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Sample records for cost-effective treatment study

  1. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of prevention and treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Hay, Phillipa; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2018-04-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017. The quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. In all, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria as full cost-effectiveness studies and 8 were published since 2011. The studies included three modelled and one trial-based study focused on prevention, two trial-based and one modelled study for anorexia nervosa treatment and three trial-based studies for bulimia nervosa treatment. The remaining studies targeted binge-eating disorder or non-specific eating disorder treatment. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 71% (standard deviation 21%). Eating disorder interventions were mainly cost-saving or more effective and more costly compared to comparators; however, some results did not reach statistical significance. In the two studies that achieved 100% CHEERS checklist, one study reported that a cognitive dissonance intervention might be cost-effective for prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with a 90% participation rate and the second study supported lisdexamfetamine to be cost-effective in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Insufficient evidence for long-term cost-effectiveness (e.g. over 2 years) was found. Cost-effectiveness studies in eating disorder appear to be increasing in number over the last 6 years. Findings

  2. Population cost-effectiveness of the Triple P parenting programme for the treatment of conduct disorder: an economic modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa; Barendregt, Jan J; Feldman, Inna; Lee, Yong Yi; Sawyer, Michael G; Dadds, Mark R; Scott, James G; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2017-12-29

    Parenting programmes are the recommended treatments of conduct disorders (CD) in children, but little is known about their longer term cost-effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the population cost-effectiveness of one of the most researched evidence-based parenting programmes, the Triple P-Positive Parenting Programme, delivered in a group and individual format, for the treatment of CD in children. A population-based multiple cohort decision analytic model was developed to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted of Triple P compared with a 'no intervention' scenario, using a health sector perspective. The model targeted a cohort of 5-9-year-old children with CD in Australia currently seeking treatment, and followed them until they reached adulthood (i.e., 18 years). Multivariate probabilistic and univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to incorporate uncertainty in the model parameters. Triple P was cost-effective compared to no intervention at a threshold of AU$50,000 per DALY averted when delivered in a group format [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) = $1013 per DALY averted; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) 471-1956] and in an individual format (ICER = $20,498 per DALY averted; 95% UI 11,146-39,470). Evidence-based parenting programmes, such as the Triple P, for the treatment of CD among children appear to represent good value for money, when delivered in a group or an individual face-to-face format, with the group format being the most cost-effective option. The current model can be used for economic evaluations of other interventions targeting CD and in other settings.

  3. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  4. Cervical cancer treatment costs and cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in Vietnam: a PRIME modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Jit, Mark

    2017-05-15

    Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction. A costing study based on expert panel discussions, interviews and hospital case note reviews was conducted to explore the cost of cervical cancer care. The cost of cervical cancer treatment ranged from US$368 - 11400 depending on the type of hospital and treatment involved. Under Gavi-negotiated prices of US$4.55, HPV vaccination is likely to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted in the range US$780 - 1120. However, under list prices for Cervarix and Gardasil in Vietnam, the incremental cost per DALY averted for HPV vaccination can exceed US$8000. HPV vaccine introduction appears to be economically attractive only if Vietnam is able to procure the vaccine at Gavi prices. This highlights the importance of initiating a nationwide vaccination programme while such prices are still available.

  5. The OPTIMIST study: optimisation of cost effectiveness through individualised FSH stimulation dosages for IVF treatment. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Laven, Joop S E; Koks, Carolien A M; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; van Golde, Ron J T; Fleischer, Kathrin; Hoek, Annemieke; Nap, Annemiek W; Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Manger, Petra A; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; van Heusden, Arne M; Sluijmer, Alexander V; Verhoeff, Arie; van Hooff, Marcel H A; Friederich, Jaap; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; Verhoeve, Harold R; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Helmerhorst, Frans M; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J; Torrance, Helen L; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2012-09-18

    Costs of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are high, which is partly due to the use of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is usually administered in a standard dose. However, due to differences in ovarian reserve between women, ovarian response also differs with potential negative consequences on pregnancy rates. A Markov decision-analytic model showed that FSH dose individualisation according to ovarian reserve is likely to be cost-effective in women who are eligible for IVF. However, this has never been confirmed in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT). The aim of the present study is to assess whether an individualised FSH dose regime based on an ovarian reserve test (ORT) is more cost-effective than a standard dose regime. Multicentre RCT in subfertile women indicated for a first IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, who are aged IVF with oocyte donation, will not be included. Ovarian reserve will be assessed by measuring the antral follicle count. Women with a predicted poor response or hyperresponse will be randomised for a standard versus an individualised FSH regime (150 IU/day, 225-450 IU/day and 100 IU/day, respectively). Participants will undergo a maximum of three stimulation cycles during maximally 18 months. The primary study outcome is the cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate resulting in live birth achieved within 18 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are parameters for ovarian response, multiple pregnancies, number of cycles needed per live birth, total IU of FSH per stimulation cycle, and costs. All data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to assess whether the health and associated economic benefits of individualised treatment of subfertile women outweigh the additional costs of an ORT. The results of this study will be integrated into a decision model that compares cost-effectiveness of the three dose-adjustment strategies to a standard dose strategy

  6. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated cardiometabolic risk assessment and treatment program in primary care (the INTEGRATE study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, D.; Badenbroek, I.; Hollander, M.; Nielen, M.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated cardiometabolic risk assessment and treatment program in primary care (the INTEGRATE study): a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial protocol. Rationale: The increasing prevalence of cardiometabolic disease (CMD), including cardiovascular

  7. Clinical and cost effectiveness of computer treatment for aphasia post stroke (Big CACTUS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebecca; Cooper, Cindy; Enderby, Pam; Brady, Marian; Julious, Steven; Bowen, Audrey; Latimer, Nicholas

    2015-01-27

    Aphasia affects the ability to speak, comprehend spoken language, read and write. One third of stroke survivors experience aphasia. Evidence suggests that aphasia can continue to improve after the first few months with intensive speech and language therapy, which is frequently beyond what resources allow. The development of computer software for language practice provides an opportunity for self-managed therapy. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of a computerised approach to long-term aphasia therapy post stroke. A total of 285 adults with aphasia at least four months post stroke will be randomly allocated to either usual care, computerised intervention in addition to usual care or attention and activity control in addition to usual care. Those in the intervention group will receive six months of self-managed word finding practice on their home computer with monthly face-to-face support from a volunteer/assistant. Those in the attention control group will receive puzzle activities, supplemented by monthly telephone calls. Study delivery will be coordinated by 20 speech and language therapy departments across the United Kingdom. Outcome measures will be made at baseline, six, nine and 12 months after randomisation by blinded speech and language therapist assessors. Primary outcomes are the change in number of words (of personal relevance) named correctly at six months and improvement in functional conversation. Primary outcomes will be analysed using a Hochberg testing procedure. Significance will be declared if differences in both word retrieval and functional conversation at six months are significant at the 5% level, or if either comparison is significant at 2.5%. A cost utility analysis will be undertaken from the NHS and personal social service perspective. Differences between costs and quality-adjusted life years in the three groups will be described and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio

  8. Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H

    2000-12-01

    Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendas-Baum, Regina; Yang, Min; Gricar, Joseph; Wallenstein, Gene V

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is reported to affect between 13% and 31% of women. Between 3% and 8% of women are reported to meet criteria for the more severe form of PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Although PMDD has received increased attention in recent years, the cost effectiveness of treatments for PMDD remains unknown. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of the four medications with a US FDA-approved indication for PMDD: fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and drospirenone plus ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE). A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate both direct costs (medication and physician visits) and clinical outcomes (treatment success, failure and discontinuation). Medication costs were based on average wholesale prices of branded products; physician visit costs were obtained from a claims database study of PMDD patients and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Clinical outcome probabilities were derived from published clinical trials in PMDD. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated using the difference in costs and percentage of successfully treated patients at 6 months. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the impact of uncertainty in parameter estimates. Threshold values where a change in the cost-effective strategy occurred were identified using a net benefit framework. Starting therapy with DRSP/EE dominated both sertraline and paroxetine, but not fluoxetine. The estimated ICER of initiating treatment with fluoxetine relative to DRSP/EE was $US4385 per treatment success (year 2007 values). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves revealed that for ceiling ratios>or=$US3450 per treatment success, fluoxetine had the highest probability (>or=0.37) of being the most cost-effective treatment, relative to the other options. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier further indicated that DRSP/EE remained the option with the highest expected net monetary benefit for

  10. The OPTIMIST study: optimisation of cost effectiveness through individualised FSH stimulation dosages for IVF treatment. A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Tilborg Theodora C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Costs of in vitro fertilisation (IVF are high, which is partly due to the use of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. FSH is usually administered in a standard dose. However, due to differences in ovarian reserve between women, ovarian response also differs with potential negative consequences on pregnancy rates. A Markov decision-analytic model showed that FSH dose individualisation according to ovarian reserve is likely to be cost-effective in women who are eligible for IVF. However, this has never been confirmed in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT. The aim of the present study is to assess whether an individualised FSH dose regime based on an ovarian reserve test (ORT is more cost-effective than a standard dose regime. Methods/Design Multicentre RCT in subfertile women indicated for a first IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, who are aged  Discussion The results of this study will be integrated into a decision model that compares cost-effectiveness of the three dose-adjustment strategies to a standard dose strategy. The study outcomes will provide scientific foundation for national and international guidelines. Trial registration NTR2657

  11. Cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of individuals retaining their teeth lifelong, often with periodontitis-induced root surface exposure, there is the need for cost-effective management strategies for root caries lesions. The present study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments. Patients were simulated over 10 years using a Markov model. Four treatments were compared: No treatment, daily 225-800ppm fluoride rinses, chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish (2×/year), silver diamine fluoride (SDF) varnish (2×/year). Data from a systematic review were submitted to network meta-analysis for inferring relative efficacies of treatments. The health outcome was years of teeth being free of root caries. A mixed public-private payer perspective within 2016 German healthcare was taken, with costs being estimated from fee item catalogues or based on market prices. Populations with different numbers of teeth and tooth-level risks were modelled. Monte-Carlo microsimulations, univariate- and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In populations with 16 teeth at risk and low tooth-level risk for root caries, providing no preventive treatment was least costly, but also least effective (130 Euro, 144 years). SDF ranked next, being more costly (180 Euro), but also more effective (151 years). Payers willing to invest 8.30 Euro per root caries-free tooth-year found SDF most cost-effective. CHX varnish and fluoride rinse were not cost-effective. In populations with more teeth and high tooth-level risk, SDF was the most effective and least costly option. Root caries preventive treatments (like SDF) are effective and might even be cost-saving in high risk populations. Application of SDF can be recommended as a cost-saving treatment for prevention of root caries in patients with high risk of root caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison Between Image-Guided and Landmark-Based Glenohumeral Joint Injections for the Treatment of Adhesive Capsulitis: A Cost-Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Abballe, Valentino; Virk, Mandeep S; Koo, James; Gold, Heather T; Subhas, Naveen

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of landmark-based and image-guided intraarticular steroid injections for the initial treatment of a population with adhesive capsulitis. A decision analytic model from the health care system perspective over a 6-month time frame for 50-year-old patients with clinical findings consistent with adhesive capsulitis was used to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of three techniques for administering intraarticular steroid to the glenohumeral joint: landmark based (also called blind), ultrasound guided, and fluoroscopy guided. Input data on cost, probability, and utility estimates were obtained through a comprehensive literature search and from expert opinion. The primary effectiveness outcome was quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Costs were estimated in 2017 U.S. dollars. Ultrasound-guided injections were the dominant strategy for the base case, because it was the least expensive ($1280) and most effective (0.4096 QALY) strategy of the three options overall. The model was sensitive to the probabilities of getting the steroid into the joint by means of blind, ultrasound-guided, and fluoroscopy-guided techniques and to the costs of the ultrasound-guided and blind techniques. Two-way sensitivity analyses showed that ultrasound-guided injections were favored over blind and fluoroscopy-guided injections over a range of reasonable probabilities and costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that ultrasound-guided injections were cost-effective in 44% of simulations, compared with 34% for blind injections and 22% for fluoroscopy-guided injections and over a wide range of willingness-to-pay thresholds. Ultrasound-guided injections are the most cost-effective option for the initial steroid-based treatment of patients with adhesive capsulitis. Blind and fluoroscopy-guided injections can also be cost-effective when performed by a clinician likely to accurately administer the medication into the

  13. Cost effectiveness of Tuberculosis Treatment from the Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Directly Observed Treatment Short course is more cost effective from the patients' point of view. DOTS needs to be re-focused out of the hospitals and clinics and made community based in view of the increasing TB caseload occasioned by HI V/AIDS. Key Words: Cost effectiveness, Tuberculosis treatment, personal cost, ...

  14. Is treatment with ICS and LABA cost-effective for COPD? Multinational economic analysis of the TORCH study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briggs, A; Glick, H; Lozano-Ortega, G

    2009-01-01

    regions, 3-yr all-cause hospitalisation, medication and outpatient care costs were calculated. The sample was restricted to the 21 countries (n = 4,237) in which European quality of life five-dimension (EQ-5D) data were collected in order to estimate the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs...... in Western Europe. Compared with P, SFC has a lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratio than either FP or Salm used alone, and is, therefore, preferred to these monotherapies on the grounds of cost-effectiveness....

  15. Cost-effectiveness in Clostridium difficile treatment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, Mark Jc; Keller, Josbert J; Visser, Caroline E; Redekop, Ken; Claassen, Eric; Speelman, Peter; Pronk, Marja H

    2015-11-16

    To develop a framework for the clinical and health economic assessment for management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI has vast economic consequences emphasizing the need for innovative and cost effective solutions, which were aim of this study. A guidance model was developed for coverage decisions and guideline development in CDI. The model included pharmacotherapy with oral metronidazole or oral vancomycin, which is the mainstay for pharmacological treatment of CDI and is recommended by most treatment guidelines. A design for a patient-based cost-effectiveness model was developed, which can be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatment strategies in CDI. Patient-based outcomes were extrapolated to the population by including factors like, e.g., person-to-person transmission, isolation precautions and closing and cleaning wards of hospitals. The proposed framework for a population-based CDI model may be used for clinical and health economic assessments of CDI guidelines and coverage decisions for emerging treatments for CDI.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edidin, Avram A; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Schmier, Jordana K; Kemner, Jason E; Kurtz, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can be treated by nonsurgical management or by minimally invasive surgical treatment including vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cost to Medicare for treating VCF-diagnosed patients by nonsurgical management, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty. We hypothesized that surgical treatments for VCFs using vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty would be a cost-effective alternative to nonsurgical management for the Medicare patient population. Cost per life-year gained for VCF patients in the US Medicare population was compared between operated (kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty) and non-operated patients and between kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients, all as a function of patient age and gender. Life expectancy was estimated using a parametric Weibull survival model (adjusted for comorbidities) for 858 978 VCF patients in the 100% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). Median payer costs were identified for each treatment group for up to 3 years following VCF diagnosis, based on 67 018 VCF patients in the 5% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). A discount rate of 3% was used for the base case in the cost-effectiveness analysis, with 0% and 5% discount rates used in sensitivity analyses. After accounting for the differences in median costs and using a discount rate of 3%, the cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients ranged from $US1863 to $US6687 and from $US2452 to $US13 543, respectively, compared with non-operated patients. The cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty compared with vertebroplasty ranged from -$US4878 (cost saving) to $US2763. Among patients for whom surgical treatment was indicated, kyphoplasty was found to be cost effective, and perhaps even cost saving, compared with vertebroplasty. Even for the oldest patients (85 years of age and older), both interventions would be considered cost effective in terms of cost per life-year gained.

  17. Use of opioid substitution therapies in the treatment of opioid use disorder: results of a UK cost-effectiveness modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, James; Yi, Yunni; Wright, Antony; Brown, Jim; Maria Madrigal, Ana; Dunlop, William C N

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) vs no opioid substitution therapy (OST) for the treatment of opioid use disorder, from the UK National Health Service (NHS)/personal social services (PSS) and societal perspectives over 1 year. Cost-effectiveness of OST vs no OST was evaluated by first replicating and then expanding an existing UK health technology assessment model. The expanded model included the impact of OST on infection rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Versus no OST, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for BMT and MMT were £13,923 and £14,206 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), respectively, from a NHS/PSS perspective. When total costs (NHS/PSS and societal) are considered, there are substantial savings associated with adopting OST; these savings are in excess of £14,032 for BMT vs no OST and £17,174 for MMT vs no OST over 1 year. This is primarily driven by a reduction in victim costs. OST treatment also impacted other aspects of criminality and healthcare resource use. The model's 1-year timeframe means long-term costs and benefits, and the influence of changes over time are not captured. OST can be considered cost-effective vs no OST from the UK NHS/PSS perspective, with a cost per QALY well below the UK's willingness-to-pay threshold. There were only small differences between BMT and MMT. The availability of two or more cost-effective options is beneficial to retaining patients in OST programs. From a societal perspective, OST is estimated to save over £14,032 and £17,174 per year for BMT and MMT vs no OST, respectively, due to savings in victim costs. Further work is required to fully quantify the clinical and health economic impacts of different OST formulations and their societal impact over the long-term.

  18. Modelling the cost effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Brown, R E; Palmer, W; Bakish, D; Rosser, W W; Anton, S F; Feeny, D

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of nefazodone compared with imipramine or fluoxetine in treating women with major depressive disorder. Clinical decision analysis and a Markov state-transition model were used to estimate the lifetime health outcomes and medical costs of 3 antidepressant treatments. The model, which represents ideal primary care practice, compares treatment with nefazodone to treatment with either imipramine or fluoxetine. The economic analysis was based on the healthcare system of the Canadian province of Ontario, and considered only direct medical costs. Health outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were in 1993 Canadian dollars ($Can; $Can1 = $US0.75, September 1995). Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated comparing the relative lifetime discounted medical costs and QALYs associated with nefazodone with those of imipramine or fluoxetine. Data for constructing the model and estimating necessary parameters were derived from the medical literature, clinical trial data, and physician judgement. Data included information on: Ontario primary care physicians' clinical management of major depression; medical resource use and costs; probabilities of recurrence of depression; suicide rates; compliance rates; and health utilities. Estimates of utilities for depression-related hypothetical health states were obtained from patients with major depression (n = 70). Medical costs and QALYs were discounted to present value using a 5% rate. Sensitivity analyses tested the assumptions of the model by varying the discount rate, depression recurrence rates, compliance rates, and the duration of the model. The base case analysis found that nefazodone treatment costs $Can1447 less per patient than imipramine treatment (discounted lifetime medical costs were $Can50,664 vs $Can52,111) and increases the number of QALYs by 0.72 (13.90 vs 13.18). Nefazodone treatment costs $Can14 less than fluoxetine

  19. Cost effectiveness of haemophilia treatment : a cross-national assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, B; Berger, K; Berntorp, E; Giangrande, P; van den Berg, M; Schramm, W; Siebert, U

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of on-demand versus prophylactic haemophilia therapy in Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands from the third-party payers' perspective. Using a decision tree model, the cost effectiveness of on-demand versus

  20. Treatment of forgotten ureteral stents: how much does it really cost? A cost-effectiveness study in 27 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Söylemez, Haluk; Bozkurt, Yasar; Penbegül, Necmettin; Atar, Murat

    2012-08-01

    Aim of study was to present costs of forgotten ureteral stents extraction so as to distract attentions of the urologists on this issue. Medical files of 27 accessible patients who referred to our clinics between 2001 and 2010 because of forgotten ureteral stent were retrospectively analyzed. The indwelling time of double-j stents (DJS) was calculated from the time of its insertion. Costs related to radiological investigations, all invasive, and noninvasive interventions, duration of hospital stay, and medical treatments used were calculated. These estimations were based on 2010 prices determined by Turkey Ministry of Health. Mean age of the patients was 31.2 (8-86 years) years. Mean indwelling time of ureteral DJSs was 36.7 months (14-84 months). Seventy-one [extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), n = 26; invasive/noninvasive interventions, n = 32] procedures were applied for 27 patients. In six patients without incrustation, after a single session of ESWL DJSs could be removed cystoscopically. A various combination of a multimodal therapy was used for other 21 patients. Total financial burden of 27 patients was US $ 34,300. Cost of treatment was estimated to be 6.9-fold (1.8- to 21-fold) higher than an average timely stent extraction. Financial burden of the treatments increased in parallel with the duration of the stent retention (p = 0.001). Management of forgotten DJS is time consuming, difficult, complicated, risky, and costly. Therefore; financial burden, increased labour loss, and impaired quality of life brought by the application of these modalities must not be forgotten.

  1. Is aggressive treatment of traumatic brain injury cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Robert G; Thawani, Jayesh P; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M; Sanborn, Matthew R; Stein, Sherman C

    2012-05-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether aggressive treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), including invasive intracranial monitoring and decompressive craniectomy, is cost-effective. A decision-analytical model was created to compare costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for treating a patient with severe TBI. The aggressive-care approach is compared with "routine care," in which Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines are not followed. A "comfort care" category, in which a single day in the ICU is followed by routine floor care, is included for comparison only. Probabilities of each treatment resulting in various Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were obtained from the literature. The GOS scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), based on expected longevity and calculated quality of life associated with each GOS category. Estimated direct (acute and long-term medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were calculated from the perspective of society. Sensitivity analyses employed a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 trials, each with 1000 patients. The model was also used to estimate these values for patients 40, 60, and 80 years of age. For the average 20-year-old, aggressive care yields 11.7 (± 1.6 [SD]) QALYs, compared with routine care (10.0 ± 1.5 QALYs). This difference is highly significant (p care remains significantly better at all ages. When all costs are considered, aggressive care is also significantly less costly than routine care ($1,264,000 ± $118,000 vs $1,361,000 ± $107,000) for the average 20-year-old. Aggressive care remains significantly less costly until age 80, at which age it costs more than routine care. However, even in the 80-year-old, aggressive care is likely the more cost-effective approach. Comfort care is associated with poorer outcomes at all ages and with higher costs for all groups except 80-year-olds. When all the costs of severe TBI are considered, aggressive

  2. Cost-effectiveness of renal denervation therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Thea L.; De Brouwer, Bonnie F E; Van Keep, Marjolijn M L; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Safety and efficacy data for catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) in the treatment of resistant hypertension have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of this approach. However, there are no Dutch-specific analyses. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of RDN from the

  3. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based support for adolescents receiving antiretroviral treatment: an operational research study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Jackson, Debra; Goga, Ameena E; Shaikh, Najma; Eley, Brian; Nachega, Jean B; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents and youth receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa have high attrition and inadequate ART outcomes, and evaluations of interventions improving ART outcomes amongst adolescents are very limited. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3c is to substantially increase the health workforce in developing countries. We measured the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based support (CBS) provided by lay health workers for adolescents and youth receiving ART in South Africa. A retrospective cohort study including adolescents and youth who initiated ART at 47 facilities. Previously unemployed CBS-workers provided home-based ART-related education, psychosocial support, symptom screening for opportunistic infections and support to access government grants. Outcomes were compared between participants who received CBS plus standard clinic-based care versus participants who received standard care only. Cumulative incidences of all-cause mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU), adherence measured using medication possession ratios (MPRs), CD4 count slope, and virological suppression were analysed using multivariable Cox, competing-risks regression, generalized estimating equations and mixed-effects models over five years of ART. An expenditure approach was used to determine the incremental cost of CBS to usual care from a provider perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as annual cost per patient-loss (through death or LTFU) averted. Amongst 6706 participants included, 2100 (31.3%) received CBS. Participants who received CBS had reduced mortality, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.37 to 0.73; p effectiveness of CBS in reducing attrition ranged from 42.2% after one year to 35.9% after five years. Virological suppression was similar after three years, but after five years 18.8% CBS participants versus 37.2% non-CBS participants failed to achieve viral suppression, adjusted odds ratio = 0

  4. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Methods: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Results: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. Conclusion: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of optimal strategy for tumor treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Liuyong; Zhao, Zhong; Song, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze an antitumor model with combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Firstly, we explore the treatment effects of single immunotherapy and single chemotherapy, respectively. Results indicate that neither immunotherapy nor chemotherapy alone are adequate to cure a tumor. Hence, we apply optimal theory to investigate how the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy should be implemented, for a certain time period, in order to reduce the number of tumor cells, while minimizing the implementation cost of the treatment strategy. Secondly, we establish the existence of the optimality system and use Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle to characterize the optimal levels of the two treatment measures. Furthermore, we calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to analyze the cost-effectiveness of all possible combinations of the two treatment measures. Finally, numerical results show that the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is the most cost-effective strategy for tumor treatment, and able to eliminate the entire tumor with size 4.470 × 10"8 in a year.

  6. Cost-effectiveness in Clostridium difficile treatment decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, Mark J. C.; Keller, Josbert J.; Visser, Caroline E.; Redekop, Ken; Claassen, Eric; Speelman, Peter; Pronk, Marja H.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a framework for the clinical and health economic assessment for management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI has vast economic consequences emphasizing the need for innovative and cost effective solutions, which were aim of this study. A guidance model was developed for

  7. Cost effective treatment for wet FGD scrubber bleedoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecek, K.F. [EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kim, J.Y. [Samkook Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The dewatering of scrubber bleedoff gypsum is a thoroughly proven technology, whether for production of wallboard grade gypsum or environmentally responsible land fill. Careful review of the technology options will show which one is the most effective for the specific plant site. Likewise, a recipe for wastewater treatment for heavy metals removal can be found that will meet local regulatory limits. EIMCO has worldwide experience in FGD gypsum sludge dewatering and wastewater treatment. Contacting EIMCO can be the most important step toward a practical cost effective system for handling FGD scrubber bleed slurries.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Competing Treatment Strategies for Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuc; Nghiem, Van T; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) presents a substantial economic burden and is associated with significant morbidity. While multiple treatment strategies have been evaluated, a cost-effective management strategy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review to assess cost-effectiveness analyses of CDI treatment and to summarize key issues for clinicians and policy makers to consider. METHODS We searched PubMed and 5 other databases from inception to August 2016. These searches were not limited by study design or language of publication. Two reviewers independently screened the literature, abstracted data, and assessed methodological quality using the Drummond and Jefferson checklist. We extracted data on study characteristics, type of CDI, treatment characteristics, and model structure and inputs. RESULTS We included 14 studies, and 13 of these were from high-income countries. More than 90% of these studies were deemed moderate-to-high or high quality. Overall, 6 studies used a decision-tree model and 7 studies used a Markov model. Cost of therapy, time horizon, treatment cure rates, and recurrence rates were common influential factors in the study results. For initial CDI, fidaxomicin was a more cost-effective therapy than metronidazole or vancomycin in 2 of 3 studies. For severe initial CDI, 2 of 3 studies found fidaxomicin to be the most cost-effective therapy. For recurrent CDI, fidaxomicin was cost-effective in 3 of 5 studies, while fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by colonoscopy was consistently cost-effective in 4 of 4 studies. CONCLUSIONS The cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin compared with other pharmacologic therapies was not definitive for either initial or recurrent CDI. Despite its high cost, FMT by colonoscopy may be a cost-effective therapy for recurrent CDI. A consensus on model design and assumptions are necessary for future comparison of CDI treatment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:412-424.

  9. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Treatments for Heroin Dependence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Aims To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. Design We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; soci...

  11. Sevelamer is cost effective versus calcium carbonate for the first-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia in new patients to hemodialysis: a patient-level economic evaluation of the INDEPENDENT-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Matteo; Bellasi, Antonio; Cipriani, Filippo; Molony, Donald; Bell, Cynthia; Russo, Domenico; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    The recent multicenter, randomized, open-label INDEPENDENT study demonstrated that sevelamer improves survival in new to hemodialysis (HD) patients compared with calcium carbonate. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate for patients new to HD, using patient-level data from the INDEPENDENT study. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Adult patients new to HD in Italy. A patient-level cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, Italy's national health service. The analysis was conducted for a 3-year time horizon. The cost of dialysis was excluded from the base case analysis. Sevelamer was compared to calcium carbonate. Total life years (LYs), total costs, and the incremental cost per LY gained were calculated. Bootstrapping was used to estimate confidence intervals around LYs, costs, and cost-effectiveness and to calculate the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sevelamer was associated with a gain of 0.26 in LYs compared to calcium carbonate, over the 3-year time horizon. Total drug costs were €3,282 higher for sevelamer versus calcium carbonate, while total hospitalization costs were €2,020 lower for sevelamer versus calcium carbonate. The total incremental cost of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate was €1,262, resulting in a cost per LY gained of €4,897. The bootstrap analysis demonstrated that sevelamer was cost effective compared with calcium carbonate in 99.4 % of 10,000 bootstrap replicates, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000 per LY gained. Data on hospitalizations was taken from a post hoc retrospective chart review of the patients included in the INDEPENDENT study. Patient quality of life or health utility was not included in the analysis. Sevelamer is a cost-effective alternative to calcium carbonate for the first-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia in new to HD patients in Italy.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of renal denervation therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thea L; De Brouwer, Bonnie F E; Van Keep, Marjolijn M L; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bots, Michiel L; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Safety and efficacy data for catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) in the treatment of resistant hypertension have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of this approach. However, there are no Dutch-specific analyses. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of RDN from the perspective of the healthcare payer in The Netherlands. A previously constructed Markov state-transition model was adapted and updated with costs and utilities relevant to the Dutch setting. The cost-effectiveness of RDN was compared with standard of care (SoC) for patients with resistant hypertension. The efficacy of RDN treatment was modeled as a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events associated with a lower systolic blood pressure (SBP). Treatment with RDN compared to SoC gave an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 0.89 at an additional cost of €1315 over a patient's lifetime, resulting in a base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €1474. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) showed that treatment with RDN therapy was cost-effective at conventional willingness-to-pay thresholds (€10,000-80,000/QALY). RDN is a cost-effective intervention for patients with resistant hypertension in The Netherlands.

  13. A prospective randomized study of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of high and low dose regimens of I-131 treatment in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Tuntawiroon, Malulee; Sritongkul, Nopamol; Chaudakshetrin, Pachee; Nopmaneejumruslers, Cherdchai; Komoltri, Chulalak; Thepamongkhol, Kullathorn; Khiewvan, Benjapa; Tuchinda, Pongpija; Sriussadaporn, Sutin

    2011-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of high and low dose regimens of I-131 treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. One hundred fifty patients with proven hyperthyroidism were randomly allocated into the high (74 patients) and low (76 patients) dose regimen of I-131 treatment. Four patients of the high dose group and one patient of the low dose group were excluded because of lost follow-up. A gland-specific dosage was calculated on the estimated weight of thyroid gland and 24-hour I-131 uptake. The high and low I-131 dose regimens were 150 microCi/gm and 100 microCi/gm, respectively. The first mean radioiodine activity administered to the high and low dose group was 10.2 and 8 mCi, respectively. Repeated treatment was given to 25 patients of the high dose group and 40 patients of the low dose group. Clinical outcome and calculated costs for outpatient attendances, and laboratory tests together with initial and subsequent treatments were evaluated for one year after I-131 treatment. Elimination of hyperthyroidism that resulted in either euthyroidism or hypothyroidism was classified as therapeutic success. The cost effectiveness was also compared. At 6 months after treatment, 45 (64.3%) patients receiving high dose and 59 (78.7%) patients receiving low dose were hyperthyroidism. Clinical outcome at one year showed persistence of hyperthyroidism in 21 (30%) patients of the high dose regimen and 36 (48%) patients of the low dose regimen. At one year post treatment, it was demonstrated that the high dose regimen could eliminate hyperthyroidism in a significantly shorter time than the low dose regimen, i.e., 259.6 days and 305.5 days, respectively, p = 0.008). For the persistent hyperthyroid patients, the average total cost of treatment in the low dose group was significantly higher than that of the high dose group, i.e., 13,422.78 baht and 10,942.79 baht, respectively; p = 0.050). A high dose regimen of radioactive iodine treatment is more effective than

  14. Cost-effectiveness of treatments reducing coronary heart disease mortality in Ireland, 2000 to 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with a large burden of disease in Ireland and is responsible for more than 6000 deaths annually. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of specific CHD treatments in Ireland. METHODS: Irish epidemiological data on patient numbers and median survival in specific groups, plus the uptake, effectiveness, and costs of specific interventions, all stratified by age and sex, were incorporated into a previously validated CHD mortality model, the IMPACT model. This model calculates the number of life-years gained (LYGs) by specific cardiology interventions to generate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per LYG for each intervention. RESULTS: In 2000, medical and surgical treatments together prevented or postponed approximately 1885 CHD deaths in patients aged 25 to 84 years, and thus generated approximately 14,505 extra life-years (minimum 7270, maximum 22,475). In general, all the cardiac interventions investigated were highly cost-effective in the Irish setting. Aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, spironolactone, and warfarin for specific conditions were the most cost-effective interventions (< euro 3000\\/LYG), followed by the statins for secondary prevention (< euro 6500\\/LYG). Revascularization for chronic angina and primary angioplasty for myocardial infarction, although still cost-effective, had the highest ICER (between euro 12,000 and euro 20,000\\/LYG). CONCLUSIONS: Using a comprehensive standardized methodology, cost-effectiveness ratios in this study clearly favored simple medical treatments for myocardial infarction, secondary prevention, angina, and heart failure.

  15. Cost effectiveness of pegaptanib for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowacz, Sorrel E; Roskell, Neil; Kelly, Steven; Maciver, Fiona M; Brand, Chris S

    2007-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of vision loss in the elderly and results in significant economic and humanistic burden. The selective vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, pegaptanib (Macugen) is indicated for patients with neovascular AMD. Guidance is needed regarding the cost effectiveness of treatment, any variation between sub-populations of differing clinical characteristics and the optimum duration of treatment. To estimate the cost effectiveness of pegaptanib versus best supportive care (BSC) for AMD from the perspective of the UK government, and to evaluate the impact of patient characteristics and differing treatment discontinuation scenarios. A cohort of 1000 patients aged >45 years with a best-corrected visual acuity (VA) in their better-seeing eye of age, gender, lesion type or lesion size as covariates. Mortality rates were adjusted for the age, gender and VA of the population. Cost effectiveness was expressed as the incremental cost (IC) per vision-year saved and IC/QALY. Uncertainty was explored by probabilistic and univariate sensitivity analysis. Costs (year 2005 values) and outcomes were discounted at 3.5% per anum. In the base-case analysis, treatment was targeted to patients with a VA of 6/12 to 6/95 and discontinued after 2 years, or earlier if VA fell below 6/95 or by > or =6 lines. The IC/QALY was estimated as 8023 pounds(upper 95% CI 20,641 pounds). Cost effectiveness varied by age (age age > or =75 years = 11,657 pounds/QALY) and by pre-treatment VA (6/12-6/95 = 8023 pounds/QALY; 6/12-6/60 = 6664 pounds/QALY; 6/12-6/24 = 1920 pounds/QALY). Gender and lesion type or size had little effect. Cost effectiveness was not sensitive to precise rules for treatment discontinuation, but was maximised if treatment was discontinued in patients no longer likely to benefit. The results suggest that pegaptanib treatment is likely to be cost effective across all groups studied, and marginally more cost effective in

  16. Chemistry of cost effective water treatment programme in HWP (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Laxmana Prasad, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a water treatment programme following points must be kept in mind: Effectiveness to achieve desired water quality objectives; Compliance with regulatory requirements; Cost minimization; Safety; Easy operation and protection to equipments. Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) laboratory has developed treatment programs to treat raw water and cooling water which satisfy the above requirements and has been in use for last several years successfully without any problem. These treatment programs have been given to other plants in Heavy Water Board for implementation. This paper describes the chemistry of the treatment program and cost minimization achieved. Further these treatments have helped the plant in achieving ΦZero Discharge and indirectly reduced the production cost. The chemistry parameters are monitored regularly to ascertain the effectiveness of these treatments. The areas where significant benefits derived are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and development of in-house cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments helped the plant in achieving Zero discharge and indirectly reduced production cost of heavy water. The dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15 - 20 Lakhs in a year besides other advantages. The changeover of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs. 1.4 Crore a year along with other advantages. The change over of proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted a saving about Rs. 11 Lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored (author)

  17. Cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening and treatment methods: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mazdaki, Alireza; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Yousefzadeh, Negar

    2017-06-19

    Due to extensive literature in the field of lung cancer and their heterogeneous results, the aim of this study was to systematically review of systematic reviews studies which reviewed the cost-effectiveness of various lung cancer screening and treatment methods. In this systematic review of systematic reviews study, required data were collected searching the following key words which selected from Mesh: "lung cancer", "lung oncology", "lung Carcinoma", "lung neoplasm", "lung tumors", "cost- effectiveness", "systematic review" and "Meta-analysis". The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Two reviewers (RA and A-AS) evaluated the articles according to the checklist of "assessment of multiple systematic reviews" (AMSTAR) tool. Overall, information of 110 papers was discussed in eight systematic reviews. Authors focused on cost-effectiveness of lung cancer treatments in five systematic reviews. Targeted therapy options (bevacizumab, Erlotinib and Crizotinib) show an acceptable cost-effectiveness. Results of three studies failed to show cost-effectiveness of screening methods. None of the studies had used the meta-analysis method. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) tool and Drummond checklist were mostly used in assessing the quality of articles. Most perspective was related to the Payer (64 times) and the lowest was related to Social (11times). Most cases referred to Incremental analysis (82%) and also the lowest point of referral was related to Discounting (in 49% of the cases). The average quality score of included studies was calculated 9.2% from 11. Targeted therapy can be an option for the treatment of lung cancer. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) in lung cancer screening is recommended. The perspective of the community should be more taken into consideration in studies of cost-effectiveness. Paying more attention to the topic of

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Families for Health V2 for the treatment of childhood obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wendy; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel; Petrou, Stavros; Griffiths, Frances; Thorogood, Margaret; Simkiss, Douglas; Lang, Rebecca; Reddington, Kate; Poole, Fran; Rye, Gloria; Khan, Kamran A; Hamborg, Thomas; Kirby, Joanna

    2013-03-20

    Effective programs to help children manage their weight are required. Families for Health focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health V1 showed sustained reductions in overweight after 2 years in a pilot evaluation, but lacks a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. This is a multi-center, investigator-blind RCT, with parallel economic evaluation, with a 12-month follow-up. The trial will recruit 120 families with at least one child aged 6 to 11 years who is overweight (≥91st centile BMI) or obese (≥98th centile BMI) from three localities and assigned randomly to Families for Health V2 (60 families) or the usual care control (60 families) groups. Randomization will be stratified by locality (Coventry, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton).Families for Health V2 is a family-based intervention run in a community venue. Parents/carers and children attend parallel groups for 2.5 hours weekly for 10 weeks. The usual care arm will be the usual support provided within each NHS locality.A mixed-methods evaluation will be carried out. Child and parent participants will be assessed at home visits at baseline, 3-month (post-treatment) and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the change in the children's BMI z-scores at 12 months from the baseline. Secondary outcome measures include changes in the children's waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. The parents' BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent-child relationships and parenting style will also be assessed.Economic components will encompass the measurement and valuation of service utilization, including the costs of running Families for Health and usual care, and the EuroQol EQ-5D health outcomes. Cost-effectiveness will be expressed in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. A de

  19. The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities for Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Additional intervention and medical treatment of complications may follow the primary treatment of a ureteral stone. We investigated the cost of the treatment of ureteral stone(s within 45 days after initial intervention by means of retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. All patients of ages ≥20 years diagnosed with ureteral stone(s( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/ICD-9-CM: 592.1 from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We included a comorbidity code only if the diagnosis appeared in at least 2 separate claims in a patient’s record. Treatment modalities (code included extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL; 98.51, ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL; 56.31, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL; 55.04, (open ureterolithotomy (56.20, and laparoscopy (ie, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; 54.21. There were 28 513 patients with ureteral stones (13 848 men and 14 665 women in the randomized sample of 1 million patients. The mean cost was 526.4 ± 724.1 United States Dollar (USD. The costs of treatment were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities. The costs of treatment among each primary treatment modalities were 1212.2 ± 627.3, 1146.7 ± 816.8, 2507.4 ± 1333.5, 1533.3 ± 1137.1, 2566.4 ± 2594.3, and 209.8 ± 473.2 USD in the SWL, URSL, PNL, (open ureterolithotomy, laparoscopy (laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, and conservative treatment group, respectively. In conclusion, URSL was more cost-effective than SWL and PNL as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stone(s when the possible additional costs within 45 days after the initial operation were included in the calculation.

