text on blacks, on the one hand; and by Blacks, on the other. It identifies a long history of stereotypes, associated with a prejudice vision of Blacks, both explicitly and implicitly. It seeks to describe the moment of passage in wich the stereotype was overtaken by the affirmation of blacks as subjects of their discourse, acting in defense of own cultural worth and identity. It selects a number of representative authors and texts starting in the 1970s, a particularly vital moment of Black conciousness affirmation in Brazil. It then argues the propriety of styling ablack literature, superficially presented as a positive affirmation, but pregnant of being turned into a form of implicit prejudice.

  14. Os empregados da agricultura brasileira: diferenciais e determinantes salariais

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    Marina Silva da Cunha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda os diferenciais e os determinantes salariais dos empregados na agricultura brasileira, no período de 1981 a 2005, com base nas informações das Pesquisas Nacionais por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD, do IBGE. Foi utilizada a metodologia de Heckman para corrigir viés de seleção, comum em equações salariais estimadas por Mínimos Quadrados Ordinários, além da decomposição de Oaxaca-Blinder, para analisar os diferenciais salariais entre 1981 e 2005. Entre os determinantes salariais, foram analisados: educação, experiência, gênero, região, tempo semanal de trabalho e carteira de trabalho, além de alguns determinantes macroeconômicos. Os resultados do trabalho sugerem uma redução dos diferenciais salariais, principalmente no final do período estudado, e que as variáveis educação, idade e carteira de trabalho contribuíram para reduzir os diferencias salariais entre 1981 e 2005; e por outro lado, as variáveis gênero, região geográfica e tempo semanal de trabalho, contribuíram para aumentá-los. Além disso, as variáveis macroeconômicas incluídas na análise foram estatisticamente significativas na explicação dos diferenciais salariais agrícolas.This work studies the wage differentials and determinants of the employees in Brazilian agriculture, in period 1981-2005, on the basis of the information of the National Research for Sample of Domiciles of the IBGE. The methodology of Heckman is used to correct bias of selection, common in wage equations gotten by Least Ordinary Square, besides the decomposition of Oaxaca-Blinder, to analyze the wage differentials between 1981 and 2005. Between wage determinants, had been analyzed: education, experience, region, weekly working time and formal work, besides some macroeconomic determinants. The results of the work suggest a reduction of the wage differentials, mainly in the end of the studied period, and that the variable education, age and formal work had

  15. Ondas oceânicas extremas na costa sul-sudeste brasileira geradas por ciclone com trajetória anormal em maio de 2011

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    Rogério Neder Candella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma intensa agitação marítima, com ondas de altura significativa acima de 6 m, foi gerada pelos ventos associados a um ciclone no oceano Atlântico em maio de 2011. O ciclone, que pode ser classificado como subtropical, devido às suas características de sistema híbrido e com forte contraste entre a temperatura do oceano e a temperatura do ar em 500 hPa, teve trajetória totalmente anômala, deslocando-se no rumo norte/noroeste, em uma etapa de seu desenvolvimento. Para caracterização do evento, foram utilizados dados oriundos de boias oceanográficas, resultados de modelagem numérica e imagens de satélite. Embora não tenha tocado o continente e não haja relato de perdas materiais ou humanas, seu tipo de desenvolvimento se assemelha à do furacão Catarina, ocorrido em março de 2004, especialmente seu deslocamento contrário ao fluxo atmosférico médio.

  16. Distribuição de mercúrio total como indicador de poluição urbana e industrial na costa brasileira

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    Marins Rozane V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the pollution status of the Brazilian coast is hampered by the lack of a consistent environmental indicator. We propose Hg as an environmental proxy to anthropogenic pollution of coastal regions due to its absence in the Brazilian geology, its ubiquity in anthropogenic effluents, and its toxicity. Available data suggest Hg "backgrounds" in coastal sediments of 1-10 ng g-1, in the East and 15-30 ng g-1 in the South. We suggest short sediment cores to establish these values estimating a geo-accumulation index to compare all areas. The distribution of index values showed the majority of southern coast at least moderately contaminated whereas many eastern areas are still pristine.

  17. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

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    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  18. New marine natural products from sponges (Porifera) of the order Dictyoceratida (2001 to 2012); a promising source for drug discovery, exploration and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Perkins, Michael V; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Christopher M M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs can no longer rely primarily on terrestrial resources, as they have been heavily exploited for over a century. During the last few decades marine sources, particularly sponges, have proven to be a most promising source of new natural products for drug discovery. This review considers the order Dictyoceratida in the Phylum Porifera from which the largest number of new marine natural products have been reported over the period 2001-2012. This paper examines all the sponges from the order Dictyoceratida that were reported as new compounds during the time period in a comprehensive manner. The distinctive physical characteristics and the geographical distribution of the different families are presented. The wide structural diversity of the compounds produced and the variety of biological activities they exhibited is highlighted. As a representative of sponges, insights into this order and avenues for future effective natural product discovery are presented. The research institutions associated with the various studies are also highlighted with the aim of facilitating collaborative relationships, as well as to acknowledge the major international contributors to the discovery of novel sponge metabolites. The order Dictyoceratida is a valuable source of novel chemical structures which will continue to contribute to a new era of drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

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    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laboratorio, según esta revisión e la literatura reciente. Los principales hallazgos postmortem son rigidez cadavérica precoz e intensa y síndrome asfíctico. Los registros de la Sección de Patología Forense del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de Costa Rica presentan desde 1990, únicamente dos casos de muerte por intoxicación con estricnina. Se trata de mujeres, que presentaron la rigidez anotada, corroborándose por la escena de muerte y en el laboratorio. La baja frecuencia se debe a la dificultad para conseguir la estricnina.Strychinine is an alcaloid of plant origin and convulsive effect which has beenused in Costa Rica as a pesticide androdenticide, as well as adulterant in abused drugs. Its therapeutic use has been rejected. Poisoning with this substance is not common because n Costa Rica its use is currently restricted to the elimination of street dogs practiced by sanitary personnel. The symptons, basically neuroogic and cardiorespiratory, require clinical and laboratory analysis, according to the present review of recent literature. The main post-mortem findings are early rigor mortis and an asfictic syndrome. The records of the Forensic Pathology section of the Costa Rican Criminal Bureau only include, since 1990, two deaths caused by strychnine. The victims were women that presentd the mentioned rigor mortis, and the cause was corroborated by the scene of death and the laboratory. The diffculty of obtaining the substance explains the

  20. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

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    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  1. MUSICA POPULAR BRASILEIRA, POLÍTICA E UTOPIA EM CHICO BUARQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Dias Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Este ensaio busca verificar como Chico Buarque enfatiza em suas composições a política e a utopia e como também, este grande compositor da Música Popular Brasileira (MPB), utiliza o lírico para elaborar suas canções.

  2. Pioneirismo da associacao brasileira de enfermagem no desenvolvimento da pesquisa: da revista ao centro de pesquisa

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    Lais de Araujo Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as primeiras iniciativas da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa em enfermagem. Com um recorte temporal que engloba o período de 1932 a 1971, ano de criação da Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem à criação do Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas, da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem. As fontes utilizadas foram documentos escritos localizados no Centro de Documentação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro e no Centro de Memória da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem, além de edições da revista localizadas na Biblioteca Setorial da Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery. Percebe-se, nesta análise, que os empreendimentos realizados por essa entidade representaram um verdadeiro espaço de investigação e de formação de enfermeiros pesquisadores no Brasil.

  3. Zelaya: um case da nova política diplomática brasileira?

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    Ruda Guedes Moises Salerno Ricci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o acolhimento do Presidente de Honduras deposto, José Manuel Zelaya pela Embaixada brasileira em Tegucigalpa como uma afirmação do país como liderança regional, alterando a lógica diplomática vocacionada para abertura de mercados.

  4. PROCESSO DE INTERNACIONALIZAÇÃO DE UMA EMPRESA MULTINACIONAL BRASILEIRA DE BASE TECNOLÓGICA

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    Sieglinde Kindl Cunha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da abertura da economia brasileira na década de 90 é possível verificar um crescente movimento de internacionalização de empresas brasileiras. A competição migrou do nível local ou doméstico para o âmbito mundial. Como resposta das empresas nacionais é possível verificar um crescente movimento de internacionalização das empresas brasileiras e a necessidade de se estudar esse fenômeno, visto que esse processo no Brasil é um tanto recente. Esse artigo tem como objetivo analisar o processo de internacionalização de uma empresa multinacional brasileira de base tecnológica. O resultado da pesquisa evidencia que embora o processo de internacionalização confirme os pressupostos da abordagem comportamental, outro fator que influencia no processo de internacionalização dessa empresa é o contexto tecnológico dos países estrangeiros induzindo a empresa a adotar estratégias de inovação diferenciadas, para a sua inserção no mercado internacional.

  5. Notas Acerca da Disciplina "Estrutura e Funcionamento da Educação Brasileira".

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    Débora Mazza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando: - a obrigatoriedade da disciplina estrutura e funcionamento da educação brasileira nos currículos dos cursos de licenciatura. - a falta de motivação dos alunos frente a disciplinas que, aparentemente, não lidam com conteúdos de aplicação prática imediata.

  6. Estudo ecológico de Metania spinata (Porifera) na Lagoa Verde, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e análise isotópica de oxigênio em espículas, visando interpretação paleoambiental.

    OpenAIRE

    Matteuzzo, Marcela Camargo

    2015-01-01

    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Evolução Crustal e Recursos Naturais. Departamento de Geologia. Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Esponjas de água doce (Porifera, Demospongiae) são produtoras de estruturas de biosílica denominadas espículas, com extraordinário valor taxonômico, e que podem apresentar-se em mais de uma categoria, conforme a espécie, tendo reconhecida utilização como marcadores ambientais. As populações dessas esponjas vivem em condições ambientais e...

  7. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morera, Jorge A.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pue...

  8. Statistical analysis of abstentionism in the presidential elections of Costa Rica, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Araya Alpízar, Carlomagno

    2015-01-01

    This paper statistically analyzes the electoral abstention by districts and provinces in the presidential elections of Costa Rica 2014. The author studies the importance of socioeconomic variables as the Social Development Index (IDS), with the aim of studying the factors that originate and represent a problem of legitimacy of the Costa Rican political system. It was found that voter abstention in the districts of Costa Rica is distributed unequally in relation to demographic and economic...

  9. Entrepreneurship in Costa Rica: stagnation in the transition to innovation

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    Manuel Chaves Núñez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica is stuck in a transition phase between an efficiency-based economy and an innovation-based economy and is not promoting the necessary entrepreneurial conditions that would lead to the required transformation.  Meanwhile, other countries in the region are in a better position to encourage entrepreneurship. In this situation, it is important to ask which are the conditions regarding entrepreneurship in Costa Rica that could improve the transition to an innovation-based economy. To improve this situation, the country must develop an inter-institutional support program that attracts direct foreign investment and linkages between businesses, improve human capital, provide training, incubation and funding, and have better articulation of public policy.

  10. The Orbiniidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Pacific Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2015-05-08

    Seven species of Orbiniidae are described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica including two new species. Leodamas hamatus n. sp., a commonly occurring species on the coast of Pacific Costa Rica, is described from 11‒18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and Bahia Culebra. This species is unusual in that the neuropodial uncini differ morphologically from anterior to posterior in the thorax. Scoloplos cryptospinigerus n. sp. is described from 18-22 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and has only a few short, toothed spines amidst numerous capillary setae in most of the thoracic neuropodia. This arrangement of thoracic neurosetae is unusual and has been seen only in one other described species of Scoloplos from Australia.

  11. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  12. Clethra formosa (Clethraceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, Juan Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Clethra formosa (Clethraceae, a new species endemic to high elevations of the Central and Talamanca cordilleras in Costa Rica is described. Photographs of the proposed species are included as well as a discussion of its taxonomic affinities, mainly with Clethra pyrogena Sleumer, which appears to be its nearest relative.Se describe Clethra formosa (Clehtraceae, una nueva especie endémica de las zonas altas de las Cordilleras Central y de Talamanca en Costa Rica. Se incluyen fotografías de la especie propuesta, así como una discusión de sus afinidades taxonómicas, principalmente con Clethra pyrogena Sleumer, el taxon más cercanamente relacionado.

  13. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Silva Pena

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  14. A literatura popular: silêncios e murmúrios na história da literatura brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Celso Sisto; PUC-RS

    2009-01-01

    A omissão da literatura oral nas histórias da literatura. O isolamento da literatura popular no quadro geral da produção literária brasileira. Como lidam com a questão as histórias da literatura brasileira de Ronald de Carvalho, Érico Veríssimo e Carlos Nejar. O preconceito escondido atrás do rótulo “literatura folclórica”. Reivindicações para uma nova história da literatura brasileira.

  15. Contabilidade ambiental: um estudo sobre sua aplicabilidade em empresas Brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalto de Oliveira Santos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A globalização da economia e a conscientização da sociedade estão forçando, atualmente, as empresas a adotarem uma postura responsável perante o meio ambiente, isto é, produzir sem agressão à natu-reza.Para isto elas estão implantando um Sistema de Gestão Ambiental de acordo com as normas da série ISO 14000. Fazer este gerenciamento exige a aplicação de um considerável montante de recursos financeiros, devendo-se ter constante preocupação em controlá-los. En-tende-se que a contabilidade é uma das ferramentas mais eficientes e eficazes para este processo. Observa-se, no entanto, que poucas empresas, no Brasil, utilizam a contabilidade na sua gestão ambiental. Portanto, o principal objetivo da realização deste estudo é verificar qual o grau de desenvolvimento da Contabilidade Ambiental nas empresas brasileiras. Após uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, foi elaborada uma pesquisa de campo que consistiu no envio de um questionário aos departamentos de contabilidade de indústrias potencialmente poluidoras. O universo compreendeu as empresas listadas no guia "As 500 maiores empresas do Brasil", edição 2000, da revista Exame; e a amostra foi de 50 empresas cujo faturamento, em 2000, ultrapassou US$ 50 bilhões.The globalization of the economy and the awareness of the society are forcing, currently, the companies to adopt a responsible position before the environment, that is, to produce without aggression the nature. For this they are implanting a System of Environmental Management in accordance with the norms of series ISO 14000. To make this management demands the application of a considerable sum of financial features, having itself to have constant preoccupation in controlling them. One understands that the accounting is one of the efficient tools most for this process. It is observed, however, that few companies, in Brazil, use the accounting in its environmental management. Therefore, the main objective of the

  16. First Report of Hepatozoon procyonis in Raccoons from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study reports for the first time the detection of Hepatozoon procyonis in raccoons, Procyon lotor from Costa Rica. Blood smears of naturally infected raccoons were taken to characterize the gametocytes. Gametocyts consistent with Hepatozoon procyonis were observed in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, and their morphology, which is similar to the one reported in raccoons throughout the Americas, is described. El estudio muestra, por primera vez, la detección de Hepatozoon procyonis en proc...

  17. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    News Service, April 13, 2009; “Costa Rica: Growth falls despite expansionary policies ,” Oxford Analytica, April 15, 2009. 21 World Bank, World...downturn, however, threatens to erase these gains. President Arias has responded to the crisis with an ambitious fiscal stimulus and social protection...and agricultural expansion. The country’s innovative policies , strong conservation system, and commitment to alternative energy have done much to

  18. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  19. A physical-oceanographic study of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Harald; Rosland, Rune; Myking, Steiner; Vargas, José A; Lizano, Omar G.; Alfaro, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    A physical-oceanographic investigation based on field experiments and applications of a numerical model was carried out in Golfo Dulce, a fjord-like gulf at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Due to the nearness to equator the effect of the Coriolis force on the circulation is negligible. Cross gulf gradients are therefore mainly related to the runoff pattern, local wind and topographic effects. The upper layer is characterized by low salinity and high temperature. Local wind effects and topogr...

  20. Sedentarism in Costa Rican children: yes, there is a solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez Bogantes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review the nature of physical activity patterns of children in order to relate them to the recommendations provided regarding the physical activity that children must have.  Additionally, these recommendations are compared to what has been done traditionally in Costa Rica.  In another section of the article, games are mentioned as an alternative for making movement fun for children and creating active lifestyles mainly using physical education classes.

  1. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  2. Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica (1966-1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier; Cubero-Pardo,Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica are reported for a period of 33 years, with a total of 35 strandings, 13 species and 247 individuals involved. The vast majority of documented strandings occurred on the Pacific coast and correspond to single individuals (32 and 28 strandings respectively). The highest stranding number was in the period from 1990 to 1999 (n=24). Physeter catodon (cachalot or sperm whale) is the species with the highest frequency of strandings (n=8) and the family Delphinidae ...

  3. Las lecciones aprendidas del caso Intel de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Alvarado, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una investigación sobre el Caso Intel de Costa Rica, donde se puede apreciar una estrategia global de Intel y la visión compartida del gobierno de todo un país para generar una ventaja competitiva frente a posibles mercados emergentes para de esta forma poder sentar las bases de una economía más y mejor integrada, sostenida en una capacitación de sus recursos humanos.

  4. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  5. Socioeconomic development, health interventions and mortality decline in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica, whose life expectancy was 74 years by 1985, has reached a health level comparable to a developed country. The health achievements of this country are product of political and socioeconomic circumstances as well as of right public health policies. Until about 1970 the features of Costa Rica mortality, although somewhat better than the Latin American average, evolved in a similar way to the rest of the region. In particular, the decades of 1940s and 1950s saw dramatic improvements in life expectancy, thanks mainly to the import of low-cost, high-effectiveness health technologies. In the 1970s, however, Costa Rica departed from a regional pattern of stagnation and managed to close the gap with developed countries in terms of mortality levels. A dramatic decline in the infant mortality rate from 60 to 19 per 1,000 took place in this decade. The main determinants of this breakthrough were health interventions, notably a primary health care program, even though favorable socioeconomic conditions and a reduced fertility also played a role. Ecological data and other evidence suggest that up to three fourths of the mortality decline was accounted for contemporary improvements in public health services, with about 40 percent attributable to primary health care interventions. Furthermore, by targeting interventions on the less privileged population, these interventions had the merit of reducing geographic and socioeconomic differentials in child mortality.

  6. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kelmo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each speciesEste estudio proporciona el primer informe taxonómico de los hidroides de los Ordenes Anthoathecatae y Leptothecatae presentes en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología de la Escuela de Biología de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se informan 16 especies de hidroides: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana y Tridentata distans. Se presenta una exhaustiva revisión de la sinonimia y una clave taxonómica simple e ilustraciones y descripciones para cada una de las especies

  7. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  8. Determinación de la estructura poblacional de litopenaeus vannamei mediante issrs a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Fresneda Rodríguez, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Determinación de la estructura poblacional de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante ISSRs a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana Muestras de Litopenaeus vannamei fueron colectadas en siete localidades a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana desde Esmeraldas hasta Machala.

  9. PRÁTICAS DE GOVERNANÇA CORPORATIVA DAS COMPANHIAS BRASILEIRAS OPERADAS NA BOLSA DE VALORES DE NOVA IORQUE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BOTELHO, Luciano Henrique Fialho; SILVA, Thaís Santos; MARQUES, Humberto Rodrigues; PEREIRA, Rafael Morais; COSTA, Thiago de Melo Teixeira da

    2016-01-01

    ... da globalização financeira, muitas empresas brasileiras buscam recursos em bolsas de valores estrangeiras, principalmente na Bolsa de Valores de Nova York, possuidora de regras reduzidas para empresas estrangeiras...

  10. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as w...

  11. Nuevos registros con notas ecológicas y taxonómicas de esponjas dulceacuícolas (Porifera, Spongillidae en la cuenca del Duero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the knowledge of freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spongillidae of the Douro River watershed. Specimens were found in 24 of 32 transects in 16 sampling stations. Distribution and several ecological data were obtained in 25 wadeable river transects (20+/5− and 7 deep lakes (4+/3− of six sub-basins of the northern Iberian plateau. Four species (Ephydatia fluviatilis, E. muelleri, Heteromeyenia baileyi and Spongilla lacustris were recorded throughout the survey during successive dry sessions and classified by microscopic observation of siliceous sclera. The maximum species richness was found in the Negro River, where sympatric coexistence was detected in three species. E. muelleri was only found in the Aliste River, and it is the first record of this species in the Douro basin. H. baileyi showed a preference for shallow areas in flowing waters, and was only present on hard stony substrates (quartzites. S. lacustris and E. fluviatilis were found on compacted sediments, rocks and submerged wood substrates, and in a wide interval of depths. E. fluviatilis was absent in mountain lakes, whereas it was the most frequent species in rivers. H. baileyi and S. lacustris showed preference for acidic and low mineralization rivers, while both species of Ephydatia for more mineralized waters. The influence of chemical water and other environmental parameters on the distribution range of each species and its presence in syntopy with other invertebrate indicators of oligotrophic conditions, acidity and high oxygenation in water is remarked.El trabajo supone la primera contribución al conocimiento ibérico de las esponjas de agua dulce (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spongillidae en la cuenca del Duero. Se encontraron ejemplares en 24 (+ de 32 transectos, repartidos en 16 estaciones de muestreo. El estudio se desarrolló en 6 subcuencas fluviales de la meseta norte y fueron obtenidos datos sobre su ecología y distribución en

  12. Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem: seção São Paulo notas sobre as contribuições para a enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanisa Maria Arone

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, quatro diretores da ABEn-SP resgatam aspectos significativos da historicidade da Entidade, ao longo de seus 56 anos. A organização das informações, fatos e fotos foi feita a partir de documentos disponíveis na seção, inclusive um registro manuscrito, utilizado na íntegra, deixado por uma ex-diretora das primeiras gestões da Seção, e é permeada por impressões pessoais de fases e momentos vivenciados pelos autores ao longo de suas participações junto à Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem.