  20. Impact of generic alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nayak

    Full Text Available Since alendronate became available in generic form in the Unites States in 2008, its price has been decreasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women.Microsimulation cost-effectiveness model of osteoporosis screening and treatment for U.S. women age 65 and older. We assumed screening initiation at age 65 with central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and alendronate treatment for individuals with osteoporosis; with a comparator of "no screening" and treatment only after fracture occurrence. We evaluated annual alendronate costs of $20 through $800; outcome measures included fractures; nursing home admission; medication adverse events; death; costs; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2010 U.S. dollars per QALY gained. A lifetime time horizon was used, and direct costs were included. Base-case and sensitivity analyses were performed.Base-case analysis results showed that at annual alendronate costs of $200 or less, osteoporosis screening followed by treatment was cost-saving, resulting in lower total costs than no screening as well as more QALYs (10.6 additional quality-adjusted life-days. When assuming alendronate costs of $400 through $800, screening and treatment resulted in greater lifetime costs than no screening but was highly cost-effective, with ICERs ranging from $714 per QALY gained through $13,902 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses revealed that the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment was robust to joint input parameter estimate variation at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY at all alendronate costs evaluated.Osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment is effective and highly cost-effective for postmenopausal women across a range of alendronate costs, and may be cost

  1. Cost-effective treatment of low-risk carcinoma not invading bladder muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David A; Rink, Michael; Cha, Eugene K; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Chughtai, Bilal; Scherr, Douglas S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Lee, Richard K

    2013-03-01

    Study Type - Therapy (cost effectiveness analysis) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Bladder cancer is one of the costliest malignancies to treat throughout the life of a patient. The most cost-effective management for low-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is not known. The current study shows that employing cystoscopic office fulguration for low-risk appearing bladder cancer recurrences can materially impact the cost-effectiveness of therapy. In a follow-up protocol where office fulguration is routinely employed for low-risk bladder cancers, peri-operative intravesical chemotherapy may not provide any additional cost-effectiveness benefit. To examine the cost-effectiveness of fulguration vs transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) with and without perioperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) for managing low-risk carcinoma not invading bladder muscle (NMIBC). Low-risk NMIBC carries a low progression rate, lending support to the use of office-based fulguration for small recurrences rather than traditional TURBT. A Markov state transition model was created to simulate treatment of NMIBC with vs without PIC, with recurrence treated by formal TURBT vs treatment with fulguration. Costing data were obtained from the Medicare Resource Based Relative Value Scale. Data regarding the success of PIC were obtained from the peer-reviewed literature, as were corresponding utilities for bladder cancer-related procedures. Sensitivity analyses were performed. At 5-year follow-up, a strategy of fulguration without PIC was the most cost-effective (mean cost-effectiveness = US $654.8/quality-adjusted life year), despite a lower recurrence rate with PIC. Both fulguration strategies dominated each TURBT strategy. Sensitivity analysis showed that fulguration without PIC dominated all other strategies when the recurrence rate after PIC was increased to ≥14.2% per year. Similarly, the cost-effectiveness of TURBT becomes more

  2. A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bring Annika

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet – based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. Discussion This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in Whiplash Associated Disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The project will

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of provider interventions to improve health worker practice in providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiseman Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments and donors all over Africa are searching for sustainable, affordable and cost-effective ways to improve the quality of malaria case management. Widespread deficiencies have been reported in the prescribing and counselling practices of health care providers treating febrile patients in both public and private health facilities. Cameroon is no exception with low levels of adherence to national guidelines, the frequent selection of non-recommended antimalarials and the use of incorrect dosages. This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing two different provider training packages, alongside rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, designed to equip providers with the knowledge and practical skills needed to effectively diagnose and treat febrile patients. The overall aim is to target antimalarial treatment better and to facilitate optimal use of malaria treatment guidelines. Methods/Design A 3-arm stratified, cluster randomized trial will be conducted to assess whether introducing RDTs with provider training (basic or enhanced is more cost-effective than current practice without RDTs, and whether there is a difference in the cost effectiveness of the provider training interventions. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients attending facilities that report a fever or suspected malaria and receive treatment according to malaria guidelines. This will be measured by surveying patients (or caregivers as they exit public and mission health facilities. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of the primary outcome and a range of secondary outcomes, including changes in provider knowledge. Costs will be estimated from a societal and provider perspective using standard economic evaluation methodologies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877

  4. Cost-effectiveness of benign Wirsung duct strictures treatment in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaski, Dariusz; Hać, Stanisław; Marek, Iwona; Kobiela, Jarosław; Kostro, Justyna; Adrych, Krystian; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2018-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an important problem for modern medicine, the healthcare system (Poland - NFZ) and the national insurance system (Poland - ZUS). The chronic nature of the disease, the lack of targeted treatment and the low mortality rate lead to an accumulation of patients who demand expensive treatment, both conservative and invasive. Rising costs in health care are forcing the need for a more cost-effective method of treatment. The primary aim of this study was to perform a retrospective calculation of costs in both surgical and endoscopic treatment, hospital stay, healthcare, and public insurance of patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis. Parallel quality of life analysis was performed. It was possible to develop a cost-effective therapeutic algorithm for patients with an uncomplicated stricture of Wirsung's duct within the Polish health care system. In Poland, the hospital costs of endoscopic treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis were higher than those of the surgical treatment group despite both resulting in a similar life quality. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, it was shown that surgical intervention is a more cost-effective therapy than endotherapy. Furthermore, patients with benign stricture of the main pancreatic duct in chronic pancreatitis should not be treated with endotherapy for longer than 12 months.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Connecticut's In-Prison Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Marilyn; Love, Craig T.; Shepard, Donald S.; Petersen, Cheryl B.; White, Karen L.; Hall, Frank B.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the criminal justice population in the US has grown by over 200%, most of this due to an increase in drug-involved offenders. Although there is good evidence that prison-based substance abuse treatment programs can be effective in reducing rearrest, few cost-effectiveness studies have been conducted. Using data from the…

  6. Cost-effectiveness of CBT, SSRI, and CBT+SSRI in the treatment for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, F. J.; Stant, A. D.; van Hout, W. J. P. J.; Mersch, P. P. A.; den Boer, J. A.

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of three empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both

  7. Cost-effectiveness of home visits in the outpatient treatment of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Edilaine; Campos, Geraldo M; Figlie, Neliana B; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of conventional outpatient treatment for alcoholic patients (CT) with this same conventional treatment plus home visits (HV), a new proposal for intervention within the Brazilian outpatient treatment system. A cost-effectiveness evaluation alongside a 12-week randomized clinical trial was performed. We identified the resources utilized by each intervention, as well as the cost according to National Health System (SUS), Brazilian Medical Association (AMB) tables of fees, and others based on 2005 data. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated as the main outcome measure - abstinent cases at the end of treatment. There were 51.8% abstinent cases for HV and 43.1% for CT, a clinically relevant finding. Other outcome measures, such as quality of life, also showed significant improvements that favored HV. The baseline scenario presented an ICER of USD 1,852. Sensitivity analysis showed an ICER of USD 689 (scenario favoring HV) and USD 2,334 (scenario favoring CT). The HV treatment was found to be cost-effective according to the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of emergency department-initiated treatment for opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Susan H; Fiellin, David A; Chawarski, Marek C; Owens, Patricia H; Pantalon, Michael V; Hawk, Kathryn; Bernstein, Steven L; O'Connor, Patrick G; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2017-11-01

    In a recent randomized trial, patients with opioid dependence receiving brief intervention, emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine and ongoing follow-up in primary care with buprenorphine (buprenorphine) were twice as likely to be engaged in addiction treatment compared with referral to community-based treatment (referral) or brief intervention and referral (brief intervention). Our aim was to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of these three methods of intervening on opioid dependence in the ED. Measured health-care use was converted to dollar values. We considered a health-care system perspective and constructed cost-effectiveness acceptability curves that indicate the probability each treatment is cost-effective under different thresholds of willingness-to-pay for outcomes studied. An urban ED in the United States. Opioid-dependent patients aged 18 years or older. Self-reported 30-day assessment data were used to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for patient engagement in formal addiction treatment at 30 days and the number of days illicit opioid-free in the past week. Considering only health-care system costs, cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicate that at all positive willingness-to-pay values, ED-initiated buprenorphine treatment was more cost-effective than brief intervention or referral. For example, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $1000 for 30-day treatment engagement, we are 79% certain ED-initiated buprenorphine is most cost-effective compared with other studied treatments. Similar results were found for days illicit opioid-free in the past week. Results were robust to secondary analyses that included patients with missing cost data, included crime and patient time costs in the numerator, and to changes in unit price estimates. In the United States, emergency department-initiated buprenorphine intervention for patients with opioid dependence provides high value compared with referral to community

  9. Cost effectiveness of day stay versus inpatient radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasooriya, H.R.; Harris, A.H.; Davis, M.J.E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well established that radiofrequency (RF) ablation is the most cost effective treatment strategy for patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Previous cost estimates assumed at least an overnight stay following RF ablation. Day stay RF ablation however appears to be a safe alternative. The aim of this study was to compare day stay and inpatient catheter ablation in terms of cost, efficacy and safety. This was a retrospective cost effectiveness analysis. The study population consisted of 25 consecutive patients who underwent impatient RF ablation (historical controls). Economic analysis was based upon a detailed clinical costing. The mean overall cost per patient of inpatient RF ablation in 1994 Australian dollar values is $2354 (SD, $642) compared with $1876 (SD, $595) for day stay RF ablation (p<0.01). Day stay RF ablation is a cost effective alternative to inpatient RF ablation. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Cost effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems: findings of the randomised UK alcohol treatment trial (UKATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-10

    To compare the cost effectiveness of social behaviour and network therapy, a new treatment for alcohol problems, with that of the proved motivational enhancement therapy. Cost effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised trial. Seven treatment sites around Birmingham, Cardiff, and Leeds. 742 clients with alcohol problems; 617 (83.2%) were interviewed at 12 months and full economic data were obtained on 608 (98.5% of 617). Main economic measures Quality adjusted life years (QALYs), costs of trial treatments, and consequences for public sector resources (health care, other alcohol treatment, social services, and criminal justice services). Both therapies saved about five times as much in expenditure on health, social, and criminal justice services as they cost. Neither net savings nor cost effectiveness differed significantly between the therapies, despite the average cost of social behaviour and network therapy (221 pounds sterling; 385 dollars; 320 euros) being significantly more than that of motivational enhancement therapy (129 pounds sterling). If a QALY were worth 30,000 pounds sterling, then the motivational therapy would have 58% chance of being more cost effective than the social therapy, and the social therapy would have 42% chance of being more cost effective than the motivational therapy. Participants reported highly significant reductions in drinking and associated problems and costs. The novel social behaviour and network therapy did not differ significantly in cost effectiveness from the proved motivational enhancement therapy.

  11. The costs and cost-effectiveness of an integrated sepsis treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmor, Daniel; Greenberg, Dan; Howell, Michael D; Lisbon, Alan; Novack, Victor; Shapiro, Nathan

    2008-04-01

    Sepsis is associated with high mortality and treatment costs. International guidelines recommend the implementation of integrated sepsis protocols; however, the true cost and cost-effectiveness of these are unknown. To assess the cost-effectiveness of an integrated sepsis protocol, as compared with conventional care. Prospective cohort study of consecutive patients presenting with septic shock and enrolled in the institution's integrated sepsis protocol. Clinical and economic outcomes were compared with a historical control cohort. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Overall, 79 patients presenting to the emergency department with septic shock in the treatment cohort and 51 patients in the control group. An integrated sepsis treatment protocol incorporating empirical antibiotics, early goal-directed therapy, intensive insulin therapy, lung-protective ventilation, and consideration for drotrecogin alfa and steroid therapy. In-hospital treatment costs were collected using the hospital's detailed accounting system. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the healthcare system using a lifetime horizon. The primary end point for the cost-effectiveness analysis was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Mortality in the treatment group was 20.3% vs. 29.4% in the control group (p = .23). Implementing an integrated sepsis protocol resulted in a mean increase in cost of approximately $8,800 per patient, largely driven by increased intensive care unit length of stay. Life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years were higher in the treatment group; 0.78 and 0.54, respectively. The protocol was associated with an incremental cost of $11,274 per life-year saved and a cost of $16,309 per quality-adjusted life year gained. In patients with septic shock, an integrated sepsis protocol, although not cost-saving, appears to be cost-effective and compares very favorably to other commonly delivered acute care interventions.

  12. [Cost] effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartholt, Klaas A; Boyé, Nicole D A; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Polinder, Suzanne; De Vries, Oscar J; Kerver, Albert J H; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Bruijninckx, Milko M M; De Vries, Mark R; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Uitterlinden, André G; Van Beeck, Ed F; Lips, Paul; Patka, Peter; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M

    2011-08-21

    Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D), costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593).

  13. [Cost]effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattace-Raso Francesco US

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. Methods/Design A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D, costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. Trial Registration The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593

  14. Bayesian sample size determination for cost-effectiveness studies with censored data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Beavers

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness models are commonly utilized to determine the combined clinical and economic impact of one treatment compared to another. However, most methods for sample size determination of cost-effectiveness studies assume fully observed costs and effectiveness outcomes, which presents challenges for survival-based studies in which censoring exists. We propose a Bayesian method for the design and analysis of cost-effectiveness data in which costs and effectiveness may be censored, and the sample size is approximated for both power and assurance. We explore two parametric models and demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to accommodate a variety of modifications to study assumptions.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of thermotherapy versus pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio; López-Carvajal, Liliana; Tamayo Plata, Mery Patricia; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is toxic, has contraindications, and a high cost. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of thermotherapy versus pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Effectiveness was the proportion of healing and safety with the adverse effects; these parameters were estimated from a controlled clinical trial and a meta-analysis. A standard costing was conducted. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated. The uncertainty regarding effectiveness, safety, and costs was determined through sensitivity analyses. The total costs were $66,807 with Glucantime and $14,079 with thermotherapy. The therapeutic effectiveness rates were 64.2% for thermotherapy and 85.1% for Glucantime. The average cost-effectiveness ratios ranged between $721 and $1275 for Glucantime and between $187 and $390 for thermotherapy. Based on the meta-analysis, thermotherapy may be a dominant strategy. The excellent cost-effectiveness ratio of thermotherapy shows the relevance of its inclusion in guidelines for the treatment. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. A Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Biologics for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saara Huoponen

    Full Text Available Biologics are used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn´s disease and ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional treatment. In order to allocate healthcare spending efficiently, costly biologics for inflammatory bowel diseases are an important target for cost-effectiveness analyses. The aim of this study was to systemically review all published literature on the cost-effectiveness of biologics for inflammatory bowel diseases and to evaluate the methodological quality of cost-effectiveness analyses.A literature search was performed using Medline (Ovid, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS. All cost-utility analyses comparing biologics with conventional medical treatment, another biologic treatment, placebo, or surgery for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases in adults were included in this review. All costs were converted to the 2014 euro. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by Drummond's, Philips', and the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist.Altogether, 25 studies were included in the review. Among the patients refractory to conventional medical treatment, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from dominance to 549,335 €/Quality-Adjusted Life Year compared to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with conventional medical treatment. When comparing biologics with another biologic treatment, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from dominance to 24,012,483 €/Quality-Adjusted Life Year. A study including both direct and indirect costs produced more favorable incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than those produced by studies including only direct costs.With a threshold of 35,000 €/Quality-Adjusted Life Year, biologics seem to be cost-effective for the induction treatment of active and severe inflammatory bowel disease. Between biologics, the cost-effectiveness remains unclear.

  17. Higher diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness using procalcitonin in the treatment of emergency medicine patients with fever (The HiTEMP study): A multicenter randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van der Does (Y.); M. Limper (Maarten); S.C.E. Schuit (Stephanie); M.J. Poley (Marten); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); C.R.B. Ramakers; P. Patka (Peter); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); P.P.M. Rood (Pleunie)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Fever is a common symptom in the emergency department(ED). Fever can be caused by bacterial infections, which are treated with antibiotics. Often, bacterial infections cannot be ruled out in the ED using standard diagnostics, and empiric antibiotic treatment is started.

  18. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Ingenol Mebutate Gel for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Tarantilis, Filippos; Tsiantou, Vasiliki; Kontodimas, Stathis; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of ingenol mebutate (IM) versus other topical alternatives for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). The analysis used a decision tree to calculate the clinical effects and costs of AK first-line treatments, IM (2-3 days), diclofenac 3% (for 8 or 12 weeks), imiquimod 5% (for 4 or 8 weeks), during a 24-month horizon, using discrete intervals of 6 months. A hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent adult patients with clinically confirmed AK on the face and scalp or trunk and extremities was considered. Clinical data on the relative efficacy were obtained from a network meta-analysis. Inputs concerning resource use derived from an expert panel. All costs were calculated from a Greek third-party payer perspective. IM 0.015% and 0.05% were both cost-effective compared with diclofenac and below a willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (€199 and €167 per QALY, respectively). Comparing IM on the face and scalp AK lesions for 3 days versus imiquimod for 4 weeks resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €10,868 per QALY. IM was dominant during the 8-week imiquimod period. IM use on the trunk and extremities compared with diclofenac (8 or 12 weeks) led to incremental cost-effectiveness ratios estimated at €1584 and €1316 per QALY accordingly. Results remained robust to deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. From a social insurance perspective in Greece, IM 0.015% and IM 0.05% could be the most cost-effective first-line topical field treatment options in all cases for AK treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Describing the characteristics, treatment pathways, outcomes, and costs of people with persistent noncancer pain managed by community pain clinics and generating an indicative estimate of cost-effectiveness: feasibility study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlAujan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha AlAujan,1 Saja AlMazrou,1 Roger D Knaggs,1,2 Rachel A Elliott11Division for Social Research in Medicines and Health, The School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Pharmacy Department and Pain Management Service, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UKBackground: Low back pain (LBP and fibromyalgia (FM, also known as chronic widespread pain (CWP, are highly prevalent chronic painful conditions that have substantial impact on patients, health care systems, and society. Diagnosis is complex and management strategies are associated with various levels of evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Multidisciplinary pain services have been shown to be effective in some settings and therefore are recommended by clinical practice guidelines as a rational treatment option to manage these patients. Knowing that these services are resource intensive, evidence is needed to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. This study aims to describe the management of patients with LBP and FM in two community pain clinics to derive an indicative estimate of cost-effectiveness compared with standard practice.Methods: This is a prospective observational multicenter study, using patient-level data. The data from this study will be combined with modelling of the long-term economic impact of community pain clinics in treating people with LBP and FM. Newly referred patients with LBP and FM who provide written consent will be included. We will collect data on functional disability, pain intensity, quality of life, and health resource utilization. Follow-up data at the 3- and 6-month points will be collected by patient-completed questionnaires and health care contact diaries. Health care resource use from diaries will be compared with patient electronic records to assess the agreement between these recording methods. Patient cohort characteristics, treatment pathways, resource use, and outcomes derived from this study will

  1. Symptomatic gallbladder stones. Cost-effectiveness of treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, P. M.; Stolk, M. F.; Obertop, H.; Dirksen, C.; van der Elst, D. H.; Ament, A.; van Erpecum, K. J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Gouma, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to strike the most favorable balance between health benefits and costs, three treatment modalities for symptomatic cholelithiasis were compared in a cost-effectiveness study: extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), conventional cholecystectomy (CC), and laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  2. Clinical effectiveness, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of Flaminal® versus Flamazine® in the treatment of partial thickness burns: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashaan, Zjir M; Krijnen, Pieta; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; van Baar, Margriet E; Vloemans, Adrianus F P; Dokter, Jan; Tempelman, Fenike R H; van der Vlies, Cees H; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-03-05

    Partial thickness burns are painful, difficult to manage and can have a negative effect on quality of life through scarring, permanent disfigurement and loss of function. The aim of burn treatment in partial thickness burns is to save lives, stimulate wound healing by creating an optimumly moist wound environment, to have debriding and analgesic effects, protect the wound from infection and be convenient for the patient and caregivers. However, there is no consensus on the optimal treatment of partial thickness wounds. Flaminal® and Flamazine® are two standard treatment options that provide the above mentioned properties in burn treatment. Nevertheless, no randomized controlled study has yet compared these two common treatment modalities in partial thickness burns. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of Flaminal® versus Flamazine® in the treatment of partial thickness burns. In this two-arm open multi-center randomized controlled trial, 90 patients will be randomized between Flaminal® and Flamazine® and followed for 12 months. The study population will consist of competent or temporarily non-competent (because of sedation and/or intubation) patients, 18 years of age or older, with acute partial thickness burns and a total body surface area (TBSA) of less than 30 %. The main study outcome is time to complete re-epithelialization (greater than 95 %). Secondary outcome measures include need for grafting, wound colonization/infection, number of dressing changes, pain and anxiety, scar formation, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and costs. This study will contribute to the optimal treatment of patients with partial thickness burn wounds and will provide evidence on the (cost-)effectiveness and quality of life of Flaminal® versus Flamazine® in the treatment of partial thickness burns. Netherlands Trial Register NTR4486 , registered on 2 April 2014.

  3. A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Floyd, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Around 0.4 million cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) occur each year. Only a small fraction of these cases are treated according to international guidelines. Evidence relevant to decisions about whether to scale-up treatment for MDR-TB includes cost and cost-effectiveness data. Up to 2010, no systematic review of this evidence has been available. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of treatment for MDR-TB and synthesize the available data. We searched for papers published or prepared for publication in peer-review journals and grey literature using search terms in five languages: English, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. From an initial set of 420 studies, four were included, from Peru, the Philippines, Estonia and Tomsk Oblast in the Russian Federation. Results on costs, effectiveness and cost effectiveness were extracted. Assessment of the quality of each economic evaluation was guided by two existing checklists around which there is broad consensus. Costs were adjusted to a common year of value (2005) to remove distortions caused by inflation, and calculated in two common currencies: $US and international dollars (I$), to standardize for purchasing power parity. Data from the four identified studies were then synthesized using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, to appraise the likely cost and cost effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in other settings, relative to WHO benchmarks for assessing whether or not an intervention is cost effective. Best estimates are provided as means, with 5th and 95th percentiles of the distributions. The cost per patient for MDR-TB treatment in Estonia, Peru, the Philippines and Tomsk was $US10 880, $US2423, $US3613 and $US14 657, respectively. Best estimates of the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted were $US598 (I$960), $US163 (I$291), $US143 (I$255) and $US745 (I$1059), respectively. The main influences on costs were (i) the model of care

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weixia; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Li; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Zhenjiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is newly available for treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients in China. To date, no study has been conducted to examine the cost-effectiveness of this treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of TDF versus four oral nucleos(t)ide analogs [lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), telbivudine (LdT), and entecavir (ETV)] and from a pharmacoeconomic perspective to assess current drug pricing for TDF. Based on Chinese healthcare perspectives, a Markov model was applied to simulate the lifetime (40-year time span) costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for five different monotherapy strategies. Two kinds of rescue combination strategies (base-case: LAM + ADV then ETV + ADV; alternative: directly using ETV + ADV) were separately considered for treatment of patients refractory to monotherapy. Model parameters (including disease transition, cost, and utility) were obtained from previous Chinese population studies. Both branded and generic drugs were separately analyzed. Study model uncertainties were assessed by one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Two-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainties between efficacy and price of TDF. In the base-case analysis, the lowest lifetime cost and the best cost-effectiveness ratio were obtained by ETV, which was considered the reference treatment. LAM, ADV, and LdT treatments had significantly greater costs and lower efficacies. Compared to ETV, TDF was more effective but also more expensive. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of TDF versus ETV were much higher than the willing-to-pay threshold of $20,466 US dollars (USD) per QALY gained (3 × gross domestic product per capita of China, 2014). TDF would be the most cost-effective strategy if the annual cost did not exceed $2260 USD and $1600 USD for branded and generic drugs, respectively. For Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients, ETV is still the most cost-effective

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Isavuconazole vs. Voriconazole as First-Line Treatment for Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rachel; Lee, Edward; Yang, Hongbo; Wei, Jin; Messali, Andrew; Azie, Nkechi; Wu, Eric Q; Spalding, James

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The phase III SECURE trial demonstrated non-inferiority in clinical efficacy between isavuconazole and voriconazole. No studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole compared to voriconazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole for the first-line treatment of IA from the US hospital perspective. An economic model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole in hospitalized patients with IA. The time horizon was the duration of hospitalization. Length of stay for the initial admission, incidence of readmission, clinical response, overall survival rates, and experience of adverse events (AEs) came from the SECURE trial. Unit costs were from the literature. Total costs per patient were estimated, composed of drug costs, costs of AEs, and costs of hospitalizations. Incremental costs per death avoided and per additional clinical responders were reported. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA and PSA) were conducted. Base case analysis showed that isavuconazole was associated with a $7418 lower total cost per patient than voriconazole. In both incremental costs per death avoided and incremental costs per additional clinical responder, isavuconazole dominated voriconazole. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis. Isavuconazole was cost saving and dominant vs. voriconazole in most DSA. In PSA, isavuconazole was cost saving in 80.2% of the simulations and cost-effective in 82.0% of the simulations at the $50,000 willingness to pay threshold per additional outcome. Isavuconazole is a cost-effective option for the treatment of IA among hospitalized patients. Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of 3-month paliperidone treatment for chronic schizophrenia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Thomas R; Bereza, Basil G; Garcia Llinares, Ignacio; González Martín Moro, Beatriz; Tedouri, Fadi; Van Impe, Kristel

    2017-10-01

    A 3-month long treatment of paliperidone palmitate (PP3M) has been introduced as an option for treating schizophrenia. Its cost-effectiveness in Spain has not been established. To compare the costs and effects of PP3M compared with once-monthly paliperidone (PP1M) from the payer perspective in Spain. This study used the recently published trial by Savitz et al. as a core model over 1 year. Additional data were derived from the literature. Costs in 2016 Euros were obtained from official lists and utilities from Osborne et al. The authors conducted both cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. For the former, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained was calculated. For the latter, the outcomes were relapses and hospitalizations avoided. To assure the robustness of the analyses, a series of 1-way and probability sensitivity analyses were conducted. The expected cost was lower with PP3M (4,780€) compared with PP1M (5,244€). PP3M had the fewest relapses (0.080 vs 0.161), hospitalizations (0.034 v.s 0.065), and emergency room visits (0.045 v.s 0.096) and the most QALYs (0.677 v.s 0.625). In both cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, PP3M dominated PP1M. Sensitivity analyses confirmed base case findings. For the primary analysis (cost-utility), PP3M dominated PP1M in 46.9% of 10,000 simulations and was cost-effective at a threshold of 30,000€/QALY gained. PP3M dominated PP1M in all analyses and was, therefore, cost-effective for treating chronic relapsing schizophrenia in Spain. For patients who require long-acting therapy, PP3M appears to be a good alternative anti-psychotic treatment.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments for heroin dependence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants' time were estimated using Malaysia's minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Muar, Malaysia. 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003-2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments for heroin dependence in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prah Ruger

    Full Text Available To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia.We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants' time were estimated using Malaysia's minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars.Muar, Malaysia.126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003-2005 receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence.Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores.Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine.Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term.

  9. Evaluation on the cost-effective threshold of osteoporosis treatment on elderly women in China using discrete event simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W; Jiang, Y

    2017-02-01

    This study used a simulation model to determine the cost-effective threshold of fracture risk to treat osteoporosis among elderly Chinese women. Osteoporosis treatment is cost-effective among average-risk women who are at least 75 years old and above-average-risk women who are younger than 75 years old. Aging of the Chinese population is imposing increasing economic burden of osteoporosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment among the senior Chinese women population. A discrete event simulation model using age-specific probabilities of hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture; costs (2015 US dollars); and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. The willingness to pay (WTP) for a QALY in China was compared with the calculated ICER to decide the cost-effectiveness. To determine the absolute 10-year hip fracture probability at which the osteoporosis treatment became cost-effective, average age-specific probabilities for all fractures were multiplied by a relative risk (RR) that was systematically varied from 0 to 10 until the WTP threshold was observed for treatment relative to no intervention. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to evaluate the impacts from WTP and annual treatment costs. In baseline analysis, simulated ICERs were higher than the WTP threshold among Chinese women younger than 75, but much lower than the WTP among the older population. Sensitivity analyses indicated that cost-effectiveness could vary due to a higher WTP threshold or a lower annual treatment cost. A 30 % increase in WTP or a 30 % reduction in annual treatment costs will make osteoporosis treatment cost-effective for Chinese women population from 55 to 85. The current study provides evidence that osteoporosis treatment is cost-effective among a subpopulation of

  10. Cost-effectiveness of CBT, SSRI, and CBT+SSRI in the treatment for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, F J; Stant, A D; van Hout, W J P J; Mersch, P P A; den Boer, J A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of three empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both (CBT+SSRI). Cost-effectiveness was examined based on the data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale was selected as a primary health outcome measure. Data on costs from a societal perspective (i.e., direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect non-medical costs) were collected in the study sample (N=150) throughout a 24-month period in which patients received active treatment during the first twelve months and were seen twice for follow-up in the next twelve months. Total costs were largely influenced by costs of the interventions and productivity losses. The mean total societal costs were lower for CBT as compared to SSRI and CBT+SSRI. Costs of medication use were substantial for both SSRI and CBT+SSRI. When examining the balance between costs and health outcomes, both CBT and CBT+SSRI led to more positive outcomes than SSRI. Cognitive behavioral therapy is associated with the lowest societal costs. Cognitive behavioral therapy and CBT+SSRI are more cost-effective treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia as compared to SSRI only. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C

    2002-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent and costly problem. This review addresses the question of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the most common treatments for patients with chronic pain. Representative published studies that evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological treatments, conservative (standard) care, surgery, spinal cord stimulators, implantable drug delivery systems (IDDSs), and pain rehabilitation programs (PRPs) are examined and compared. The cost-effectiveness of these treatment approaches is also considered. Outcome criteria including pain reduction, medication use, health care consumption, functional activities, and closure of disability compensation cases are examined. In addition to clinical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness of PRPs, conservative care, surgery, spinal cord stimulators, and IDDSs are compared using costs to return a treated patient to work to illustrate the relative expenses for each of these treatments. There are limitations to the success of all the available treatments. The author urges caution in interpreting the results, particularly in comparisons between treatments and across studies, because there are broad differences in the pain syndromes and inclusion criteria used, the drug dosages, comparability of treatments, the definition of "chronic" used, the outcome criteria selected to determine success, and societal differences. None of the currently available treatments eliminates pain for the majority of patients. Pain rehabilitation programs provide comparable reduction in pain to alternative pain treatment modalities, but with significantly better outcomes for medication use, health care utilization, functional activities, return to work, closure of disability claims, and with substantially fewer iatrogenic consequences and adverse events. Surgery, spinal cord stimulators, and IDDSs appear to have substantial benefits on some outcome criteria for carefully selected patients. These modalities are

  12. Graves' disease: cost-effectiveness of clinical and radioiodine treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz junior, Antonio F.; Takahashi, Miriam H.; Albino, Claudio C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this study, we set out to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of the two most used therapies in Graves' disease: antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine (RAI). Twenty-tree patients, 7 men and 16 women, with a mean age of 35.4 years, treated with ATD and 35 patients, 5 men and 30 women, mean age of 39.4 years, treated with RAI were studied. After 2 years receiving ATD, 21 patients achieved euthyroidism and 2 remained hyperthyroid. In the RAI group, 21 patients presented hypothyroidism and 13 became euthyroid. To calculate the costs of each therapy, we analysed the number of visits during this period, the laboratory data and the drugs needed, such as tiamazol and/or thyroxine. The group treated only with ATD needed a higher number of visits and laboratory measurements, with the mean total cost of U$ 791.65, while the RAI group spent a mean amount of U$ 366.44. Therefore, the costs of the RAI treatment were 53,7 % lower than clinical therapy with ATD. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that RAI treatment has a lower cost than ATD, being very effective in controlling the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. (author)

  13. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in Iranian pharmaceutical market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Davari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The FOLFOX regimen + cetuximab provides lower costs per additional life years gained (more cost-effective compared with its alternatives in the treatment of patients with unresectable metastatic CRC. However, according to the WHO indicator, none of the cetuximab regimens could be considered as cost effective for the Iranian health care market.

  15. Assessing value in breast reconstruction: A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheckter, Clifford C; Matros, Evan; Momeni, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons and is achieved through various choices in both technology and method. Cost-effectiveness analyses are increasingly important in assessing differences in value between treatment options, which is relevant in a world of confined resources. A thorough evaluation of the cost-effectiveness literature can assist surgeons and health systems evaluate high-value care models. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated all publications up until August 17, 2017. After removal of duplicates, 1996 records were screened, from which 53 studies underwent full text review. All the 13 studies included for final analysis mention an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Five studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of technologies including acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in staged prosthetic reconstruction, ADM in direct-to-implant (DTI) reconstruction, preoperative computed tomography angiography in autologous reconstruction, indocyanine green dye angiography in evaluating anastomotic patency, and abdominal mesh reinforcement in abdominal tissue transfer. The remaining eight studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different reconstruction methods. Cost-effective strategies included free vs. pedicled abdominal tissue transfer, DTI vs. staged prosthetic reconstruction, and fascia-sparing variants of free abdominal tissue transfer. Current evidence demonstrates multiple cost-effective technologies and methods in accomplishing successful breast reconstruction. Plastic surgeons should be well informed of such economic models when engaging payers and policymakers in discussions regarding high-value breast reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Invasive urodynamic testing prior to surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence in women: cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses in the context of a mixed methods feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Tara; Shen, Jing; Vale, Luke; McColl, Elaine; Tincello, Douglas G; Hilton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    INVESTIGATE-I (INVasive Evaluation before Surgical Treatment of Incontinence Gives Added Therapeutic Effect?) was a mixed methods study to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of invasive urodynamic testing (IUT) prior to surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. Here we report one of the study's five components, with the specific objectives of (i) exploring the cost-effectiveness of IUT compared with clinical assessment plus non-invasive tests (henceforth described as 'IUT' and 'no IUT' respectively) in women with SUI or stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) prior to surgery, and (ii) determining the expected net gain (ENG) from additional research. Study participants were women with SUI or stress-predominant MUI who had failed to respond to conservative treatments recruited from seven UK urogynaecology and female urology units. They were randomised to receive either 'IUT' or 'no IUT' before undergoing further treatment. Data from 218 women were used in the economic analysis. Cost utility, net benefit and value of information (VoI) analyses were performed within a randomised controlled pilot trial. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated over 6 months to determine the incremental cost per QALY of 'IUT' compared to 'no IUT'. Net monetary benefit informed the VoI analysis. The VoI estimated the ENG and optimal sample size for a future definitive trial. At 6 months, the mean difference in total average cost was £138 ( p  = 0.071) in favour of 'IUT'; there was no difference in QALYs estimated from the SF-12 (difference 0.004; p  = 0.425) and EQ-5D-3L (difference - 0.004; p  = 0.725); therefore, the probability of IUT being cost-effective remains uncertain. The estimated ENG was positive for further research to address this uncertainty with an optimal sample size of 404 women. This is the largest economic evaluation of IUT. On average, up to 6 months after treatment, 'IUT' may

  17. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  18. [Cost effectiveness in treatment of acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, P; Schaffner, A; Dazzi, H

    2000-12-23

    Although the rise in health costs is a widely debated issue, in Switzerland it was until recently taken for granted that patients are given the best available treatment regardless of cost. An example of a disease requiring costly treatment is acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). To relate cost to benefit we calculated expenditure per life years gained. To assess costs we determined the real cost of treatment up to total remission, followed by consolidation or withdrawal of treatment or death. For survival time exceeding the 2-year observation period we used data from recent literature. The average cost of treatment ranges up to 107,592 Swiss francs (CHF). In 1997 we treated 23 leukaemia patients at Zurich University Hospital and gained a total of 210 life years. This represents an average cost of CHF 11,741 per life year gained. Chief cost items were therapy and personnel costs for nursing staff, followed by hotel business and personnel costs for doctors and diagnosis. Our results for AML treatment are far removed from the $61,500 ranging up to $166,000 discussed in the literature as the "critical" QALY (quality adjusted life years) value. This is the first time the actual costs of AML therapy have been shown for a Swiss cohort. Despite high initial treatment costs and success only in a limited number of patients, the expenditure per QALY is surprisingly low and shows clearly the effectiveness of apparently costly acute medicine.