  13. Effect of cut type on fresh-cut 'menina brasileira' zucchini quality Efeito do tipo de corte na qualidade de abobrinha 'Menina Brasileira' minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Monteiro Vilas Boas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Market sales of ready-to-use fresh fruit and vegetables have grown quickly in the recent years as a result of changes in consumer attitudes. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of two kinds of cuts on the physiological, physical, physical-chemical, chemical and biochemical traits of fresh-cut 'Menina Brasileira' zucchini stored in rigid polypropylene packages, with lids of the same material containing sliced and grated zucchini and stored at 5º C, for 15 days. The variables respiratory rate, pH, L* value, soluble pectin, PME and PG activity, was interactively affected by the cut type and storage time factors. The variables mass loss, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and total pectin variable were only significantly affected by storage time factor. It can be concluded that sliced 'Menina Brasileira' zucchini shows a higher titratable acidity and soluble solids and a lower respiratory rate, pectin soluble and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity when compared with grated zucchini, contributing to the preservation of quality attributes.As vendas no mercado de frutas e hortaliças frescas prontas para o consumo têm crescido rapidamente nos últimos anos como resultado de mudanças nas atitudes dos consumidores. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de dois tipos de cortes nas características fisiológicas, físicas, químicas, físico-químicas e bioquímicas de abobrinha 'Menina Brasileira' minimamente processada, armazenada a 5º C em embalagens de polipropileno rígido, com tampas do mesmo material, contendo abobrinha fatiada e ralada, por 15 dias. As variáveis taxas respiratórias, pH, valor L*, pectina solúvel, atividade de PME e PG, foram interativamente afetadas pelos fatores tipo de corte e tempo de armazenamento. As variáveis perda de massa, atividade da fenilalanina amônia-liase e a pectina total foram afetadas significativamente apenas pelo fator tempo de armazenamento. Pode-se concluir que a abobrinha

  14. Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships between Atlanto-Mediterranean shallow-water and deep-sea coral associated Hexadella species (Porifera, Ianthellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveillaud, Julie; Remerie, Thomas; van Soest, Rob; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Cárdenas, Paco; Derycke, Sofie; Xavier, Joana R; Rigaux, Annelien; Vanreusel, Ann

    2010-07-01

    Coral reefs constitute the most diverse ecosystem of the marine realm and an increasing number of studies are focusing on coral species boundaries, distribution, and on processes that control species ranges. However, less attention has been paid to coral associated species. Deep-sea sponges dominate cold-water coral ecosystems, but virtually nothing is known about their molecular diversity. Moreover, species boundaries based on morphology may sometimes be inadequate, since sponges have few diagnostic characters. In this study, we investigated the molecular diversity within the genus Hexadella (Porifera, Demospongiae, Verongida, Ianthellidae) from the European shallow-water environment to the deep-sea coral ecosystems. Three molecular markers were used: one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear gene fragments (28S rDNA and the ATPS intron). Phylogenetic analyses revealed deeply divergent deep-sea clades congruent across the mitochondrial and nuclear markers. One clade contained specimens from the Irish, the Scottish, and the Norwegian margins and the Greenland Sea (Hexadella dedritifera) while another clade contained specimens from the Ionian Sea, the Bay of Biscay, and the Irish margin (H. cf. dedritifera). Moreover, these deeply divergent deep-sea clades showed a wide distribution suggesting a connection between the reefs. The results also point to the existence of a new deep-sea species (Hexadella sp.) in the Mediterranean Sea and of a cryptic shallow-water species (Hexadella cf. pruvoti) in the Gorringe Bank. In contrast, low genetic differentiation between H. cf. dedritifera and H. pruvoti from the Mediterranean Sea was observed. All Hexadella racovitzai specimens from the Mediterranean Sea (shallow and deep) to the Atlantic formed a monophyletic group.

  15. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  16. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  17. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  18. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  19. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher

  20. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  1. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher

  2. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  3. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue distr

  4. [A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica. The presence of a small specimen of the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (84 mm total length) in the stomach contents of an adult coral snake Micrurus alleni with 692 mm total length from the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica is reported. This eel was swallowed headfirst.

  5. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera da Amazônia brasileira Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera from brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José do Nascimento Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia brasileira são registradas dezenove espécies de Leptophlebiidae, distribuídas em dez gêneros. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de todos os gêneros de Leptophlebiidae ocorrentes na Região Neotropical, o numero de espécies de cada gênero no Brasil e um catálogo das espécies registradas na Amazônia brasileira.Brazilian Amazonia has nineteen registered species of Leptophlebiidae, distributed in ten genera. In this work a list of all genera of Leptophlebiidae from the Neotropical Region is presented, the number of species of each genus in Brazil and a catalog of the species occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

  6. Exclusão social fenômeno totalitário na democracia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Escorel

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo distingue conceitualmente três abordagens da temática da democracia e o desenvolvimento de cada uma delas na sociedade brasileira: democracia como valor, como processo e como conteúdo substantivo. Detendo-se nessa última abordagem, apresenta a categoria de exclusão social, construída e analisada por Hannah Arendt em Origens do totalitarismo, como elemento conceitual que permite refletir e compreender melhor a situação de amplas parcelas da população brasileira. A análise permite identificar no Brasil a existência de um processo com regras democráticas que convive com um conteúdo substantivo totalitário, a exclusão social com violência.

  7. A Dinâmica das Exportações Brasileiras de Carne Bovina (1994 - 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo analisa a dinâmica das exportações brasileiras de carne bovina entre 1994-2005. Tem por objetivo identificar seus principais determinantes internos e externos, empregando o método Constant Market Share. O fator competitividade revelou-se o principal determinante das exportações de carne bovina no período estudado. Num primeiro sub-período. a redução nas exportações brasileiras de carne bovina é atribuída à valorização do câmbio e a falta de adequação as exigências do mercado exter...

  8. MULHERES EXECUTIVAS BRASILEIRAS: O TETO DE VIDRO EM QUESTÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o fenômeno teto de vidro nas organizações brasileiras. Fenômeno que dificulta a ascensão de mulheres aos cargos de comando das empresas. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa descritiva com 47 executivas que conseguiram chegar aos três níveis mais altos das grandes organizações situadas no Brasil. Os resultados confirmam a literatura quanto ao fenômeno teto de vidro, apesar de que na perspectiva delas as barreiras “mesmo existentes” não impedem o crescimento. Entretanto, se verificarmos os números fica a impressão que elas estão suavizando a situação, pois apenas 23% das executivas brasileiras de nível estratégico são mulheres.

  9. Classificação internacional das atividades de enfermagem: uma amostra da realidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Rojas Yoshioca

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo constituiu-se de levantamento bibliográfico com objetivo de identificar os termos referentes as atividades de enfermagem: diagnosticar, prescrever e avaliar. O levantamento foi realizado em revistas, dissertações e teses da enfermagem brasileira, do acervo da biblioteca da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo e do catalogo de pesquisas e pesquisadores de enfermagem do Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem, no periodo de 1988 a 1992. Oas 119 publicações encontradas identificou-se que 53,5% referiam-se ao termo prescrição de enfermagem, 39,0% ao diagnóstico de enfermagem e 7,5% a avaliação da assistência. Cada um destes termos recebeu denominações diferentes, o que denota a necessidade de padronização de linguagem.

  10. A pesquisa nas classificações de enfermagem: a experiência brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Liliane Marlene Michel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma avaliação da produção científica brasileira na área das classificações de enfermagem, apresentada durante o VI SINADEN (SIMPÓSIO NACIONAL SOBRE DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMAGEM e I SICE (SIMPÓSIO INTERNACIONAL SOBRE CLASSIFICAÇÕES DE ENFERMAGEM, ocorrido em São Paulo, em agosto de 2002. Foram identificados quatro diferentes tipos de pesquisa sendo realizados no país, e mensurada a participação de enfermeiras¹ brasileiras nas últimas cinco conferências da NANDA (NORTH AMERICAN NURSING DIAGNOSIS ASSOCIATION, como um indicador desta produção.

  11. Assessing the quality of a scientific journal: the case of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieling, Christian; Gonçalves, Renata Rocha Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Scientific production in the field of Psychiatry is growing exponentially, as reflected by the number of scientific journals now available. Current strategies to objectively estimate the quality of a specific publication are mostly based on indexation and citation criteria. The concept of impact factor, a measure of the frequency with which an article has been cited in a particular period, is key to understanding the way journals are evaluated. The recent indexation of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria in the two major medical databases has increased the journal's visibility, as indicated by the rising number of citations received over the last years. As researchers' scientific productivity measures are largely associated with citation indices of journals in which manuscripts are published, it is essential that Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria continues to attract high quality, innovative articles, with the ultimate goal of providing state-of-the-art continuing medical education for mental health professionals.

  12. A TRANSFIGURAÇÃO DO CORPO FEMININO NA CULTURA BRASILEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordamos as imagens do corpo feminino na cultura brasileira. Toda fundação requer mitologias específicas, assim antes que a sociedade brasileira tivesse sua estrutura social em torno de um projeto político e econômico, esta recorreu a uma potência simbólica moldada na imagem do corpo feminino. Percebemos que este surge como um dos minúsculos fios textuais da cultura, passível de várias interpretações, dentre as quais optamos pela compreensão de seu valor histórico- social. Nos inspiramos nas análises de Maffesoli e Certeau. O corpo feminino assume nesse texto diversas cores que marcam o “trajeto antropológico” do imaginário do Brasil.

  13. A Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem: apontando perspectivas para sua análise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Santos Paiva

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Esse ensaio propõe algumas reflexões sobre o modo de analisara Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem. A Revista, instrumento de disseminação de conhecimentos e ideologia da enfermagem, tem sido objeto de poucos estudos na profissão. No ensaio, as autoras tomam como referência teórica o triângulo da significação de Pierre Lévy e aspectos da teoria feminista como pontos de partida para a análise proposta. Numa perspectiva para além do formal, a Revista pode e deve ser analisada enquanto um objeto que produz, na sua relação com as enfermeiras, elementos que compõem a cultura, o conhecimento e a simbologia da enfermagem brasileira.