  19. Breast Cancer: Treatment, Outcomes, and Cost-Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClellan, Mark

    2000-01-01

    ...) use Medicare data, linked SEER cancer registry data, and claims data from large firms to analyze trends in diagnosis rates and staging, treatment, expenditures, and outcomes for Americans with breast cancer; and (3...

  20. The cost-effectiveness of IVF in the UK: a comparison of three gonadotrophin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, D; Out, H J; Palmer, S J; van Loon, J

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of women undergoing IVF treatment with recombinant FSH (rFSH) in comparison with highly purified urinary FSH (uFSH-HP) and human menopausal gonadotrophins (HMG). A decision-analytic model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios for 'the average cost per ongoing pregnancy' and 'incremental cost per additional pregnancy' for women entering into IVF treatment for a maximum of three cycles. The model was constructed based on a previously published large prospective randomized clinical trial comparing rFSH and uFSH-HP. Where necessary, these data were augmented with a combination of expert opinion, evidence from the literature and observational data relating to the management and cost of IVF treatment in the UK. The cost of rFSH, uFSH-HP and HMG were obtained from National Health Service list prices in the UK. The model predicted a cumulative pregnancy rate after three cycles of 57.1% for rFSH and 44.4% for both uFSH-HP and HMG. The cost of IVF treatment was 5135 pounds sterling for rFSH, 4806 pounds sterling for uFSH-HP and 4202 pounds sterling for HMG. When assessed in association with outcomes, the average cost per ongoing pregnancy was more favourable with rFSH (8992 pounds sterling) than with either uFSH-HP (10 834 pounds sterling) or HMG (9472 pounds sterling). The incremental cost per additional pregnancy was 2583 pounds sterling using rFSH instead of uFSH-HP and 7321 pounds sterling using rFSH instead of HMG. These results were robust to changes in the baseline assumptions of the model. rFSH is a cost-effective treatment strategy in ovulation induction prior to IVF.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of the diabetic foot: a Markov analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Ortegon (Monica); W.K. Redekop (Ken); L.W. Niessen (Louis Wilhelmus)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime health and economic effects of optimal prevention and treatment of the diabetic foot according to international standards and to determine the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in the Netherlands. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  2. Costs and cost-effectiveness of delivering intermittent preventive treatment through schools in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukes Matthew CH

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the potential impact of malaria among school-age children has stimulated investigation into malaria interventions that can be delivered through schools. However, little evidence is available on the costs and cost-effectiveness of intervention options. This paper evaluates the costs and cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT as delivered by teachers in schools in western Kenya. Methods Information on actual drug and non-drug associated costs were collected from expenditure and salary records, government budgets and interviews with key district and national officials. Effectiveness data were derived from a cluster-randomised-controlled trial of IPT where a single dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and three daily doses of amodiaquine were provided three times in year (once termly. Both financial and economic costs were estimated from a provider perspective, and effectiveness was estimated in terms of anaemia cases averted. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of key assumptions on estimated cost-effectiveness. Results The delivery of IPT by teachers was estimated to cost US$ 1.88 per child treated per year, with drug and teacher training costs constituting the largest cost components. Set-up costs accounted for 13.2% of overall costs (equivalent to US$ 0.25 per child whilst recurrent costs accounted for 86.8% (US$ 1.63 per child per year. The estimated cost per anaemia case averted was US$ 29.84 and the cost per case of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia averted was US$ 5.36, respectively. The cost per case of anaemia averted ranged between US$ 24.60 and 40.32 when the prices of antimalarial drugs and delivery costs were varied. Cost-effectiveness was most influenced by effectiveness of IPT and the background prevalence of anaemia. In settings where 30% and 50% of schoolchildren were anaemic, cost-effectiveness ratios were US$ 12.53 and 7.52, respectively. Conclusion This

  3. Bevacizumab in Treatment of High-Risk Ovarian Cancer—A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas J.; Hu, Lilian; Monk, Bradley J.; Kiet, Tuyen; Blansit, Kevin; Kapp, Daniel S.; Yu, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate a cost-effectiveness strategy of bevacizumab in a subset of high-risk advanced ovarian cancer patients with survival benefit. Methods. A subset analysis of the International Collaboration on Ovarian Neoplasms 7 trial showed that additions of bevacizumab (B) and maintenance bevacizumab (mB) to paclitaxel (P) and carboplatin (C) improved the overall survival (OS) of high-risk advanced cancer patients. Actual and estimated costs of treatment were determined from Medicare payment. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per life-year saved was established. Results. The estimated cost of PC is $535 per cycle; PCB + mB (7.5 mg/kg) is $3,760 per cycle for the first 6 cycles and then $3,225 per cycle for 12 mB cycles. Of 465 high-risk stage IIIC (>1 cm residual) or stage IV patients, the previously reported OS after PC was 28.8 months versus 36.6 months in those who underwent PCB + mB. With an estimated 8-month improvement in OS, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of B was $167,771 per life-year saved. Conclusion. In this clinically relevant subset of women with high-risk advanced ovarian cancer with overall survival benefit after bevacizumab, our economic model suggests that the incremental cost of bevacizumab was approximately $170,000. PMID:24721817

  4. Cost-effectiveness of available treatment options for patients suffering from severe COPD in the UK: a fully incremental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertel N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nadine Hertel1, Robert W Kotchie1, Yevgeniy Samyshkin1, Matthew Radford1, Samantha Humphreys2, Kevin Jameson21IMS Consulting Group, London, UK; 2MSD Ltd, Hoddesdon, UKPurpose: Frequent exacerbations which are both costly and potentially life-threatening are a major concern to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, despite the availability of several treatment options. This study aimed to assess the lifetime costs and outcomes associated with alternative treatment regimens for patients with severe COPD in the UK setting.Patients and methods: A Markov cohort model was developed to predict lifetime costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of various combinations of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA, a long-acting beta agonist (LABA, an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, and roflumilast in a fully incremental analysis. Patients willing and able to take ICS, and those refusing or intolerant to ICS were analyzed separately. Efficacy was expressed as relative rate ratios of COPD exacerbation associated with alternative treatment regimens, taken from a mixed treatment comparison. The analysis was conducted from the UK National Health Service (NHS perspective. Parameter uncertainty was explored using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis.Results: Based on the results of the fully incremental analysis a cost-effectiveness frontier was determined, indicating those treatment regimens which represent the most cost-effective use of NHS resources. For ICS-tolerant patients the cost-effectiveness frontier suggested LAMA as initial treatment. Where patients continue to exacerbate and additional therapy is required, LAMA + LABA/ICS can be a cost-effective option, followed by LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] versus LAMA + LABA/ICS: £16,566 per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained. The ICER in ICS-intolerant patients, comparing LAMA + LABA + roflumilast versus LAMA + LABA, was £13

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of secukinumab for the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeree, Ron; Chiva-Razavi, Sima; Gunda, Praveen; Graham, Christopher N; Miles, LaStella; Nikoglou, Efthalia; Jugl, Steffen M; Gladman, Dafna D

    2018-02-01

    The study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes interleukin (IL)-17A, vs currently licensed biologic treatments in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from a Canadian healthcare system perspective. A decision analytic semi-Markov model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab 150 mg and 300 mg compared to subcutaneous biologics adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, and ustekinumab, and intravenous biologics infliximab and infliximab biosimilar in biologic-naive and biologic-experienced patients over a lifetime horizon. The response to treatments was evaluated after 12 weeks by PsA Response Criteria (PsARC) response rates. Non-responders or patients discontinuing initial-line of biologic treatment were allowed to switch to subsequent-line biologics. Model input parameters (Psoriasis Area Severity Index [PASI], Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ], withdrawal rates, costs, and resource use) were collected from clinical trials, published literature, and other Canadian sources. Benefits were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). An annual discount rate of 5% was applied to costs and benefits. The robustness of the study findings were evaluated via sensitivity analyses. Biologic-naive patients treated with secukinumab achieved the highest number of QALYs (8.54) at the lowest cost (CAD 925,387) over a lifetime horizon vs all comparators. Secukinumab dominated all treatments, except for infliximab and its biosimilar, which achieved minimally more QALYs (8.58). However, infliximab and its biosimilar incurred more costs than secukinumab (infliximab: CAD 1,015,437; infliximab biosimilar: CAD 941,004), resulting in higher cost-effectiveness estimates relative to secukinumab. In the biologic-experienced population, secukinumab dominated all treatments as it generated more QALYs (8.89) at lower costs (CAD 954,692). Deterministic sensitivity analyses

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawela Moonga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line

  7. [Cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha [activated] in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, José A; Prieto, Luis; Huete, Teresa; Artigas, Antonio; Badia, Xavier; Chinn, Christopher; Hudson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The PROWESS clinical trial has shown that treatment with drotrecogin alpha (activated) in patients with severe sepsis is associated with a reduction in the absolute risk of death compared with standard treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha (activated) versus that of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain. A decision analysis model was drawn up to compare costs to hospital discharge and the long-term efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated) versus those of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain from the perspective of the health care payer. Most of the information for creating the model was obtained from the PROWESS clinical trial. A two-fold baseline analysis was performed: a) for all patients included in the PROWESS clinical trial and b) for the patients with two or more organ failures. The major variables for clinical assessment were the reduction in mortality and years of life gained (YLG). Cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per YLG. A sensitivity analysis was applied using 3% and 5% discount rates for YLG and by modifying the patterns of health care, intensive care unit costs, and life expectancy by initial co-morbidity and therapeutic efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated). Treatment with drotrecogin alfa (activated) was associated with a 6.0% drop in the absolute risk of death (p = 0.005) when all of the patients from the PROWESS trial were included and with a 7.3% reduction (p = 0.005) when the analysis was restricted to patients with two or more organ failures. The cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa (activated) was 13,550 euros per YLG with respect to standard care after analysing all of the patients and 9,800 euros per YLG in the group of patients with two or more organ failures. In the sensitivity analysis, the results ranged from 7,322 to 16,493 euros per YLG. The factors with the greatest impact on the results were the change in the efficacy of

  8. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment using generic direct-acting antivirals available in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Aggarwal

    Full Text Available Availability of directly-acting antivirals (DAAs has changed the treatment landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The high price of DAAs has restricted their use in several countries. However, in some countries such as India, generic DAAs are available at much cheaper price. This study examined whether generic DAAs could be cost-saving and how long it would take for the treatment to become cost-saving/effective.A previously-validated, mathematical model was adapted to the HCV-infected population in India to compare the outcomes of no treatment versus treatment with DAAs. Model parameters were estimated from published studies. Cost-effectiveness of HCV treatment using available DAAs was calculated, using a payer's perspective. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, total costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of DAAs versus no treatment. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted.Compared with no treatment, the use of generic DAAs in Indian HCV patients would increase the life expectancy by 8.02 years, increase QALYs by 3.89, avert 19.07 DALYs, and reduce the lifetime healthcare costs by $1,309 per-person treated. Treatment became cost-effective within 2 years, and cost-saving within 10 years of its initiation overall and within 5 years in persons with cirrhosis. Treating 10,000 HCV-infected persons could prevent 3400-3850 decompensated cirrhosis, 1800-2500 HCC, and 4000-4550 liver-related deaths. The results were sensitive to the costs of DAAs, pre- and post-treatment diagnostic tests and management of cirrhosis, and quality of life after sustained virologic response.Treatment with generic DAAs available in India will improve patient outcomes, provide a good value for money within 2 years, and be ultimately cost-saving. Therefore, in this and similar settings, HCV treatment should be a priority from a public health as well an economic perspective.

  9. [Cost]effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartholt, K.A.; van der Velde, N.; van Lieshout, E.M.M.; Polinder, S.; de Vries, O.J.; Boyé, N.D.A.; Kerver, A.J.H.; Ziere, G.; Bruijninckx, M.M.M.; de Vries, M.R.; Mattace-Raso, F.U.S.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Beeck, E.F.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Patka, P.; van der Cammen, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of

  10. The cost-effectiveness of Antiretroviral Treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa – a primary data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulle Andrew M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the size of the HIV epidemic in South Africa and other developing countries, scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART represents one of the key public health challenges of the next decade. Appropriate priority setting and budgeting can be assisted by economic data on the costs and cost-effectiveness of ART. The objectives of this research were therefore to estimate HIV healthcare utilisation, the unit costs of HIV services and the cost per life year (LY and quality adjusted life year (QALY gained of HIV treatment interventions from a provider's perspective. Methods Data on service utilisation, outcomes and costs were collected in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Utilisation of a full range of HIV healthcare services was estimated from 1,729 patients in the Khayelitsha cohort (1,146 No-ART patient-years, 2,229 ART patient-years using a before and after study design. Full economic costs of HIV-related services were calculated and were complemented by appropriate secondary data. ART effects (deaths, therapy discontinuation and switching to second-line were from the same 1,729 patients followed for a maximum of 4 years on ART. No-ART outcomes were estimated from a local natural history cohort. Health-related quality of life was assessed on a sub-sample of 95 patients. Markov modelling was used to calculate lifetime costs, LYs and QALYs and uncertainty was assessed through probabilistic sensitivity analysis on all utilisation and outcome variables. An alternative scenario was constructed to enhance generalizability. Results Discounted lifetime costs for No-ART and ART were US$2,743 and US$9,435 over 2 and 8 QALYs respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio through the use of ART versus No-ART was US$1,102 (95% CI 1,043-1,210 per QALY and US$984 (95% CI 913-1,078 per life year gained. In an alternative scenario where adjustments were made across cost, outcome and utilisation parameters, costs and outcomes

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Pharmacist Intervention in Patients with Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial (PRODEFAR Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Valera, M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Fernandez, A.; Penarrubia-Maria, M.; March, M.; Trave, P.; Bellon, J.A.; Serrano-Blanco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Non-adherence to antidepressants generates higher costs for the treatment of depression. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist's interventions aimed at improving adherence to antidepressants. The study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist

  12. Hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy for treatment of Graves' disease: implications for patient management and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, O R; Scott-Coombes, D M

    2011-08-01

    No consensus exists on optimal treatment for Graves' disease once anti-thyroid medication fails to induce remission. Total thyroidectomy is a more cost-effective treatment than radioactive iodine or life-long anti-thyroid medication, but hypocalcaemia is an important complication, leading to longer hospital admissions and increased prescription costs. This study aimed to compare the relative risk of hypocalcaemia requiring medical treatment for patients with Graves' disease. Prospective cohort study of patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease and for multinodular goitre, calculating serum calcium levels 24-hours post-operatively and prescription rates. Mean corrected calcium concentrations 24 hours post-operatively were 2.05 mmol/l for Graves' disease patients and 2.14 mmol/l for multinodular goitre patients (p = 0.003). Biochemical hypocalcaemia developed in 92 per cent (n = 34) of Graves' disease patients and 71 per cent (n = 43) of multinodular goitre patients (p = 0.012). Graves' disease patients were more likely to be prescribed calcium supplementation pre-discharge (p = 0.037). Total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease carries an increased risk of hypocalcaemia at 24 hours, and of calcium supplementation pre-discharge. Graves' disease patients should be informed of the increased risk of hypocalcaemia associated with total thyroidectomy, and this risk must be factored into future cost-effectiveness analysis.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of ceftriaxone in the treatment of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-03

    Mar 3, 1998 ... community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults in a private hospital ... organism is susceptible, and adversely affected by delayed or inappropriate ... serious loss in terms of representativeness and usefulness of the study ...

  14. The cost-effectiveness of biologics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana T Joensuu

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically.A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro.Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi ranged from 39,000 to 1,273,000 €/quality adjusted life year (QALY gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs in cDMARD naïve patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 €/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi.When 35,000 €/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naïve patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 €/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments and a validated standard conversion method

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacotherapy for Hematemesis-Melena Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy de Queljoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute variceal haemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that can be life threatening. It is a pharmacist’s duty to ensure therapeutic and pharmaceutical care which is not only safe and effective for the patient but also is cost-effective in order to attain improvement of the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, pharmacoeconomic evaluation especially cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which compares costs and consequences of drug therapy, is needed. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic cost-effectiveness of hematemesis-melena treatment in hepatic cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A total of 42 patients receiving vitamin K and vitamin K-transamin were studied retrospectively from patients’ medical records in 2 years and analyzed with cost-effectiveness grid and average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER based on Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP Score. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness grid was dominant for vitamin K in patients with CTP Score A. ACER analysis showed a lower score for vitamin K in all patients included CTP Score classification. There was no significant difference in duration of cessation of bleeding treatment in patients with vitamin K compared with vitamin K-transamin in patients with CTP Score A and B, while significant difference was found in patients with CTP Score C. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K appeared to be more cost effective as compared with vitamin K-transamin in all patients. The use of vitamin K had greater benefit than the combination with transamin in all patients and CTP Score classification, and thus should be considered as a primary therapy. Therefore, transamin addition as an alternative therapy for hepatic cirrhosis patients with hematemesis-melena should be considered. KEYWORDS: CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis, child-turcotte-pugh score, hepatic cirrhosis, hematemesismelena, vitamin K, transamin.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of two versus three or more doses of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study of meta-analysis and cost data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Silke; Sicuri, Elisa; Kayentao, Kassoum; van Eijk, Anne Maria; Hill, Jenny; Webster, Jayne; Were, Vincent; Akazili, James; Madanitsa, Mwayi; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Hanson, Kara

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, WHO changed its recommendation for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) from two doses to monthly doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the second and third trimesters, but noted the importance of a cost-effectiveness analysis to lend support to the decision of policy makers. We therefore estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of IPTp with three or more (IPTp-SP3+) versus two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP2). For this analysis, we used data from a 2013 meta-analysis of seven studies in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a decision tree model with a lifetime horizon. We analysed the base case from a societal perspective. We did deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses with appropriate parameter ranges and distributions for settings with low, moderate, and high background risk of low birthweight, and did a separate analysis for HIV-negative women. Parameters in the model were obtained for all countries included in the original meta-analysis. We did simulations in hypothetical cohorts of 1000 pregnant women receiving either IPTp-SP3+ or IPTp-SP2. We calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for low birthweight, severe to moderate anaemia, and clinical malaria. We calculated cost estimates from data obtained in observational studies, exit surveys, and from public procurement databases. We give financial and economic costs in constant 2012 US$. The main outcome measure was the incremental cost per DALY averted. The delivery of IPTp-SP3+ to 1000 pregnant women averted 113·4 DALYs at an incremental cost of $825·67 producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $7·28 per DALY averted. The results remained robust in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the ICER was $7·7 per DALY averted for moderate risk of low birthweight, $19·4 per DALY averted for low risk, and $4·0 per DALY averted for high risk. The ICER for HIV

  17. The cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation as first-line treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Mattias; Walfridsson, Håkan; Janzon, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this prospective substudy was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) compared with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) as first-line treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A decision-analytic Markov model......, based on MANTRA-PAF (Medical Antiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation) study data, was developed to study long-term effects and costs of RFA compared with AADs as first-line treatment. Positive clinical effects were found in the overall population, a gain...... of an average 0.06 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to an incremental cost of €3033, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €50 570/QALY. However, the result of the subgroup analyses showed that RFA was less costly and more effective in younger patients. This implied an incremental cost-effectiveness...

  18. Decision tree analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness of yttrium microspheres for treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, B.B.; Walker, G.D.; Miles, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim is to determine the cost-effectiveness of yttrium microsphere treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, with and without FDG-PET for detection of extra-hepatic disease. A decision tree was created comparing two strategies for yttrium treatment with chemotherapy, one incorporating PET in addition to CT in the pre-treatment work-up, to a strategy of chemotherapy alone. The sensitivity and specificity of PET and CT were obtained from the Federal Government PET review. Imaging costs were obtained from the Medicare benefits schedule with an additional capital component added for PET (final cost $1200). The cost of yttrium treatment was determined by patient-tracking. Previously published reports indicated a mean gain in life-expectancy from treatment of 0.52 years. Patients with extra-hepatic metastases were assumed to receive no survival benefit. Cost effectiveness was expressed as incremental cost per life-year gained (ICER). Sensitivity analysis determined the effect of prior probability of extra-hepatic disease on cost-savings and cost-effectiveness. The cost of yttrium treatment including angiography, particle perfusion studies and bed-stays, was $10530. A baseline value for prior probability of extra-hepatic disease of 0.35 gave ICERs of $26,378 and $25,271 for the no-PET and PET strategies respectively. The PET strategy was less expensive if the prior probability of extra-hepatic metastases was greater than 0.16 and more cost-effective if above 0.28. Yttrium microsphere treatment is less cost-effective than other interventions for colon cancer but comparable to other accepted health interventions. Incorporating PET into the pre-treatment assessment is likely to save costs and improve cost-effectiveness. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  19. [Cost-effectiveness of Antipsychotics in the Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian Reyes, Hoover; Arciniegas Barrera, Jair Alberto; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Assess the cost-effectiveness of the antipsychotics for treatment of schizophrenia. A five-year Markov model was built form patients with schizophrenia on the stage of maintenance. Costs were taken from the perspective of the Colombian health care system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud). The effectiveness was measured in years of life under the same maintenance plan. The Markov model indicated clozapine as the as the most cost-effective alternative between the first line antipsychotics and haloperidol is it when comparing other antipsychotics. Clozapine it's the cost-effectiveness strategy among the first line of antipsychotics and haloperidol is it among the other antipsychotics. Strategies prioritizing the use of cost-effective antipsychotics could improve the resources allocation in the Colombian health care system. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. The clinical and cost effectiveness of bee honey dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghazy, A M; Shams, M E; Adly, O A; Abbas, A H; El-Badawy, M A; Elsakka, D M; Hassan, S A; Abdelmohsen, W S; Ali, O S; Mohamed, B A

    2010-09-01

    Honey is known, since antiquity, as an effective wound dressing. Emergence of resistant strains and the financial burden of modern dressings, have revived honey as cost-effective dressing particularly in developing countries. Its suitability for all stages of wound healing suggests its clinical effectiveness in diabetic foot wound infections. Thirty infected diabetic foot wounds were randomly selected from patients presenting to Surgery Department, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. Honey dressing was applied to wounds for 3 months till healing, grafting or failure of treatment. Changes in grade and stage of wounds, using University of Texas Diabetic Wound Classification, as well as surface area were recorded weekly. Bacterial load was determined before and after honey dressing. Complete healing was significantly achieved in 43.3% of ulcers. Decrease in size and healthy granulation was significantly observed in another 43.3% of patients. Bacterial load of all ulcers was significantly reduced after the first week of honey dressing. Failure of treatment was observed in 6.7% of ulcers. This study proves that commercial clover honey is a clinical and cost-effective dressing for diabetic wound in developing countries. It is omnipresence and concordance with cultural beliefs makes it a typical environmentally based method for treating these conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: results of a randomised controlled trial (the PREVENT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Willem; Hayes, Rachel; Barrett, Barbara; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Kessler, David; Lewis, Glyn; Watkins, Edward; Morant, Nicola; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse/recurrence. Maintenance antidepressant medication (m-ADM) for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to m-ADM. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with usual care but has not yet been compared with m-ADM in a definitive trial. To establish whether MBCT with support to taper and/or discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) is superior to and more cost-effective than an approach of m-ADM in a primary care setting for patients with a history of recurrent depression followed up over a 2-year period in terms of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence. Secondary aims examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. Single-blind, parallel, individual randomised controlled trial. UK general practices. Adult patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depression and who were taking m-ADM. Participants were randomised to MBCT-TS or m-ADM with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Outcome data were collected blind to treatment allocation and the primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. Process studies using quantitative and qualitative methods examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. The primary outcome measure was time to relapse/recurrence of depression. At each follow-up the following secondary outcomes were recorded: number of depression-free days, residual depressive symptoms, quality of life, health-related quality of life and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. In total, 212 patients were randomised to MBCT-TS and 212 to m-ADM. The primary analysis did not find any evidence that MBCT-TS was superior to m-ADM in terms of the primary outcome of time to depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.18] or for any

  2. Cost effectiveness of arthrocentesis as initial treatment for temporomandibular joint arthralgia: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, L.M.; Stant, A.D.; Quik, E.H.; Huddleston Slater, J.J.R.; Stegenga, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cost effectiveness of arthrocentesis as initial treatment compared to care as usual (CAU) for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia. Materials and methods: 80 patients were randomly allocated to arthrocentesis as initial treatment (n = 40) or CAU (n = 40).

  3. Cost-effectiveness of Spa treatment for fibromyalgia: general health improvement is not for free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, T.R.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an adjuvant treatment course of spa treatment compared with usual care only in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). - Methods: 134 patients with FM, selected from a rheumatology outpatient department and from members of the Dutch FM patient

  4. Sexually transmitted infections screening at HIV treatment centers for MSM can be cost-effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J.; Lugnér, Anna K.; Xiridou, Maria; Van Der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Prins, Maria; De Vries, Henry J.C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Prins, Jan M.; Rijnders, Bart J.A.; Van Veen, Maaike G.; Fennema, Johannes S.A.; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Der Sande, Marianne A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the cost-effectiveness of anorectal chlamydia screening among men who have sex with men (MSM) in care at HIV treatment centers. Design:Transmission model combined with economic analysis over a 20-year period. Setting and participants:MSM in care at HIV treatment centers.

  5. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer treatment: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kevin; Cannon, John G D; Jiang, Sam Y; Sambare, Tanmaya D; Owens, Douglas K; Bendavid, Eran; Poultsides, George A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate preoperative staging helps avert morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with non-therapeutic laparotomy in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy (DSL) can detect metastases with high sensitivity, but its cost-effectiveness has not been previously studied. We developed a decision analysis model to assess the cost-effectiveness of preoperative DSL in GC workup. Analysis was based on a hypothetical cohort of GC patients in the U.S. for whom initial imaging shows no metastases. The cost-effectiveness of DSL was measured as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Drivers of cost-effectiveness were assessed in sensitivity analysis. Preoperative DSL required an investment of $107 012 per QALY. In sensitivity analysis, DSL became cost-effective at a threshold of $100 000/QALY when the probability of occult metastases exceeded 31.5% or when test sensitivity for metastases exceeded 86.3%. The likelihood of cost-effectiveness increased from 46% to 93% when both parameters were set at maximum reported values. The cost-effectiveness of DSL for GC patients is highly dependent on patient and test characteristics, and is more likely when DSL is used selectively where procedure yield is high, such as for locally advanced disease or in detecting peritoneal and superficial versus deep liver lesions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating fidaxomicin versus oral vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Paul M; Hutton, David W; Collins, Curtis D

    2013-01-01

    Fidaxomicin is a novel treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). This new treatment, however, is associated with a higher acquisition cost compared with alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin or oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing fidaxomicin with oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs in the United States by creating a decision analytic model from the third-party payer perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with fidaxomicin compared with oral vancomycin was $67,576/quality-adjusted life-year. A probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis showed that fidaxomicin had an 80.2% chance of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. Fidaxomicin remained cost-effective under all fluctuations of both fidaxomicin and oral vancomycin costs. The decision analytic model was sensitive to variations in clinical cure and recurrence rates. Secondary analyses revealed that fidaxomicin was cost-effective in patients receiving concominant antimicrobials, in patients with mild to moderate CDIs, and when compared with oral metronidazole in patients with mild to moderate disease. Fidaxomicin was dominated by oral vancomycin if CDI was caused by the NAP1/Bl/027 Clostridium difficile strain and was dominant in institutions that did not compound oral vancomycin. Results of our model showed that fidaxomicin may be a more cost-effective option for the treatment of CDIs when compared with oral vancomycin under most scenarios tested. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of duloxetine versus routine treatment for U.S. patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric Q; Birnbaum, Howard G; Mareva, Milena N; Le, T Kim; Robinson, Rebecca L; Rosen, Amy; Gelwicks, Steve

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of duloxetine versus routine treatment in management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). Two hundred thirty-three patients with DPNP who completed a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter duloxetine trial were re-randomized into a 52-week, open-label trial of duloxetine 60 mg twice daily versus routine treatment. Routine treatment included pain management therapies. Effectiveness was measured by using the bodily pain domain (BP) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). Costs were analyzed from 3 perspectives: third party payer (direct medical costs), employer (direct and indirect medical costs), and societal (patient's out-of-pocket costs and total medical costs). Costs of study medications were not included because of limited data. Bootstrap method was applied to calculate statistical inference of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Routine treatment most frequently used included gabapentin (56%), venlafaxine (36%), and amitripytline (15%). From employer and societal perspectives, duloxetine was cost-effective (ICER= -342 dollars and -429 dollars, respectively, per unit of SF-36 BP; both P treatment (both P < .05). From payer perspective, duloxetine trended toward cost-effectiveness (ICER= -249 dollars per unit of SF-36 BP; P treatments is highly desired by decision makers. From both employer perspective and societal perspective (including patient's out-of-pocket costs), this study demonstrated that duloxetine was more cost-effective than routine treatment in management of DPNP.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of colon cancer treatments from MOSIAC and No. 16968 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Yao, Ke; Du, Ze-Dong; He, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Tang, Rui-Lei; Li, Qiu

    2014-12-21

    To compare XELOX and FOLFOX4 as colon cancer adjuvant chemotherapy based on MOSAIC and No. 16968 trails from Chinese cost-effectiveness perspective. A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to compare the FOLFOX4 and XELOX regimens based MOSAIC and No. 16968 trial. Five states were included in our Markov model: well (state 1), minor toxicity (state 2), major toxicity (state 3), quitting adjuvant chemotherapy (state 4), and death due to adjuvant chemotherapy (state 5). Transitions among the 5 states were assumed to be Markovian. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Chinese health-care payer. The utility data were taken from published studies. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of uncertainty factors in this cost-effectiveness analysis. Total direct costs of FOLFOX4 and XELOX per patient were $19884.96 ± 4280.30 and $18113.25 ± 3122.20, respectively. The total fees related to adverse events per patient during the entire treatment were $204.75 ± 16.80 for the XELOX group, and $873.72 ± 27.60 for the FOLFOX4 group, and the costs for travel and absenteeism per patient were $18495.00 for the XELOX group and $21,352.68 for the FOLFOX4 group. The base-case analysis showed that FOLFOX4 was estimated to produce an additional 0.06 in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) at an additional cost of $3950.47 when compared to the XELOX regimen over the model time horizon. The cost per QALY gained was $8047.30 in the XELOX group, which was $900.98 less than in the FOLFOX4 group ($8948.28). The one way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the utility for the well state and minor toxicity state greatly influenced the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of FOLFOX4. In term of cost-comparison, XELOX is expected to dominate FOLFOX4 regimes; Therefore, XELOX provides a more cost-effective adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer patients in China.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Nahuis, Marleen J.; Hompes, Peter G.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene

  10. The cost-effectiveness of an intensive treatment protocol for severe dyslexia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Goettsch, Wim G; Ekkebus, Michel; Gerretsen, Patty; Stolk, Elly A

    2011-08-01

    Studies of interventions for dyslexia have focused entirely on outcomes related to literacy. In this study, we considered a broader picture assessing improved quality of life compared with costs. A model served as a tool to compare costs and effects of treatment according to a new protocol and care as usual. Quality of life was measured and valued by proxies using a general quality-of-life instrument (EQ-5D). We considered medical cost and non-medical cost (e.g. remedial teaching). The model computed cost per successful treatment and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) in time. About 75% of the total costs was related to diagnostic tests to distinguish between children with severe dyslexia and children who have reading difficulties for other reasons. The costs per successful treatment of severe dyslexia were €36 366. Successful treatment showed a quality-of-life gain of about 11%. At primary school, the average cost per QALY for severe dyslexia amounted to €58 647. In the long term, the cost per QALY decreased to €26 386 at secondary school and €17 663 thereafter. The results of this study provide evidence that treatment of severe dyslexia is cost-effective when the investigated protocol is followed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of extended buprenorphine-naloxone treatment for opioid-dependent youth: data from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Daniel; Glick, Henry A; Yang, Jianing; Subramaniam, Geetha A; Poole, Sabrina A; Woody, George E

    2010-09-01

    The objective is to estimate cost, net social cost and cost-effectiveness in a clinical trial of extended buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP) treatment versus brief detoxification treatment in opioid-dependent youth. Economic evaluation of a clinical trial conducted at six community out-patient treatment programs from July 2003 to December 2006, who were randomized to 12 weeks of BUP or a 14-day taper (DETOX). BUP patients were prescribed up to 24 mg per day for 9 weeks and then tapered to zero at the end of week 12. DETOX patients were prescribed up to 14 mg per day and then tapered to zero on day 14. All were offered twice-weekly drug counseling. 152 patients aged 15-21 years. Data were collected prospectively during the 12-week treatment and at follow-up interviews at months 6, 9 and 12. The 12-week out-patient study treatment cost was $1514 (P DETOX. One-year total direct medical cost was only $83 higher for BUP (P = 0.97). The cost-effectiveness ratio of BUP relative to DETOX was $1376 in terms of 1-year direct medical cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and $25,049 in terms of out-patient treatment program cost per QALY. The acceptability curve suggests that the cost-effectiveness ratio of BUP relative to DETOX has an 86% chance of being accepted as cost-effective for a threshold of $100,000 per QALY. Extended BUP treatment relative to brief detoxification is cost effective in the US health-care system for the outpatient treatment of opioid-dependent youth.

  12. Identifying cost-effective treatment with raloxifene in postmenopausal women using risk algorithms for fractures and invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivergård, M; Ström, O; Borgström, F; Burge, R T; Tosteson, A N A; Kanis, J

    2010-11-01

    The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) recommends considering treatment in women with a 20% or higher 10-year probability of a major fracture. However, raloxifene reduces both the risk of vertebral fractures and invasive breast cancer so that raloxifene treatment may be clinically appropriate and cost-effective in women who do not meet a 20% threshold risk. The aim of this study was to identify cost-effective scenarios of raloxifene treatment compared to no treatment in younger postmenopausal women at increased risk of invasive breast cancer and fracture risks below 20%. A micro-simulation model populated with data specific to American Caucasian women was used to quantify the costs and benefits of 5-year raloxifene treatment. The population evaluated was selected based on 10-year major fracture probability as estimated with FRAX® being below 20% and 5-year invasive breast cancer risk as estimated with the Gail risk model ranging from 1% to 5%. The cost per QALY gained ranged from US $22,000 in women age 55 with 5% invasive breast cancer risk and 15-19.9% fracture probability, to $110,000 in women age 55 with 1% invasive breast cancer risk and 5-9.9% fracture probability. Raloxifene was progressively cost-effective with increasing fracture risk and invasive breast cancer risk for a given age cohort. At lower fracture risk in combination with lower invasive breast cancer risk or when no preventive raloxifene effect on invasive breast cancer was assumed, the cost-effectiveness of raloxifene worsened markedly and was not cost-effective given a willingness-to-pay of US $50,000. At fracture risk of 15-19.9% raloxifene was cost-effective also in women at lower invasive breast cancer risk. Raloxifene is potentially cost-effective in cohorts of young postmenopausal women, who do not meet the suggested NOF 10-year fracture risk threshold. The cost-effectiveness is contingent on their 5-year invasive breast cancer risk. The result highlights the importance of considering

  13. Effect of patient's life expectancy on the cost-effectiveness of treatment for ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Kass, Michael A; Boland, Michael V; Gordon, Mae O

    2010-05-01

    To assess the influence of expected life span on the cost-effectiveness of treating ocular hypertension to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma. We used a Markov simulation model to estimate the cost and benefit of ocular hypertension treatment over a person's remaining life. We examined the influence of age on the cost-effectiveness decision in 2 ways: (1) by evaluating specific age cohorts to assess the influence of age at the initiation of treatment; and (2) by evaluating the influence of a specific life span. At a willingness to pay $50,000/quality-adjusted life year to $100,000/quality-adjusted life year, treatment of people with a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma was cost-effective for people aged 45 years with a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years. However, to be cost-effective, a person aged 55 years must have a life expectancy of 21 remaining years and someone aged 65 years must have a life expectancy of 23 remaining years. A person with ocular hypertension must have a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years to justify treatment at a threshold of a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma. Persons at higher levels of risk require a life expectancy of 7 to 10 additional years to justify treatment.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of intensive inpatient treatments for severely obese children and adolescents in the Netherlands; a randomized controlled trial (HELIOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkes, Sabine; Halberstadt, Jutka; Renders, Carry M; Bosmans, Judith E; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intensive combined lifestyle interventions are the recommended treatment for severely obese children and adolescents, but there is a lack of studies and their cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of two intensive one-year inpatient

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Dolutegravir in HIV-1 Treatment-Experienced (TE Patients in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Pialoux

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a new generation integrase inhibitor (INI, dolutegravir (DTG, in France, in treatment-experienced (TE and INI-naïve HIV-infected adults with at least two classes resistance compared to raltegravir (RAL, by adapting previously published Anti-Retroviral Analysis by Monte Carlo Individual Simulation (ARAMIS model.ARAMIS is a microsimulation Markov model with a lifetime time horizon and a monthly cycle length. Health states are defined as with or without opportunistic infection and death. In the initial cohort, efficacy and safety data were derived from a phase III study comparing DTG to RAL. Antiretroviral treatment algorithms, accounting for patient history, were based on French guidelines and experts opinion. Costs are mainly including treatment costs, routine HIV and opportunistic infection care, and death. Utilities depend on CD4+ cell count and the occurrence of opportunistic infections.The ARAMIS model indicates in the TE population that DTG compared to RAL over a life time is associated with 0.35 additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY; 10.75 versus 10.41 and additional costs of €7,266 (€390,001 versus €382,735. DTG increased costs are mainly related to a 9.1-month increase in life expectancy for DTG compared with RAL, and consequently a longer time spent on ART. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for DTG compared with RAL is €21,048 per QALY gained. About 83% and 14% of total lifetime costs are associated with antiretroviral therapy and routine HIV care respectively. Univariate deterministic sensitivity analyses demonstrate the robustness of the model.DTG is cost-effective in the management of TE INI naive patients in France, from a collective perspective. These results could be explained by the superior efficacy of DTG in this population and its higher genetic barrier to resistance compared to RAL. These data need to be confirmed with longer-term real life data.