  14. Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem 1926-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Correia de Carvalho

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available A história da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem (ABEn confunde-se, quase, com a história da enfermagem moderna no Brasil. Ambas nasceram na década de vinte. Este resumo procura sintetizar as principais realizações da ABEn: criação da Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, consecução de leis destinadas à regulamentação do ensino e do exercício profissional, realização de congressos anuais, promoção de atividades destinadas a facilitar o desenvolvimento intelectual e profissional dos enfermeiros e do pessoal auxiliar e a elaboração de levantamentos e pesquisas no campo da enfermagem.

  15. Escala de atitude na gravidez: adaptação para a cultura Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Márcia Spanó Nakano

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou realizar uma adaptação da escala Pregnancy Attitude Index (PAI para a cultura brasileira. Tal instrumento constitui um recurso que a enfermeira obstétrica pode utilizar para conhecer as percepções das gestantes assistidas nos cursos de preparação psicoprofilática frente a experiência de parto, conduzindo dessa forma para uma assistência mais condizente com as reais expectativas da gestante. Como resultado desse processo, o instrumento mostrou-se com boa estimativa de confiabilidade ou consistência interna, bem como permitiu agrupar padrões de respostas emitidas pelas gestantes e identificar itens que necessitam de maior adequacidade. Acredita-se, no entanto, que o PAI está em condição de ser utilizado na cultura brasileira.

  16. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes.

  17. Missão aduana brasileira, sob a ótica empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    An investigation about the mission of brazilian customs, mainly on its relationship with the economic activity, complemented by historical aspects ans views of other stackholders. Investigação sobre a missão da Aduana brasileira, sob a ótica de sua inserção na atividade econômica empresarial, complementada por considerações históricas e contemporâneas de outros atores.

  18. Ação anti-úlcera e cicatrizante de algumas plantas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfriede Marianne Bacchi

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão de algumas plantas brasileiras, existentes na região de São Paulo, conhecida por sua ação anti-úlcera e cicatrizante. As espécies citadas neste trabalho são: sucupira, jucá,erva de bugre, taiuiá, cipó-chumbo,coipó-caboclo, carobinha, saião, cordão de frade, aroeira e estoraque do campo.

  19. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  20. Processo de formação da gíria brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Gomes Cabello

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste artigo é observar como ocorrem os processos de formação da gíria brasileira, a fim de que se possa chegar à sua caracterização. Para tanto, a obra de ficção de JOÃO ANTONIO forneceu o corpus de estudo, uma vez que seus livros constituem valioso material dessa natureza.

  1. A educação nas constituições brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Recker Rabello Bulhões

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação do Poder Público, no que se refere à educação,encontra-se presente em todas constituições brasileiras: desde a primeiradelas, pós-independência, outorgada por D. Pedro I, em 1824; passando pelaRepublicana de 1891; a do Estado Novo de 1934; a de 1937; a de 1946,quando da redemocratização do país; seguida pela de 1967, de inspiraçãomilitar com limitação do poder da sociedade civil na escolha de seusgovernantes; com a agravante do AI-5 de 1968, que desencadeou a EmendaConstitucional no 1 de 1969, até chegarmos à Constituição de 1988, oitavaconstituição brasileira, denominada pelo seu principal artífice, o deputadoUlysses Guimarães, de “Constituição cidadã”. Apesar disso, observar-se queo enfoque dado à educação nas constituições brasileiras nem sempre foi omesmo, sofrendo consideráveis modificações com o decurso do tempo.

  2. MODELO CAGE E O MODO DE ENTRADA DE SUBSIDIÁRIAS BRASILEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vouga Chueke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Características nacionais têm sido apontadas como fatores de influência na escolha do modo de entrada de multinacionais no exterior. Este artigo investiga a associação da escolha do modo de entrada de multinacionais brasileiras (aquisição ou investimento greenfield com as distâncias entre os países definidas no modelo CAGE. Quatro hipóteses são desenvolvidas para checar a influência das dimensões definidas no modelo. Com base em regressão logística multivariada e, controlando outros efeitos, as hipóteses são testadas em amostra de 243 subsidiarias brasileiras presentes em 38 países.  Identificou-se que a dimensão econômica tem um peso superior na tomada de decisão, sendo seguido pelo aspecto político e pela distância cultural. As distâncias administrativa e geográfica não apresentam associação significante com o modo de entrada das multinacionais brasileiras.

  3. Estratégia e a internet: estudos de casos em empresas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Luis Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Esta pesquisa explora um período bastante peculiar e rico em experiências na internet brasileira, no qual as empresas utilizavam a internet como ferramenta estratégica a fim de obter um posicionamento diferenciado em contrapartida às iniciativas atuais, que utilizam modelos predefinidos para obter eficiência operacional. Através de estudos de caso (e-commerce de carros, operador portuário e internet banking observou-se que: (a a coerência da estratégia de negócios on-line pode trazer ganhos de competitividade; (b o modelo de negócios pode ser um constructo eficaz na formulação das estratégias on-line para empresas brasileiras atuando na internet; e (c algumas empresas brasileiras aproveitaram o potencial de criação de valor da internet para gerar eficiência, complementaridade, inovação e fidelização dos clientes em seus negócios.

  4. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  5. An Improved Scalar Costa Scheme Based on Watson Perceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Kai-yue; CHEN Jian-bo; ZHOU Yi

    2008-01-01

    An improved scalar Costa scheme (SCS) was proposed by using improved Watson perceptual model to adaptively decide quantization step size and scaling factor. The improved scheme equals to embed hiding data based on an actual image. In order to withstand amplitude scaling attack, the Watson perceptual model was redefined, and the improved scheme using the new definition can insure quantization step size in decoder that is proportional to amplitude scaling attack factor. The performance of the improved scheme outperforms that of SCS with fixed quantization step size. The improved scheme combines information theory and visual model.

  6. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Méndez Quesada; Ana Cecilia Kikut Valverde

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos) y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria) en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicional...

  7. El contrato de leasing financiero en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    La palabra leasing se ha ido introduciendo en el mundo de los negocios y de la producción en Costa Rica. Aunque se le ha querido asociar con algunas de las formas típicas de contratación existentes, como el arrendamiento, lo cierto es que el contrato leasing es una forma atípica de contratación, formando parte de los nuevos y  modernos contratos del mundo globalizado. Entre los beneficios que se le atribuyen están el de la posibilidad de adquirir bienes que en algunos casos no son financiable...

  8. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Llorca Castro; Vicente Ortún Rubio

    2010-01-01

    Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE) para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. M...

  9. Hispines (chrysomelidae, cassidinae) of la selva biological station, costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Survey work from 1992-2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni.

  10. Determinantes de la fecundidad masculina en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes Castro, Abelardo; González Ortega, Alfonso; Sandoval Aguilar, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Utilizando datos derivados de una encuesta realizada en 1980 a nivel nacional. se ponen a prueba hipótesis rivales derivadas de la teoría de la modernización y la teoría de la heterogeneidad estructural. El propósito de esta contestación es determinar cuál de estos enfoques es más valido para explicar el descenso que se dio en los niveles de fecundidad en Costa Rica a partir de la década de 1960. Después de revisar la literatura pertinente, se construye un modelo explicativo que ...

  11. Analysis of the solid waste management of Guacimo, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rooel; Soto-Córdoba, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper its shows the results about the analysis of the solid waste management in the “Municipalidad of Guacimo” located in Limón, Costa Rica. The Municipalidad of Guacimo doesn’t have the basic records and enough information that is necessary for improve the management of the solid waste. Because of that, this investigation provides the inputs for begin to design the solid waste management for the Municipalidad of Guacimo. We search quotes bibliographic about the situation and ...

  12. Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica (1966-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fonseca, J; Cubero-Pardo, P

    2001-06-01

    Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica are reported for a period of 33 years, with a total of 35 strandings, 13 species and 247 individuals involved. The vast majority of documented strandings occurred on the Pacific coast and correspond to single individuals (32 and 28 strandings respectively). The highest stranding number was in the period from 1990 to 1999 (n = 24). Physeter catodon (cachalot or sperm whale) is the species with the highest frequency of strandings (n = 8) and the family Delphinidae has the majority of species (n = 8) and strandings (n = 22). No other general tendencies were determined with the existing data.

  13. Effectiveness of the Costa Rican Central Bank forex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Espinoza Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an empirical approach to assess the effectiveness of foreign exchange interventions following the criteria by K. Domínguez (1998 using a GARCH model based on the work by C. Broto (2012. Analyses are conducted to evaluate the FOREX rules of intervention followed by the BCCR, and the probability of occurrence of an intervention is estimated using a LOGIT model.  In addition, the paper attempts to analyze what happened to the exchange arrangements applied in Costa Rica as a result of the 2006 exchange rate flexibility and transition to inflation targets.

  14. Origen de los manantiales de la Costa Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Rubén; Montoya, Modesto; Mamani, Enoc; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Maguiña, José; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo trata de determinar el origen los manantiales de la playa Costa Verde, situada en los distritos de Barranco, Miraflores y Magdalena de la provincia de Lima, Perú. Esos manantiales, cerca y a nivel del mar, sobreviven al proceso de urbanización de los terrenos de cultivo, iniciado en la década de los años 70, el que mermó el nivel freático del acuífero de Lima e hizo desaparecer las filtraciones de agua en los acantilados. Para identificar el origen se ha efectuado análisis isotóp...

  15. Premarital sex in Costa Rica: incidence, trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    1991-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1991 Versión en español de un articulo publicado originalmente en inglés. Según un modelo de riesgo en que se utilizaron datos retrospectivos de una muestra nacional de mujeres costarricenses de entre 15 y 24 años entrevistadas en 1986, cada año aproximadamente el 10 por ciento de las mujeres de entre 17 y 19 años—la edad más proclive a la iniciación sexual prematrimonial— comienzan su vida sexual ...

  16. Teatina-Quincha Shelter: Desierto costa sur, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este refugio aborda un punto central en la discusión sobre la arquitectura para la emergencia: ¿cómo articular una solución temporal con sus repercusiones en el largo plazo? Cercano a las maisons murondins de Le Corbusier y aprovechando mano de obra y el clima seco de la costa peruana, esta estructura de bambú tejido y barro provee un albergue transitorio que mejora las condiciones de una tienda de campaña pero mantiene su ligereza. El uso de materiales orgánicos facilita la reutilización de ...

  17. Miasis gastrointestinal por Eristalis tenax en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Barquero, Ángelo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Las miasis gastrointestinales son infestaciones poco frecuentes y de difícil identificación por su sintomatología inespecífica y por requerir la expulsión de las larvas para hacer un diagnóstico certero. Se presenta el primer caso reportado de miasis gastrointestinal por Eristalis tenax en Costa Rica. La paciente es una mujer de 45 años, que reside en una zona rural con problemas de abastecimiento de agua potable. Presenta un cuadro de diarrea crónica, dolor abdominal, y sensación de cuerpo e...

  18. Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena (PNMB, en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica, mediante tres transectos por sitio, de 10 m de largo cada uno y paralelos a la costa, utilizando una cuadrícula de 1 m2. Se encontró un total de 15 especies de corales (11 hermatípicas y 4 ahermatípicas, las que sumadas a informes previos para el parque hacen un total de 18 especies. El coral Porites lobata presentó la mayor cobertura coralina (36.5 ± 3.7% y fue el único presente en todos los sitios. Las otras especies de coral presentaron bajas coberturas (<10% y sólo fueron observadas en pocos sitios. El porcentaje de coral muerto fue de 1.8 ± 0.6% y el porcentaje de blanqueamiento (0.7 ± 0.2% está dado por P. lobata en un solo sitio. El PNMB y la Isla del Caño poseen el mayor número de especies de coral (18 especies de la región sur de Costa Rica; sin embargo, difieren en su composición. La baja diversidad y la baja cobertura coralina de varios sitios del parque se atribuyen al impacto del fenómeno de El Niño en los últimos años, a la sedimentación y a la dilución de las aguas en época de lluvias. Se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un monitoreo a largo plazo sobre estos ecosistemas y determinar futuras estrategias de manejo y conservación.

  19. Estado actual de la leishmaniosis en Costa Rica Current status of Leishmaniosis in Costa Rica

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    Orlando Jaramillo-Antillón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó esta investigación, para conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta enfermedad, los vectores relacionados y las especies de leishmanias causantes. Métodos: fuentes de información fueron los boletines epidemiológicos del Ministerio de Salud del 2001 al 2007 y el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. Se calcularon tasas de incidencia por sexo, grupos de edad, provincia y cantón. Las tasas del último trienio se compararon con una investigación que describe la situación epidemiológica de 1973 a 1975, para identificar cambios epidemiológicos de la enfermedad. La revisión bibliográfica permitió describir las formas clínicas y la distribución geográfica de los vectores que la ocasionan. Resultados y conclusión: la incidencia aumentó de 10,5 del 2001 a 40,7 x100.000 habitantes en el 2007. Los menores de 19 años fueron los más afectados. Talamanca presentó la mayor incidencia cantonal. El agente etiológico más frecuente de la leishmaniosis cutánea es la Leishmania (Viannia panamensis, aunque también existe la L. (V. braziliensis. Los mosquitos trasmisores fueron Lutzomyia ylephiletor y L. trapidoi. Los reservorios del parásito son los perezosos: Bradypus griseus y Choloepus hoffmanni y un roedor Heteromys desmarestianus. Existe también la leishmaniosis cutánea atípica, producida por Leishmania infantum (= Leishmania chagasi, productora responsable de un caso de leishmaniosis visceral. L.longipalpis, esta asociada a la transmisión de estas dos últimas formas de leishmaniosis. Debe entrenarse al personal de salud, en la detección de esta enfermedad, y educar a la población.Justification and aim: We conducted an investigation to study the epidemiological behavior of the disease, its related vectors and the species that cause leishmania. Methods: As sources of information we used epidemiological bulletins from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health covering the years 2001 to 2007 and also those from the

  20. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

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    Ingo S Wehrtmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as well as Solenocera agassizii, the latter one being the most important in terms of annual landings. Here we compile the information available from Costa Rica about each of the three target species. Furthermore, we describe research activities related to the Costa Rican deepwater resources and present available data about by-catch and discards in this fishery. Finally, the current situation of the administration and management of these resources in Costa Rica is described. Strengthening collaboration between governmental agencies, the fishery sector, non-governmental organizations, and the academic sector is recommended to avoid an uncontrolled overfishing of these valuable deepwater resources along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.Las capturas globales de los recursos marinos pesqueros disminuyeron durante las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, se ha observado una tendencia de aumento en la explotación de los recursos de aguas profundas, los cuales son especialmente vulnerables a la extracción. Esta tendencia ha sido notable también en la pesca a lo largo del Pacífico de Latino América. En Costa Rica, la mayoría de las actividades pesqueras comerciales se concentran en la costa del Pacífico. Las especies objetivo de la pesca de aguas profundas en Costa Rica son los dos pandálidos Heterocarpus affinis y H vicarius así como Solenocera agassizii, siendo esta última la más importante respecto a las capturas anuales. Se compila la información disponible

  1. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica

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    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; differences by gender are also analyzed. Based on an ex post facto design, a standardized instrument was used to measure five types of aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal-emotional, physical, sexual, relational and threats in a sample of 468 adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica. Results show that most participants had committed or suffered aggressions in dating relationships, especially verbal-emotional or both verbal-emotional and sexual abuse, but the mean frequency of reported aggression was low; some significant intersex differences were also found. Results obtained indicate that adolescents have difficulties to deal with conflicts in their romantic relationship; thus this problem needs to be addressed holistically in order to increase the impact of prevention programs for youth.

  2. LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA EN TRÁNSITO

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    Eleonora Badilla Saxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM ("todo", "entero", "universal" superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.

  3. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  4. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

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    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: "Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable" La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos mayores que poseen un diagnóstico previo de hipercolesterolemia, el 68% resultó con niveles de colesterol total de 200 mg/dl o más en las mediciones del estudio. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. La diferencia resultó significativa. Los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia son el ser hombre, el tener diagnóstico de diabetes e hipertensión, la actividad física y tomar medicamentos para controlar el nivel lipídico. La interacción entremedicamentos no resultó significativa en el estudio.

  5. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Roger; Chavarría, Juan B

    2004-12-01

    Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA). Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters) artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ) Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1) with a seasonal component of the Yt = lamda(t-1) + gammaS12 + a(t) type.

  6. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  7. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  8. La maestra Alda Costa: un mártir antifascista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cagnolati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sector interesante al que aplicar nuevas categorías de la investigación histórica y social es, sin duda, el de la educación de las mujeres. Maestras, educadoras, pedagogas fueron revolucionarias en diversas épocas de la historia dedicando su existencia a la difusión de conocimientos que pudiesen ser aprovechados por otras mujeres. Para ello fundaron escuelas, escribieron libros y publicaron periódicos. En este sentido las maestras socialistas italianas fueron pioneras al difundir palabras claves como derechos, democracia e igualdad de sueldo. Una figura muy importante fue la maestra antifascista Alda Costa (1876-1944, que luchó contra el militarismo italiano antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial y asumió encargos de gran relevancia en el Partido Socialista. Además fue amiga de Giacomo Matteotti, asesinado por los fascistas en Roma en junio de 1925. Alda Costa fue encarcelada, por su oposición al régimen, y los sufrimientos padecidos precipitaron su muerte.

  9. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  10. Mantle Xenoliths of Cerro Mercedes, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Carr, M. J.; Herzberg, C. T.; Feigenson, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mantle peridotite occurs as xenoliths in lavas and bombs at Cerro Mercedes, a Plio-Quaternary potassic alkaline basalt volcano approximately 70 km behind the volcanic front of northern Costa Rica (Tournon and Alvarado, 1997). Mineral exploration led to the first discovery of abundant mantle xenoliths in Central America (Vargas and Alfaro, 1992). The compositions of 71 xenoliths recovered in January 2003 include dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and olivine websterite. Twenty xenoliths have a diameter of at least 3 cm. The nodules are abundant in basalt outcrops and the rare bombs. In spite of substantial soil development in a rain forest environment, both xenoliths and host lava remain well preserved. Olivine, pyroxenes and spinel are common, plagioclase is present and garnet appears to be absent. There is no obvious shearing or deformation and several pyroxenes are as much as 1 cm in diameter. The mineralogy suggests a relatively shallow upper mantle source, within either the lithosphere or possibly the uppermost asthenosphere. Cerro Mercedes, at latitude 10° 58' N and longitude 82° 21' W, lies along the Rio San Juan, which is locally the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Central America. This location approximately coincides with a boundary between dominantly depleted mantle to the northwest and OIB or Galapagos-like mantle to the southeast. We will use mineralogical data to better define the likely depths and oxidation states of representative nodules and isotopic data to define the type of mantle source.

  11. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  12. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Setzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forestsSe realizó un análisis farmacológico de plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica, que incluye 165 especies representantes de 61 familias. Se probó in-vitro la actividad bactericida y fungicida, así como la actividad citotóxica y anti-herpes de extractos crudos de plantas. De estos, 123 extractos exhibieron una notable citotoxicidad, 62 mostraron actividad antibacterial, 4 presentaron actividad antihongos, y 8 mostraron una promisoria actividad antiviral. Así, de las 101 especies de plantas examinadas en este trabajo, 62% presentaron una marcada actividad biológica en uno o más de los bioensayos. Estos resultados subrayan el potencial fitomédico de los bosques nubosos Neotropicales

  13. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980's, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public.

  14. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos mayores que poseen un diagnóstico previo de hipercolesterolemia, el 68% resultó con niveles de colesterol total de 200 mg/dl o más en las mediciones del estudio. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. La diferencia resultó significativa. Los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia son el ser hombre, el tener diagnóstico de diabetes e hipertensión, la actividad física y tomar medicamentos para controlar el nivel lipídico. La interacción entre medicamentos no resultó significativa en el estudio.

  15. Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica

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    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht Vatke (Lamiaceae collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were -pinene (26.6%, cis -pinocamphone (25.1%, -3-carene (6.1%, trans -pinocamphone (4.0%, camphor (3.8% and -caryophyllene (3.7%.Se estudiaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron 51 compuestos (que representan ca. del 93% del aceite. El aceite se caracteriza por la presencia de gran cantidad de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45.9% y de monoterpenos oxigenados (39.7%. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron -pineno (26.6%, cis -pinocanfona (25.1%, -3-careno (6.1%, trans -pinocanfona (4.0%, alcanfor (3.8% y -cariofileno (3.7%.