  16. Surgical management of bilateral vocal fold paralysis: A cost-effectiveness comparison of two treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Alkire, Blake C; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Endoscopic management of bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) includes cordotomy and arytenoidectomy, and has become a well-accepted alternative to tracheostomy. However, the costs and quality-of-life benefits of endoscopic management have not been examined with formal economic analysis. This study undertakes a cost-effectiveness analysis of tracheostomy versus endoscopic management of BVFP. Cost-effectiveness analysis. A literature review identified a range of costs and outcomes associated with surgical options for BVFP. Additional costs were derived from Medicare reimbursement data; all were adjusted to 2014 dollars. Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluated both therapeutic strategies in short-term and long-term scenarios. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to assess confidence levels regarding the economic evaluation. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for endoscopic management versus tracheostomy is $31,600.06 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), indicating that endoscopic management is the cost-effective short-term strategy at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY. The probability that endoscopic management is more cost-effective than tracheostomy at this WTP is 65.1%. Threshold analysis demonstrated that the model is sensitive to both utilities and cost in the short-term scenario. When costs of long-term care are included, tracheostomy is dominated by endoscopic management, indicating the cost-effectiveness of endoscopic management at any WTP. Endoscopic management of BVFP appears to be more cost-effective than tracheostomy. Though endoscopic cordotomy and arytenoidectomy require expertise and specialized equipment, this model demonstrates utility gains and long-term cost advantages to an endoscopic strategy. These findings are limited by the relative paucity of robust utility data and emphasize the need for further economic analysis in otolaryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:691-697, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological

  17. Cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems: findings of the randomised UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT).

    OpenAIRE

    Heather, Nick; Copello, Alex; Godfrey, Christine; Hodgson, Ray; UKATT Research Team

    2005-01-01

    Objective \\ud To compare the cost effectiveness of social behaviour and network therapy, a new treatment for alcohol problems, with that of the proved motivational enhancement therapy. Design Cost effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised trial. \\ud \\ud Setting \\ud Seven treatment sites around Birmingham, Cardiff, and Leeds. Participants 742 clients with alcohol problems; 617 (83.2%) were interviewed at 12 months and full economic data were obtained on 608 (98.5% of 617). Main e...

  18. The cost-effectiveness of depression treatment for co-occurring disorders: a clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Katherine E.; Cuellar, Alison E.; Hepner, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ewing, Brett A.; de la Cruz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to determine the economic value of providing on-site group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression to clients receiving residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design and an intention-to-treat analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio of the intervention were estimated relative to usual care residential treatment. The average cost of a treatment episode was $908, compared to $180 for usual care. The i...

  19. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  20. The cost-effectiveness of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost-effectiveness of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne. François Wessels, A Nixon Anderson, Keith Kropman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  1. Effects of naloxone distribution alone or in combination with addiction treatment with or without pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in people who inject drugs: a cost-effectiveness modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyei, Jennifer; Fiellin, David A; Buchelli, Marianne; Rodriguez-Santana, Ramon; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    In the USA, an epidemic of opioid overdose deaths is occurring, many of which are from heroin. Combining naloxone distribution with linkage to addiction treatment or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention through syringe service programmes has the potential to save lives and be cost-effective. We estimated the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of five alternative strategies: no additional intervention, naloxone distribution, naloxone distribution plus linkage to addiction treatment, naloxone distribution plus PrEP, and naloxone distribution plus linkage to addiction treatment and PrEP. We developed a decision analytical Markov model to simulate opioid overdose, HIV incidence, overdose-related deaths, and HIV-related deaths in people who inject drugs in Connecticut, USA. Model input parameters were derived from published sources. We compared each strategy with no intervention, as well as simultaneously considering all strategies. Sensitivity analysis was done for all variables. Linkage to addiction treatment was referral to an opioid treatment programme for methadone. Endpoints were survival, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), number and percentage of overdose deaths averted, number of HIV-related deaths averted, total costs (in 2015 US$) associated with each strategy, and incremental cost per QALY gained. In the base-case analysis, compared with no additional intervention, the naloxone distribution strategy yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $323 per QALY, and naloxone distribution plus linkage to addiction treatment was cost saving compared with no additional intervention (greater effectiveness and less expensive). The most efficient strategies (ie, those conferring the greatest health benefit for a particular budget) were naloxone distribution combined with linkage to addiction treatment (cost saving), and naloxone distribution combined with PrEP and linkage to addiction treatment (ICER $95 337 per QALY) at a

  2. Blood transfusion versus hydroxyurea in beta-thalassemia in Iran: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravangard, Ramin; Mirzaei, Zahra; Keshavarz, Khosro; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-11-21

    Thalassemia intermedia is a type of anemia which has several treatments modalities. We aimed to study the cost effectiveness of two treatments, including blood transfusion and hydroxyurea, in patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia in south of Iran referred to a referral center affiliated to Iran, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. This was a cost-effectiveness study which was conducted on 122 patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia. The indicator of effectiveness in this study was the reduction of growth disorder (normal BMI). Data analysis was done using SPSS 21, Excel 2010 and Treeage 2011. Finally, the one-way sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the robustness of the results. The average annual costs of blood transfusion and the use of hydroxyurea in 2015 were 20733.27 purchasing power parity (PPP)$ and 7040.29 PPP$, respectively. The effectiveness of blood transfusion was57.4% while in hydroxyurea group was 60.7%. The results showed that the cost effectiveness of using hydroxyurea was more than that of blood transfusion. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of hydroxyurea in the treatment of patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia would become the first priority, and more basic and supplementary insurance coverage for treating such patients using hydroxyurea should be considered.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of sequenced treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with targeted immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeroen P; Incerti, Devin; Mutebi, Alex; Peneva, Desi; MacEwan, Joanna P; Stolshek, Bradley; Kaur, Primal; Gharaibeh, Mahdi; Strand, Vibeke

    2017-07-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or Janus kinase/STAT pathway inhibitors (collectively referred to as bDMARDs) vs conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) from the US societal perspective for treatment of patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate responses to cDMARDs. An individual patient simulation model was developed that assesses the impact of treatments on disease based on clinical trial data and real-world evidence. Treatment strategies included sequences starting with etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab, or abatacept. Each of these treatment strategies was compared with cDMARDs. Incremental cost, incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for each treatment sequence relative to cDMARDs. The cost-effectiveness of each strategy was determined using a US willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $150,000/QALY. For the base-case scenario, bDMARD treatment sequences were associated with greater treatment benefit (i.e. more QALYs), lower lost productivity costs, and greater treatment-related costs than cDMARDs. The expected ICERs for bDMARD sequences ranged from ∼$126,000 to $140,000 per QALY gained, which is below the US-specific WTP. Alternative scenarios examining the effects of homogeneous patients, dose increases, increased costs of hospitalization for severely physically impaired patients, and a lower baseline Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Disability Index score resulted in similar ICERs. bDMARD treatment sequences are cost-effective from a US societal perspective.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of pressure-relieving devices for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurence, Rachael L

    2005-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of alternating pressure-relieving devices, mattress replacements, and mattress overlays compared with a standard hospital (high-specification foam mattress) for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in hospital patients in the United Kingdom was investigated. A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate different strategies to prevent or treat pressure ulcers. Three scenarios were evaluated: the prevention of pressure ulcers, the treatment of superficial ulcers, and the treatment of severe ulcers. Epidemiological and effectiveness data were obtained from the clinical literature. Expert opinion using a rating scale technique was used to obtain quality of life data. Costs of the devices were obtained from manufacturers, whereas costs of treatment were obtained from the literature. Uncertainty was explored through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Using 30,000 pounds sterling/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) as the decision-maker's cut off point (the current UK standard), in scenario 1 (prevention), the cost-effective strategy was the mattress overlay at 1, 4, and 12 weeks. In scenarios 2 and 3, the cost-effective strategy was the mattress replacement at 1, 4, and 12 weeks. Standard care was a dominated intervention in all scenarios for values of the decision-maker's ceiling ratio ranging from 5,000 pounds sterling to 100,000 pounds sterling/QALY. However, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis results reflected the high uncertainty surrounding the choice of devices. Current information suggests that alternating pressure mattress overlays may be cost-effective for the prevention of pressure ulcers, whereas alternating pressure mattress replacements appears to be cost-effective for the treatment of superficial and severe pressure ulcers.

  5. Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Mazda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies.

  6. Protocol for the value of urodynamics prior to stress incontinence surgery (VUSIS study: a multicenter randomized controlled trial to assess the cost effectiveness of urodynamics in women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence in whom surgical treatment is considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjan Jan H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a common problem. In the Netherlands, yearly 64.000 new patients, of whom 96% are women, consult their general practitioner because of urinary incontinence. Approximately 7500 urodynamic evaluations and approximately 5000 operations for SUI are performed every year. In all major national and international guidelines from both gynaecological and urological scientific societies, it is advised to perform urodynamics prior to invasive treatment for SUI, but neither its effectiveness nor its cost-effectiveness has been assessed in a randomized setting. The Value of Urodynamics prior to Stress Incontinence Surgery (VUSIS study evaluates the positive and negative effects with regard to outcome, as well as the costs of urodynamics, in women with symptoms of SUI in whom surgical treatment is considered. Methods/design A multicentre diagnostic cohort study will be performed with an embedded randomized controlled trial among women presenting with symptoms of (predominant SUI. Urinary incontinence has to be demonstrated on clinical examination and/or voiding diary. Physiotherapy must have failed and surgical treatment needs to be under consideration. Patients will be excluded in case of previous incontinence surgery, in case of pelvic organ prolapse more than 1 centimeter beyond the hymen and/or in case of residual bladder volume of more than 150 milliliter on ultrasound or catheterisation. Patients with discordant findings between the diagnosis based on urodynamic investigation and the diagnosis based on their history, clinical examination and/or micturition diary will be randomized to operative therapy or individually tailored therapy based on all available information. Patients will be followed for two years after treatment by their attending urologist or gynaecologist, in combination with the completion of questionnaires. Six hundred female patients will be recruited for registration from

  7. Prospective study on cost-effectiveness of home-based motor assessment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, E; Mariscal, N; Solano, B; Becerra, V; Armesto, D; Calvo, S; Arribas, J; Seco, J; Martinez, A; Zorrilla, L; Heldman, D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Treatment adjustments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are in part dependent on motor assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of home-based motor monitoring plus standard in-office visits versus in-office visits alone in patients with advanced PD. Methods The procedures consisted of a prospective, one-year follow-up, randomized, case-control study. A total of 40 patients with advanced PD were randomized into two groups: 20 patients underwent home-based motor monitoring by using wireless motion sensor technology, while the other 20 patients had in-office visits. Motor and non-motor symptom severities, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and comorbidities were assessed every four months. Direct costs were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Both groups of PD patients were largely comparable in their clinical and demographic variables at baseline; however, there were more participants using levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in the home-based motor monitoring group. There was a trend for lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale functional status (UPDRS II) scores in the patients monitored at home compared to the standard clinical follow-up ( p = 0.06). However, UPDRS parts I, III, IV and quality-adjusted life-years scores were similar between both groups. Home-based motor monitoring was cost-effective in terms of improvement of functional status, motor severity, and motor complications (UPDRS II, III; IV subscales), with an ICER/UPDRS ranging from €126.72 to €701.31, respectively. Discussion Home-based motor monitoring is a tool which collects cost-effective clinical information and helps augment health care for patients with advanced PD.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for the treatment of depressive disorders in primary care: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grochtdreis

    Full Text Available For the treatment of depressive disorders, the framework of collaborative care has been recommended, which showed improved outcomes in the primary care sector. Yet, an earlier literature review did not find sufficient evidence to draw robust conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care.To systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care, compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care.A systematic literature search in major databases was conducted. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC list. To ensure comparability across studies, cost data were inflated to the year 2012 using country-specific gross domestic product inflation rates, and were adjusted to international dollars using purchasing power parities (PPP.In total, 19 cost-effectiveness analyses were reviewed. The included studies had sample sizes between n = 65 to n = 1,801, and time horizons between six to 24 months. Between 42% and 89% of the CHEC quality criteria were fulfilled, and in only one study no risk of bias was identified. A societal perspective was used by five studies. Incremental costs per depression-free day ranged from dominance to US$PPP 64.89, and incremental costs per QALY from dominance to US$PPP 874,562.Despite our review improved the comparability of study results, cost-effectiveness of collaborative care compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care is ambiguous depending on willingness to pay. A still considerable uncertainty, due to inconsistent methodological quality and results among included studies, suggests further cost-effectiveness analyses using QALYs as effect measures and a time horizon of at least 1 year.

  9. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of ilaprazole versus omeprazole for the treatment of newly diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, J W; Song, R L; Xu, G X; Lu, W Q; Lu, Y J; Liu, Z

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10 mg ilaprazole once-daily vs 20 mg omeprazole once-daily to treat newly-diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients in China. A decision tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was projected up to 1 year. The CYP2C19 polymorphism distribution in the Chinese population, the respective cure rates in the CYP2C19 genotype sub-groups, the impact of Duodenal Ulcer (DU) on utility value and drug-related side-effect data were obtained from the literature. The total costs of medications were calculated to estimate the treatment costs based on current drug retail prices in China. Expert surveys were conducted when published data were not available. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to gauge the robustness of the results. Ilaprazole, when compared with omeprazole, achieved a better overall clinical efficacy. For the overall population, ilaprazole achieved an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ¥132 056 per QALY gained. This is less than the WHO recommended threshold of 3-times the average GDP per capita in China (2014). Furthermore, sub-group analysis showed that ilaprazole is cost-effective in every province in CYP2C19 hetEM patients and in the most developed provinces in CYP2C19 homEM patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggests that the results are robust with 97% probability that ilaprozole is considered cost-effective when a threshold of 3-times China's average GDP per capita is considered. This study didn't have the data of ilaprazole combined with Hp eradication therapy. Caution should be taken when extrapolating these findings to DU patients with an Hp eradication therapy. The cost-effectiveness analysis results demonstrated that ilaprazole would be considered a cost-effective therapy, compared with omeprazole, in Chinese DU patients based on the efficacy projections in various CYP2C19 polymorphism types.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of 10 antenatal syphilis screening and treatment approaches in Peru, Tanzania, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Vickerman, Peter; Torres-Rueda, Sergio; Santesso, Nancy; Sweeney, Sedona; Mallma, Patricia; Shelley, Katharine D; Garcia, Patricia J; Bronzan, Rachel; Gill, Michelle M; Broutet, Nathalie; Wi, Teodora; Watts, Charlotte; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Newman, Lori

    2015-06-01

    Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is frequently used to test women for maternal syphilis. Rapid syphilis immunochromatographic strip tests detecting only Treponema pallidum antibodies (single RSTs) or both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies (dual RSTs) are now available. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using these tests to screen pregnant women. Observed costs of maternal syphilis screening and treatment using clinic-based RPR and single RSTs in 20 clinics across Peru, Tanzania, and Zambia were used to model the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using combinations of RPR, single, and dual RSTs, and no and mass treatment. Sensitivity analyses determined drivers of key results. Although this analysis found screening using RPR to be relatively cheap, most (>70%) true cases went untreated. Algorithms using single RSTs were the most cost-effective in all observed settings, followed by dual RSTs, which became the most cost-effective if dual RST costs were halved. Single test algorithms dominated most sequential testing algorithms, although sequential algorithms reduced overtreatment. Mass treatment was relatively cheap and effective in the absence of screening supplies, though treated many uninfected women. This analysis highlights the advantages of introducing RSTs in three diverse settings. The results should be applicable to other similar settings. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost effectiveness of intermittent screening followed by treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Silke; Sicuri, Elisa; Halimatou, Diawara

    2016-01-01

    $/DALY averted. Simulations show that cost-effectiveness of ISTp-AL increases as the efficacy of IPTp-SP decreases, though the specific threshold at which ISTp-AL becomes cost-effective depends on assumptions about the contribution of bed nets to malaria control, bed net coverage and the willingness......-to-pay threshold used.  Conclusions: At SP efficacy levels currently observed in the trial settings it would not be cost-effective to switch from IPTp-SP to ISTp-AL, mainly due to the substantially higher costs of ISTp-AL and limited difference in outcomes. The modelling results indicate thresholds below which IPT......Background: Emergence of high-grade sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in parts of Africa has led to growing concerns about the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness of intermittent screening and treatment...

  12. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of osteoporosis screening and treatment strategy for postmenopausal Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Moriwaki, K; Noto, S; Takiguchi, T

    2017-02-01

    Although an osteoporosis screening program has been implemented as a health promotion project in Japan, its cost-effectiveness has yet to be elucidated fully. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis and found that osteoporosis screening and treatment would be cost-effective for Japanese women over 60 years. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and drug therapy in the Japanese healthcare system for postmenopausal women with no history of fracture. A patient-level state transition model was developed to predict the outcomes of Japanese women with no previous fracture. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated for women who receive osteoporosis screening and alendronate therapy for 5 years and those who do not receive the screening and treatments. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the screening option compared with the no screening option was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the influence of parameter uncertainty on the base case results. The ICERs of osteoporosis screening and treatments for Japanese women aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and 75-79 years were estimated to be $89,242, $64,010, $40,596, $27,697, $17,027, and $9771 per QALY gained, respectively. Deterministic sensitivity analyses showed that several parameters such as the disutility due to vertebral fracture had a significant influence on the base case results. Applying a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY gained, the probability that the screening option became cost-effectiveness estimated to 50.9, 56.3, 59.1, and 64.7 % for women aged 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and 75-79 years, respectively. Scenario analyses showed that the ICER for women aged 55-59 years with at least one clinical risk factor was below $50,000 per QALY. In conclusion, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening and alendronate therapy for osteoporosis would be cost-effective for

  13. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in southern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Sicuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem for endemic countries. Economic evaluations of malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy are needed to guide health policies.This analysis was carried out in the context of a trial of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP, where both intervention groups received an insecticide treated net through the antenatal clinic (ANC in Mozambique. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP on maternal clinical malaria and neonatal survival was estimated. Correlation and threshold analyses were undertaken to assess the main factors affecting the economic outcomes and the cut-off values beyond which the intervention is no longer cost-effective. In 2007 US$, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for maternal malaria was 41.46 US$ (95% CI 20.5, 96.7 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY averted. The ICER per DALY averted due to the reduction in neonatal mortality was 1.08 US$ (95% CI 0.43, 3.48. The ICER including both the effect on the mother and on the newborn was 1.02 US$ (95% CI 0.42, 3.21 per DALY averted. Efficacy was the main factor affecting the economic evaluation of IPTp-SP. The intervention remained cost-effective with an increase in drug cost per dose up to 11 times in the case of maternal malaria and 183 times in the case of neonatal mortality.IPTp-SP was highly cost-effective for both prevention of maternal malaria and reduction of neonatal mortality in Mozambique. These findings are likely to hold for other settings where IPTp-SP is implemented through ANC visits. The intervention remained cost-effective even with a significant increase in drug and other intervention costs. Improvements in the protective efficacy of the intervention would increase its cost-effectiveness. Provision of IPTp with a more effective, although more expensive drug than SP may still remain a cost-effective public health measure to prevent malaria in pregnancy

  14. Cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Isaac Corro Ramos,2 Saskia Knies,1,3 Maiwenn Al,1,2 Johan L Severens1,2 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Institute of Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3National Health Care Institute, Diemen, the Netherlands Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness, from a health care perspective, of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide scheme (FCR versus FC for treatment-naïve and refractory/relapsed Ukrainian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A decision-analytic Markov cohort model with three health states and 1-month cycle time was developed and run within a life time horizon. Data from two multinational, prospective, open-label Phase 3 studies were used to assess patients' survival. While utilities were generalized from UK data, local resource utilization and disease-associated treatment, hospitalization, and side effect costs were applied. The alternative scenario was performed to assess the impact of lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for treatment-naïve patients. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. The ICER (in US dollars of treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with FCR versus FC is US$8,704 per quality-adjusted life year gained for treatment-naïve patients and US$11,056 for refractory/relapsed patients. When survival data were modified to the lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine, the ICER for treatment-naïve patients was higher than US$13,000. This value is higher than three times the current gross domestic product per capita in Ukraine. Sensitivity analyses have shown a high impact of rituximab costs and a moderate impact of differences in utilities on the ICER

  15. Obesity and Surgical Treatment – A Cost-Effectiveness Assessment for Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixten Borg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The rising trend in the prevalence of obesity has during the past decades become a major public health concern in many countries, as obesity may lead to comorbidities and death. A frequent used marker for obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI. The cost of treatment for obesity related diseases has become a heavy burden on national health care budget in many countries. While diet and exercise are the cornerstones of weight management, pharmaco­therapy is often needed to achieve and maintain desired weight loss.  In some cases of extreme obesity, bariatric surgery may be recommended. It is expected to increase by 50% in Sweden.Objective: The overall objective was to develop a cost-effectiveness model using the best available evidence to assess the cost-effectiveness of gastric bypass (GBP surgical treatments for obesity in adult patients, in comparison with conventional treatment (CT, in Sweden from a healthcare perspective. With the model we also seeked to identify the lower cut-off point using BMI criteria, for the surgical intervention to be cost-effective. Methods:A micro-simulation model with an underlying Markov methodology was developed, that simulates individual patients. It simulates the outcomes of the patients in terms of treatment costs, life years, and quality adjusted life years (QALY over his/her remaining lifetime. The costs are presented in SEK in the year 2006 price level (1 SEK ≈ 0.11 EUR ≈ 0.14 USD.Results: We estimated that the incremental cost per QALY gained will not exceed SEK 33,000 per QALY in patients with BMI < 35. In patients with BMI > 35 kg/m2, gastric bypass surgery has lower costs compared to conventional treatment. Conclusion: Gastric bypass surgery is a cost-effective intervention compared to conventional treatment consisting of watchful waiting, diet and exercise.

  16. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in primary care: a multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ramsberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness over a one-year time horizon of pharmacological first line treatment in primary care for patients with moderate to severe depression. DESIGN: A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis was employed to determine the relative efficacy in terms of remission of 10 antidepressants (citalopram, duloxetine escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine. The estimated remission rates were then applied in a decision-analytic model in order to estimate costs and quality of life with different treatments at one year. DATA SOURCES: Meta-analyses of remission rates from randomised controlled trials, and cost and quality-of-life data from published sources. RESULTS: The most favourable pharmacological treatment in terms of remission was escitalopram with an 8- to 12-week probability of remission of 0.47. Despite a high acquisition cost, this clinical effectiveness translated into escitalopram being both more effective and having a lower total cost than all other comparators from a societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the cost per QALY of escitalopram was €3732 compared with venlafaxine. CONCLUSION: Of the investigated antidepressants, escitalopram has the highest probability of remission and is the most effective and cost-effective pharmacological treatment in a primary care setting, when evaluated over a one year time-horizon. Small differences in remission rates may be important when assessing costs and cost-effectiveness of antidepressants.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies for BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti Curl

    Full Text Available Genetically-targeted therapies are both promising and costly advances in the field of oncology. Several treatments for metastatic melanoma with a mutation in the BRAF gene have been approved. They extend life but are more expensive than the previous standard of care (dacarbazine. Vemurafenib, the first drug in this class, costs $13,000 per month ($207,000 for a patient with median survival. Patients failing vemurafenib are often given ipilimumab, an immunomodulator, at $150,000 per course. Assessment of cost-effectiveness is a valuable tool to help navigate the transition toward targeted cancer therapy.We performed a cost-utility analysis to compare three strategies for patients with BRAF+ metastatic melanoma using a deterministic expected-value decision tree model to calculate the present value of lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for each strategy. We performed sensitivity analyses on all variables.In the base case, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for vemurafenib compared with dacarbazine was $353,993 per QALY gained (0.42 QALYs added, $156,831 added. The ICER for vemurafenib followed by ipilimumab compared with vemurafenib alone was $158,139. In sensitivity analysis, treatment cost had the largest influence on results: the ICER for vemurafenib versus dacarbazine dropped to $100,000 per QALY gained with a treatment cost of $3600 per month.The cost per QALY gained for treatment of BRAF+ metastatic melanoma with vemurafenib alone or in combination exceeds widely-cited thresholds for cost-effectiveness. These strategies may become cost-effective with lower drug prices or confirmation of a durable response without continued treatment.

  18. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies comparing conventional, biological and surgical interventions for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Nadia; Dusheiko, Mark; Burnand, Bernard; Pittet, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease placing a large health and economic burden on health systems worldwide. The treatment landscape is complex with multiple strategies to induce and maintain remission while avoiding long-term complications. The extent to which rising treatment costs, due to expensive biologic agents, are offset by improved outcomes and fewer hospitalisations and surgeries needs to be evaluated. This systematic review aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies for IBD. A systematic literature search was performed in March 2017 to identify economic evaluations of pharmacological and surgical interventions, for adults diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were adjusted to reflect 2015 purchasing power parity (PPP). Risk of bias assessments and a narrative synthesis of individual study findings are presented. Forty-nine articles were included; 24 on CD and 25 on UC. Infliximab and adalimumab induction and maintenance treatments were cost-effective compared to standard care in patients with moderate or severe CD; however, in patients with conventional-drug refractory CD, fistulising CD and for maintenance of surgically-induced remission ICERs were above acceptable cost-effectiveness thresholds. In mild UC, induction of remission using high dose mesalazine was dominant compared to standard dose. In UC refractory to conventional treatments, infliximab and adalimumab induction and maintenance treatment were not cost-effective compared to standard care; however, ICERs for treatment with vedolizumab and surgery were favourable. We found that, in general, while biologic agents helped improve outcomes, they incurred high costs and therefore were not cost-effective, particularly for use as maintenance therapy. The cost-effectiveness of biologic agents may improve as market prices fall and with the introduction of biosimilars. Future research

  19. The cost-effectiveness of depression treatment for co-occurring disorders: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Katherine E; Cuellar, Alison E; Hepner, Kimberly A; Hunter, Sarah B; Paddock, Susan M; Ewing, Brett A; de la Cruz, Erin

    2014-02-01

    The authors aimed to determine the economic value of providing on-site group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression to clients receiving residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design and an intention-to-treat analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio of the intervention were estimated relative to usual care residential treatment. The average cost of a treatment episode was $908, compared to $180 for usual care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was $131 for each point improvement of the BDI-II and $49 for each additional depression-free day. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from $9,249 to $17,834 for each additional quality adjusted life year. Although the intervention costs substantially more than usual care, the cost effectiveness and cost-utility ratios compare favorably to other depression interventions. Health care reform should promote dissemination of group CBT to individuals with depression in residential SUD treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a fixed-dose combination of indacaterol and glycopyrronium as maintenance treatment for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Cheng Chan,1,* Elise Chia-Hui Tan,2 Ming-Chin Yang3,* 1Section of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Institute of Health Policy and Management, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the long-acting beta-2 agonist (LABA/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA dual bronchodilator indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY as a maintenance treatment for COPD patients from the perspective of health care payer in Taiwan. Patients and methods: We adopted a patient-level simulation model, which included a cohort of COPD patients aged ≥40 years. The intervention used in the study was the treatment using IND/GLY, and comparators were tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC. Data related to the efficacy of drugs, incidence of exacerbation, and utility were obtained from clinical studies. Direct costs were estimated from claims data based on the severity of COPD. The cycle length was 6 months (to match forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] data, and the time horizons included 1, 3, 5, 10 years, and lifetime. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model results. Costs were expressed in US dollars with a discount rate of 3.0%. Results: Compared to tiotropium and SFC, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained of patients treated with IND/GLY were US$5,987 and US$14,990, respectively. One-way sensitivity analysis revealed that the improvement in FEV1 provided by IND/GLY, the distribution of patients with regard to the severity of COPD, and acute exacerbation rate ratio were the key

  1. Telemedicine diabetes consultations are cost-effective, and effects on essential diabetes treatment parameters are similar to conventional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Klaus; Madsen, Jette R; Petersen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    been offered expert diabetes care using teleconsultations. This article describes the impact of the telemedicine solution on essential diabetes treatment parameters, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Telemedicine consultations were conducted with the patient and nurse specialist...... in transportation time (7 h). Reductions in traveling costs and saved working days were the most important factors in making the telemedicine set-up economically efficient. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine consultation for remote outpatient diabetes control is feasible, and the interdisciplinary interventions achieved high...... treatment quality results in essential diabetes treatment parameters. In addition, the telemedicine set-up was associated with improved cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction....

  2. Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G B; Dowdy, D W; Bastos, M L; Zwerling, A; Sweeney, S; Foster, N; Trajman, A; Islam, M A; Kapiga, S; Sinanovic, E; Knight, G M; White, R G; Wells, W A; Cobelens, F G; Vassall, A

    2016-12-01

    Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration. The model was populated using extensive, empirically-collected data to estimate the economic impact on both health systems and patients of regimen shortening for first-line TB treatment in South Africa, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. We explicitly considered 'real world' constraints such as sub-optimal guideline adherence. From a societal perspective, a shortened regimen, priced at USD1 per day, could be a cost-saving option in South Africa, Brazil, and Tanzania, but would not be cost-effective in Bangladesh when compared to one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Incorporating 'real world' constraints reduces cost-effectiveness. Patient-incurred costs could be reduced in all settings. From a health service perspective, increased drug costs need to be balanced against decreased delivery costs. The new regimen would remain a cost-effective option, when compared to each countries' GDP per capita, even if new drugs cost up to USD7.5 and USD53.8 per day in South Africa and Brazil; this threshold was above USD1 in Tanzania and under USD1 in Bangladesh. Reducing the duration of first-line TB treatment has the potential for substantial economic gains from a patient perspective. The potential economic gains for health services may also be important, but will be context-specific and dependent on the appropriate pricing of any new regimen.

  3. Costs and cost-effectiveness of different DOT strategies for the treatment of tuberculosis in Pakistan. Directly Observed Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Walley, J D; Witter, S N; Imran, A; Safdar, N

    2002-06-01

    An economic study was conducted alongside a clinical trial at three sites in Pakistan to establish the costs and effectiveness of different strategies for implementing directly observed treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three arms: DOTS with direct observation by health workers (at health centres or by community health workers); DOTS with direct observation by family members; and DOTS without direct observation. The clinical trial found no statistically significant difference in cure rate for the different arms. The economic study collected data on the full range of health service costs and patient costs of the different treatment arms. Data were also disaggregated by gender, rural and urban patients, by treatment site and by economic categories, to investigate the costs of the different strategies, their cost-effectiveness and the impact that they might have on patient compliance with treatment. The study found that direct observation by health centre-based health workers was the least cost-effective of the strategies tested (US dollars 310 per case cured). This is an interesting result, as this is the model recommended by the World Health Organization and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Attending health centres daily during the first 2 months generated high patient costs (direct and in terms of time lost), yet cure rates for this group fell below those of the non-observed group (58%, compared with 62%). One factor suggested by this study is that the high costs of attending may be deterring patients, and in particular, economically active patients who have most to lose from the time taken by direct observation. Without stronger evidence of benefits, it is hard to justify the costs to health services and patients that this type of direct observation imposes. The self-administered group came out as most cost-effective (164 dollars per case cured). The community health worker sub-group achieved the

  4. Cost-effectiveness of endobronchial valve treatment in patients with severe emphysema compared to standard medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jorine E; Klooster, Karin; Groen, Henk; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2018-03-25

    Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves (EBV) is an effective new treatment option for severe emphysema patients without interlobar collateral ventilation. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation including the costs and cost-effectiveness of EBV treatment compared with standard medical care (SoC) from the hospital perspective in the short term and long term. For the short-term evaluation, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated based on the 6-month end point data from the STELVIO randomized trial. For the long-term evaluation, a Markov simulation model was constructed based on STELVIO and literature. The clinical outcome data were quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) based on the EuroQol5-Dimensions (EQ5D) questionnaire, the 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The mean difference between the EBV group and controls was €16 721/patient. In the short-term (6 months), costs per additional QALY was €205 129, the ICER for 6MWD was €160 and for SGRQ was €1241. In the long term, the resulting cost-effectiveness ratios indicate additional costs of €39 000 per QALY gained with a 5-year time horizon and €21 500 per QALY gained at 10 years. In comparison, historical costs per additional QALY 1 year after the coil treatment are €738 400, 5 years after lung volume reduction surgery are €48 415 and 15 years after double-lung transplantation are €29 410. The positive clinical effects of EBV treatment are associated with increased costs compared with SoC. Our results suggest that the EBV treatment has a favourable cost-effectiveness profile, also when compared with other treatment modalities for this patient group. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment alternatives for beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, T R; McGrann, J M; Hooper, R N

    1997-10-01

    To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse. Economic analysis. Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere. Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADC(T)) and replacement (ADC(R)) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull. The decision to treat was indicated when ADC(T) was less than ADC(R). In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADC(R) was $97 less than ADC(T) for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADC(T) for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull. The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse.

  6. Individualized cost-effective conventional ovulation induction treatment in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility (WHO group 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Polinder, Suzanne; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; Laven, Joop S E; Habbema, J Dik F; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2005-10-01

    Conventional treatment in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility (WHO 2) consists of clomiphene citrate (CC), followed by exogenous gonadotrophins (FSH) and IVF. Response to these treatments may be predicted on the basis of individual patient characteristics. We aimed to devise a patient-tailored, cost-effective treatment algorithm involving the above-mentioned treatment modalities, based on individual patient characteristics. Sixteen prognostic groups are defined, according to the presence or absence of: age >30 years, amenorrhea, elevated androgen levels and obesity. The chances of response with each of the three treatments were calculated using prediction models. Treatment costs were based on the data of 240 patients visiting a specialist academic fertility unit. Outcome was an ongoing pregnancy within 12 months after initiation of treatment. The costs per pregnancy of three different strategies were compared, with a threshold for cost-effectiveness of 10 000. The strategy CC + FSH + IVF compared with FSH + IVF generated more pregnancies against lower costs. Compared with CC + IVF, it also produced more pregnancies, but at higher costs. For costs per pregnancy were less than 10 000. For women >30 years old, costs per pregnancy were 25 000 and over 200 000, when presenting with normal or elevated androgen levels, respectively. The conventional treatment protocol is efficient for women aged 30 years old with elevated androgen levels, FSH may be skipped.

  7. Providing cost-effective treatment of hard-to-heal wounds in the community through use of NPWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jane

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of non-healing wounds accounts for a high proportion of wound care costs. Advanced technology treatments, such as negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), could be cost-effective if they result in faster healing. The objective of this study is to assess the effect on healing and the cost-effectiveness of a single-use NPWT (i.e PICO by Smith & Nephew) when used on hard-to-heal wounds in a community setting. This was a cohort case study in which wounds were treated with NWPT for 2 weeks. Wounds were assessed every 2-4 weeks to a healed state. The weekly cost of treatment prior to intervention, that is, the products used and nurse time, were compared with treatment costs associated with NWPT and after a return to standard treatment. The study included 9 patients with leg ulcers or pressure ulcers that had been slow healing or non-healing for at least 6 weeks. While treated with NPWT, the average weekly reduction in wound size was 21%. The wound size achieved with NPWT was reached on average 10 weeks earlier than predicted. The increased healing rate continued after PICO stopped and 5 wounds healed on average 8 weeks later. Frequency of dressing changes fell from 4 times weekly at baseline to 2 times a week with NPWT and to 1.8 after NPWT stopped. Weekly cost of treatment with NPWT was, on average, 1.6 times higher than the baseline, but fell to 3 times less when NPWT stopped owing to the reduction in dressing changes. The amount of change in healing rate was considerably higher than the increase in costs associated with NPWT. NWPT is a cost-effective treatment for hard-to-heal wounds. Wounds decreased in size and healed more quickly under NWPT treatment than under standard treatment. Additional NPWT costs can be quickly offset by faster healing and a shortened treatment period.