  16. Representações sociais dos moradores da Baía de Camamu sobre o Filo Porifera Social representations of Camamu Bay, Brazil, inhabitants of the Phylum Porífera

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    Loyana Docio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa que teve o objetivo de traçar um perfil das representações sociais dos moradores de três localidades da Baía de Camamu, Estado da Bahia, sobre o Filo Porifera. O foco nos poríferos foi motivado pela grande biomassa de esponjas no fenômeno de arribação da baía e ausência de pesquisas sobre esses animais na área do ensino. A metodologia esteve pautada nas representações sociais, pois conhecimentos (reconstruídos na vivência de um local característico, como o apresentado por esse ambiente, permitem desenhar perspectivas que subsidiam o ensino de Ciências, por exemplo, no tratamento dos obstáculos epistemológicos à aprendizagem de conceitos científicos. Foram realizadas sessenta entrevistas semiestruturadas, vinte em cada lugarejo (Ilha do Contrato, Barra Grande e Ilha dos Tubarões. Os dados foram organizados em categorias que resultaram num perfil de conhecimentos sobre os seguintes aspectos dos poríferos: estado vital, origem, taxonomia, ecologia, anatomia, fisiologia, utilidade antrópica e espongose.This study established a profile of social representations by inhabitants in three locations in Camamu Bay (state of Bahia of the Phylum Porifera. Among other reasons, the focus on Porifera is due to its significant biomass ascertained in the bay region's migration phenomenon and the lack of research on these animals in education. The methodology used was based on social representations because when knowledge is (rebuilt from experience of a location with a characteristic profile is compared to scientific knowledge, it is possible to draw perspectives for Science education, such as the epistemological obstacles to the learning of scientific concepts. Sixty semi-structured interviews were carried out, twenty in each place (Ilha do Contrato, Barra Grande, and Ilha dos Tubarões. The gathered data was organized into categories that outlined a profile of knowledge that includes characteristics such

  17. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  18. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  19. Problemas fitosanitarios del ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) es una especie forestal introducida en Costa Rica, utilizada para madera de construcción, como cortina rompevientos, para árboles de navidad, etc. En las bases de datos del Laboratorio de Protección Forestal del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, se informa que en Costa Rica, hasta el año 2008, se reportan 28 agentes causales que provocan daños en ciprés, de los cuales 14 son insectos (50%), 11 patógenos (39%) y 3 vertebrados (11%). El 32% de los daños ...

  20. Genotype profiles for the Costa Rican population at 7 PCR-based loci

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    Bernal Morera

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete electronic DNA profiles of 2006 randomly selected Costa Ricans, typed for 7 PCR-based loci, are presented. Such data may prove valuable for anthropological and forensic studies of the Costa Rican population. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 713-715. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se presenta una versión electrónica de los perfiles genéticos completos de 2006 individuos de Costa Rica seleccionados al azar, quienes fueron caracterizados para loci 6 basados en PCR. Tales datos podrían ser valiosos para estudios antropológicos y forenses de la población costarricense.

  1. Mujeres esclavas en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII: Estrategias frente a la esclavitud.

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    María de los Angeles Acuña León

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La esclavitud formaba parte de la vida cotidiana en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII. De ahí nuestro interés en visibilizar a la mujer esclava en dicha sociedad. Por tanto en este trabajo se indicará porqué razones y por cuales rutas llegaron estas mujeres a la provincia de Costa Rica y se analizaran los mecanismos de acción y negociación utilizados por estas mujeres esclavas para enfrentar y sobrevivir la maquinaria esclavista. Esto significa el examinar y analizar sus experiencias, sus respuestas y actitudes ante la esclavitud, en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII.

  2. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ney Meziat Filho; Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTA...

  3. Epilepsia mioclónica progresiva tipo Lafora y los casos diagnosticados en Costa Rica

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    Virginia Solís

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica de los principales aspectos clínicos, patológicos y genéticos de la epilepsia mioclónica progresiva tipo Lafora. Se hace mención a los casos de esta enfermedad diagnosticados en Costa Rica.Lafora’s progressive myoclonus epilepsy and diagnosed cases in Costa Rica. A review of the main clinical, pathologic and genetic aspects of progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora type was undertaken. The diagnosed cases of this disorder in Costa Rica are mentioned. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 571-584. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

  4. Myth, Gender and Enterprise: Three Foundational Images of Costa Rican Contemporary Drama

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article describes three fragmentary images on the origin of the Costa Rican drama from a contemporary point of view. Through these images it is shown that the Costa Rican theater lacks a native mythology, that female production comes late in its history, and that the Costa Rican theater emerges more as a political  and a entertainment necessity, than in relation to the development of the national dramatic literature. Se presenta en este artículo tres imágenes fragmentarias sobre el or...

  5. ON THE IDENTITY OF SCUTIGERA VESUVIANA [O. G. COSTA], 1839 (Chilopoda

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    M. Zapparoli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new synonymy “Scutigera Vesuviana” [O. G. Costa], 1839 = Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758 syn. nov. is proposed. “Lithobius vesuvianus”, a name erroneously attributed to Achille instead of Oronzio Gabriele Costa and by the authors of a species named but never described different from “Scutigera Vesuviana” [O. G. Costa], 1839, is equated to this latter. The few records of “Scutigera Vesuviana” quoted by the authors after the original description, critically revised, must be referred to Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  6. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  7. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

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    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuicios sobre las víctimas en la sociedad. Se explora el hecho de que la información sobre este fenómeno en Costa Rica es escasa y el abordaje psicológico lo es aún más. La investigación tiene sus bases en la metodología cualitativa descriptiva; se propone un diseño fenomenológico que parte de la teoría humanista del Análisis Transaccional de Berne (1976 para efectuar estudio múltiple de casos. La muestra estuvo constituida por un grupo de cinco mujeres, que se encontraron en proceso de restauración en la ONG bajo las categorías de análisis “Trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial nacional” (dentro de Costa Rica, “Avasallamientos” y “Desarrollo personal”. Los resultados identificaron avasallamientos, a los que fueron sometidas las mujeres de esta muestra, antes, durante y después de ser captadas en la trata. Asimismo, se analiza cómo el desarrollo de las mujeres víctimas de trata en este estudio se ve obstaculizado por dichos avasallamientos y cómo algunas lograron obtener el crecimiento personal a pesar de lo sucedido.

  8. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

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    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  9. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast

  10. A Economia Brasileira Diante da Crise Mundial: Fragilidades e Perspectivas de Crescimento

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    José Matias-Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, apoiado nos principais indicadores da economia global e nacional, é promover uma análise dos efeitos da crise mundial e as perspectivas de crescimento da economia brasileira no período de 2013-2015. O referencial teórico está apoiado nas Teorias Keynesiana, Neoinstitucionalista e das Finanças Públicas. Trata-se de um artigo bibliográfico, descritivo e qualitativo, cujas discussões estão baseadas nas projeções contidas nos relatórios das principais instituições multilaterais e nacionais brasileiras, em especial nas variáveis econômicas mais relevantes como o crescimento da economia mundial, do comportamento do nível de emprego e da inflação. Os resultados das discussões, a partir das análises dos documentos citados, evidenciam que a crise econômica mundial continua impactando de forma preocupante na maioria dos países, em especial, dos países membros da Zona do Euro e Estados Unidos, e que o desempenho da economia brasileira deverá crescer num ritmo menor nos próximos anos. Essas constatações permite concluir que se faz necessário a definição de um diagnóstico consistente para o Brasil, que permita uma mudança estrutural no potencial de expansão da economia do país, em especial, preparando de forma mais adequada o seu ambiente macro e microeconômico.

  11. INOVAÇÃO NA AGRICULTURA BRASILEIRA: UMA ANÁLISE DA LITERATURA

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    Jaqueline de Fátima Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura desempenha papel importante na economia brasileira. Um elemento central para o desenvolvimento dessa atividade tanto no que tange ao crescimento econômico quanto social é a inovação. Nesse contexto, a proposta deste estudo objetiva analisar as inovações de produto, processo, organizacional e de marketing na agricultura brasileira. O estudo é de cunho teórico e analisa 32 artigos relacionados com o tema, selecionados a partir de bases de dados e de periódicos focados em inovação. Os resultados possibilitaram a criação de um esquema representativo da inovação na agricultura brasileira cujos componentes são os objetivos dos artigos, o tipo de estudo realizado, os conceitos e tipos de inovações adotados, as ferramentas e procedimentos utilizados para inovar, as principais entregas dos autores e a identificação das inovações como incremento ou diferenciação das commodities agrícolas. Concluiu-se que as pesquisas tratam dos diferentes tipos de inovação, conforme classificação do Manual de Oslo, os objetivos são voltados para aspectos técnicos ou sociais e o predomínio é de trabalhos de campo. Em suma, a inovação vem sendo acrescida tanto nas questões da produtividade quanto nas relações do homem com a terra e do desenvolvimento sustentável.

  12. Educação Brasileira: análise temática (1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Giazzi Nassri

    Full Text Available Analisei a freqüência de aparecimento dos temas e dos nomes das universidades brasileiras, oficiais e particulares, nos artigos da Revista Educação Brasileira, publicada pelo Conselho de Reitores, no período de 1991 a 1994. Constata que a análise permitiu uma visão geral dos problemas educacionais do país no período, que liouve diferença significativa entre as categorias de temas, prevalecendo a Genérica e que a produção dos docentes das universidades estatais destacou-se significantemente. Conclui pela relevância da publicação enquanto identifica e analisa a problemática da educação superior brasileira.

  13. [Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, a pioneer in medical historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Amanda; Nicolini, Gabriel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    I(It? This?) presents the general characteristics of the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which contributed for the emergence of the field of medicine history in Brazil by inciting bibliographic production on the subject. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between 1940 and 1960. The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

  14. A relevância das informações financeiras das empresas brasileiras cotadas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Eliane Pereira da

    2009-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão de Empresas Este trabalho analisa o papel da contabilidade como fornecedora de informações no mercado de capitais. O estudo tem por objetivo analisar a relevância da informação financeira avaliando a qualidade das informações financeiras das empresas brasileiras cotadas. Para avaliar a qualidade dessa informação financeira usaram-se duas medidas que são a gestão dos resultados (earnings management) e a relevância das informações (value relevance). A a...

  15. AONDE VAI A EDUCAÇÃO PÚBLICA BRASILEIRA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Luiz Carlos Gonçalves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o cenário da atual greve dos docentes das universidades federais. Critica a política educacional brasileira e denuncia o abandono das instituições federais de ensino, com base em indicadores sobre a transferência de recursos para as universidades. Relaciona esse quadro com um programa mais amplo de reformulação das políticas educacionais em países periféricos, impulsionado por organismos internacionais e examina suas principais conexões com a reforma do Estado iniciada no primeiro governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso.

  16. As bibliotecas brasileiras em 2018: resultados da técnica de delfos

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Maira Murrieta

    2012-01-01

    Apresenta os principais resultados de um estudo delphi, realizado com especialistas em bibliotecas, envolvidos no oferecimento de produtos e serviços de informação. Foram avaliadas as opiniões desses especialistas quanto ao futuro das bibliotecas brasileiras em 2018. Um sistema desenvolvido em ambiente web serviu como suporte para quatro rodadas da pesquisa, que recebeu contribuições de 16 especialistas (primeira rodada) e de 14 respondentes nas três rodadas seguintes. Os resultados obtidos s...

  17. A tradução brasileira de O nome da rosa, de Umberto Eco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Aloisio Fonda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho, que é uma crítica à tradução brasileira da obra em epígrafe, propõe-se enfatizar a responsabilidade do tradutor, bem como a necessidade do domínio não apenas das línguas com as quais se trabalha, como também da formação específica no campo do assunto versado na obra a traduzir.

  18. Prevalência de Streptococcus suis sorotipo 2: discussão da literatura brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis é mundialmente considerado um dos patógenos de maior impacto sanitário e econômico na indústria suinícola. Dentre os sorotipos descritos como zoonóticos, o sorotipo 2 é o mais frequentemente isolado de animais e humanos doentes na maioria dos países. O estudo da epidemiologia das infecções por S. suis no Brasil é importante para a implantação de medidas efetivas de controle. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão crítica da literatura brasileira, com sup...

  19. Para uma caracterização da Psicologia social brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Pinto de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo construir um esboço panorâmico da história da psicologia social brasileira. Inicialmente, partimos da intuição de Farr sobre a diferença conceitual entre psicologias sociais sociológicas e psicológicas para com isso estabelecer pontos de comparações entre as diversas perspectivas em Psicologia social. Analisamos diversos grupos teóricos para tentar construir um modo de compreensão sobre as implicações políticas, metodológicas e práticas de suas respectivas ...

  20. O TRÁFICO INTERNACIONAL DE ANIMAIS: TRATAMENTO NORMATIVO E A REALIDADE BRASILEIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cárita Chagas; Oliveira, Raisa Lustosa de

    2013-01-01

    O tráfico de animais silvestre é a terceira atividade ilegal que movimenta em torno de US$ 10 bilhões por ano em todo o mundo, sendo superada apenas pelo narcotráfico e o tráfico de armas.  Esse processo é movido por uma complexa atividade de contrabando, destacando-se, em alguns casos, o requinte de sofisticação utilizado.  A legislação brasileira sobre o meio ambiente e, especificamente no que tange à fauna, se comparada a outros países, manteve-se na vanguarda, ofertando meios para que os ...

  1. Nietzsche para pensar o mal nos filmes sobre a ditadura militar brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigger, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Depois de anunciada a morte de Deus, refutamos a verdade absoluta e, em seu lugar, passamos a adotar o perspectivismo. Deste modo, podemos compreender a atenção que a filmografia brasileira, nestes últimos anos, tem reservado à produção de filmes sobre a ditadura militar, pois a tortura e a repressão não são atos aceitos em nossa sociedade. Assim, utilizando- se da teoria nietziana como metodologia no sentido de revelar a moral representada nos filmes sobre a ditadura militar, podemos analisar como o mal está caracterizado nestas obras

  2. O PROCESSO DE INTERNACIONALIZAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS: ESTUDO COM FRANQUEADORAS

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    Daniela Motta Romeiro Khauaja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o processo de internacionalização de empresas brasileiras, incluindo as motivações para a internacionalização, os modos de entrada selecionados e as dificuldades encontradas nesse processo. O tema escolhido justifica-se pela importância da gestão internacional para empresas brasileiras no momento em que o país se encontra. Na revisão da literatura são discutidos estudos que tratam do processo de entrada em mercados externos, e mais especificamente da internacionalização de empresas brasileiras. Realizou-se pesquisa empírica, exploratória e qualitativa. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a entrevista em profundidade, a qual tinha por base um roteiro. Como procedimento analítico, adotou-se a análise de conteúdo. Participaram da pesquisa dez empresas que têm sede no Brasil, adotaram o sistema de franquias no país e se internacionalizaram. Tais empresas fazem parte da Associação Brasileira de Franchising (ABF, que apoiou a pesquisa. O setor de franquias foi escolhido porque o Brasil é um dos países mais avançados do mundo em franquias e esse sistema é reconhecido como importante impulsionador do processo de globalização. Foram entrevistados o dono da empresa ou o executivo da área de marketing e/ou o responsável pela área internacional. Os resultados da pesquisa empírica evidenciam que, apesar de entrantes tardias, as empresas analisadas não pareceram atrasadas em termos de capacitação gerencial e demonstram possuir competências tecnológicas. É fato, contudo, que elas demoraram a se internacionalizar por possuírem ainda um vasto mercado interno para conquistar. Adotar uma visão global é muito importante, mesmo que se prefira uma abordagem gradual de internacionalização.

  3. A economia política brasileira na obra de Francisco de Oliveira

    OpenAIRE

    Moret, Alex Hotz

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho busca relatar as principais contribuições de Francisco de Oliveira para o entendimento da economia política brasileira. Para isso, dividiu-se a produção teórica do autor em três fases, desde a publicação do artigo Critica à razão dualista até o seu mais recente trabalho, intitulado O ornitorrinco. O objetivo da análise é apresentar, em cada fase da obra do autor, as contribuições inseridas por Francisco de Oliveira no debate teórico nacional. Inicialmente será ...

  4. Estilo pessoal do terapeuta: dados preliminares da versão brasileira do EPT-Q

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Margareth da Silva

    2006-01-01

    O estilo pessoal do terapeuta pode ser entendido como um dos componentes do processo terapêutico, referindo-se a um conjunto de funções que se mostram de maneira integrada e expressam disposições, riscos e atitudes que todo terapeuta evidencia em seu exercício profissional. Este estudo apresenta dados da versão brasileira da escala do estilo pessoal do terapeuta (EPT-C) de Fernández-Alvarez e Garcia. Os procedimentos de adaptação seguiram os passos de tradução do instrumento do espanhol para ...

  5. Discursos da gastronomia brasileira: gêneros e identidade nacional postos à mesa

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como foco de análise representações e discursos sobre as identidades de gênero e nacional no campo da gastronomia brasileira. O trabalho se desenvolveu dentro dos campos de Estudos Culturais, Feministas e de Gênero, numa perspectiva pós-estruturalista. A fonte fundamental da pesquisa foi uma revista de alta gastronomia nacional, chamada Gula. O recorte da análise (textual e visual) ficou entre as publicações de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2005, num total de 73 exemplares...

  6. Uma análise da dinâmica inflacionária brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cribari-Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central do presente artigo é analisar a dinâmica inflacionária brasileira e medir o grau de inércia em tal dinâmica. De início, nós apresentamos resultados de simulação de Monte Carlo sobre o desempenho em amostras finitas de diferentes variantes da razão de variâncias, uma medida comumente utilizada para a mensuração de persistência de choques no longo prazo. As simulações são realizadas sob inovações normais e não-normais e também com e sem outliers e inliers. Os resultados favorecem uma particular variante robusta da razão de variâncias proposta neste artigo. Os resultados empíricos para o Brasil indicam que o grau de inércia inflacionária neste país é substancialmente maior do que aquele encontrado por Campêlo e Cribari-Neto (Revista Brasileira de Economia, 57, 713-739, 2003; de fato, em alguns períodos da história econômica brasileira recente nós encontramos inércia plena. Todavia, o grau de inércia inflacionária após a implementação do Plano Real é de segunda ordem. Nós analisamos também as dinâmicas inflacionárias da Argentina, Chile e México.The chief goal of this paper is to analyze the Brazilian inflationary dynamics, and to measure the degree of inertia in such dynamics. To that end, we start by reporting Monte Carlo simulation results on the finite-sample performance of different variants of the variance ratio, a well know measure of long-run persistence of shocks. The simulations are performed under normal and nonnormal innovations, and also with and without outliers and inliers. Overall, the results favor a robust variant of the variance ratio we propose. The empirical results for Brazil suggest that the degree of inertia in this country is substantially larger than what was found by Campêlo and Cribari-Neto (Revista Brasileira de Economia 57, 713-739, 2003; indeed, in several periods of the recent economic history we find full inertia. However, the degree of inertia since

  7. Estratégias de Hedging para a Fruticultura Exportadora Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Abdinardo Moreira Barreto

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as configurações nas quais as estratégias de hedging são efetivas na diminuição do risco de preço da fruticultura exportadora brasileira. Tal pesquisa é justificada pela seguinte problema: caso fosse possível os fruticultores serem usuários do mercado de derivativos, não se sabe como as estratégias de hedging seriam configuradas para melhor lhes atenderem. Assim, foram calculados os preços médios mensais US$ FOB/kg entre 1989 e 2013, a part...

  8. O livro Programa de saúde : um caso de censura durante a ditadura militar brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Reimao,Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Estão liberados para consulta alguns documentos produzidos por órgãos do governo durante a ditadura militar brasileira, entre eles, pareceres de censura sobre televisão, rádio, teatro, filmes, músicas, publicidades e impressos. Entre os cerca de quinhentos pareceres relativos a livros está o indicativo de veto a Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde , obra didática que propunha ações para que os alunos buscassem conh...

  9. Uma breve história da política nuclear brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Kuramoto, Renato Yoichi Ribeiro; UEL - Paraná; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; UEL - Párana

    2002-01-01

    Na década de 30, surgiram as primeiras pesquisas na área nuclear no Brasil. Entretanto, somente a partir de 1945, com a explosão da bomba atômica em Hiroshima, o governo brasileiro passa a demonstrar interesse em tal setor. Desde então, em meio a controvérsias quanto ao uso da energia nuclear para fins bélicos, a busca sistemática pelo domínio da tecnologia nuclear, direcionada a uma hegemonia brasileira na América Latina, marcaram os 54 anos seguintes da história da polí...

  10. O impacto do investimento direto estrangeiro na produtividade das indústrias brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Alvarez Azevedo

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho analisa o impacto do fluxo de investimento direto estrangeiro na produtividade de indústrias brasileiras, através de um painel composto por 18 setores, no período compreendido entre 1996 e 2008. A amostra é composta por dados anuais do fluxo de investimento direto estrangeiro, produtividade, importações e exportações. De acordo com a literatura, o investimento direto estrangeiro é considerado importante fonte de tecnologia e de diversos outros benefícios para países receptore...

  11. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Gort, G.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. 2. Leaves were collected in Costa

  12. Productive chains in Costa Rica: an application from data matrix input-output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2016-05-01

    Results confirm not only the consolidation process experienced by the activities and products related to the services sector as a motor of the Costa Rican economic activity, but also the idea that these activities generate the highest forward linkages.

  13. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  14. Why students of public and private schools in Costa Rica obtain different academic achievement?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregorio Giménez; Geovanny Castro Aristizábal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methodology, applied to the pisa 2012 database, in order to identify the causes of the differences in academic results between public and private Costa Rican schools...

  15. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez-Delgado, F; Roupsard, O; le Maire, G; Taugourdeau, S; Pérez, A; van Oijen, M; Vaast, P; Rapidel, B; Harmand, J. M; Voltz, M; Bonnefond, J. M; Imbach, P; Moussa, R

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water...

  16. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Gómez-Delgado; O. Roupsard; R. Moussa; G. le Maire; S. Taugourdeau; J. M. Bonnefond; A. Pérez; M. van Oijen; P. Vaast; B. Rapidel; M. Voltz; P. Imbach; J. M. Harmand

    2010-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water...