  8. Relative Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Adolescent Depression: 36-Week Results from the TADS Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Foster, E. Michael; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Burns, Barbara J.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials that involve 327 participants aged 12 to 18 who were diagnosed with major depression were given either fluoxetine alone, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a combination of both. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves suggest that combination treatment is highly likely to be the most cost-effective treatment than…

  9. Direct pulp capping after a carious exposure versus root canal treatment: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Stolpe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Excavation of deep caries often leads to pulpal exposure even in teeth with sensible, nonsymptomatic pulps. Although direct pulp capping (DPC) aims to maintain pulpal health, it frequently requires follow-up treatments like root canal treatment (RCT), which could have been performed immediately after the exposure, with possibly improved outcomes. We quantified and compared the long-term cost-effectiveness of both strategies. A Markov model was constructed following a molar with an occlusally located exposure of a sensible, nonsymptomatic pulp in a 20-year-old male patient over his lifetime. Transition probabilities or hazard functions were estimated based on systematically and nonsystematically assessed literature. Costs were estimated based on German health care, and cost-effectiveness was analyzed using Monte Carlo microsimulations. Despite requiring follow-up treatments significantly earlier, teeth treated by DPC were retained for long periods of time (52 years) at significantly reduced lifetime costs (545 vs 701 Euro) compared with teeth treated by RCT. For teeth with proximal instead of occlusal exposures or teeth in patients >50 years of age, this cost-effectiveness ranking was reversed. Although sensitivity analyses found substantial uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of both strategies, DPC was usually found to be less costly than RCT. We found both DPC and RCT suitable to treat exposed vital, nonsymptomatic pulps. DPC was more cost-effective in younger patients and for occlusal exposure sites, whereas RCT was more effective in older patients or teeth with proximal exposures. These findings might change depending on the health care system and underlying literature-based probabilities. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B from a Canadian public payer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Helen; Sherman, Morris; Fung, Scott; Fidler, Carrie; Bentley, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is the most cost-effective nucleos(t)ide treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the UK, Spain, Italy and France. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have yet evaluated the cost effectiveness of any treatments for CHB in a Canadian setting, where relative prices and management of CHB differ from those in Europe. Our objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of tenofovir DF compared with other nucleos(t)ide therapies licensed for CHB in Canada from the perspective of publicly funded healthcare payers. A Markov model was used to calculate the costs and benefits of nucleos(t)ide therapy in three groups of patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative CHB: nucleos(t)ide-naive patients without cirrhosis; nucleos(t)ide-naive patients with compensated cirrhosis; and lamivudine-resistant patients. Disease progression was modelled as annual transitions between 18 disease states. Transition probabilities, quality of life and costs were based on published studies. Health benefits were measured in QALYs. The reference year for costs was 2007 and costs and outcomes were discounted at 5% per annum. First-line tenofovir DF was the most effective nucleos(t)ide strategy for managing CHB, generating 6.85-9.39 QALYs per patient. First-line tenofovir DF was also the most cost-effective strategy in all patient subgroups investigated, costing between $Can43,758 and $Can48,015 per QALY gained compared with lamivudine then tenofovir. First-line tenofovir DF strongly dominated first-line entecavir. Giving tenofovir DF monotherapy immediately after lamivudine resistance developed was less costly and more effective than any other active treatment strategy investigated for lamivudine-resistant CHB, including second-line use of adefovir or adefovir + lamivudine. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated 50% confidence that first-line tenofovir DF is the most cost-effective

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Etoricoxib versus Celecoxib and Nonselective NSAIDs in the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen P. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of etoricoxib (90 mg relative to celecoxib (200/400 mg, and the nonselective NSAIDs naproxen (1000 mg and diclofenac (150 mg in the initial treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Norway. Methods. A previously developed Markov state-transition model was used to estimate costs and benefits associated with initiating treatment with the different competing NSAIDs. Efficacy, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety, and resource use data were obtained from the literature. Data from different studies were synthesized and translated into direct costs and quality adjusted life years by means of a Bayesian comprehensive decision modeling approach. Results. Over a 30-year time horizon, etoricoxib is associated with about 0.4 more quality adjusted life years than the other interventions. At 1 year, naproxen is the most cost-saving strategy. However, etoricoxib is cost and quality adjusted life year saving relative to celecoxib, as well as diclofenac and naproxen after 5 years of follow-up. For a willingness-to-pay ceiling ratio of 200,000 Norwegian krones per quality adjusted life year, there is a >95% probability that etoricoxib is the most-cost-effective treatment when a time horizon of 5 or more years is considered. Conclusions. Etoricoxib is the most cost-effective NSAID for initiating treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Norway.

  12. Cost Effectiveness of Free Access to Smoking Cessation Treatment in France Considering the Economic Burden of Smoking-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadier, Benjamin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Thomas, Daniel; Chevreul, Karine

    2016-01-01

    In France more than 70,000 deaths from diseases related to smoking are recorded each year, and since 2005 prevalence of tobacco has increased. Providing free access to smoking cessation treatment would reduce this burden. The aim of our study was to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of providing free access to cessation treatment taking into account the cost offsets associated with the reduction of the three main diseases related to smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To measure the financial impact of such a measure we also conducted a probabilistic budget impact analysis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov state-transition model that compared free access to cessation treatment to the existing coverage of €50 provided by the French statutory health insurance, taking into account the cost offsets among current French smokers aged 15-75 years. Our results were expressed by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in 2009 Euros per life year gained (LYG) at the lifetime horizon. We estimated a base case scenario and carried out a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainty. Assuming a participation rate of 7.3%, the ICER value for free access to cessation treatment was €3,868 per LYG in the base case. The variation of parameters provided a range of ICER values from -€736 to €15,715 per LYG. In 99% of cases, the ICER for full coverage was lower than €11,187 per LYG. The probabilistic budget impact analysis showed that the potential cost saving for lung cancer, COPD and CVD ranges from €15 million to €215 million at the five-year horizon for an initial cessation treatment cost of €125 million to €421 million. The results suggest that providing medical support to smokers in their attempts to quit is very cost-effective and may even result in cost savings.

  13. Radioiodine (I-131) treatment for uncomplicated hyperthyroidism: An assessment of optimal dose and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.; Jahan, N.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Radioiodine (I-131) is increasingly being considered for the treatment of hyperthyroidism but there is no general agreement for the initial dose. To determine the cost-effectiveness and optimal dose of I-131 to cure disease, we prospectively studied the outcome of radioiodine therapy of 423 patients. Material and Methods: Any of the fixed doses of 6, 8, 10, 12 or 15 mCi of I-131 was administered to the patients relating to thyroid gland size. The individual was excluded from this study who had multinodular goitre and autonomous toxic nodule. Patients were classified as cured if the clinical and biochemical status was either euthyroid or hypothyroid at one year without further treatment by antithyroid drugs or radioiodine. The costs were assessed by analyzing the total cost of care including office visit, laboratory testing, radioiodine treatment, average conveyance and income loss of patient and attendant and thyroxine replacement for a period of 2 years from the day of I-131 administration. Results: The results showed a progressive increase of cure rate from the doses of 6, 8 and 10 mCi by 67%, 76.5% and 85.7% respectively but the cure rate for the doses of 12 and 15 mCi was 87.9% and 88.8% respectively. Cure was directly related to the dose between 6 and 10 mCi but at higher doses the cure rate was increased marginally at the expense of increased total body radiation. There was little variation in total costs, but was higher for low dose-therapy and the cost proportion between the 6 mCi regimen and 10 mCi regimen was 1.04:1. Conclusion: We could conclude that an initial 10 mCi of I-131 may be the optimal dose for curing hyperthyroidism and will also limit the total costs

  14. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an awareness campaign for colorectal cancer: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sophie; Harnan, Susan

    2014-06-01

    A campaign to increase the awareness of the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer (CRC) and encourage self-presentation to a GP was piloted in two regions of England in 2011. Short-term data from the pilot evaluation on campaign cost and changes in GP attendances/referrals, CRC incidence, and CRC screening uptake were available. The objective was to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a CRC awareness campaign by using a mathematical model which extrapolates short-term outcomes to predict long-term impacts on cancer mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs. A mathematical model representing England (aged 30+) for a lifetime horizon was developed. Long-term changes to cancer incidence, cancer stage distribution, cancer mortality, and QALYs were estimated. Costs were estimated incorporating costs associated with delivering the campaign, additional GP attendances, and changes in CRC treatment. Data from the pilot campaign suggested that the awareness campaign caused a 1-month 10 % increase in presentation rates. Based on this, the model predicted the campaign to cost £5.5 million, prevent 66 CRC deaths and gain 404 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared to "no campaign" was £13,496 per QALY. Results were sensitive to the magnitude and duration of the increase in presentation rates and to disease stage. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a cancer awareness campaign can be estimated based on short-term data. Such predictions will aid policy makers in prioritizing between cancer control strategies. Future cost-effectiveness studies would benefit from campaign evaluations reporting as follows: data completeness, duration of impact, impact on emergency presentations, and comparison with non-intervention regions.

  15. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of evolocumab in the FOURIER study: a Canadian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Todd C; Kaouache, Mohammed; Grover, Steven A

    2018-04-03

    Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein levels by up to 60%. Despite the absence of a reduction in overall or cardiovascular mortality in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, some believe that, with longer treatment, such a benefit might eventually be realized. Our aim was to estimate the potential mortality benefit over a patient's lifetime and the cost per year of life saved (YOLS) for an average Canadian with established coronary artery disease. We also sought to estimate the price threshold at which evolocumab might be considered cost-effective for secondary prevention in Canada. We calibrated the Cardio-metabolic Model, a well-validated tool for predicting cardiovascular events and life expectancy, to the reduction in nonfatal events seen in the FOURIER trial. Assuming that long-term treatment will eventually result in mortality benefits, we estimated YOLSs and cost per YOLS with evolocumab treatment plus a statin compared to a statin alone. We then estimated the annual drug costs that would provide a 50% chance of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay values of $50 000 and $100 000. In secondary prevention in patients similar to those in the FOURIER study, evolocumab treatment would save an average of 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.41) life-years at a cost of $101 899 (95% CI $97 325-$106 473), yielding a cost per YOLS of $299 482. We estimate that to have a 50% probability of achieving a cost per YOLS below $50 000 and $100 000 would require annual drug costs below $1200 and $2300, respectively. At current pricing, the use of evolocumab for secondary prevention is unlikely to be cost-effective in Canada. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  16. InnovaSEC in Action: Cost-effectiveness of Barostim in the Treatment of Refractory Hypertension in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Sagarra, Joan; Brugada-Terradellas, Josep

    2016-06-01

    In Spain, 0.3% of patients with hypertension are refractory to conventional treatment. The complications resulting from deficient control of this condition can lead to poor quality of life for the patient and considerable health care costs. Barostim is an implantable device designed to lower blood pressure in these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of Barostim compared with drug therapy in hypertensive patients refractory to conventional treatment (at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, including 1 diuretic agent). We used a Markov model adapted to the epidemiology of the Spanish population to simulate the natural history of a cohort of patients with refractory hypertension over their lifetime. Data on the effectiveness of the treatments studied were obtained from the literature, and data on costs were taken from hospital administrative databases and official sources. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Barostim increased the number of quality-adjusted life years by 0.78 and reduced the number of hypertension-associated clinical events. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in a cohort of men reached 68 726 euros per year of quality-adjusted life. One of the main elements that makes this technology costly is the need for battery replacement. The results were robust. Barostim is not a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of refractory hypertension in Spain. The cost-effectiveness ratio could be improved by future reductions in the cost of the battery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-Life Treatment Paradigms Show Adalimumab Is Cost-Effective for the Management of Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L. Beilman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adalimumab is effective for the maintenance of remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC. Currently, biologic therapies are used in cases where patients fail conventional medical therapies. If biologic therapies are not available, patients often choose to remain in an unwell state rather than undergo colectomy. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adalimumab in patients with UC where adalimumab was readily available compared to not available. Methods. A previously validated Markov model was used to simulate disease progression of patients with UC who are corticosteroid-dependent and/or did not respond to thiopurine therapy. Utility scores and transition probabilities between health states were determined by using data from randomized controlled trials and real-life observational studies. Costs were obtained from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative and the Alberta Health Schedule of Medical Benefits. Results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for readily available adalimumab treatment of UC were $40,000 and $59,000 per quality-adjusted life year, compared with ongoing medical therapy in an unwell state, at 5-year and 10-year treatment time horizons, respectively. Conclusion. Considering real-life patient preferences to avoid colectomy, adalimumab is cost-effective according to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 for treatment of UC.

  18. Cost-effective treatment of swine wastes through recovery of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Adib; Aponte-Morales, Veronica; Wang, Meng; Dilbeck, Merrill; Lahav, Ori; Zhang, Qiong; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Ergas, Sarina J

    2017-11-01

    Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K + ) as saleable fertilizers. The system uses in-vessel anaerobic digestion (AD) for methane production and solids stabilization, followed by struvite precipitation and ion exchange (IX) onto natural zeolites (chabazite or clinoptilolite) for nutrient recovery. An alternative approach that integrated struvite recovery and IX into a single reactor, termed STRIEX, was also investigated. Pilot- and bench-scale reactor experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each stage in the treatment train. Data from these studies were integrated into a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to assess the cost-effectiveness of various process alternatives. Significant improvement in water quality, high methane production, and high nutrient recovery (generally over 90%) were observed with both the AD-struvite-IX process and the AD-STRIEX process. The LCCA showed that the STRIEX system can provide considerable financial savings compared to conventional systems. AD, however, incurs high capital costs compared to conventional anaerobic lagoons and may require larger scales to become financially attractive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: analyses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Ken; Meyer, Kellie; Stafkey-Mailey, Dana; Watson, Crystal

    2015-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod over 2 years in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and patients with rapidly evolving severe disease in Sweden. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per relapse avoided of natalizumab and fingolimod from the perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. Modeled 2-year costs in Swedish kronor of treating RRMS patients included drug acquisition costs, administration and monitoring costs, and costs of treating MS relapses. Effectiveness was measured in terms of MS relapses avoided using data from the AFFIRM and FREEDOMS trials for all patients with RRMS and from post-hoc sub-group analyses for patients with rapidly evolving severe disease. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty. The analysis showed that, in all patients with MS, treatment with fingolimod costs less (440,463 Kr vs 444,324 Kr), but treatment with natalizumab results in more relapses avoided (0.74 vs 0.59), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 25,448 Kr per relapse avoided. In patients with rapidly evolving severe disease, natalizumab dominated fingolimod. Results of the sensitivity analysis demonstrate the robustness of the model results. At a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 500,000 Kr per relapse avoided, natalizumab is cost-effective in >80% of simulations in both patient populations. Limitations include absence of data from direct head-to-head studies comparing natalizumab and fingolimod, use of relapse rate reduction rather than sustained disability progression as the primary model outcome, assumption of 100% adherence to MS treatment, and exclusion of adverse event costs in the model. Natalizumab remains a cost-effective treatment option for patients with MS in Sweden. In the RRMS patient population, the incremental cost per relapse avoided is well below a 500,000 Kr WTP threshold per relapse avoided. In the rapidly

  20. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of an Aftercare Service vs Treatment-As-Usual for Patients with Severe Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfar, Eshagh; Sharifi, Vandad; Amini, Homayoun; Mottaghipour, Yasaman; Yunesian, Masud; Tehranidoost, Mehdi; Sobhebidari, Payam; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-09-01

    There have been claims that community mental health principles leads to the maintenance of better health and functioning in patients and can be more economical for patients with severe and chronic mental disorders. Economic evaluation studies have been used to assess the cost-effectiveness of national health programs, or to propose efficient strategies for health care delivery. The current study is intended to test the cost-effectiveness of an Aftercare Service when compared with Treatment-As-Usual for patients with severe mental disorders in Iran. This study was a parallel group randomized controlled trial. A total of 160 post-discharge eligible patients were randomized into two equal patient groups, Aftercare Service (that includes either Home Visiting Care, or Telephone Follow-up for outpatient treatment) vs Treatment-As-Usual, using stratified balanced block randomization method. All patients were followed for 12 months after discharge. The perspective of the present study was the societal perspective. The outcome measures were the rate of readmission at the hospitals after discharge, psychotic symptoms, manic symptoms, depressive symptoms, illness severity, global functioning, quality of life, and patients' satisfaction with the services. The costs included the intervention costs and the patient and family costs in the evaluation period. There was no significant difference in effectiveness measures between the two groups. The Aftercare Service arm was about 66,000 US$ cheaper than Treatment-As-Usual arm. The average total cost per patient in the Treatment-As-Usual group was about 4651 USD, while it was reduced to 3823 US$ in the Aftercare Service group; equivalent to a cost reduction of about 800 USD per patient per year. Given that there was no significant difference in effectiveness measures between the two groups (slightly in favor of the intervention), the Aftercare Service was cost-effective. The most important limitation of the study was the relatively

  1. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    copy numbers. These results suggest that pea straw in particular represents a low cost, effective treatment to enhance the remediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy during surgery compared with external radiation therapy in the treatment of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedie Mosalanezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraoperative radiation therapy device (IORT is one of the several options for partial breast irradiation. IORT is sent to the tumor bed during surgery and can be replaced with conventional standard therapy (EBRT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of IORT machine compared with EBRT and to determine the dominant option in terms of the cost-effectiveness. Method: This study was conducted in two phases; the first phase was a comprehensive review of the electronic databases search that was extracted after extraction and selection of the articles used in this article on effectiveness outcomes. Data collection form was completed by professionals and experts to estimate the cost of treatment, intraoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy cost when using external radiation therapy process; direct costs were considered from the perspective of service provider and they were calculated in the second phase to determine the option of cost-effective ICER. Excel software was used for data analysis and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the strength of the results of cost-effectiveness. Results:18 studies were selected but only 8 of them were shown to have acceptable quality. The consequences like “rate of cancer recurrence”, “seroma”, “necrosis”, “toxic”, “skin disorders and delayed wound healing” and “spread the pain” were among the consequences used in the selected articles. The total costs for each patient during a course of treatment for EBRT and IORT were estimated 1398 and $5337.5, respectively. During the analysis, cost-effectiveness of the consequences of cancer recurrence, seroma, necrosis and skin disorders and delayed wound healing ICER was calculated. And IORT was found to be the dominant supplier in all cases. Also, in terms of implications of toxicity and prevalence of pain, IORT had a lower cost and better effectiveness and consequently the result was more cost

  3. Cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, L; Wilson, E C F; Wareham, N J

    2015-01-01

    , falling to £37 500 over 30 years. The ICER fell below £30 000 only when the intervention cost was below £631 per patient: we estimated the cost at £981. Conclusion Given conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness, the intensive treatment delivered in ADDITION was not cost-effective compared......Aims To examine the short- and long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care among people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Cost–utility analysis in ADDITION-UK, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of early intensive treatment in people...... at 3.5%). Adjusted incremental QALYs were 0.0000, – 0.0040, 0.0140 and 0.0465 over the same time horizons. Point estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) suggested that the intervention was not cost-effective although the ratio improved over time: the ICER over 10 years was £82 250...

  4. Therapies for treatment of osteoporosis in US women: cost-effectiveness and budget impact considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosteson, Anna N A; Burge, Russel T; Marshall, Deborah A; Lindsay, Robert

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments for women at high fracture risk and estimate the population-level impact of providing bisphosphonate therapy to all eligible high-risk US women. Fractures, healthcare costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated over 10 years using a Markov model. No therapy, risedronate, alendronate, ibandronate, and teriperatide (PTH) were compared among 4 risk groups. Sensitivity analyses examined the robustness of model results for 65-year-old women with low bone density and previous vertebral fracture. Women treated with a bisphosphonate experienced fewer fractures and more QALYs compared with no therapy or PTH. Total costs were lowest for the untreated cohort, followed by risedronate, alendronate, ibandronate, and PTH in all risk groups except women aged 75 years with previous fracture. The incremental cost-effectiveness of risedronate compared with no therapy ranged from cost saving for the base case to $66,722 per QALY for women aged 65 years with no previous fracture. Ibandronate and PTH were dominated in all risk groups. (A dominated treatment has a higher cost and poorer outcome.) Treating all eligible women with a bisphosphonate would cost an estimated additional $5563 million (21% total increase) and would result in 390,049 fewer fractures (35% decrease). In the highest risk group, the additional cost of therapy was offset by other healthcare cost savings. Osteoporosis treatment of high-risk women is cost-effective, with bisphosphonates providing the most benefit at lowest cost. For highest risk women, costs are offset by savings from fracture prevention.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  6. Encouraging smokers to quit: the cost effectiveness of reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Janneke; Wagena, Edwin J; van Schayck, Constant P; Severens, Johan L

    2006-01-01

    Smoking cessation should be encouraged in order to increase life expectancy and reduce smoking-related healthcare costs. Results of a randomised trial suggested that reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation treatment (SCT) may lead to an increased use of SCT and an increased number of quitters versus no reimbursement. To assess whether reimbursement for SCT is a cost-effective intervention (from the Dutch societal perspective), we calculated the incremental costs per quitter and extrapolated this outcome to incremental costs per QALY saved versus no reimbursement. In the reimbursement trial, 1266 Dutch smokers were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group using a randomised double consent design. Reimbursement for SCT was offered to the intervention group for a period of 6 months. No reimbursement was offered to the control group. Prolonged abstinence from smoking was determined 6 months after the end of the reimbursement period. The QALYs gained from quitting were calculated until 80 years of age using data from the US. Costs (year 2002 values) were determined from the societal perspective during the reimbursement period (May-November 2002). Benefits were discounted at 4% per annum. The uncertainty of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was estimated using non-parametric bootstrapping. Eighteen participants in the control group (2.8%) and 35 participants in the intervention group (5.5%) successfully quit smoking. The costs per participant were 291 euro and 322 euro, respectively. If society is willing to pay 1000 euro or 10,000 euro for an additional 12-month quitter, the probability that reimbursement for SCT would be cost effective was 50% or 95%, respectively. If society is willing to pay 18,000 euro for a QALY, the probability that reimbursement for SCT would be cost effective was 95%. However, the external validity of the extrapolation from quitters to QALYs is uncertain and several assumptions had to be made. Reimbursement for SCT may

  7. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that male circumcision (MC reduces HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Rwanda, where adult HIV prevalence is 3%, MC is not a traditional practice. The Rwanda National AIDS Commission modelled cost and effects of MC at different ages to inform policy and programmatic decisions in relation to introducing MC. This study was necessary because the MC debate in Southern Africa has focused primarily on MC for adults. Further, this is the first time, to our knowledge, that a cost-effectiveness study on MC has been carried out in a country where HIV prevalence is below 5%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-effectiveness model was developed and applied to three hypothetical cohorts in Rwanda: newborns, adolescents, and adult men. Effectiveness was defined as the number of HIV infections averted, and was calculated as the product of the number of people susceptible to HIV infection in the cohort, the HIV incidence rate at different ages, and the protective effect of MC; discounted back to the year of circumcision and summed over the life expectancy of the circumcised person. Direct costs were based on interviews with experienced health care providers to determine inputs involved in the procedure (from consumables to staff time and related prices. Other costs included training, patient counselling, treatment of adverse events, and promotion campaigns, and they were adjusted for the averted lifetime cost of health care (antiretroviral therapy [ART], opportunistic infection [OI], laboratory tests. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the main inputs of the model, and thresholds were calculated at which each intervention is no longer cost-saving and at which an intervention costs more than one gross domestic product (GDP per capita per life-year gained. RESULTS: Neonatal MC is less expensive than adolescent and adult MC (US$15 instead of US$59 per procedure and is cost

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pegvisomant for the treatment of acromegaly: a systematic review and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connock Martin J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acromegaly, an orphan disease usually caused by a benign pituitary tumour, is characterised by hyper-secretion of growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1. It is associated with reduced life expectancy, cardiovascular problems, a variety of insidiously progressing detrimental symptoms and metabolic malfunction. Treatments include surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Pegvisomant (PEG is a genetically engineered GH analogue licensed as a third or fourth line option when other treatments have failed to normalise IGF-1 levels. Methods Evidence about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PEG was systematically reviewed. Data were extracted from published studies and used for a narrative synthesis of evidence. A decision analytical economic model was identified and modified to assess the cost-effectiveness of PEG. Results One RCT and 17 non-randomised studies were reviewed for effectiveness. PEG substantially reduced and rapidly normalised IGF-1 levels in the majority of patients, approximately doubled GH levels, and improved some of the signs and symptoms of the disease. Tumour size was unaffected at least in the short term. PEG had a generally safe adverse event profile but a few patients were withdrawn from treatment because of raised liver enzymes. An economic model was identified and adapted to estimate the lower limit for the cost-effectiveness of PEG treatment versus standard care. Over a 20 year time horizon the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £81,000/QALY and £212,000/LYG. To reduce this to £30K/QALY would require a reduction in drug cost by about one third. Conclusion PEG is highly effective for improving patients' IGF-1 level. Signs and symptoms of disease improve but evidence is lacking about long term effects on improved signs and symptoms of disease, quality of life, patient compliance and safety. Economic evaluation indicated that if current standards (UK for determining cost-effectiveness

  9. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of compression hosiery versus compression bandages in treatment of venous leg ulcers (Venous leg Ulcer Study IV, VenUS IV): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Rebecca L; Gabe, Rhian; Ali, Shehzad; Adderley, Una; Bland, J Martin; Cullum, Nicky A; Dumville, Jo C; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Kang'ombe, Arthur R; Soares, Marta O; Stubbs, Nikki C; Torgerson, David J

    2014-03-08

    Drawbacks exist with the standard treatment (four-layer compression bandages) for venous leg ulcers. We have therefore compared the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two-layer compression hosiery with the four-layer bandage for the treatment of such ulcers. We undertook this pragmatic, open, randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups in 34 centres in England and Northern Ireland. The centres were community nurse teams or services, family doctor practices, leg ulcer clinics, tissue viability clinics or services, and wound clinics. Participants were aged 18 years or older with a venous leg ulcer and an ankle brachial pressure index of at least 0·8, and were tolerant of high compression. We randomly allocated participants (1:1) to receive two-layer compression hosiery or a four-layer bandage, using a remote randomisation service and prevalidated computer randomisation program. Participants were stratified by ulcer duration and ulcer area with permuted blocks (block sizes four and six). The primary endpoint was time to ulcer healing, with a maximum follow-up of 12 months. Although participants and health-care providers were not masked to treatment allocation, the primary endpoint was measured by masked assessment of photographs. Primary analysis was intention to treat with Cox regression, with adjustment for ulcer area, ulcer duration, physical mobility, and centre. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN register, number ISRCTN49373072. We randomly allocated 457 participants to the two treatment groups: 230 to two-layer hosiery and 227 to the four-layer bandage, of whom 453 (230 hosiery and 223 bandage) contributed data for analysis. Median time to ulcer healing was 99 days (95% CI 84-126) in the hosiery group and 98 days (85-112) in the bandage group, and the proportion of ulcers healing was much the same in the two groups (70·9% hosiery and 70·4% bandage). More hosiery participants changed their allocated treatment (38·3% hosiery vs 27

  10. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Germany using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartz Susanne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cost-effectiveness studies of cholinesterase inhibitors have modeled Alzheimer's disease (AD progression and treatment effects through single or global severity measures, or progression to "Full Time Care". This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of donepezil versus memantine or no treatment in Germany by considering correlated changes in cognition, behavior and function. Methods Rates of change were modeled using trial and registry-based patient level data. A discrete event simulation projected outcomes for three identical patient groups: donepezil 10 mg, memantine 20 mg and no therapy. Patient mix, mortality and costs were developed using Germany-specific sources. Results Treatment of patients with mild to moderately severe AD with donepezil compared to no treatment was associated with 0.13 QALYs gained per patient, and 0.01 QALYs gained per caregiver and resulted in average savings of €7,007 and €9,893 per patient from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. In patients with moderate to moderately-severe AD, donepezil compared to memantine resulted in QALY gains averaging 0.01 per patient, and savings averaging €1,960 and €2,825 from the healthcare system and societal perspective, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, donepezil dominated no treatment in most replications and memantine in over 70% of the replications. Donepezil leads to savings in 95% of replications versus memantine. Conclusions Donepezil is highly cost-effective in patients with AD in Germany, leading to improvements in health outcomes and substantial savings compared to no treatment. This holds across a variety of sensitivity analyses.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of paclitaxel + carboplatin vs. alternative combinations in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer and its medical and economical burden represents a serious matter in Europe and Usa, due to its high mortality rates and drug costs. Lung cancer is responsible for about 30% of cancer death in men and women; in Europe only about 8 per cent of people with lung cancer survive for 5 years. At present combination chemotherapy based on cisplatin or carboplatin associated with paclitaxel, vinorelbine or gemcitabine is the state of the art for the treatment in patients with stage IIIb or IV NSCLC. Aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of paclitaxel/carboplatin (PCb, gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC and vinorelbine/cisplatin (VC in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. Therefore we perfomed a semi-Markov decision model mainly based on clinical results from the Italian Lung Cancer Project. The model included differential direct medical costs registered for two years from starting chemotherapy, using tariffs valid for 2005. Benefits was measured by years of life saved (YOLs. The model also allowed to estimate only costs accrued over the period of time, performing a cost-minimisation analysis. According to cost-effectiveness analysis, VC is dominated because it’s more costly and less effective than GC. On the contrary, combination chemotherapy with GC is more inexpensive but less effective than paclitaxel/carboplatin (PCb: in this case we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER with a maximum acceptable willingness-to-pay (WTP value. In the base scenario the ICER of PCb over GC treatment is 52,326 euro/ YOLs, which is definitely lower than the maximum acceptable WTP value. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results from cost-effectiveness analysis in the base scenario.

  12. Cost-effectiveness modeling for neuropathic pain treatments: investigating the relative importance of parameters using an open-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Matthew; Bending, Matthew W; Baio, Gianluca; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Dunlop, William C N

    2018-06-08

    The study objective was to develop an open-source replicate of a cost-effectiveness model developed by National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) in order to explore uncertainties in health economic modeling of novel pharmacological neuropathic pain treatments. The NICE model, consisting of a decision tree with branches for discrete levels of pain relief and adverse event (AE) severities, was replicated using R and used to compare a hypothetical neuropathic pain drug to pregabalin. Model parameters were sourced from NICE's clinical guidelines and associated with probability distributions to account for underlying uncertainty. A simulation-based scenario analysis was conducted to assess how uncertainty in efficacy and AEs affected the net monetary benefit (NMB) for the hypothetical treatment at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Relative to pregabalin, an increase in efficacy was associated with greater NMB than an improvement in tolerability. A greater NMB was observed when efficacy was marginally higher than that of pregabalin while maintaining the same level of AEs than when efficacy was equivalent to pregabalin but with a more substantial reduction in AEs. In the latter scenario, the NMB was only positive at a low cost-effectiveness threshold. The replicate model shares the limitations described in the NICE guidelines. There is a lack of support in scientific literature for the assumption that increased efficacy is associated with a greater reduction in tolerability. The replicate model also included a single comparator, unlike the NICE model. Pain relief is a stronger driver of NMB than tolerability at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Health technology assessment decisions which are influenced by NICE's model may reward efficacy gains even if they are associated with more severe AEs. This contrasts with recommendations from clinical guidelines for neuropathic pain which place more equal weighting on improvements in

  13. Cost effectiveness of denosumab compared with oral bisphosphonates in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporotic women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2011-10-01

    Denosumab has recently been shown to be well tolerated, to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and to significantly reduce the risk of hip, vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in the FREEDOM (Fracture REduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis every 6 Months) trial. It is becoming increasingly important to evaluate not only the therapeutic value of a new drug but also the cost effectiveness compared with the most relevant treatment alternatives. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of denosumab compared with oral bisphosphonates (branded and generic drugs) in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporotic women in Belgium. Cost effectiveness of 3 years of treatment with denosumab was compared with branded risedronate and branded and generic alendronate using an updated version of a previously validated Markov microsimulation model. The model was populated with relevant cost, adherence and epidemiological data for Belgium from a payer perspective and the results were presented as costs per QALY gained (&U20AC;, year 2009 values). Analyses were performed in populations (aged ≥60 years) in which osteoporosis medications are currently reimbursed in many European countries, i.e. those with BMD T-score of -2.5 or less or prevalent vertebral fracture. Patients receiving denosumab were assumed to have a 46% lower risk of discontinuation than those receiving oral bisphosphonates, and the effect of denosumab after treatment cessation was assumed to decline linearly to zero over a maximum of 1 year. Denosumab was cost effective compared with all other therapies, assuming a willingness to pay of &U20AC;40 000 per QALY gained. In particular, denosumab was found to be cost effective compared with branded alendronate and risedronate at a threshold value of &U20AC;30 000 per QALY and denosumab was dominant (i.e. lower cost and greater effectiveness) compared with risedronate from the age of 70 years in women with a T-score of -2.5 or

  14. Cost effectiveness of recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckman Mark H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase I/II placebo-controlled clinical trials of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa suggested that administration of rFVIIa within 4 hours after onset of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is safe, limits ICH growth, and improves outcomes. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of rFVIIa for acute ICH treatment, using published Phase II data. We hypothesized that rFVIIa would have a low marginal cost-effectiveness ratio (mCER given the poor neurologic outcomes after ICH with conventional management. Methods We performed an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the societal perspective, considering conventional management vs. 80 ug/kg rFVIIa treatment for acute ICH cases meeting Phase II inclusion criteria. The time frame for the analysis was 1. 25 years: data from the Phase II trial was used for 90 day outcomes and rFVIIa complications – arterial thromboembolic events (ATE. We assumed no substantial cost differences in care between the two strategies except: 1 cost of rFVIIa (for an 80 mcg/kg dose in an 80 kg patient, assumed cost of $6,408; 2 cost of ATE side effects from rFVIIa (which also decrease quality of life and increase the chance of death; and 3 differential monetary costs of outcomes and their impact on quality of life, including disposition (home vs. nursing home, and outpatient vs. inpatient rehabilitation. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explore uncertainty in parameter estimates, impact of rFVIIa cost, direct cost of neurologic outcomes, probability of ATE, and outcomes after ATE. Results In the "base case", treating ICH with rFVIIa dominates the usual care strategy by being more effective and less costly. rFVIIa maintained a mCER Conclusion Based on data from preliminary trials, treating selected ICH patients with rFVIIa results in lower cost and improved clinical outcomes. This potential cost-effectiveness must be considered in light of the Phase III trial results.

  15. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of anogenital warts: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgar, Elizabeth; Barton, Samantha; Karner, Charlotta; Edwards, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    Typically occurring on the external genitalia, anogenital warts (AGWs) are benign epithelial skin lesions caused by human papillomavirus infection. AGWs are usually painless but can be unsightly and physically uncomfortable, and affected people might experience psychological distress. The evidence base on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for AGWs is limited. To systematically review the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of medical and surgical treatments for AGWs and to develop an economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library databases and Web of Science) were searched from inception (or January 2000 for Web of Science) to September 2014. Bibliographies of relevant systematic reviews were hand-searched to identify potentially relevant studies. The World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for ongoing and planned studies. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness literature was carried out according to standard methods and a mixed-treatment comparison (MTC) undertaken. The model implemented for each outcome was that with the lowest deviance information criterion. A de novo economic model was developed to assess cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the UK NHS. The model structure was informed through a systematic review of the economic literature and in consultation with clinical experts. Effectiveness data were obtained from the MTC. Costs were obtained from the literature and standard UK sources. Of 4232 titles and abstracts screened for inclusion in the review of clinical effectiveness, 60 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating 19 interventions were included. Analysis by MTC indicated that ablative techniques were typically more effective than topical interventions at completely clearing AGWs at the end of

  16. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of elderly women and men with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Bruyère, Olivier; Evers, Silvia M; Rabenda, Véronique; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women and men with osteoporosis and therefore to assess if this recommendation is justified in terms of cost-effectiveness. A validated model for economic evaluations in osteoporosis was used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation compared with no treatment. The model was populated with cost and epidemiological data from a Belgian health-care perspective. Analyses were conducted in women and men with a diagnosis of osteoporosis (i.e. bone mineral density T-score ≤-2.5). A literature search was conducted to describe the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in terms of fracture risk reduction. The cost per QALY gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation was estimated at €40 578 and €23 477 in women and men aged 60 years, respectively. These values decreased to €7912 and €10 250 at the age of 70 years and vitamin D and calcium supplementation was cost-saving at the age of 80 years, meaning that treatment cost was less than the costs of treating osteoporotic fractures of the no-treatment group. This study suggests that vitamin D and calcium supplementation is cost-effective for women and men with osteoporosis aged over 60 years. From an economic perspective, vitamin D and calcium should therefore be administrated in these populations including those also taking other osteoporotic treatments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chevalier

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015.The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS 0-9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0-9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results.From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a 44 mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30 mcg, IFN beta-1b 250 mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44 mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY.Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Julie; Chamoux, Catherine; Hammès, Florence; Chicoye, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015. The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0-9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results. From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) 44 mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30 mcg, IFN beta-1b 250 mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod) were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44 mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY. Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier.

  19. A short-term cost-effectiveness study comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and open retropubic radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Borre, Michael; Ehlers, Lars

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost effectiveness and cost utility comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) versus retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study a total of 231 men between the age of 50 and 69 years and with clinically localised prostate....... An economic evaluation was made to estimate direct costs of the first postoperative year and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per successful surgical treatment and per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A successful RP was defined as: no residual cancer (PSA ... high volume urology centres and utilise the full potential of each robot....