  17. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.S.M.; Gort, G.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. Leaves were collected in Costa Rican

  18. Percepcion de los usuarios del servicio de transporte tren, Costa Rica, mayo de 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abarca Rodriguez, Allan

    2013-01-01

    El alto crecimiento de la flota vehicular y la falta de ampliacion en la infraestructura vial en Costa Rica no solo generaron la politica de reactivacion del servicio de transporte de personas por tren...

  19. La exencion de condenatoria en costas procesales en el proceso laboral venezolano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmona Garcia, Jose Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    ... de exencion contenidos en el articulo 64 de dicha norma, es decir, por una parte a los demandantes como sujetos que pueden estar exentos de una condenatoria en costas procesales siempre y cuando cumplan...

  20. Ciencia política en Costa Rica: búsqueda de identidad disciplinaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald Alfaro Redondo; Jorge Vargas Cullell

    2005-01-01

    ... búsqueda de identidad disciplinaria en el plano teórico y fundamentalmente en el plano metodológico.Abstract This article explores the main characteristics of political science in Costa Rica over the last 35 years...

  1. Los materiales impresos comercializados por el Partido Comunista de Costa Rica. Una contribucion documental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molina Jimenez, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    El proposito principal del presente articulo es poner a disposicion de los investigadores datos basicos sobre los libros, folletos, periodicos y revistas comercializados por el Partido Comunista de Costa Rica (PCCR) entre 1931 y 1948...

  2. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Gort, G.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. 2. Leaves were collected in Costa

  3. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  4. Emission inventory of criteria pollutants Costa Rica in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criteria pollutant emissions were determined in Costa Rica in 2011, from the application of emission factors, measurement sources, the application of mechanistic models and material balance. A total of 1,898,591 tons of criteria pollutants which were recorded, mobile sources are the main contributions with nearly 61%, followed by the area and stationary sources, with 21 and 18 % respectively. The most abundant pollutant in weight, anthropogenically generated during 2011 was the carbon monoxide ( CO , issuing into the atmosphere about 856 264 tonnes per year, mainly for mobile sources; next in order of importance emissions of total organic gases (GOT with more than 434 777 tonnes per year, with mobile sources which generate 40 %.

  5. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  6. Inflation persistence on Services and Regulated Goods in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León Murillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present document studies the degree of inflation persistence and price stickiness across different categories in the Costa Rican Consumer Price index (CPI, using disaggregate and aggregate data, with a particular focus in the regulated and services prices. We adopt two approaches: The parametric approach is based in an autoregressive process with constant mean, and the structural approach is based on the estimation of the New Keynesian Hybrid Phillips Curve. We use different econometric techniques, as univariate and multivariate time series, and panel data methods. The evidence suggests that changes in prices and services regulated items have higher degrees of persistence in addition to presenting rigidities in the adjustment pattern. Also it was found that using disaggregate data the degree of inflation persistence is lower than the inflation persistence estimation of univariate models with aggregate data, and this tend to reduce excluding the regulated and services products prices.

  7. Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A. SIBAJA-CORDERO; Jess S. TRONCOSO; Eddy GMEZ-RAMREZ

    2014-01-01

    Subtidal sediments of Isla del Coco (Cocos Island), Costa Rica were described in their grain size, sorting, organic matter, and carbonates from 27 dredge samples (3-75 m), collected in April 2010. The organic matter range between 1.37-3.31% and carbonates presented a mean of 74±17%. The sorting was moderately or poorly. The grain size ranged between 0.1-1.1mm. The pattern is that sediment change from inner to mouth of bays. Carbonates and gravel fractions increased offshore and organic matter have high values inner the bays. Input of vegetal debris and mud was from the rivers of this island covered with rain and cloud forest.

  8. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  9. Arbutoid mycorrhizas of the genus Cortinarius from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühdorf, K; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2016-08-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizas of Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Arbutoidea, Ericaceae) from neotropical montane forests are rarely described. To date, only mycorrhizal associations with the fungal species Leccinum monticola, Leotia lubrica and Sebacina sp. are known from literature. The genus Cortinarius is one of the most species-rich ectomycorrhizal taxa with over 2000 assumed species. In this study, two sites in the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica were sampled, where Com. arbutoides is endemic and grows together with Quercus costaricensis. Using a combined method of rDNA sequence analysis and morphotyping, 33 sampled mycorrhizal systems of Cortinarius were assigned to the subgenera Dermocybe, Phlegmacium and Telamonia. Specific plant primers were used to identify the host plant. Here, we present the phylogenetic data of all found Cortinarii and describe four of the arbutoid mycorrhizal systems morphologically and anatomically.

  10. SEX DETERMINATION IN DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA (HEMIPTERA: DACTYLOPIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The coccids have different sex-determining mechanisms, including the heterochromatinization haplodiploidy of chromosomes of paternal origin, characteristic of the family Dactylopiidae. The heterochromatinization in coccids seems to be a mechanism by which part of a chromosome, the entire chromosome, or several chromosomes will become genetically inactive during development of the individual. In the first division immediately after fertilization, the chromosomes of embryos appear euchromatic (E; shortly after the blastocyst stage, almost half of the chromosomes become heterochromatic (H in embryos that are destined to be male, while in the female all the chromosomic set remain euchromatic. The objective of this study is to determine the heterochromatinization process in the sex determination of Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1935 embryos. The method used to identify chromosomes has been the conventional 2% lacto-acetic orcein protocol. In D. coccus it was observed that during embryogenesis, heterochromatinization occurs in the set of chromosomes from paternal origin, while those of maternal origin remain euchromatic.

  11. El envejecimiento en Costa Rica: una perspectiva actual y futura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morales-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es descriptivo sobre el envejecimiento en su definición, alcances demográficos, organizativos, red de cuido y perspectivas de la realidad actual y futura en la que está inmersa Costa Rica, como un fenómeno poblacional explosivo, dadas sus altas esperanzas de vida, especialmente en el grupo poblacional de 80 y más. Se analiza el estado actual de la Red de Atención Integral a la Persona Adulta Mayor dentro de la Seguridad Social, así como acciones por realizar de parte de las diferentes instancias públicas y privadas, tomando muy en cuenta su integralidad. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre las necesidades inminentes que planteará una población envejecida, y las estrategias para enfrentarlas adecuadamente.

  12. Bryophytes of Cocos Island, Costa Rica: diversity, biogeography and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Dauphin

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 98 liverwort species (43 genera, 10 families, 54 moss species (33 genera, 17 families and one species of hornwort have been reported for Cocos Island (5°32’N, 87°04’W, Costa Rica. Over 60% of the bryophytes have a Neotropical or Pantropical distribution, about 10% are Caribbean, and less than 5% are endemic or subendemic. In comparison to the Galapagos Archipelago, Cocos Island harbors a more typical tropical bryoflora with foliose hepatics (e. g. Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae constituting the bulk of diversity; fewer thallose liverworts and moss taxa as in the Archipelago were found. A richer habitat variety including wet and dry habitats, as well as its bigger area, seem to account for the higher number of bryophyte species in Galapagos Archipelago. Most bryophytes in Cocos Island are corticolous (46%, the remaining are epiphyllous (25%, saxicolous (23% or terrestrial (12%. Bryophyte occurrence in eight plots (10 x 10 m with 20 quadrates (30 x 30 cm were recorded at different habitats and altitudes (0-600 m. Bryophyte distribution within the island coincides with lowland forest (0-100 m, secondary lowland forest (0-200 m and montane forest (to 600 m. Physantholejeunea portoricensis (Hampe & Gott. Schust. is reported as new to Costa Rica.Se comunica la presencia de 153 especies de briófitas y antocerotófitas en la Isla de Cocos (5°32’N, 87°04’W, Costa Rica. Estas son 98 especies de hepáticas en 43 géneros y 10 familias; 54 especies de musgos en 33 géneros y 17 familias y una especie de antocerotófita. Más del 60% de las briófitas tiene amplia distribución en el Neotrópico, 10.4% distribución pantropical, 9.7% pertenecen al elemento Caribe, 1.3% al elemento Centroamericano, 4.5% al Nor-sudamericano, 3.2% son endémicos, 1.3% subendémicos y 1.3% subcosmopolitas. En comparación con Galápagos, la Isla de Cocos muestra una brioflora más tropical, en su mayor parte compuesta por hepáticas foliosas (e. g

  13. Redescription of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella faxoni from Costa Rica (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exequiel R. González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyalella faxoni Stebbing, 1903 from Costa Rica is redescribed. The species was previously in the synonymy of Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858. The morphological differences between these two species are discussedLa especie Hyalella faxoni Stebbing, 1903 de Costa Rica es redescrita. Esta especie estaba previamente en la sinonimia de Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858. Se discuten en este trabajo las diferencias morfológicas entre las dos especies

  14. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  15. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio A Con; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Gil R Con-Chin; Vicky G Con-Chin; Nobufumi Yasuda; Reinaldo Con-Wong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate several risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) in Costa Rican regions with contrasting GC incidence rate (GCIR). METHODS: According to GCIR, 191 Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)-positive patients were classified into groups A (high GCIR, n = 101) and B (low GCIR, n = 90). Human DNA obtained from biopsy specimens was used in the determination of polymorphisms of the genes coding for interleukin (IL)-1o play a major role in GCIR variability in Costa Rica.

  16. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Nielsen Muñoz, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limonología (CIMAR), 2009 Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin America, too.In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coas...

  17. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  18. El complejo de Campyloneurum angustifolium (Sw.) Fée (Polypodiaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Alvarado, Alexander Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Se analiza el complejo de Campyloneurum angustifolium en Costa Rica. Como resultado, se describe una nueva especie (C. gracile A.Rojas) y se ofrece un cuadro comparativo y una clave para el grupo.  The Campyloneurum angustifolium complex in Costa Rica is analyzed. As a result, a new species is described (C. gracile A.Rojas), a comparative table and a key are included for the group. 

  19. WHEN DO COSTA RICA NATIONAL BANKS RESPOND TO RESERVE REQUIREMENT CHANGES?

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance Jalbert; Jonathan Stewart; Mercedes Jalbert

    2012-01-01

    The process of changing reserve requirements in Costa Rica is a three step process. First the central bank makes the decision to change reserve requirements. Several days to several weeks later, the change is announced in the official newspaper. The actual reserve requirement change takes place from several weeks to several months later. Previous studies have limited their analysis to an examination of the decision and the announcement dates. The research shows that Costa Rica national banks ...

  20. The ecological library science: a necessary change in Costa Rican libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ugalde Víquez, Máster Aracelly; Vallejos Vásquez, Máster Sheily; Rodríguez Segura, Licda. Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This research is a novel knowledge about the library contribution because it proposes to create a new branch discipline the "green library". Analysis is a proposal from the college to address before the society and academia collective experience accumulated by the Costa Rican specialized libraries in these areas throughout their years of service and information management practices using front to the country's needs.Costa Rica is a country with a broad global recognition in the ecological the...