  20. A global economic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of new treatments for advanced breast cancer in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, C; Letarte, N; Mathurin, K; Yelle, L; Lachaine, J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Considering the increasing number of treatment options for metastatic breast cancer (MBC), it is important to develop high-quality methods to assess the cost-effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs. This study aims to develop a global economic model that could be used as a benchmark for the economic evaluation of new therapies for MBC. Methods The Global Pharmacoeconomics of Metastatic Breast Cancer (GPMBC) model is a Markov model that was constructed to estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of new treatments for MBC from a Canadian healthcare system perspective over a lifetime horizon. Specific parameters included in the model are cost of drug treatment, survival outcomes, and incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Global parameters are patient characteristics, health states utilities, disutilities, and costs associated with treatment-related AEs, as well as costs associated with drug administration, medical follow-up, and end-of-life care. The GPMBC model was tested and validated in a specific context, by assessing the cost-effectiveness of lapatinib plus letrozole compared with other widely used first-line therapies for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) MBC. Results When tested, the GPMBC model led to incremental cost-utility ratios of CA$131 811 per QALY, CA$56 211 per QALY, and CA$102 477 per QALY for the comparison of lapatinib plus letrozole vs letrozole alone, trastuzumab plus anastrozole, and anastrozole alone, respectively. Results of the model testing were quite similar to those obtained by Delea et al., who also assessed the cost-effectiveness of lapatinib in combination with letrozole in HR+/HER2 + MBC in Canada, thus suggesting that the GPMBC model can replicate results of well-conducted economic evaluations. Conclusions The GPMBC model can be very valuable as it allows a quick and valid assessment of the cost-effectiveness

  1. Hepatitis C Treatment Regimens Are Cost-Effective: But Compared With What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Slejko, Julia F; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Numerous economic models have been published evaluating treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but none provide a comprehensive comparison among new antiviral agents. Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of all recommended therapies for treatment of genotypes 1 and 4 chronic HCV. Using data from clinical trials, observational analyses, and drug pricing databases, Markov decision models were developed for HCV genotypes 1 and 4 to compare all recommended drugs from the perspective of the third-party payer over a 5-, 10-, and 50-year time horizon. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted by assigning distributions for clinical cure, age entering the model, costs for each health state, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each health state in a Monte Carlo simulation of 10 000 repetitions of the model. In the lifetime model for genotype 1, effects ranged from 18.08 to 18.40 QALYs and total costs ranged from $88 107 to $184 636. The lifetime model of genotype 4 treatments had a range of effects from 18.23 to 18.43 QALYs and total costs ranging from $87 063 to $127 637. Grazoprevir/elbasvir was the optimal strategy followed by velpatasvir/sofosbuvir as the second-best strategy in most simulations for both genotypes 1 and 4, with drug costs and efficacy of grazoprevir/elbasvir as the primary model drivers. Grazoprevir/elbasvir was cost-effective compared with all strategies for genotypes 1 and 4. Effects for all strategies were similar with cost of drug in the initial year driving the results.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Tofacitinib in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Young; Park, Sun-Kyeong; Park, Sun-Young; Byun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Ko, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of introducing tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, to the treatment of Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. In this cost-utility analysis model, patients transitioned through treatment sequences based on Korean guidelines for RA patients with inadequate response to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Lifetime health-related quality of life and costs were evaluated. Characteristics of the model cohort were based on those reported by the Oral Rheumatoid Arthritis phase 3 triaL (ORAL) Standard randomized Controlled trial of tofacitinib or adalimumab versus placebo. Efficacy was assessed using American College of Rheumatology response rates, converted to the changes in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores, based on tofacitinib clinical trials data. Published clinical trial data on discontinuation rates of the indicated drugs were incorporated in the model. The HAQ-DI scores were mapped onto utility values to calculate outcomes in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); HAQ-DI-to-utility (EuroQoL 5D) mapping was based on data from 5 tofacitinib clinical trials. Costs were analyzed from a societal perspective, with values expressed in 2013 Korean won (KRW). Cost-effectiveness is presented in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model. First-line tofacitinib used before the standard of care (base-case analysis) increased both treatment costs and QALYs gained versus the standard-of-care treatment sequence, resulting in an ICER of KRW 13,228,910 per QALY. Tofacitinib also increased costs and QALYs gained when incorporated as a second-, third-, or fourth-line therapy. The inclusion of first-line tofacitinib increased the duration of active immunomodulatory therapy from 9.4 to 13.2 years

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a pilot study of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Christopher; Chaboyer, Wendy; Anderson, Vinah; Gillespie, Brigid M; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2017-02-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is increasingly used prophylactically following surgery despite limited evidence of clinical or cost-effectiveness. To evaluate whether NPWT is cost-effective compared to standard care, for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) in obese women undergoing elective caesarean section, and inform development of a larger trial. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a pilot randomised controlled trial at one Australian hospital, in which women were randomised to NPWT (n = 44) or standard care (n = 43). A public health care provider perspective and time horizon to four weeks post-discharge was adopted. Cost-effectiveness assessment was based on incremental cost per SSI prevented and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients receiving NPWT each received health care costing AU$5887 (±1038) and reported 0.069 (±0.010) QALYs compared to AU$5754 (±1484) and 0.066 (±0.010) QALYs for patients receiving standard care. NPWT may be slightly more costly and more effective than standard care, with estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of AU$1347 (95%CI dominant- $41,873) per SSI prevented and AU$42,340 (95%CI dominant- $884,019) per QALY gained. However, there was considerable uncertainty around these estimates. NPWT may be cost-effective in the prophylactic treatment of surgical wounds following elective caesarean section in obese women. Larger trials could clarify the cost-effectiveness of NPWT as a prophylactic treatment for SSI. Sensitive capture of QALYs and cost offsets will be important given the high level of uncertainty around the point estimate cost-effectiveness ratio which was close to conventional thresholds. ACTRN12612000171819. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in patients with depression: a randomized controlled trial (PRODEFAR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to antidepressants generates higher costs for the treatment of depression. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist's interventions aimed at improving adherence to antidepressants. The study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in comparison with usual care in depressed patients initiating treatment with antidepressants in primary care.Patients were recruited by general practitioners and randomized to community pharmacist intervention (87 that received an educational intervention and usual care (92. Adherence to antidepressants, clinical symptoms, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs, use of healthcare services and productivity losses were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months.There were no significant differences between groups in costs or effects. From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for the community pharmacist intervention compared with usual care was €1,866 for extra adherent patient and €9,872 per extra QALY. In terms of remission of depressive symptoms, the usual care dominated the community pharmacist intervention. If willingness to pay (WTP is €30,000 per extra adherent patient, remission of symptoms or QALYs, the probability of the community pharmacist intervention being cost-effective was 0.71, 0.46 and 0.75, respectively (societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the probability of the community pharmacist intervention being cost-effective in terms of adherence, QALYs and remission was of 0.71, 0.76 and 0.46, respectively, if WTP is €30,000.A brief community pharmacist intervention addressed to depressed patients initiating antidepressant treatment showed a probability of being cost-effective of 0.71 and 0.75 in terms of improvement of adherence and QALYs, respectively, when compared to usual care. Regular implementation of the community pharmacist intervention is not recommended.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  5. Cost-effectiveness of cervical total disc replacement vs fusion for the treatment of 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Yang, Zhuo; Nunley, Pierce; Stone, Marcus B; Kim, Kee D

    2014-12-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) was developed to treat cervical spondylosis, while preserving motion. While anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been the standard of care for 2-level disease, a randomized clinical trial (RCT) suggested similar outcomes. Cost-effectiveness of this intervention has never been elucidated. To determine the cost-effectiveness of CTDR compared with ACDF. Data were derived from an RCT that followed up 330 patients over 24 months. The original RCT consisted of multi-institutional data including private and academic institutions. Using linear regression for the current study, health states were constructed based on the stratification of the Neck Disability Index and a visual analog scale. Data from the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaires were transformed into utilities values using the SF-6D mapping algorithm. Costs were calculated by extracting Diagnosis-Related Group codes from institutional billing data and then applying 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. The costs of complications and return-to-work data were also calculated. A Markov model was built to evaluate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for both treatment groups. The model adopted a third-party payer perspective and applied a 3% annual discount rate. Patients included in the original RCT had to be diagnosed as having radiculopathy or myeloradiculopathy at 2 contiguous levels from C3-C7 that was unresponsive to conservative treatment for at least 6 weeks or demonstrated progressive symptoms. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CTDR compared with ACDF. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.6864; P sensitivity analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio value stays below the threshold of $50,000 per QALY in most scenarios (range, -$58,194 to $147,862 per QALY). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CTDR compared with traditional ACDF is lower than the commonly accepted threshold of $50,000 per QALY. This remains true with varying input

  6. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  7. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mass screening and treatment for reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowell Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past experience and modelling suggest that, in most cases, mass treatment strategies are not likely to succeed in interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. However, this does not preclude their use to reduce disease burden. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT is preferred to mass drug administration (MDA, as the latter involves massive over-use of drugs. This paper reports simulations of the incremental cost-effectiveness of well-conducted MSAT campaigns as a strategy for P. falciparum malaria disease-burden reduction in settings with varying receptivity (ability of the combined vector population in a setting to transmit disease and access to case management. Methods MSAT incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were estimated in different sub-Saharan African settings using simulation models of the dynamics of malaria and a literature-based MSAT cost estimate. Imported infections were simulated at a rate of two per 1,000 population per annum. These estimates were compared to the ICERs of scaling up case management or insecticide-treated net (ITN coverage in each baseline health system, in the absence of MSAT. Results MSAT averted most episodes, and resulted in the lowest ICERs, in settings with a moderate level of disease burden. At a low pre-intervention entomological inoculation rate (EIR of two infectious bites per adult per annum (IBPAPA MSAT was never more cost-effective than scaling up ITNs or case management coverage. However, at pre-intervention entomological inoculation rates (EIRs of 20 and 50 IBPAPA and ITN coverage levels of 40 or 60%, respectively, the ICER of MSAT was similar to that of scaling up ITN coverage further. Conclusions In all the transmission settings considered, achieving a minimal level of ITN coverage is a “best buy”. At low transmission, MSAT probably is not worth considering. Instead, MSAT may be suitable at medium to high levels of transmission and at moderate ITN coverage

  8. Cost Effectiveness of Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy and Traditional Excisional Surgery for the Treatment of Haemorrhoidal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Mary M; Brown, Steven R; Bruhn, Hanne; Cook, Jonathan A; Hudson, Jemma; Norrie, John; Watson, Angus J M; Wood, Jessica

    2017-08-25

    Our objective was to compare the cost effectiveness of stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) and traditional haemorrhoidectomy (TH) in the treatment of grade II-IV haemorrhoidal disease from the perspective of the UK national health service. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside an open, two-arm, parallel-group, pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial conducted in several hospitals in the UK. Patients were randomised into either SH or TH surgery between January 2011 and August 2014 and were followed up for 24 months. Intervention and subsequent resource use data were collected using case review forms and questionnaires. Benefits were collected using the EQ-5D-3L (EuroQoL-five dimensions-three levels) instrument. The primary economic outcome was incremental cost measured in pounds (£), year 2016 values, relative to the incremental benefit, which was estimated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Cost and benefits accrued in the second year were discounted at 3.5%. The base-case analysis was based on imputed data. Uncertainty was explored using univariate sensitivity analyses. Participants (n = 777) were randomised to SH (n = 389) or TH (n = 388). The mean cost of SH was £337 (95% confidence interval [CI] 251-423) higher than that of TH and the mean QALYs were -0.070 (95% CI -0.127 to -0.011) lower than for TH. The base-case cost-utility analysis indicated that SH has zero probability of being cost effective at both the £20,000 and the £30,000 threshold. Results from the sensitivity analyses were similar to those from the base-case analysis. The evidence suggests that, on average, the total mean costs over the 24-month follow-up period were significantly higher for the SH arm than for the TH arm. The QALYs were also, on average, significantly lower for the SH arm. These results were supported by the sensitivity analyses. Therefore, in terms of cost effectiveness, TH is a superior surgical treatment for the management of grade II

  9. Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive Interdisciplinary Behavioral Treatment for Increasing Oral Intake in Children With Feeding Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Burdo-Hartman, Wendelin; Halpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE : To examine the cost-effectiveness of intensive interdisciplinary behavioral treatment (IIBT) to address severe pediatric feeding difficulties and lead to the removal or prevention of gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) from the perspective of the insurance company.  METHODS : Costs associated with G tubes and IIBT were compiled from the available literature and national databases. Costs were updated to price at the start of 2015 to allow data from different years to be analyzed on the same scale.  RESULTS : One-way sensitivity and two-way threshold analyses demonstrated that IIBT may be a cost-effective treatment for prevention and removal of G tubes over 5 and 10 years.  DISCUSSION : Data from this study can be used to justify cost of services for IIBT, and programs can use these data to discuss conservative savings of IIBT based on their treatment model and level of effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Closing the mental health treatment gap in South Africa: a review of costs and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jack

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly one in three South Africans will suffer from a mental disorder in his or her lifetime, a higher prevalence than many low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the economic costs and consequences of prevention and packages of care is essential, particularly as South Africa considers scaling-up mental health services and works towards universal health coverage. Economic evaluations can inform how priorities are set in system or spending changes. Objective: To identify and review research from South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa on the direct and indirect costs of mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS disorders and the cost-effectiveness of treatment interventions. Design: Narrative overview methodology. Results and conclusions: Reviewed studies indicate that integrating mental health care into existing health systems may be the most effective and cost-efficient approach to increase access to mental health services in South Africa. Integration would also direct treatment, prevention, and screening to people with HIV and other chronic health conditions who are at high risk for mental disorders. We identify four major knowledge gaps: 1 accurate and thorough assessment of the health burdens of MNS disorders, 2 design and assessment of interventions that integrate mental health screening and treatment into existing health systems, 3 information on the use and costs of traditional medicines, and 4 cost-effectiveness evaluation of a range of specific interventions or packages of interventions that are tailored to the national context.

  11. Closing the mental health treatment gap in South Africa: a review of costs and cost-effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Helen; Wagner, Ryan G.; Petersen, Inge; Thom, Rita; Newton, Charles R.; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Hofman, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly one in three South Africans will suffer from a mental disorder in his or her lifetime, a higher prevalence than many low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the economic costs and consequences of prevention and packages of care is essential, particularly as South Africa considers scaling-up mental health services and works towards universal health coverage. Economic evaluations can inform how priorities are set in system or spending changes. Objective To identify and review research from South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa on the direct and indirect costs of mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders and the cost-effectiveness of treatment interventions. Design Narrative overview methodology. Results and conclusions Reviewed studies indicate that integrating mental health care into existing health systems may be the most effective and cost-efficient approach to increase access to mental health services in South Africa. Integration would also direct treatment, prevention, and screening to people with HIV and other chronic health conditions who are at high risk for mental disorders. We identify four major knowledge gaps: 1) accurate and thorough assessment of the health burdens of MNS disorders, 2) design and assessment of interventions that integrate mental health screening and treatment into existing health systems, 3) information on the use and costs of traditional medicines, and 4) cost-effectiveness evaluation of a range of specific interventions or packages of interventions that are tailored to the national context. PMID:24848654

  12. A budget-impact and cost-effectiveness model for second-line treatment of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel C

    2007-07-01

    Depressed patients who initially fail to achieve remission when placed on a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) may require a second treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of second-line pharmacologic treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to evaluate second-line therapies (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, paroxetine controlled release [CR], sertraline, and venlafaxine extended release [XR]) for the treatment of depression. Effectiveness data were obtained from published clinical studies. The primary outcome was remission defined as a score of 7 or less on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) or a score of 10 or less on the montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression rating scales. The wholesale acquisition cost (WAC) for medications and medical treatment costs for depression were included. The perspective was derived from a managed care organization (MCO) with 500,000 members, a 1.9% annual incidence of depression, and treatment duration of 6 months. Assumptions included: second-line treatment is not as effective as first-line treatment, WAC price reflects MCO costs, and side effects were identical. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine variables that influenced the results. Second-line remission rates were 20.4% for venlafaxine XR, 16.9% for sertraline, 16.4% for escitalopram, 15.1% for generic SSRIs (weighted average), and 13.6% for paroxetine CR. Pharmacy costs ranged from $163 for generic SSRIs to $319 for venlafaxine SR. Total cost per patient achieving remission was $14,275 for venlafaxine SR, followed by $16,100 for escitalopram. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for venlafaxine SR compared with generic SSRIs was $2,073 per patient achieving remission, followed by escitalopram with an ICER of $3,566. The model was most sensitive to other therapies

  13. The Cost-effectiveness of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Emergency and Outpatient Medical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina; Cowell, Alexander; Bray, Jeremy; Aldridge, Arnie

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of delivering alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in emergency departments (ED) when compared to outpatient medical settings. A probabilistic decision analytic tree categorized patients into health states. Utility weights and social costs were assigned to each health state. Health outcome measures were the proportion of patients not drinking above threshold levels at follow-up, the proportion of patients transitioning from above threshold levels at baseline to abstinent or below threshold levels at follow-up, and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Expected costs under a provider perspective were the marginal costs of SBIRT, and under a societal perspective were the sum of SBIRT cost per patient and the change in social costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed. When considering provider costs only, compared to outpatient, SBIRT in ED cost $8.63 less, generated 0.005 more QALYs per patient, and resulted in 13.8% more patients drinking below threshold levels. Sensitivity analyses in which patients were assumed to receive a fixed number of treatment sessions that met clinical sites' guidelines made SBIRT more expensive in ED than outpatient; the ED remained more effective. In this sensitivity analysis, the ED was the most cost-effective setting if decision makers were willing to pay more than $1500 per QALY gained. Alcohol SBIRT generates costs savings and improves health in both ED and outpatient settings. EDs provide better effectiveness at a lower cost and greater social cost reductions than outpatient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Neuroimaging-Based Treatment of Acute Wake-Up Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Pandya

    Full Text Available Thrombolytic treatment (tissue-type plasminogen activator [tPA] is only recommended for acute ischemic stroke patients with stroke onset time 4.5 hours, 46.3% experienced a good stroke outcome. Lifetime discounted QALYs and costs were 5.312 and $88,247 for the no treatment strategy and 5.342 and $90,869 for the MRI-based strategy, resulting in an ICER of $88,000/QALY. Results were sensitive to variations in patient- and provider-specific factors such as sleep duration, hospital travel and door-to-needle times, as well as onset probability distribution, MRI specificity, and mRS utility values.Our model-based findings suggest that an MRI-based treatment strategy for this population could be cost-effective and quantifies the impact that patient- and provider-specific factors, such as sleep duration, hospital travel and door-to-needle times, could have on the optimal decision for wake-up stroke patients.

  15. Evidence-based medicine is affordable: the cost-effectiveness of current compared with optimal treatment in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin; Simonella, Leonardo; Lapsley, Helen; Sanderson, Kristy; March, Lyn

    2006-04-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of averting the burden of disease. We used secondary population data and metaanalyses of various government-funded services and interventions to investigate the costs and benefits of various levels of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) in adults using a burden of disease framework. Population burden was calculated for both diseases in the absence of any treatment as years lived with disability (YLD), ignoring the years of life lost. We then estimated the proportion of burden averted with current interventions, the proportion that could be averted with optimally implemented current evidence-based guidelines, and the direct treatment cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per YLD averted for both treatment levels. The majority of people with arthritis sought medical treatment. Current treatment for RA averted 26% of the burden, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of dollar 19,000 per YLD averted. Optimal, evidence-based treatment would avert 48% of the burden, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of dollar 12,000 per YLD averted. Current treatment of OA in Australia averted 27% of the burden, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of dollar 25,000 per YLD averted. Optimal, evidence-based treatment would avert 39% of the burden, with an unchanged cost-effectiveness ratio of dollar 25,000 per YLD averted. While the precise dollar costs in each country will differ, the relativities at this level of coverage should remain the same. There is no evidence that closing the gap between evidence and practice would result in a drop in efficiency.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M; Nahuis, Marleen J; Hompes, Peter G; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, followed by three cycles of IVF in case of no birth; (3) six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (4) 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (5) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (6) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF. Two-year cumulative birth rates were 58%, 74%, 89%, 97%, 93% and 98% and costs per couple were € 9518, € 7530, € 9711, € 9764, € 7651 and € 7684 for scenarios 1-6, respectively. Scenario 2 was the lowest cost option. The extra cost for at least one live birth in scenario 5 was € 629 and in scenario 6 € 630. In these subjects, continuation of treatment for six cycles of clomiphene citrate, 6 or 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and IVF is potentially cost-effective. These results should be confirmed in a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Delphi study to establish national cost-effectiveness research priorities for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Glenn; Milne, Ruairidh

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the key cost-effectiveness research questions relating to positron emission tomography (PET) in the UK. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to establish the existing knowledge base relating to the cost-effectiveness of PET in the various conditions for which it has been proposed. A three-round postal Delphi study of relevant individuals was used to determine the key cost-effectiveness research questions relating to PET in the UK. The content and structure of the Delphi study was informed by the results of the literature review. Results: The most important cost-effectiveness research priorities for the National Health Service (NHS) relating to PET were in the clinical areas of lung cancer, breast cancer and the assessment of myocardial viability. Gamma camera PET using coincidence imaging was highlighted as a modality whose clinical role needed to be determined urgently. Conclusion: Underlying the cost-effectiveness research priorities which were established is the need for evidence that the use of the various PET modalities as a diagnostic technique will alter patient management as compared to existing diagnostic strategies. The findings of the project provide a contemporary overview of the potential role for PET in the NHS and will be relevant to other countries

  18. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenia treatment in India under universal public finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykar, Neha; Nigam, Aditi; Chisholm, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a priority condition in mental health policy and service development because of its early onset, severity and consequences for affected individuals and households. This paper reports on an 'extended' cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) for schizophrenia treatment in India, which seeks to evaluate through a modeling approach not only the costs and health effects of intervention but also the consequences of a policy of universal public finance (UPF) on health and financial outcomes across income quintiles. Using plausible values for input parameters, we conclude that health gains from UPF are concentrated among the poorest, whereas the non-health gains in the form of out-of-pocket private expenditures averted due to UPF are concentrated among the richest income quintiles. Value of insurance is the highest for the poorest quintile and declines with income. Universal public finance can play a crucial role in ameliorating the adverse economic and social consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment in resource-constrained settings where health insurance coverage is generally poor. This paper shows the potential distributional and financial risk protection effects of treating schizophrenia.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates - A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kingsley

    Full Text Available Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20-60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society.The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC.A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers.At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society's willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY. Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy.Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of nonoperative management versus laparoscopic appendectomy for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated appendicitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James X; Sacks, Greg D; Dawes, Aaron J; DeUgarte, Daniel; Lee, Steven L

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the safety and short-term success of nonoperative management in children with acute, uncomplicated appendicitis. Nonoperative management spares the patients and their family the upfront cost and discomfort of surgery, but also risks recurrent appendicitis. Using decision-tree software, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of nonoperative management versus routine laparoscopic appendectomy. Model variables were abstracted from a review of the literature, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, and Medicare Physician Fee schedule. Model uncertainty was assessed using both one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. We used a $100,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) threshold for cost-effectiveness. Operative management cost $11,119 and yielded 23.56 quality-adjusted life months (QALMs). Nonoperative management cost $2277 less than operative management, but yielded 0.03 fewer QALMs. The incremental cost-to-effectiveness ratio of routine laparoscopic appendectomy was $910,800 per QALY gained. This greatly exceeds the $100,000/QALY threshold and was not cost-effective. One-way sensitivity analysis found that operative management would become cost-effective if the 1-year recurrence rate of acute appendicitis exceeded 39.8%. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that nonoperative management was cost-effective in 92% of simulations. Based on our model, nonoperative management is more cost-effective than routine laparoscopic appendectomy for children with acute, uncomplicated appendicitis. Cost-Effectiveness Study: Level II. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path dec...... clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.......The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three......, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS costs. Analyses were conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives. The human capital approach was used to estimate societal cost of lost productivity. Costs were reported...

  2. Knee Joint Distraction Compared to Total Knee Arthroplasty for Treatment of End Stage Osteoarthritis: Simulating Long-Term Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, J A D; Nair, S C; Custers, R J H; van Laar, J M; Kuchuck, N O; Lafeber, F P J G; Welsing, P M J

    2016-01-01

    In end-stage knee osteoarthritis the treatment of choice is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An alternative treatment is knee joint distraction (KJD), suggested to postpone TKA. Several studies reported significant and prolonged clinical improvement of KJD. To make an appropriate decision regarding the position of this treatment, a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis from healthcare perspective for different age and gender categories was performed. A treatment strategy starting with TKA and a strategy starting with KJD for patients of different age and gender was simulated. To extrapolate outcomes to long-term health and economic outcomes a Markov (Health state) model was used. The number of surgeries, QALYs, and treatment costs per strategy were calculated. Costs-effectiveness is expressed using the cost-effectiveness plane and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Starting with KJD the number of knee replacing procedures could be reduced, most clearly in the younger age categories; especially revision surgery. This resulted in the KJD strategy being dominant (more effective with cost-savings) in about 80% of simulations (with only inferiority in about 1%) in these age categories when compared to TKA. At a willingness to pay of 20.000 Euro per QALY gained, the probability of starting with KJD to be cost-effective compared to starting with a TKA was already found to be over 75% for all age categories and over 90-95% for the younger age categories. A treatment strategy starting with knee joint distraction for knee osteoarthritis has a large potential for being a cost-effective intervention, especially for the relatively young patient.

  3. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically depressed adolescents: individual CBT versus treatment as usual (TAU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise Hm; Deković, Maja; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2013-11-21

    Depressive disorders occur in 2 to 5% of the adolescents and are associated with a high burden of disease, a high risk of recurrence and a heightened risk for development of other problems, like suicide attempts. The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), cost-effectiveness of this treatment and the costs of illness of clinical depression in adolescents are still unclear. Although several Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) have been conducted to establish the efficacy of CBT, the effectiveness has not been established yet. Aim of this study is to conduct a RCT to test the effectiveness of CBT and to establish the cost-effectiveness of CBT under rigorous conditions within routine care provided by professionals already working in mental health institutions. CBT is investigated with a multi-site, RCT using block randomisation. The targeted population is 140 clinically referred depressed adolescents aged 12 to 21 years old. Adolescents are randomly assigned to the experimental (N = 70, CBT) or control condition (N = 70, TAU). Four assessments (pre, post, follow up at 6 and 12 months) and two mediator assessments during treatment are conducted. Primary outcome measure is depression diagnosis based on a semi-structured interview namely the K-SADS-PL. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, severity and improvement of the depression, global functioning, quality of life, suicide risk, comorbidity, alcohol and drug use, parental depression and psychopathology, parenting and conflicts. Costs and treatment characteristics will also be assessed. Furthermore, moderator and mediator analyses will be conducted. This trial will be the first to compare CBT with TAU under rigorous conditions within routine care and with a complex sample. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness of treatment and cost-of-illness of clinical depression are established which will provide new insights on depression as a disorder and its treatment. Dutch Trial register number

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of potentially curative and combination treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma with person-level data in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Hla-Hla; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Qiao, Yao; Wong, Kenny; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Chan, Kelvin K W; Yoshida, Eric M; Earle, Craig C

    2017-09-01

    Patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are potential candidates for curative treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgical resection (SR), or liver transplantation (LT), which have demonstrated a significant survival benefit. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of curative and combination treatment strategies among patients diagnosed with HCC during 2002-2010. This study used Ontario Cancer Registry-linked administrative data to estimate effectiveness and costs (2013 USD) of the treatment strategies from the healthcare payer's perspective. Multiple imputation by logistic regression was used to handle missing data. A net benefit regression approach of baseline important covariates and propensity score adjustment were used to calculate incremental net benefit to generate incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and uncertainty measures. Among 2,222 patients diagnosed with HCC, 10.5%, 14.1%, and 10.3% received RFA, SR, and LT monotherapy, respectively; 0.5-3.1% dual treatments; and 0.5% triple treatments. Compared with no treatment (53.2%), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) + RFA (average $2,465, 95% CI: -$20,000-$36,600/quality-adjusted life years [QALY]) or RFA monotherapy ($15,553, 95% CI: $3,500-$28,500/QALY) appears to be the most cost-effective modality with lowest ICER value. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed that if the relevant threshold was $50,000/QALY, RFA monotherapy and TACE+ RFA would have a cost-effectiveness probability of 100%. Strategies using LT delivered the most additional QALYs and became cost-effective at a threshold of $77,000/QALY. Our findings found that TACE+ RFA dual treatment or RFA monotherapy appears to be the most cost-effective curative treatment for patients with potential early stage of HCC in Ontario. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and measuring differential benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of alternative HCC curative treatments in

  5. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of linezolid for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Chang; Wang, Bruce C M; Kim, Richard; Magyar, Andrew; Lai, Chung-Chih; Yang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is associated with higher resource utilization, increased hospital stays, and mortality. We present a health economics model to understand the impact of using linezolid as the first-line treatment of MRSA NP in Taiwan. We developed a cost-effectiveness model to estimate the costs and clinical outcomes of using linezolid 600 mg b.i.d. versus vancomycin 15 mg/kg b.i.d. as the first-line treatment of MRSA NP in Taiwan. The model is a decision-analytic analysis in which a MRSA-confirmed patient is simulated to utilize one of the treatments, using data from a clinical trial. Within each treatment arm, the patient can or cannot achieve clinical cure. Regardless of whether the clinical cure was achieved or not, the patient may or may not have experienced an adverse event. The per-protocol results for clinical cure were 57.6% and 46.6% for linezolid and vancomycin, respectively. The total cost of linezolid was $376 more per patient than that of vancomycin. Drug costs were higher for linezolid than for vancomycin ($1108 vs. $233), and hospitalization costs were lower ($4998 vs. $5496). With higher cost and higher cure rates for linezolid, the incremental cost per cure was $3421. This study projects linezolid to have higher drug costs, lower hospital costs, and higher overall costs compared with vancomycin. This is balanced against the higher clinical cure rate for linezolid. Depending on the willingness to pay for clinical cure, linezolid could be cost effective as the first-line treatment of NP in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment strategies for initial Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varier, R U; Biltaji, E; Smith, K J; Roberts, M S; Jensen, M K; LaFleur, J; Nelson, R E

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is costly. Current guidelines recommend metronidazole as first-line therapy and vancomycin as an alternative. Recurrence is common. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent CDI (RCDI). This study explores the cost-effectiveness of FMT, vancomycin and metronidazole for initial CDI. We constructed a decision-analytic computer simulation using inputs from published literature to compare FMT with a 10-14-day course of oral metronidazole or vancomycin for initial CDI. Parameters included cure rates (baseline value (range)) for metronidazole (80% (65-85%)), vancomycin (90% (88-92%)) and FMT(91% (83-100%)). Direct costs of metronidazole, vancomycin and FMT, adjusted to 2011 dollars, were $57 ($43-72), $1347 ($1195-1499) and $1086 ($815-1358), respectively. Our effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted from the third-party payer perspective. Analysis using baseline values showed that FMT($1669, 0.242 QALYs) dominated (i.e. was less costly and more effective) vancomycin ($1890, 0.241 QALYs). FMT was more costly and more effective than metronidazole ($1167, 0.238 QALYs), yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $124 964/QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that metronidazole dominated both strategies if its probability of cure were >90%; FMT dominated if it cost costly. FMT and vancomycin are more effective. However, FMT is less likely to be economically favourable, and vancomycin is unlikely to be favourable as first-line therapy when compared with FMT. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Using decision analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Feigenberg, Steven; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kulkarni, Sachin M.S.; Beck, J. Robert; Horwitz, Eric M.; Pollack, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of a 70-year-old with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods: A Markov model was designed with the following states; posttreatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and death. Transition probabilities from one state to another were calculated from rates derived from the literature for IMRT and 3D-CRT. Utility values for each health state were obtained from preliminary studies of preferences conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The analysis took a payer's perspective. Expected mean costs, cost-effectiveness scatterplots, and cost acceptability curves were calculated with commercially available software. Results: The expected mean cost of patients undergoing IMRT was $47,931 with a survival of 6.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The expected mean cost of patients having 3D-CRT was $21,865 with a survival of 5.62 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness comparing IMRT with CRT was $40,101/QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 55.1% probability of IMRT being cost-effective at a $50,000/QALY willingness to pay. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was found to be cost-effective, however, at the upper limits of acceptability. The results, however, are dependent on the assumptions of improved biochemical disease-free survival with fewer patients undergoing subsequent salvage therapy and improved quality of life after the treatment. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, decision analysis can help inform physicians and health policy experts on the cost-effectiveness of emerging technologies

  8. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin Versus Gemcitabine Alone for Treatment of Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Ejiri, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Haruhisa; Yoneda, Masashi; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Arakawa, Ichiro; Saito, Hiroko; Inoue, Tadao

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of combination treatment with gemcitabine and cisplatin compared to treatment with gemcitabine alone for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) in Japan. A monthly transmitted Markov model of three states was constructed based on the Japan BT-22 trial. Transition probabilities among the health states were derived from a trial conducted in Japan and converted to appropriate parameters for our model. The associated cost components, obtained from a receipt-based survey undertaken at the Aichi Medical University Hospital, were those related to inpatient care, outpatient care, and treatment for BTC. Costs for palliative care and treatment of adverse events were obtained from the National Health Insurance price list. We estimated cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) at a time horizon of 36 months. An annual discount of 3 % for both cost and outcome was considered. The base case outcomes indicated that combination therapy was less cost-effective than monotherapy when the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was approximately 14 million yen per QALY gained. The deterministic sensitivity analysis of the ICER revealed that the ICER of the base case was robust. A probabilistic analysis conducted with 10,000-time Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated efficacy at the willingness to pay threshold of 6 million yen per QALY gained for approximately 33 % of the population. In Japan, combination therapy is less cost-effective than monotherapy for treating advanced BTC, regardless of the statistical significance of the two therapies. Useful information on the cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy is much needed for the treatment of advanced BTC in Japan.

  9. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  10. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  11. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley Ltd.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of the mobile application TCApp combined with face-to-face CBT treatment compared to face-to-face CBT treatment alone for patients with an eating disorder: study protocol of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Lupiañez-Villanueva, Francisco; Faulí, Clara; Arcal Cunillera, Jordina; Serrano-Troncoso, Eduardo

    2018-05-02

    The clinical utility of the existing apps for people with eating disorders (EDs) is not clear. The TCApp has been specifically developed for people with EDs, is based on the principles of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) and allows a bidirectional link between the patient and the therapist. The objectives of the study are, first, to assess the clinical efficacy of a combined intervention for Eating Disorders (EDs) that includes an online intervention through the TCApp plus standard face-to-face CBT in comparison to standard face-to-face CBT alone, and second, to examine the cost-effectiveness of the TCApp and identify potential predicting, moderating and mediating variables that promote or hinder the implementation of the TCApp in ED units in Spain. The study methodology is that of a randomised controlled trial combining qualitative and quantitative methods, with a 6-month follow-up. Approximately 250 patients over 12 years old with a diagnosis of an ED from several ED units in Spain will be randomised to one of two different conditions. Participants, their caregivers, healthcare professionals and technical staff involved in the development and maintenance of the application will be assessed at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1) and at 6 months follow-up (T2). Primary outcome measures will include ED symptomatology while secondary measures will include general psychopathology and quality of life for patients, quality of life and caregiving experience for family caregivers and adoption-related variables for all participants involved, such as perceived usability, user's satisfaction and technology acceptance. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, we will assess quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); total societal cost will be estimated using costs to patients and the health plan, and other related costs. The study will provide an important advance in the treatment of EDs; in the long term, it is expected to improve the quality of patient care and the treatment

  13. The price of donation after cardiac death in liver transplantation : a prospective cost-effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Christian S.; IJtsma, Alexander J. C.; Bottema, Jan T.; van Hoek, Bart; Dubbeld, Jeroen; Metselaar, Herold J.; Kazemier, Geert; van den Berg, Aad P.; Porte, Robert J.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.

    This study aims to perform a detailed prospective observational multicenter cost-effectiveness study by comparing liver transplantations with Donation after Brain Death (DBD) and Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) grafts. All liver transplantations in the three Dutch liver transplant centers between

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Omalizumab for the Treatment of Severe Persistent Asthma in Real Clinical Practice in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennera, María Del Carmen; Valero, Antonio; Uría, Estefany; Forné, Carles; Picado, César

    2016-07-01

    Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets circulating immunoglobulin E molecules to treat severe uncontrolled asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of omalizumab compared with standard treatment for the control of severe persistent asthma according to data from patients treated in a specialized asthma unit. This was an observational, retrospective, single-center study in the setting of the Pulmonology and Respiratory Allergy Service, Thorax Institute, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Data were collected by review of medical records of 86 uncontrolled severe persistent asthma patients treated with omalizumab from January 2005 to April 2014. Effectiveness was assessed by the reduction in asthma exacerbations and 3-point increases in the Asthma Control Test (ACT) score. The economic evaluation was performed from the societal perspective, including direct health costs (resource use and drug treatments) and indirect costs (disease impact on labor productivity) in 2016 Euros. The time horizon was 12 months before and after the initiation of treatment with omalizumab. Results were expressed using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Taking into account only direct costs, the ICERs were €1487.46 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1241.21-1778.34) per exacerbation avoided and €5425.13 (95 % CI 4539.30-6551.03) per 3-point increase in the ACT. When indirect costs were included, the ICERs were €1130.93 (95 % CI 909.08-1392.86) per exacerbation avoided, and €4124.79 (95 % CI 3281.69-5186.73) per 3-point increase in the ACT. The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of the addition of omalizumab to standard therapy in patients with uncontrolled severe persistent asthma.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293 per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02 for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received docetaxel therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC is a serious problem that requires significant public health care expenditures.Objective: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with metastatic CRPC who previously received docetaxel under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation.Material and methods. Markovian simulation based on the COU-AA-301 randomized placebo-controlled Phase III study was used. Survival analysis was made in 70-year-old patients. The cost of abiraterone therapy corresponded to that of the 2013 auctions.Results. Abiraterone therapy in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy causes an increase in average life expectancy by an average of 4.6 months and progression-free survival by 2.0 months. Moreover, the cost calculated with reference to one year of additional life will account for about 3.6 million rubles and that to one additional quality-adjusted life year will be about 5.45 million rubles.Conclusion. The cost-effectiveness of abiraterone therapy for metastatic CRPC in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy is similar to that of other medicaments used in oncological practice under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation. In this connection, abiraterone may be considered as an economically acceptable medical intervention in this clinical situation.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received docetaxel therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC is a serious problem that requires significant public health care expenditures.Objective: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with metastatic CRPC who previously received docetaxel under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation.Material and methods. Markovian simulation based on the COU-AA-301 randomized placebo-controlled Phase III study was used. Survival analysis was made in 70-year-old patients. The cost of abiraterone therapy corresponded to that of the 2013 auctions.Results. Abiraterone therapy in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy causes an increase in average life expectancy by an average of 4.6 months and progression-free survival by 2.0 months. Moreover, the cost calculated with reference to one year of additional life will account for about 3.6 million rubles and that to one additional quality-adjusted life year will be about 5.45 million rubles.Conclusion. The cost-effectiveness of abiraterone therapy for metastatic CRPC in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy is similar to that of other medicaments used in oncological practice under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation. In this connection, abiraterone may be considered as an economically acceptable medical intervention in this clinical situation.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study's aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of CBT compared to treatment as usual (TAU). In total, 49 children aged 8-18 years with ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders, and their parents, participated; 24 were assigned to CBT and 25 were assigned to TAU. Outcome measures were the

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Leor T; Hsu, Edmund; McNally, Keegan

    2017-08-23

    Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is a common cause of antibiotic--associated diarrhea (AAD), being responsible for 15--25% of all AAD cases. The purpose of this literature review is to determine the cost-effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and how it compares in this regard to the standard treatments of choice for recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). The review of the literature along with the evaluation of three comparative cost effective analyses yielded findings consistent with the view that FMT is the most cost-effective option in treating recurrent CDI. There are some (but considerably less) data indicating that FMT may be a cost effective strategy in treating initial CDI, as well. The superior cost-effectiveness of FMT as compared to the preferred standards of treatment for recurrent CDI suggest FMT use should become more integrated in routine clinical practice. Increased utilization of FMTs would allow for better control of this increasingly problematic disease as well as lower costs associated with its management.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Leor T; McNally, Keegan

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a common cause of antibiotic-­associated diarrhea (AAD), being responsible for 15­-25% of all AAD cases. The purpose of this literature review is to determine the cost-effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and how it compares in this regard to the standard treatments of choice for recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). The review of the literature along with the evaluation of three comparative cost effective analyses yielded findings consistent with the view that FMT is the most cost-effective option in treating recurrent CDI. There are some (but considerably less) data indicating that FMT may be a cost effective strategy in treating initial CDI, as well. The superior cost-effectiveness of FMT as compared to the preferred standards of treatment for recurrent CDI suggest FMT use should become more integrated in routine clinical practice. Increased utilization of FMTs would allow for better control of this increasingly problematic disease as well as lower costs associated with its management. PMID:29067223

  1. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.J.; Kersten, F.A.M.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans, C.A.; Roijen, L.H.; Habbema, J.D.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does the cost-effectiveness (CE) of immediate IVF compared with postponing IVF for 1 year, depend on prognostic characteristics of the couple? SUMMARY ANSWER: The CE ratio, i.e. the incremental costs of immediate versus delayed IVF per extra live birth, is the highest (range of

  2. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkemans, M J C; Kersten, F A M; Lintsen, A M E; Hunault, C C; Bouwmans, C A M; Roijen, L Hakkaart-van; Habbema, J D F; Braat, D D M

    2017-05-01

    How does the cost-effectiveness (CE) of immediate IVF compared with postponing IVF for 1 year, depend on prognostic characteristics of the couple? The CE ratio, i.e. the incremental costs of immediate versus delayed IVF per extra live birth, is the highest (range of €15 000 to >€60 000) for couples with unexplained infertility and for them depends strongly on female age and the duration of infertility, whilst being lowest for endometriosis (range 8000-23 000) and, for such patients, only slightly dependent on female age and duration of infertility. A few countries have guidelines for indications of IVF, using the diagnostic category, female age and duration of infertility. The CE of these guidelines is unknown and the evidence base exists only for bilateral tubal occlusion, not for the other diagnostic categories. A modelling approach was applied, based on the literature and data from a prospective cohort study among couples eligible for IVF or ICSI treatment, registered in a national waiting list in The Netherlands between January 2002 and December 2003. A total of 5962 couples was included. Chances of natural ongoing pregnancy were estimated from the waiting list observations and chances of ongoing pregnancy after IVF from follow-up data of couples with primary infertility that began treatment. Prognostic characteristics considered were female age, duration of infertility and diagnostic category. Costs of IVF were assessed from a societal perspective and determined on a representative sample of patients. A cost-effectiveness comparison was made between two scenarios: (I) wait one more year and then undergo IVF for 1 year and (II) immediate IVF during 1 year, and try to conceive naturally in the following year. Comparisons were made for strata determined by the prognostic factors. The final outcome was a live birth. The gain in live birth rate of the immediate IVF scenario versus postponed IVF increased with female age, and was independent from diagnostic

  3. Systematic review of studies on cost-effectiveness of cystic fibrosis carrier testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Andrade-Cerquera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is considered the most common autosomal disease with multisystem complications in non-Hispanic white population. Objective: To review the available evidence on cost-effectiveness of the cystic fibrosis carrier testing compared to no intervention. Materials and methods: The databases of MEDLINE, Embase, NHS, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS, Health Technology Assessment, Genetests.org, Genetsickkids.org and Web of Science were used to conduct a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of performing the genetic test in cystic fibrosis patients. Cost-effectiveness studies were included without language or date of publication restrictions. Results: Only 13 studies were relevant for full review. Prenatal, preconception and mixed screening strategies were found. Health perspective was the most used; the discount rate applied was heterogeneous between 3.5% and 5%; the main analysis unit was the cost per detected carrier couple, followed by cost per averted birth with cystic fibrosis. It was evident that the most cost-effective strategy was preconception screening associated with prenatal test. Conclusions: A marked heterogeneity in the methodology was found, which led to incomparable results and to conclude that there are different approaches to this genetic test.

  4. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of ecosystem-based adaptation: Kamiesberg wetlands case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Black

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA is increasingly being promoted as a cost-effective means of adaptation to climate change. However, in spite of considerable international press, there is still little evidence to substantiate this claim. This study proposes a method through which the cost-effectiveness of EbA strategies can be evaluated against alternative adaptation options, and contributes to South African literature on the subject. The potential cost-effectiveness of wetland restoration is assessed as a means of securing the carrying capacity of land for pastoralist communities of the Kamiesberg communal area in South Africa under projected future climate conditions. The conventional alternatives would be to respond to increasingly dry conditions by drilling boreholes and using supplemental feed for livestock. It was assumed that the EbA interventions would occur upfront, whereas the alternatives are more likely to be implemented in reaction to droughts over a longer time period. The study found the implementation of conventional alternatives to be more cost-effective than EbA as a means to sustaining livestock stocking rates, with EbA being twice as costly. However, this is framed from the perspective of those directly affected (the landowners, and does not include the benefits to broader society.

  5. Modeling cost-effectiveness and health gains of a "universal" versus "prioritized" hepatitis C virus treatment policy in a real-life cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondili, Loreta A; Romano, Federica; Rolli, Francesca Romana; Ruggeri, Matteo; Rosato, Stefano; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana; Zignego, Anna Linda; Ciancio, Alessia; Di Leo, Alfredo; Raimondo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Carlo; Taliani, Gloria; Borgia, Guglielmo; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Blanc, Pierluigi; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Chessa, Luchino; Erne, Elke Maria; Villa, Erica; Ieluzzi, Donatella; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Andreone, Pietro; Vinci, Maria; Coppola, Carmine; Chemello, Liliana; Madonia, Salvatore; Verucchi, Gabriella; Persico, Marcello; Zuin, Massimo; Puoti, Massimo; Alberti, Alfredo; Nardone, Gerardo; Massari, Marco; Montalto, Giuseppe; Foti, Giuseppe; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Cicchetti, Americo; Craxì, Antonio; Vella, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of two alternative direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment policies in a real-life cohort of hepatitis C virus-infected patients: policy 1, "universal," treat all patients, regardless of fibrosis stage; policy 2, treat only "prioritized" patients, delay treatment of the remaining patients until reaching stage F3. A liver disease progression Markov model, which used a lifetime horizon and health care system perspective, was applied to the PITER cohort (representative of Italian hepatitis C virus-infected patients in care). Specifically, 8,125 patients naive to DAA treatment, without clinical, sociodemographic, or insurance restrictions, were used to evaluate the policies' cost-effectiveness. The patients' age and fibrosis stage, assumed DAA treatment cost of €15,000/patient, and the Italian liver disease costs were used to evaluate quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of policy 1 versus policy 2. To generalize the results, a European scenario analysis was performed, resampling the study population, using the mean European country-specific health states costs and mean treatment cost of €30,000. For the Italian base-case analysis, the cost-effective ICER obtained using policy 1 was €8,775/QALY. ICERs remained cost-effective in 94%-97% of the 10,000 probabilistic simulations. For the European treatment scenario the ICER obtained using policy 1 was €19,541.75/QALY. ICER was sensitive to variations in DAA costs, in the utility value of patients in fibrosis stages F0-F3 post-sustained virological response, and in the transition probabilities from F0 to F3. The ICERs decrease with decreasing DAA prices, becoming cost-saving for the base price (€15,000) discounts of at least 75% applied in patients with F0-F2 fibrosis. Extending hepatitis C virus treatment to patients in any fibrosis stage improves health outcomes and is cost-effective; cost-effectiveness significantly increases

  6. Cost-effective use of silver dressings for the treatment of hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, Gregor B E; Kerihuel, Jean Charles; Ousey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of silver dressings using a health economic model based on time-to-wound-healing in hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs). BACKGROUND: Chronic venous ulceration affects 1-3% of the adult population and typically has a protracted course of healing....... METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with silver compared with non-silver dressings for four weeks in a primary care setting. The outcomes: 'Healed ulcer', 'Healing ulcer' or 'No improvement' were developed, reflecting the relative reduction in ulcer...

  7. A systematic review of PET and PET/CT in oncology: A way to personalize cancer treatment in a cost-effective manner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of diagnostic tests are required for the detection and management of cancer. Most imaging modalities such as computerized tomography (CT are anatomical. However, positron emission tomography (PET is a functional diagnostic imaging technique using compounds labelled with positron-emitting radioisotopes to measure cell metabolism. It has been a useful tool in studying soft tissues such as the brain, cardiovascular system, and cancer. The aim of this systematic review is to critically summarize the health economic evidence of oncologic PET in the literature. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched from 2005 until February 2010 to identify economic evaluation studies not included in previous Health Technology Assessment (HTA reports. Only full health economic evaluations in English, French, or German were considered for inclusion. Economic evaluations were appraised using published quality criteria for assessing the quality of decision-analytic models. Given the variety of methods used in the health economic evaluations, the economic evidence has been summarized in qualitative form. Results From this new search, 14 publications were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All publications were decision-analytic models and evaluated PET using Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG-PET. Eight publications were cost-effectiveness analyses; six were cost-utility analyses. The studies were from Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, Taiwan, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In the base case analyses of these studies, cost-effectiveness results ranged from dominated to dominant. The methodology of the economic evaluations was of varying quality. Cost-effectiveness was primarily influenced by the cost of PET, the specificity of PET, and the risk of malignancy. Conclusions Owing to improved care and less exposure to ineffective treatments, personalized medicine using PET may be cost-effective

  8. Cost-of-illness studies and cost-effectiveness analyses in anxiety disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnopka, Alexander; Leichsenring, Falk; Leibing, Eric; König, Hans-Helmut

    2009-04-01

    To review cost-of-illness studies (COI) and cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) conducted for anxiety disorders. Based on a database search in Pubmed, PsychINFO and NHS EED, studies were classified according to various criteria. Cost data were inflated and converted to 2005 US-$ purchasing power parities (PPP). We finally identified 20 COI and 11 CEA of which most concentrated on panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Differing inclusion of cost categories limited comparability of COI. PD and GAD tended to show higher direct costs per case, but lower direct cost per inhabitant than social and specific phobias. Different measures of effectiveness severely limited comparability of CEA. Overall CEA analysed 26 therapeutic or interventional strategies mostly compared to standard treatment, 8 of them resulting in lower better effectiveness and costs than the comparator. Anxiety disorders cause considerable costs. More research on phobias, more standardised inclusion of cost categories in COI and a wider use of comparable effectiveness measures (like QALYs) in CEA is needed.

  9. Payer decision-making with limited comparative and cost effectiveness data: the case of new pharmacological treatments for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Michele; Pizzi, Laura T; Jutkowitz, Eric

    2012-08-01

    The need for comparative effectiveness (CE) data continues to grow, fuelled by market demand as well as health reform. There may be an assumption that new drugs result in improved efficacy compared with the standard of care, therefore warranting premium prices. Gout treatment has recently become controversial, as expensive new drugs enter the market with limited CE data. The authors reviewed published clinical trials and conducted a cost effectiveness analysis on a new drug (febuxostat) versus the standard (allopurinol) to illustrate the limitations in using these data to inform evidence-based decision-making. Although febuxostat trials included allopurinol as a comparator, methodological limitations make comparative effectiveness evaluations difficult. However, when available trial data were input to a decision analytic model, the authors found that a significant reduction in febuxostat cost would be required in order for it to dominate allopurinol in cost effectiveness analysis. This case exemplifies the challenges of using clinical trial data in comparative and cost effectiveness analyses.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Care Depression and Anxiety Treatment Program in Patients with Acute Cardiac Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Healy, Brian; Suarez, Laura; Levy, Douglas E; Mastromauro, Carol; Januzzi, James L; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    To use data from a randomized trial to determine the cost-effectiveness of a collaborative care (CC) depression and anxiety treatment program and to assess effects of the CC program on health care utilization. The CC intervention's impact on health-related quality of life, depression-free days (DFDs), and anxiety-free days (AFDs) over the 24-week postdischarge period was calculated and compared with the enhanced usual care (EUC) condition using independent samples t tests and random-effects regression models. Costs for both the CC and EUC conditions were calculated on the basis of staff time, overhead expenses, and treatment materials. Using this information, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. A cost-effectiveness acceptability plot was created using nonparametric bootstrapping with 10,000 replications, and the likelihood of the CC intervention's cost-effectiveness was assessed using standard cutoffs. As a secondary analysis, we determined whether the CC intervention led to reductions in postdischarge health care utilization and costs. The CC intervention was more costly than the EUC intervention ($209.86 vs. $34.59; z = -11.71; P < 0.001), but was associated with significantly greater increases in quality-adjusted life-years (t = -2.49; P = 0.01) and DFDs (t = -2.13; P = 0.03), but not AFDs (t = -1.92; P = 0.057). This translated into an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3337.06 per quality-adjusted life-year saved, $13.36 per DFD, and $13.74 per AFD. Compared with the EUC intervention, the CC intervention was also associated with fewer emergency department visits but no differences in overall costs. This CC intervention was associated with clinically relevant improvements, was cost-effective, and was associated with fewer emergency department visits in the 24 weeks after discharge. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of paricalcitol versus calcitriol for the treatment of SHPT in dialytic patients from the SUS perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Fabiana Gatti de; Abreu, Rodrigo Martins; Itria, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a consequence of chronic kidney disease. The treatment at the Brazilian Unified Heath System (SUS) is performed with calcitriol, a drug which favors hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia, hindering the control of SHPT. Another option is paricalcitol, which causes parathormone (PTH) suppression faster than calcitriol, with minor changes in calcium-phosphorus product and calcium and phosphorus serum levels. This study aims to develop a cost-effectiveness analysis of paricalcitol versus calcitriol for patients in dialytic treatment with SHPT, from the SUS perspective. A Markov decision model was developed for patients ≥ 50 years old with end stage renal disease in dialytic treatment and SHPT. Quarterly cycles and a lifetime time horizon were considered. Life years (LY) gained were assessed as clinical outcome. Clinical and economic inputs were obtained from systematic literature review and official databases. Costs are presented in Brazilian real (BRL), for the year 2014. In the base case: paricalcitol generated a clinical benefit of 16.28 LY gained versus 14.11 LY gained with calcitriol, total costs of BRL 131,064 and BRL 114,262, respectively, determining an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of BRL 7,740 per LY gained. The data robustness was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. According to cost-effectiveness threshold recommended by the World Health Organization for 2013, the treatment of SHPT in patients on dialysis with paricalcitol is cost-effective when compared to calcitriol, from the public healthcare system perspective, in Brazil. O hiperparatireoidismo secundário (HPTS) é uma consequência da doença renal crônica. O tratamento no SUS é realizado com calcitriol, que favorece a hipercalcemia e/ou hiperfosfatemia, dificultando o controle do HPTS. Uma opção clinicamente relevante é o paricalcitol, que ocasiona a supressão do paratormônio (PTH) de forma mais rápida que o calcitriol e com menores altera

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of in-vitro fertilization by maternal age and number of treatment attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alison; Dyer, Suzanne M; Lord, Sarah J; Pardy, Chris; Fraser, Ian S; Eckermann, Simon

    2010-04-01

    The increase in use and costs of assisted reproductive therapies including in-vitro fertilization (IVF) has led to debate over public funding. A decision analytic model was designed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of IVF by additional treatment programmes and maternal age. Data from the Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproductive Database were used to estimate incremental effects (live birth and other pregnancy outcomes) and costs for cohorts of women attempting up to three treatment programmes. A treatment programme included one fresh cycle and a variable number of frozen cycles dependent on maternal age. The incremental cost per live birth ranged from AU dollars 27 373 and AU dollars 31 986 for women aged 30-33 on their first and third programmes to AU dollars 130 951 and AU dollars 187 515 for 42-45-year-old women on their first and second attempts. Overall, these trends were not affected by inclusions of costs associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or multiple births. This study suggests that cost per live birth from IVF increases with maternal age and treatment programme number and indicates that maternal age has the much greater effect. This evidence may help decisionmakers target the use of IVF services conditional on societal willingness to pay for live births and equity considerations.

  13. Modified natural cycle versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of three simulated treatment scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Henk; Tonch, Nino; Simons, Arnold H M; van der Veen, Fulco; Hoek, Annemieke; Land, Jolande A

    2013-12-01

    after a gestation of ≥25 weeks. In the baseline data, MNC was not cost-effective, as COH dominated MNC with a higher cumulative LBR (27.0 versus 24.0%) and lower cost per patient (€3694 versus €5254). The simulations showed that in scenario 1 three instead of six cycles lowered the costs of MNC to below the level of COH (€3390 versus €3694, respectively), but also lowered the LBR per patient (from 24.0 to 16.2%, respectively); Scenario 2: COH with strict SET was less effective than six cycles MNC (LBR 17.5 versus 24.0%, respectively), but also less expensive per patient (€2908) than MNC (€5254); Scenario 3: improved the cost-effectiveness of MNC but COH still dominated MNC when medication was minimized in terms of costs, i.e. €855 difference in favor of COH and 3% difference in LBR in favor of COH (ICER: €855/-3.0%). Owing to the retrospective nature of the study, the analyses required some assumptions, for example regarding the costs of pregnancy and delivery, which had to be based on the literature rather than on individual data. Furthermore, costs of IVF treatment were based on tariffs and not on actual costs. Although this may limit the external generalizability of the results, the limitations will influence both treatments equally, and would therefore not bias the comparison of MNC versus COH. The combined results suggest that MNC with minimized medication might be a cost-effective alternative for COH with strict SET. The scenarios reflect realistic alternatives for daily clinical practice. A preference for MNC depends on the willingness to trade off effectiveness in terms of LBR against the benefits of a milder stimulation regimen, including a very low rate of multiple pregnancies and hyperstimulation syndrome and ensuing lower costs per live birth. The study was supported by research grants from Merck Serono and Ferring Pharmaceuticals. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Not applicable.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nakul; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tock Han; Yong, Shao Onn

    2015-06-01

    To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treatment scenarios: (a) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by ranibizumab (as needed) for wet AMD. (b) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by bevacizumab (monthly) for wet AMD. (c) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by aflibercept (VIEW I and II trial treatment regimen). Costs were estimated for the above scenarios from the providers' perspective, and cost-effectiveness was measured by cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted with a disability weight of 0.22 for wet AMD. The costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Over 5400 patients could be prevented from progressing to wet AMD cumulatively if AREDS formulation were prescribed. AREDS formulation followed by ranibizumab was cost-effective compared to placebo-ranibizumab or placebo-aflibercept combinations (cost per DALY averted: SGD$23,662.3 and SGD$21,138.8, respectively). However, bevacizumab (monthly injections) alone was more cost-effective compared to AREDS formulation followed by bevacizumab. Prophylactic treatment with AREDS formulation for intermediate AMD patients followed by ranibizumab or for patients who progressed to wet AMD was found to be cost-effective. These findings have implications for intermediate AMD screening, treatment and healthcare planning in Singapore.

  15. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of hepatitis C virus treatment with sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kanwal, Fasiha; Roberts, Mark S; Dunn, Michael A

    2015-03-17

    Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir, which have recently been approved for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, are more efficacious and safer than the old standard of care (oSOC) but are substantially more expensive. Whether and in which patients their improved efficacy justifies their increased cost is unclear. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir. Microsimulation model of the natural history of HCV infection. Published literature. Treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HCV population defined on the basis of HCV genotype, age, and fibrosis distribution in the United States. Lifetime. Third-party payer. Simulation of sofosbuvir-ledipasvir compared with the oSOC (interferon-based therapies). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and 5-year spending on antiviral drugs. Sofosbuvir-based therapies added 0.56 QALY relative to the oSOC at an ICER of $55 400 per additional QALY. The ICERs ranged from $9700 to $284 300 per QALY depending on the patient's status with respect to treatment history, HCV genotype, and presence of cirrhosis. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY, sofosbuvir-based therapies were cost-effective in 83% of treatment-naive and 81% of treatment-experienced patients. Compared with the oSOC, treating eligible HCV-infected persons in the United States with the new drugs would cost an additional $65 billion in the next 5 years, whereas the resulting cost offsets would be $16 billion. Results were sensitive to drug price, drug efficacy, and quality of life after successful treatment. Data on real-world effectiveness of new antivirals are lacking. Treatment of HCV is cost-effective in most patients, but additional resources and value-based patient prioritization are needed to manage patients with HCV. National Institutes of Health.

  16. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Neumann

    Full Text Available Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution.We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low to 7 (high, and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions.We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%, followed by non-communicable diseases (28%. A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%. Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32% followed by immunizations (28%. Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Lubeck, Deborah; Lalla, Deepa; Paton, Virginia; Dueck, Amylou; Perez, Edith A

    2007-08-01

    Adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy provides significant clinical benefit in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess clinical and economic implications of adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy, based upon joint analysis of NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 trials. A Markov model with 4 health states was used to estimate the cost utility for a 50-year-old woman on the basis of trial results through 4 years and estimates of long-term recurrence and death based on a meta-analysis of trials. From 6 years onward, rates of recurrence and death were assumed to be the same in both trastuzumab and chemotherapy-only arms. Incremental costs were estimated for diagnostic and treatment-related costs. Analyses were from payer and societal perspectives, and these analyses were projected to lifetime and 20-year horizons. Over a lifetime, the projected cost of trastuzumab per quality-adjusted life year (QALY; discount rate 3%) gained was 26,417 dollars (range 9,104 dollars-69,340 dollars under multiway sensitivity analysis). Discounted incremental lifetime cost was 44,923 dollars, and projected life expectancy was 3 years longer for patients who received trastuzumab (19.4 years vs 16.4 years). During a 20-year horizon, the projected cost of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy was 34,201 dollars per QALY gained. Key cost-effectiveness drivers were discount rate, trastuzumab price, and probability of metastasis. The cost-effectiveness result was robust to sensitivity analysis. Trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer was projected to be cost effective over a lifetime horizon, achieving a cost-effectiveness ratio below that of many widely accepted oncology treatments. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  18. Cost effectiveness of preventive home visits to the elderly: economic evaluation alongside randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Vass, Mikkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the cost effectiveness of preventive home visits to elderly persons in Denmark alongside a 3-year randomized controlled study. The main outcome measure was incremental costs per active life-year gained. The number of active life-years was defined as those during which the person...... is able independently to transfer, walk indoors, go outdoors, walk outdoors in both pleasant and poor weather, and climb stairs. In 17 of 34 municipalities health visitors and general practitioners were offered geriatric training, which focused on early signs of disability, physical activity......,455 to 744) in 75-year-olds and 694 euro (-2,684 to 4,071) in 80-year-olds. The discounted difference in mean active life-years was 0.034 (-0.058 to 0.125) and 0.197 (0.013 to 0.380), respectively. The study did not provide conclusive evidence on the cost effectiveness of the programs under consideration....

  19. Cost-effectiveness of per oral endoscopic myotomy relative to laparoscopic Heller myotomy for the treatment of achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Erin K; Winder, Joshua S; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Haluck, Randy S; Mathew, Abraham; Pauli, Eric M

    2018-01-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has recently emerged as a viable option relative to the classic approach of laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. In this cost-utility analysis of POEM and LHM, we hypothesized that POEM would be cost-effective relative to LHM. A stochastic cost-utility analysis of treatment for achalasia was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of POEM relative to LHM. Costs were estimated from the provider perspective and obtained from our institution's cost-accounting database. The measure of effectiveness was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) which were estimated from direct elicitation of utility using a visual analog scale. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Uncertainty was assessed by bootstrapping the sample and computing the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). Patients treated within an 11-year period (2004-2016) were recruited for participation (20 POEM, 21 LHM). During the index admission, the mean costs for POEM ($8630 ± $2653) and the mean costs for LHM ($7604 ± $2091) were not significantly different (P = 0.179). Additionally, mean QALYs for POEM (0.413 ± 0.248) were higher than that associated with LHM (0.357 ± 0.338), but this difference was also not statistically significant (P = 0.55). The ICER suggested that it would cost an additional $18,536 for each QALY gained using POEM. There was substantial uncertainty in the ICER; there was a 48.25% probability that POEM was cost-effective at the mean ICER. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000, there was a 68.31% probability that POEM was cost-effective relative to LHM. In the treatment of achalasia, POEM appears to be cost-effective relative to LHM depending on one's willingness-to-pay for an additional QALY.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Sacubitril-Valsartan Combination Therapy Compared With Enalapril for the Treatment of Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jordan B; Shah, Rashmee U; Bress, Adam P; Nelson, Richard E; Bellows, Brandon K

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness and cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained of sacubitril-valsartan relative to enalapril for treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Compared with enalapril, combination angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition (ARNI), as is found in sacubitril-valsartan, reduces cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization rates in patients with HFrEF. Using a Markov model, costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness were estimated for sacubitril-valsartan and enalapril therapies for the treatment of HFrEF. Patients were 60 years of age at model entry and were modeled over a lifetime (40 years) from a third-party payer perspective. Clinical probabilities were derived predominantly from PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure). All costs and effects were discounted at a 3% rate annually and are presented in 2015 U.S. dollars. In the base case, sacubitril-valsartan, compared with enalapril, was more costly ($60,391 vs. $21,758) and more effective (6.49 vs. 5.74 QALYs) over a lifetime. The cost-effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan was highly dependent on duration of treatment, ranging from $249,411 per QALY at 3 years to $50,959 per QALY gained over a lifetime. Sacubitril-valsartan may be a cost-effective treatment option depending on the willingness-to-pay threshold. Future investigations should incorporate real-world evidence with sacubitril-valsartan to further inform decision making. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Strategies for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase After Generic Entry of Imatinib in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Larson, Richard A; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Apperley, Jane F; Hehlmann, Rudiger; Baccarani, Michele; Eigendorff, Ekkehard; Guilhot, Joelle; Guilhot, Francois; Hehlmann, Rudiger; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; Martinelli, Giovanni; Mayer, Jiri; Müller, Martin C; Niederwieser, Dietger; Saussele, Susanne; Schiffer, Charles A; Silver, Richard T; Simonsson, Bengt; Conti, Rena M

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of treating incident chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) with generic imatinib when it becomes available in United States in 2016. In the year following generic entry, imatinib's price is expected to drop 70% to 90%. We hypothesized that initiating treatment with generic imatinib in these patients and then switching to the other tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), dasatinib or nilotinib, because of intolerance or lack of effectiveness ("imatinib-first") would be cost-effective compared with the current standard of care: "physicians' choice" of initiating treatment with any one of the three TKIs. We constructed Markov models to compare the five-year cost-effectiveness of imatinib-first vs physician's choice from a US commercial payer perspective, assuming 3% annual discounting ($US 2013). The models' clinical endpoint was five-year overall survival taken from a systematic review of clinical trial results. Per-person spending on incident CML-CP treatment overall care components was estimated using Truven's MarketScan claims data. The main outcome of the models was cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). We interpreted outcomes based on a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. A panel of European LeukemiaNet experts oversaw the study's conduct. Both strategies met the threshold. Imatinib-first ($277 401, 3.87 QALYs) offered patients a 0.10 decrement in QALYs at a savings of $88 343 over five years to payers compared with physician's choice ($365 744, 3.97 QALYs). The imatinib-first incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was approximately $883 730/QALY. The results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. When imatinib loses patent protection and its price declines, its use will be the cost-effective initial treatment strategy for CML-CP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Targeted Therapies Compared to Dacarbazine for Treatment of BRAFV600E Metastatic Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Shih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Two BRAFV600E targeted therapies, dabrafenib and vemurafenib, have received US approval for treatment of metastatic melanoma in BRAFV600E patients, a mutation that affects ~50% of patients. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of BRAF inhibitors and traditional chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic melanoma. Methods. A Markov model was developed using a societal perspective. Transition probabilities were derived from two Phase III registration trials comparing each BRAF inhibitor against dacarbazine. Costs were obtained from literature, national databases, and Medicare fee schedules. Utilities were obtained from published literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were run to test the impact of uncertainties. Results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of dabrafenib was $149,035/QALY compared to dacarbazine. Vemurafenib was dominated by dabrafenib. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold of ≤$100,000/QALY, dacarbazine was the optimal treatment in ~85% of simulations. At a WTP threshold of ≥$150,000/QALY, dabrafenib was the optimal treatment. Conclusion. Compared with dacarbazine, dabrafenib and vemurafenib were not cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Dabrafenib is more efficient compared to vemurafenib. With few treatment options, dabrafenib is an option for qualifying patients if the overall cost of dabrafenib is reduced to $30,000–$31,000 or a WTP threshold of ≥$150,000/QALY is considered. More comparative data is needed.

  3. The cost-effectiveness, health benefits, and financial costs of new antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Wittenborn, John S; Smith, Bryce D; Liffmann, Danielle K; Ward, John W

    2015-07-15

    New hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments deliver higher cure rates with fewer contraindications, increasing demand for treatment and healthcare costs. The cost-effectiveness of new treatments is unknown. We conducted a microsimulation of guideline testing followed by alternative treatment regimens for HCV among the US population aged 20 and older to estimate cases identified, treated, sustained viral response, deaths, medical costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of different treatment options expressed as discounted lifetime costs and benefits from the healthcare perspective. Compared to treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR), and a protease inhibitor for HCV genotype (G) 1 and PR alone for G2/3, treatment with PR and Sofosbuvir (PRS) for G1/4 and treatment with Sofosbuvir and ribavirin (SR) for G2/3 increased QALYs by 555 226, reduced deaths by 80 682, and increased costs by $26.2 billion at an ICER of $47 304 per QALY gained. As compared to PRS/SR, treating with an all oral regimen of Sofosbuvir and Simeprevir (SS) for G1/4 and SR for G2/3, increased QALYs by 1 110 451 and reduced deaths by an additional 164 540 at an incremental cost of $80.1 billion and an ICER of $72 169. In sensitivity analysis, where treatment with SS effectiveness was set to the list price of Viekira Pak and then Harvoni, treatment cost $24 921 and $25 405 per QALY gained as compared to PRS/SR. New treatments are cost-effectiveness per person treated, but pent-up demand for treatment may create challenges for financing. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Incorporating social justice and stigma in cost-effectiveness analysis: drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerling, A; Dowdy, D; von Delft, A; Taylor, H; Merritt, M W

    2017-11-01

    Novel therapies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are likely to be expensive. The cost of novel drugs (e.g., bedaquiline, delamanid) may be so prohibitively high that a traditional cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) would rate regimens containing these drugs as not cost-effective. Traditional CEA may not appropriately account for considerations of social justice, and may put the most disadvantaged populations at greater risk. Using the example of novel drug regimens for MDR-TB, we propose a novel methodology, 'justice-enhanced CEA', and demonstrate how such an approach can simultaneously assess social justice impacts alongside traditional cost-effectiveness ratios. Justice-enhanced CEA, as we envision it, is performed in three steps: 1) systematic data collection about patients' lived experiences, 2) use of empirical findings to inform social justice assessments, and 3) incorporation of data-informed social justice assessments into a decision analytic framework that includes traditional CEA. These components are organized around a core framework of social justice developed by Bailey et al. to compare impacts on disadvantage not otherwise captured by CEA. Formal social justice assessments can produce three composite levels: 'expected not to worsen…', 'may worsen…', and 'expected to worsen clustering of disadvantage'. Levels of social justice impact would be assessed for each major type of outcome under each policy scenario compared. Social justice assessments are then overlaid side-by-side with cost-effectiveness assessments corresponding to each branch pathway on the decision tree. In conclusion, we present a 'justice-enhanced' framework that enables the incorporation of social justice concerns into traditional CEA for the evaluation of new regimens for MDR-TB.

  5. The Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D.; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J.; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D.; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. Methods We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. Findings In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36–4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68–2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still

  6. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Vargas-Valencia, Juan; García-García, Erika Gabriela; Munciño-Ortega, Emilio; Galindo-Suárez, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis in patients with previous unresponse to immune selective anti-inflammatory derivatives failure. a pharmacoeconomic model based on decision analysis to assess the clinical outcome after giving etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or tocilizumab to treat moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis was employed. Effectiveness of medications was assessed with improvement rates of 20 % or 70 % of the parameters established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20 and ACR 70). the model showed that etanercept had the most effective therapeutic response rate: 79.7 % for ACR 20 and 31.4 % for ACR 70, compared with the response to other treatments. Also, etanercept had the lowest cost ($149,629.10 per patient) and had the most cost-effective average ($187,740.40 for clinical success for ACR 20 and $476,525.80 for clinical success for ACR 70) than the other biologic therapies. we demonstrated that treatment with etanercept is more effective and less expensive compared to the other drugs, thus making it more efficient therapeutic option both in terms of means and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention was projected to be cost saving in the main simulation and 100% of probabilistic simulation results. Treating all hypertension for primary and secondary prevention would prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6 to 1.0 million and was borderline cost-effective incremental to treating only cardiovascular disease and stage two patients (2015 Int$13,000 per QALY gained [95% uncertainty interval, Int$10,000 to Int$18,000]. Of all one-way sensitivity analyses, assuming adherence to taking medications as low as 25%, high Shanghai drug costs, or low medication efficacy led to the most unfavorable results (treating all hypertension, about Int$47,000, Int$37,000, and Int$27,000 per QALY were gained, respectively. The strengths of this study were the use of a recent Chinese national health survey, vital statistics, health care costs, and cohort study outcomes data as model inputs and reliance on clinical-trial-based estimates of coronary heart disease and stroke risk reduction due to antihypertensive medication treatment. The limitations of the study were the use of several sources of data, limited clinical trial evidence for medication effectiveness and harms in the youngest and oldest age groups, lack of information about geographic and ethnic subgroups, lack of specific information about indirect costs borne by patients, and uncertainty about the future epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in China.Expanded hypertension treatment has the potential to prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually and be borderline cost-effective in China, provided low-cost essential antihypertensive medicines programs can be implemented.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of an 18-week exercise programme for patients with breast and colon cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: the randomised PACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Anne M; Bosch, Marcel J C; Velthuis, Miranda J; van der Wall, Elsken; Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Los, Maartje; Erdkamp, Frans; Bloemendal, Haiko J; de Roos, Marnix A J; Verhaar, Marlies; Ten Bokkel Huinink, Daan; Peeters, Petra H M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-03-06

    Meta-analyses show that exercise interventions during cancer treatment reduce cancer-related fatigue. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. Here we aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of the 18-week physical activity during cancer treatment (PACT) intervention for patients with breast and colon cancer. The PACT trial showed beneficial effects for fatigue and physical fitness. Cost-effectiveness analyses with a 9-month time horizon (18 weeks of intervention and 18 weeks of follow-up) within the randomised controlled multicentre PACT study. Outpatient clinics of 7 hospitals in the Netherlands (1 academic and 6 general hospitals) PARTICIPANTS: 204 patients with breast cancer and 33 with colon cancer undergoing adjuvant treatment including chemotherapy. Supervised 1-hour aerobic and resistance exercise (twice per week for 18 weeks) or usual care. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. For colon cancer, the cost-effectiveness analysis showed beneficial effects of the exercise intervention with incremental costs savings of €4321 and QALY improvements of 0.03. 100% of bootstrap simulations indicated that the intervention is dominant (ie, cheaper and more effective). For breast cancer, the results did not indicate that the exercise intervention was cost-effective. Incremental costs were €2912, and the incremental effect was 0.01 QALY. At a Dutch threshold value of €20 000 per QALY, the probability that the intervention is cost-effective was 2%. Our results suggest that the 18-week exercise programme was cost-effective for colon cancer, but not for breast cancer. ISRCTN43801571. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzinger, Georg; Playford, E Geoffrey; Graham, Christopher N; Knox, Hediyyih N; Weinstein, David; Kantecki, Michal; Schlamm, Haran; Charbonneau, Claudie

    2015-10-26

    Candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (C/IC) in the intensive care unit are challenging conditions that are associated with high rates of mortality. New guidelines from the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases strongly recommend echinocandins for the first-line treatment of C/IC. Here, a cost-effectiveness model was developed from the United Kingdom perspective to examine the costs and outcomes of antifungal treatment for C/IC based on the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines. Costs and treatment outcomes with the echinocandin anidulafungin were compared with those for caspofungin, micafungin and fluconazole. The model included non-neutropenic patients aged ≥16 years with confirmed C/IC who were receiving intravenous first-line treatment. Patients were categorised as either a clinical success or failure (patients with persistent/breakthrough infection); successfully treated patients switched to oral therapy, while patients categorised as clinical failures switched to a different antifungal class. Other inputs were all-cause mortality at 6 weeks, costs of treatment-related adverse events and other medical resource utilisation costs. Resource use was derived from the published literature and from discussion with clinical experts. Drug-acquisition/administration costs were taken from standard United Kingdom costing sources. The model indicated that first-line anidulafungin could be considered cost-effective versus fluconazole (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio £813 per life-year gained) for the treatment of C/IC. Anidulafungin was cost-saving versus caspofungin and micafungin due to lower total costs and a higher rate of survival combined with a higher probability of clinical success. European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines recommend echinocandins for the first-line treatment of C/IC; our model indicated that anidulafungin marries clinical

  11. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John

    2014-01-01

    therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage. METHODS: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised...... epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits......, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under scenarios of existing and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses assessed the extension of eligibility to include individuals with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μ...

  12. Screening for gastric cancer and surveillance of premalignant lesions: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Miguel; Carvalho, Rita; Cadime, Ana Teresa; Rocha Gonçalves, Francisco; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2013-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies are highly dependent on the models, settings, and variables used and should be based on systematic reviews. We systematically reviewed cost-effectiveness studies that address screening for gastric cancer and/or surveillance of precancerous conditions and lesions. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies was performed by conducting a sensitive search in seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL Plus), independently evaluated by two investigators. Articles were evaluated for type of study, perspective, model, intervention, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, clinical or cost variables, and quality, according to published guidelines. From 2395 abstracts, 23 articles were included: 19 concerning population screening and 4 on following up premalignant lesions. Studies on Helicobacter pylori screening concluded that serology was cost-effective, depending on cancer incidence and endoscopy cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 6264-25,881), and eradication after endoscopic resection was also cost-effective (dominant) based on one study. Studies on imaging screening concluded that endoscopy was more cost-effective than no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 3376-26,836). Articles on follow-up of premalignant lesions reported conflicting results (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 1868-72,519 for intestinal metaplasia; 18,600-39,800 for dysplasia). Quality assessment revealed a unanimous lack of a detailed systematic review and fulfillment of a median number of 23 items (20-26) of 35 possible ones. The available evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori serology or endoscopic population screening is cost-effective, while endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions presents conflicting results. Better implementation of published guidelines and accomplishment of systematic detailed reviews are needed

  13. The cost-effectiveness analysis of JinQi Jiangtang tablets for the treatment on prediabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Liping; Shang, Hongcai; Ren, Ming; Wang, Yue; Huo, Da; Lei, Xiang; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Jingbo

    2015-11-03

    At present, diabetes is a chronic disease of great cost and heavy burdens. The International Diabetes Federation has repeatedly warned that by 2025, the global number of diabetics would rise to 333 million from 194 million in 2003. Although the occurrence of diabetes in developing countries is lower, China has a large population, so that the number of cases is increased. At the same time, more people have prediabetes, a growing health concern where a large percentage of the patients develop full type 2 diabetes. In addition, the patients of diabetes easily incur complications such as blindness, kidney failure, and cardiovascular diseases that can seriously affect the patients' quality of life and cause great economic burdens to family and society. Therefore, effective interventions for prediabetes are needed to prevent or delay the occurrence and development of diabetes. A randomized controlled trial that was assessed with pharmacoeconomic methods was undertaken in this study. The study term was 24 months (12 months for the intervention and 12 months for follow up). Four hundred participants, recruited from four cities in China: Beijing, Tianjin, Xian, and Naning, were randomized to the treatment group (JQJT tablets) and the control group (placebo). Participants included in this study had been diagnosed with prediabetes according to the criteria for western medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The end-point effectiveness indexes included the incidence of diabetes and the reversion rate. The drug costs and lifestyle intervention costs were included in the total costs. The study used the cost-effectiveness analysis to discuss the economic advantage of the JQJT tablets. The outcomes of the study contained 2 sections,namely clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness analysis outcomes. The clinical outcomes: the treatment group and control group had no significant statistical difference P> 0.05) on the baseline of situation; Jinqi Jiangtang tablet effectively

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of an Intensive Treatment Protocol for Severe Dyslexia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Goettsch, Wim G.; Ekkebus, Michel; Gerretsen, Patty; Stolk, Elly A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of interventions for dyslexia have focused entirely on outcomes related to literacy. In this study, we considered a broader picture assessing improved quality of life compared with costs. A model served as a tool to compare costs and effects of treatment according to a new protocol and care as usual. Quality of life was measured and valued…

  15. An Optimal Cost Effectiveness Study on Zimbabwe Cholera Seasonal Data from 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Tridip; Mukhopadhyay, Soumalya; Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008–09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008–09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008–09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number () in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects cholera cases and cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008–09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province. PMID:24312540

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Option B+ for HIV prevention and treatment of mothers and children in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasawe, Olufunke; Avila, Carlos; Shaffer, Nathan; Schouten, Erik; Chimbwandira, Frank; Hoos, David; Nakakeeto, Olive; De Lay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Malawi is implementing a pragmatic and innovative approach for the management of all HIV-infected pregnant women, termed Option B+, which consists of providing life-long antiretroviral treatment, regardless of their CD4 count or clinical stage. Our objective was to determine if Option B+ represents a cost-effective option. A decision model simulates the disease progression of a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy, and estimates the number of paediatric infections averted and maternal life years gained over a ten-year time horizon. We assess the cost-effectiveness from the Ministry of Health perspective while taking into account the practical realities of implementing ART services in Malawi. If implemented as recommended by the World Health Organization, options A, B and B+ are equivalent in preventing new infant infections, yielding cost effectiveness ratios between US$ 37 and US$ 69 per disability adjusted life year averted in children. However, when the three options are compared to the current practice, the provision of antiretroviral therapy to all mothers (Option B+) not only prevents infant infections, but also improves the ten-year survival in mothers more than four-fold. This translates into saving more than 250,000 maternal life years, as compared to mothers receiving only Option A or B, with savings of 153,000 and 172,000 life years respectively. Option B+ also yields favourable incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICER) of US$ 455 per life year gained over the current practice. In Malawi, Option B+ represents a favorable policy option from a cost-effectiveness perspective to prevent future infant infections, save mothers' lives and reduce orphanhood. Although Option B+ would require more financial resources initially, it would save societal resources in the long-term and represents a strategic option to simplify and integrate HIV services into maternal, newborn and child

  17. Modified natural cycle versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF : a cost-effectiveness evaluation of three simulated treatment scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Tonch, Nino; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Hoek, Annemieke; Land, Jolande A.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Can modified natural cycle IVF or ICSI (MNC) be a cost-effective alternative for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF or ICSI (COH)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The comparison of simulated scenarios indicates that a strategy of three to six cycles of MNC with minimized medication is a

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rifaximin-α administration for the reduction of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy in recurrence compared with standard treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Ben Hariz, Soumaia; Tsakeu, Elyonore; Benamouzig, Robert; Launois, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs most often in a context of acute or chronic liver disease. Despite the seriousness of the pathology, only a few treatments have been developed for improving its management. Rifaximin-α is the first treatment that has been clinically developed for overt HE (OHE) episodes. Recent results of clinical studies demonstrated its significant improvement in the health-related quality of life. The objective of the current study was to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of rifaximin-α used in combination with lactulose compared with lactulose monotherapy in cirrhotic patients, who have experienced at least two prior OHE events. A Markov model was used to estimate rifaximin-α cost-effectiveness, evaluating it from the perspective of all contributors as recommended by French health technology assessment guidelines. Costs were based on current French treatment practices. The transition between health states was based on the reanalysis of the rifaximin-α pivotal clinical trials RFHE3001 and RFHE3002. The main outcome of the model was cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). The results indicate that rifaximin-α is a cost-effective treatment option with an incremental cost per QALY gained of €19,187 and €18,517 over two different time horizons (2 and 5 years). The robustness of the model was studied using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. For the societal willingness to pay threshold of €27,000 per QALY gained, rifaximin-α in combination with lactulose is a cost-effective and affordable treatment for patients who have experienced at least two prior overt HE episodes.

  19. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  20. The cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilla, Evanthia; McCrone, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in schizophrenia. Long-acting medication has potential advantages over daily medication in improving compliance and thus reducing hospitalization and relapse rates. The high acquisition and administration costs of such formulations raise the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluation. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotic medication and critically appraise the strength of evidence reported in the studies from a methodological viewpoint. Relevant studies were identified by searching five electronic databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Technology Assessment database (HTA). Search terms included, but were not limited to, 'long-acting injection', 'economic evaluation', 'cost-effectiveness' and 'cost-utility'. No limits were applied for publication dates and language. Full economic evaluations on long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics were eligible for inclusion. Observational studies and clinical trials were also checked for cost-effectiveness information. Conference abstracts and poster presentations on the cost effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics were excluded. Thirty-two percent of identified studies met the selection criteria. Pertinent abstracts were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevant studies underwent data extraction by one reviewer and were checked by a second, with any discrepancies being clarified during consensus meetings. Eligible studies were assessed for methodological quality using the quality checklist for economic studies recommended by the NICE guideline on interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia. After applying the selection criteria, the final sample consisted of 28 studies. The majority of studies demonstrated that risperidone long-acting injection, relative to oral or other long

  1. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Relative Treatment Effects for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models and Value-of-Information Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; Soares, Marta O; Palmer, Stephen; Ades, Anthony E; Harrison, David; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Rowan, Kathy M

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the absence of observed treatment effect modifiers, various summaries from the random effects distribution (random effects mean, predictive distribution, random effects distribution, or study-specific estimate [shrunken or independent of other studies]) can be used depending on the relationship between the setting for the decision (population characteristics, treatment definitions, and other contextual factors) and the included studies. If covariates have been measured that could potentially explain the heterogeneity, then these can be included in a meta-regression model. We describe how covariates can be included in a network meta-analysis model and how the output from such an analysis can be used in a CEA model. We outline a model selection procedure to help choose between competing models and stress the importance of clinical input. We illustrate the approach with a health technology assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin for the management of adult patients with severe sepsis in an intensive care setting, which exemplifies how risk of bias information can be incorporated into CEA models. We show that the results of the CEA and value-of-information analyses are sensitive to the model and highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses when conducting CEA in the presence of heterogeneity. The methods presented extend naturally to heterogeneity in other model inputs, such as baseline risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation Modalities: A Case Study of Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three…

  3. Liraglutide Versus Lixisenatide: Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mezquita-Raya, Pedro; Ram?rez de Arellano, Antonio; Kragh, Nana; Vega-Hernandez, Gabriela; P?hlmann, Johannes; Valentine, William J.; Hunt, Barnaby

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are used successfully in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes as they are associated with low hypoglycemia rates, weight loss and improved glycemic control. This study compared, in the Spanish setting, the cost-effectiveness of liraglutide 1.8?mg versus lixisenatide 20??g, both GLP-1 receptor agonists, for patients with type 2 diabetes who had not achieved glycemic control targets on metformin monotherapy. Methods The IM...

  4. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir El Alaoui

    Full Text Available A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT.Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013-2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9 before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB, cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention.Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment, treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130 per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134 in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 < 5 during both 2013 and 2014 and an additional 35% and 33% had achieved partial remission in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At follow-up, 42% were in full remission after treatment during

  5. The cost-effectiveness of TheraBite® as treatment for acute myogenic temporomandibular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres Diddens, A.; Kraaijenga, S.; Coupe, V.; Hilgers, F.; van der Molen, L.; Smeele, L.; Retèl, V.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a very common and costly pain problem concerning the temporomandibular joint. A previous study has shown that for the treatment of acute myogenic TMD, TheraBite® (TB) offers a faster and greater effect than usual care consisting of physical therapy

  6. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alaoui, Samir; Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC) method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT). Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013-2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB), cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention. Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment), treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130) per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134) in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 cost-effectiveness plane at both post-treatment and at follow-up, indicating that the ICBT treatment was less costly and equally effective after staff reallocation. Treating patients to the target

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors compared to metformin+sulfonylureas for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Christina S; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) typically use several drug treatments during their lifetime. There is a debate about the best second-line therapy after metformin monotherapy failure due to the increasing number of available antidiabetic drugs and the lack of comparative clinical trials of secondary treatment regimens. While prior research compared the cost-effectiveness of two alternative drugs, the literature assessing T2D treatment pathways is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) compared to sulfonylureas (SU) as second-line therapy in combination with metformin in patients with T2D. A Markov model was developed with four health states, 1 year cycle, and a 25-year time horizon. Clinical and cost data were collected from previous studies and other readily available secondary data sources. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated from the US third party payer perspective. Both, costs and outcomes, were discounted at a 3% annual discount rate. One way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of uncertainty on the base-case results. The discounted incremental cost of metformin+DPP-4i compared to metformin+SU was $11,849 and the incremental life-years gained were 0.61, resulting in an ICER of $19,420 per life-year gained for patients in the metformin+DPP-4i treatment pathway. The ICER estimated in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis was $19,980 per life-year gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results of the study were not sensitive to changes in the parameters used in base-case. The metformin+DPP-4i treatment pathway was cost-effective compared to metformin+SU as a long-term second-line therapy in the treatment of T2D from the US health care payer perspective. Study findings have the potential to provide clinicians and third party payers valuable evidence for the prescription and utilization of cost-effective

  8. Cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J V; Trueman, David; Hancock, Elizabeth; Cowie, Martin R; Briggs, Andrew; Taylor, Matthew; Mumby-Croft, Juliet; Woodcock, Fionn; Lacey, Michael; Haroun, Rola; Deschaseaux, Celine

    2018-06-01

    Chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) represents a major public health issue and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan (formerly LCZ696) compared with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) (enalapril) in the treatment of HF-REF from the perspective of healthcare providers in the UK, Denmark and Colombia. A cost-utility analysis was performed based on data from a multinational, Phase III randomised controlled trial. A decision-analytic model was developed based on a series of regression models, which extrapolated health-related quality of life, hospitalisation rates and survival over a lifetime horizon. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In the UK, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for sacubitril/valsartan (using cardiovascular mortality) was £17 100 (€20 400) versus enalapril. In Denmark, the ICER for sacubitril/valsartan was Kr 174 000 (€22 600). In Colombia, the ICER was COP$39.5 million (€11 200) per QALY gained. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that results were most sensitive to the extrapolation of mortality, duration of treatment effect and time horizon, but were robust to other structural changes, with most scenarios associated with ICERs below the willingness-to-pay threshold for all three country settings. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested the probability that sacubitril/valsartan was cost-effective at conventional willingness-to-pay thresholds was 68%-94% in the UK, 84% in Denmark and 95% in Colombia. Our analysis suggests that, in all three countries, sacubitril/valsartan is likely to be cost-effective compared with an ACEI (the current standard of care) in patients with HF-REF. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection.We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period.In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass praziquantel administration should be prioritized

  10. Costs and cost effectiveness of different strategies for chlamydia screening and partner notification: an economic and mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy; Adams, Elisabeth; Grant, Arabella; Macleod, John; Bell, Gill; Clarke, Jan; Horner, Paddy

    2011-01-04

    To compare the cost, cost effectiveness, and sex equity of different intervention strategies within the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme. To develop a tool for calculating cost effectiveness of chlamydia control programmes at a local, national, or international level. An economic and mathematical modelling study with cost effectiveness analysis. Costs were restricted to those of screening and partner notification from the perspective of the NHS and excluded patient costs, the costs of reinfection, and costs of complications arising from initial infection. England. Population Individuals eligible for the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. Cost effectiveness of National Chlamydia Screening Programme in 2008-9 (as cost per individual tested, cost per positive diagnosis, total cost of screening, number screened, number infected, sex ratio of those tested and treated). Comparison of baseline programme with two different interventions-(i) increased coverage of primary screening in men and (ii) increased efficacy of partner notification. In 2008-9 screening was estimated to cost about £46.3m in total and £506 per infection treated. Provision for partner notification within the screening programme cost between £9 and £27 per index case, excluding treatment and testing. The model results suggest that increasing male screening coverage from 8% (baseline value) to 24% (to match female coverage) would cost an extra £22.9m and increase the cost per infection treated to £528. In contrast, increasing partner notification efficacy from 0.4 (baseline value) to 0.8 partners per index case would cost an extra £3.3m and would reduce the cost per infection diagnosed to £449. Increasing screening coverage to 24% in men would cost over six times as much as increasing partner notification to 0.8 but only treat twice as many additional infections. In the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme increasing the effectiveness of partner notification is likely

  11. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of environmental projects: Case studies in aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunk, James F.

    1995-01-01

    Using the replacement technology of high pressure waterjet decoating systems as an example, a simple methodology is presented for developing a cost effectiveness model. The model uses a four-step process to formulate an economic justification designed for presentation to decision makers as an assessment of the value of the replacement technology over conventional methods. Three case studies from major U.S. and international airlines are used to illustrate the methodology and resulting model. Tax and depreciation impacts are also presented as potential additions to the model.

  12. A microbial fuel cell–membrane bioreactor integrated system for cost-effective wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J.; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An MFC–MBR integrated system for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. ► Stable electricity generation during 1000-h continuous operation. ► Low-cost electrode, separator and filter materials were adopted. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are both promising technologies for wastewater treatment, but both with limitations. In this study, a novel MFC–MBR integrated system, which combines the advantages of the individual systems, was proposed for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The system favored a better utilization of the oxygen in the aeration tank of MBR by the MFC biocathode, and enabled a high effluent quality. Continuous and stable electricity generation, with the average current of 1.9 ± 0.4 mA, was achieved over a long period of about 40 days. The maximum power density reached 6.0 W m −3 . Moreover, low-cost materials were used for the reactor construction. This integrated system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  13. Depth treatment of coal-chemical engineering wastewater by a cost-effective sequential heterogeneous Fenton and biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yili; Yin, Weizhao; Jiang, Yanbin; Ge, Hengjun; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a sequential Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction and biological process was employed as a low-cost depth treatment method to remove recalcitrant compounds from coal-chemical engineering wastewater after regular biological treatment. First of all, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency of 66 and 63% was achieved at initial pH of 6.8, 25 mmol L -1 of H 2 O 2 , and 2 g L -1 of Fe 0 in the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis, the recalcitrant compounds were effectively decomposed into short-chain organic acids such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Although these acids were resistant to the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction, they were effectively eliminated in the sequential air lift reactor (ALR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h, resulting in a further decrease of COD and color from 120 to 51 mg L -1 and from 70 to 38 times, respectively. A low operational cost of 0.35 $ m -3 was achieved because pH adjustment and iron-containing sludge disposal could be avoided since a total COD and color removal efficiency of 85 and 79% could be achieved at an original pH of 6.8 by the above sequential process with a ferric ion concentration below 0.8 mg L -1 after the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction. It indicated that the above sequential process is a promising and cost-effective method for the depth treatment of coal-chemical engineering wastewaters to satisfy discharge requirements.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Comparing Alginate Silver Dressing with Silver Zinc Sulfadiazine Cream in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirag Chuangsuwanich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe treatment of pressure ulcers is complicated, given the various wound dressing products available. The cost of different treatments varies and the cost-effectiveness of each product has not been thoroughly evaluated. We compare two wound dressing protocols-alginate silver dressing (AlSD and silver zinc sulfadiazine cream (AgZnSD with regard to wound healing and cost-effectiveness.MethodsPatients with grade III or IV sacral or trochanteric pressure ulcers were eligible for this prospective, randomized controlled trial. The patients were randomized to receive one of the two dressings for an eight-week period. The criteria of efficacy were based on the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH scoring tool. The cost of treatment was also assessed.ResultsTwenty patients (12 women and 8 men were randomly assigned to receive either AlSD (n=10 or AgZnSD cream (n=10. The demographic data and wound characteristics were comparable in the two groups. The two groups showed no significant difference in the reduction of PUSH score, wound size, or volume of exudate. The tissue type score was significantly lower in the AlSD group (3.15±0.68-1.85±0.68 vs. 2.73±0.79-2.2±0.41; P=0.015. The cost of treatment was significantly lower in the AlSD group (377.17 vs. 467.74 USD, respectively; P<0.0001.ConclusionsAlginate silver dressing could be effectively used in the treatment of grade III and IV pressure ulcers. It can improve wound tissue characteristics and is cost-effective.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Comparing Alginate Silver Dressing with Silver Zinc Sulfadiazine Cream in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirag Chuangsuwanich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The treatment of pressure ulcers is complicated, given the various wound dressingproducts available. The cost of different treatments varies and the cost-effectiveness of eachproduct has not been thoroughly evaluated. We compare two wound dressing protocolsalginatesilver dressing (AlSD and silver zinc sulfadiazine cream (AgZnSD with regard towound healing and cost-effectivenessMethods Patients with grade III or IV sacral or trochanteric pressure ulcers were eligible forthis prospective, randomized controlled trial. The patients were randomized to receive oneof the two dressings for an eight-week period. The criteria of efficacy were based on thePressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH scoring tool. The cost of treatment was also assessed.Results Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men were randomly assigned to receive eitherAlSD (n=10 or AgZnSD cream (n=10. The demographic data and wound characteristics werecomparable in the two groups. The two groups showed no significant difference in the reductionof PUSH score, wound size, or volume of exudate. The tissue type score was significantlylower in the AlSD group (3.15±0.68-1.85±0.68 vs. 2.73±0.79-2.2±0.41; P=0.015. The costof treatment was significantly lower in the AlSD group (377.17 vs. 467.74 USD, respectively;P<0.0001.Conclusions Alginate silver dressing could be effectively used in the treatment of grade IIIand IV pressure ulcers. It can improve wound tissue characteristics and is cost-effective.

  16. The Probabilistic Efficiency Frontier: A Framework for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Germany Put into Practice for Hepatitis C Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Sadler, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen) adapted the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to conform to statutory provisions on cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies. EF serves as a framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and indirectly for pricing and reimbursement decisions. To calculate an EF on the basis of single multidimensional benefit by taking patient preferences and uncertainty into account; to evaluate whether EF is useful to inform decision makers about cost-effectiveness of new therapies; and to find whether a treatment is efficient at given prices demonstrated through a case study on chronic hepatitis C. A single multidimensional benefit was calculated by linear additive aggregation of multiple patient-relevant end points. End points were identified and weighted by patients in a previous discrete-choice experiment (DCE). Aggregation of overall benefit was ascertained using preferences and clinical data. Monte-Carlo simulation was applied. Uncertainty was addressed by price acceptability curve (PAC) and net monetary benefit (NMB). The case study illustrates that progress in benefit and efficiency of hepatitis C virus treatments could be depicted very well with the EF. On the basis of cost, effect, and preference data, the latest generations of interferon-free treatments are shown to yield a positive NMB and be efficient at current prices. EF was implemented taking uncertainty into account. For the first time, a DCE was used with the EF. The study shows how DCEs in combination with EF, PAC, and NMB can contribute important information in the course of reimbursement and pricing decisions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of screening for hereditary hemochromatosis in Germany: a remodeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Wolf H

    2009-01-01

    Genetic tests for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) are currently included in the German ambulatory care reimbursement scheme but only for symptomatic individuals and the offspring of HH patients. This study synthesizes the most current evidence to examine whether screening in the broader population is cost-effective and to identify the best choice of initial and follow-up screening tests. A probabilistic decision-analytic model was constructed to calculate cost per life year gained (LYG) for HH screening among male Caucasians aged 30. Three strategies were considered in both the general population and male offspring of HH patients: phenotypic (transferrin saturation, TS), genotypic (C282Y mutation), and sequential (genotype if TS is elevated) screening. The incremental cost-effectiveness of sequential screening among male offspring, sequential population-wide screening, and genotypic screening is 41000, 124000, and 161000 Eero/LYG, respectively. All other strategies were subject to simple or extended dominance. The results are subject to high uncertainty. The most influential parameters in the deterministic one-way sensitivity analysis are discounting of life years gained and the adherence of patients to preventive phlebotomy. The current German policy of only screening at-risk individuals is consistent with health economic decision making based on typically accepted thresholds. However, conducting the DNA test after the first elevated TS result is more cost-effective than waiting for a second TS result as recommended by the German guidelines. Further empirical work regarding adherence to long-term prevention recommendations and explicit and well-justified guidance for the choice of discount rates in German economic evaluation are needed.

  18. Is adjunctive pharmacotherapy in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder cost-effective in Canada: a cost-effectiveness assessment of guanfacine extended-release as an adjunctive therapy to a long-acting stimulant for the treatment of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaine, Jean; Sikirica, Vanja; Mathurin, Karine

    2016-01-16

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children, with worldwide prevalence of ADHD varying from 5.9 to 7.1 %, depending on the reporter. In case of inadequate response to stimulants, combination therapy of stimulants and an adjunctive medication may improve the control of ADHD symptoms, reduce the dose-limiting adverse events, and help control comorbidities. To date, the only medication to be used for adjunctive therapy to psychostimulants is guanfacine extended release (GXR). The aim of this study was to assess the economic impact of GXR as an adjunct therapy with long-acting stimulants (GXR + stimulant) compared to long-acting stimulant monotherapy (stimulant alone) in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD in Canada. A Markov model was developed using health states defined based on the clinician-reported Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score (normal, mild, moderate, severe). Transition probabilities were calculated based on patient-level data from a published study. Long-acting stimulants available in Canada were considered in the base-case model: amphetamine mixed salts, methylphenidate HCl formulations, and lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Analyses were conducted from a Canadian Ministry of Health (MoH; Ontario) and a societal perspective over a 1-year time horizon with weekly cycles. Over a 1-year time horizon, GXR + stimulant was associated with 0.655 quality-adjusted life year (QALY), compared to 0.627 QALY with stimulant alone, for a gain of 0.028 QALY. From a MoH perspective, GXR+ stimulant and stimulant alone were associated with total costs of $CA1,617 and $CA949, respectively (difference of $CA668), which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $CA23,720/QALY. From a societal perspective, GXR + stimulant and stimulant alone were associated with total costs of $CA3,915 and $CA3,582, respectively (difference of $CA334), which resulted in an ICER of $CA11

  19. Improving Decision Making In Cancer Treatment With A Mix Of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis And Ethical Perspective: Usa Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the world, healthcare costs have been on the rise and getting larger share in the economic pie. Since we have limited resources, allocation of resources becomes more of an issue. Cancer is one of most leading causes of death in the world and each year, money spent on cancer treatment goes up. However, today new cancer drugs and treatment only provide narrow benefit with very high costs. Therefore, only limited number of people enjoys getting the treatment and fewer treatment or drugs are reimbursed. In addition, many countries do not have a standard to decide whether a cancer drug or a treatment will be covered. Considering both economic efficiency (cost-effectiveness analysis and ethical issues together during the decision process is of great importance so as to distribute health resources fairly and maximize health benefits.

  20. A cost-effectiveness study of ICT training among the visually impaired in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patty, Nathalie J S; Koopmanschap, Marc; Holtzer-Goor, Kim

    2018-04-17

    of ICT training). Our study suggests that ICT training among the visually impaired is cost-effective when the effects of ICT training on well-being persist for several years. However, further research involving a larger sample and incorporating long-term effects should be conducted.

  1. The cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador, Central America: A report from the Childhood Cancer 2030 Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alabi, Soad; Bhakta, Nickhill; Vasquez, Roberto Franklin; Gupta, Sumit; Horton, Susan E

    2018-01-15

    Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness. Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit. Similar cost and volume data were obtained for shared medical services provided centrally (eg, blood bank). Costs of central nonmedical support services (eg, utilities) were obtained from hospital data and attributed by inpatient share. Administrative data also were used for sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness was estimated based on the number of new patients diagnosed annually and survival rates. The pediatric cancer unit cost $5.2 million to operate in 2016 (treating 90 outpatients per day and experiencing 1385 inpatient stays per year). Approximately three-quarters of the cost (74.7%) was attributed to 4 items: personnel (21.6%), pathological diagnosis (11.5%), pharmacy (chemotherapy, supportive care medications, and nutrition; 31.8%), and blood products (9.8%). Funding sources included government (52.5%), charitable foundations (44.2%), and a social security contribution scheme (3.4%). Based on 181 new patients per year and a 5-year survival rate of 48.5%, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted was $1624, which is under the threshold considered to be very cost effective. Treating childhood cancer in a specialized unit in low-income and middle-income countries can be done cost-effectively. Strong support from charitable foundations aids with affordability. Cancer 2018;124:391-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment Strategies Affected by the Explosive Cost of Flucytosine in the United States: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Matthew; Boulware, David R

    2016-06-15

    In the United States, cryptococcal meningitis causes approximately 3400 hospitalizations and approximately 330 deaths annually. The US guidelines recommend treatment with amphotericin B plus flucytosine for at least 2 weeks, followed by fluconazole for a minimum of 8 weeks. Due to generic drug manufacturer monopolization, flucytosine currently costs approximately $2000 per day in the United States, with a 2-week flucytosine treatment course costing approximately $28 000. The daily flucytosine treatment cost in the United Kingdom is approximately $22. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to determine the value of flucytosine relative to alternative regimens. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 3 cryptococcal induction regimens: (1) amphotericin B deoxycholate for 4 weeks; (2) amphotericin and flucytosine (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks; and (3) amphotericin and fluconazole (800 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Costs of care were calculated using 2015 US prices and the medication costs. Survival estimates were derived from a randomized trial and scaled relative to published US survival data. Cost estimates were $83 227 for amphotericin monotherapy, $75 121 for amphotericin plus flucytosine, and $44 605 for amphotericin plus fluconazole. The ICER of amphotericin plus flucytosine was $23 842 per quality-adjusted life-year. Flucytosine is currently cost-effective in the United States despite a dramatic increase in price in recent years. Combination therapy with amphotericin and flucytosine is the most attractive treatment strategy for cryptococcal meningitis, though the rising price may be creating access issues that will exacerbate if the trend of profiteering continues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of fluticasone propionate administered via metered-dose inhaler plus babyhaler spacer in the treatment of asthma in preschool-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Price, M J; Maden, Christian Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    a metered-dose inhaler and a Babyhaler (Glaxo Wellcome; Middlesex, UK) spacer device. MEASUREMENTS: Effectiveness in terms of asthma exacerbations, control of cough and wheeze symptoms, symptom-free days, overall direct costs of asthma management in Danish kroner at 1999 prices, and mean and incremental......STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) in children aged 12 to 47 months with asthma symptoms. DESIGN: A retrospective economic analysis conducted from the perspective of the Danish health-care system, based on clinical data from a 12-week study...... cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: FP, 200 microg/d, was significantly more effective than placebo treatment in terms of the proportion of exacerbation-free patients (73.7% vs 59.8%; p = 0.025) and patients experiencing a > or = 25% improvement in cough symptoms (57.9% vs 39.0%; p = 0.018). The costs...

  4. [Comparative Cost Effectiveness of Clostridium Histolyticum Collagenase (Xiapex®) and Partial Fasciectomy for the Treatment of Dupuytren's Contracture in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, M; Binter, A; Pipam, W; Rab, M

    2016-08-01

    Since Dupuytren's contracture is a common disorder, the costs for its surgical treatment impose a considerable burden on the healthcare system. For the first time in the German-speaking area, this study aimed to provide a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis for partial fasciectomy vs. treatment with Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CCH). A retrospective monocentric study of the period from 2012 to 2014 comprised 40 patients with previously untreated Dupuytren's contracture of one finger. 20 outpatients received one CCH treatment (Group 1), while 20 inpatients underwent partial fasciectomy (Group 2). The direct pre-interventional treatment and post-interventional costs were compared. The direct post-interventional and postoperative results were comparable. Group 1 (CCH) showed a mean reduction in contracture of 96.4%; in Group 2 (partial fasciectomy), this was 97.7%. There were fewer complications in Group 1 than in Group 2. Mean treatment costs in Group 1 were € 1 458.60 and in Group 2, € 5 315.20. Treatment with CCH is more cost effective than with partial fasciectomy. This is due to greater costs for personnel, time and surgical material, as well as the treatment of the more frequent complications in Group 2. Despite the limited comparability, our findings are consistent with the present international literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A randomised trial of the effect and cost-effectiveness of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with screen-detected type 2 diabetes: the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION-Europe) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Lauritzen, Torsten; Rutten, Guy Ehm; Sandbæk, Annelli; van den Donk, Maureen; Black, James A; Tao, Libo; Wilson, Edward Cf; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Intensive treatment (IT) of cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes but the effects of treatment earlier in the disease trajectory are uncertain. To quantify the cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment of screen-detected diabetes. Pragmatic, multicentre, cluster-randomised, parallel-group trial. Three hundred and forty-three general practices in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Cambridge and Leicester, UK. Individuals aged 40-69 years with screen-detected diabetes. Screening plus routine care (RC) according to national guidelines or IT comprising screening and promotion of target-driven intensive management (medication and promotion of healthy lifestyles) of hyperglycaemia, blood pressure and cholesterol. The primary end point was a composite of first cardiovascular event (cardiovascular mortality/morbidity, revascularisation and non-traumatic amputation) during a mean [standard deviation (SD)] follow-up of 5.3 (1.6) years. Secondary end points were (1) all-cause mortality; (2) microvascular outcomes (kidney function, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy); and (3) patient-reported outcomes (health status, well-being, quality of life, treatment satisfaction). Economic analyses estimated mean costs (UK 2009/10 prices) and quality-adjusted life-years from an NHS perspective. We extrapolated data to 30 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study outcomes model [version 1.3; (©) Isis Innovation Ltd 2010; see www.dtu.ox.ac.uk/outcomesmodel (accessed 27 January 2016)]. We included 3055 (RC, n = 1377; IT, n = 1678) of the 3057 recruited patients [mean (SD) age 60.3 (6.9) years] in intention-to-treat analyses. Prescription of glucose-lowering, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication increased in both groups, more so in the IT group than in the RC group. There were clinically important improvements in cardiovascular risk factors in both study groups. Modest but statistically significant

  6. The effect of PD-L1 testing on the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the second-line treatment of NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P N; Perry, L A; Penny-Dimri, J; Babiker, H; Tadokoro, H; de Mello, R A; Lopes, G L

    2017-09-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors improve outcomes compared with chemotherapy in lung cancer. Tumor PD-L1 receptor expression is being studied as a predictive biomarker. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of second-line treatment with nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab with and without the use of PD-L1 testing for patient selection. We developed a decision-analytic model to determine the cost-effectiveness of PD-L1 assessment and second-line immunotherapy versus docetaxel. The model used outcomes data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and drug acquisition costs from the United States. Thereafter, we used epidemiologic data to estimate the economic impact of the treatment. We included four RCTs (2 with nivolumab, 1 with pembrolizumab, and 1 with atezolizumab). The incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for nivolumab was 0.417 among squamous tumors and 0.287 among non-squamous tumors and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were $155 605 and $187 685, respectively. The QALY gain in the base case for atezolizumab was 0.354 and the ICER was $215 802. Compared with treating all patients, the selection of patients by PD-L1 expression improved incremental QALY by up to 183% and decreased the ICER by up to 65%. Pembrolizumab was studied only in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1. The QALY gain was 0.346 and the ICER was $98 421. Patient selection also reduced the budget impact of immunotherapy. The use of PD-L1 expression as a biomarker increases cost-effectiveness of immunotherapy but also diminishes the number of potential life-years saved. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic tests for appropriate treatment of malaria at the community level in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian S; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) performed by CHWs in two areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. CHWs were trained to perform mRDTs and treat children with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT......) in the intervention arm while CHWs offered treatment based on presumptive diagnosis in the control arm. Data on the proportion of children with fever 'appropriately treated for malaria with ACT' were captured from a randomised trial. Health sector costs included: training of CHWs, community sensitisation, supervision...

  8. Internet-delivered psychological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of their efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip K Arnberg

    Full Text Available Greater access to evidence-based psychological treatments is needed. This review aimed to evaluate whether internet-delivered psychological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders are efficacious, noninferior to established treatments, safe, and cost-effective for children, adolescents and adults.We searched the literature for studies published until March 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were considered for the assessment of short-term efficacy and safety and were pooled in meta-analyses. Other designs were also considered for long-term effect and cost-effectiveness. Comparisons against established treatments were evaluated for noninferiority. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevant studies for risk of bias. The quality of the evidence was graded using an international grading system.A total of 52 relevant RCTs were identified whereof 12 were excluded due to high risk of bias. Five cost-effectiveness studies were identified and three were excluded due to high risk of bias. The included trials mainly evaluated internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (I-CBT against a waiting list in adult volunteers and 88% were conducted in Sweden or Australia. One trial involved children. For adults, the quality of evidence was graded as moderate for the short-term efficacy of I-CBT vs. waiting list for mild/moderate depression (d = 0.83; 95% CI 0.59, 1.07 and social phobia (d = 0.85; 95% CI 0.66, 1.05, and moderate for no efficacy of internet-delivered attention bias modification vs. sham treatment for social phobia (d =  -0.04; 95% CI -0.24, 0.35. The quality of evidence was graded as low/very low for other disorders, interventions, children/adolescents, noninferiority, adverse events, and cost-effectiveness.I-CBT is a viable treatment option for adults with depression and some anxiety disorders who request this treatment modality. Important questions remain before broad implementation can be supported. Future research would

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir+ritonavir regimens in the CASTLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kit N; Rajagopalan, Rukmini; Dietz, Birgitta

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis and budget impact analysis comparing lopinavir with ritonavir (LPV/r) and atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV+RTV) for antiretroviral-naïve patients with a baseline CD4+ T-cell distribution and total cholesterol (TC) profile as reported in the CASTLE study. This decision analysis study used a previously published Markov model of HIV disease, incorporating coronary heart disease (CHD) events to compare the short- and long-term budget impacts and CHD consequences expected for the two regimens. Patients were assumed to have a baseline CHD risk of 4.6% (based on demographic data) and it was also assumed that 50% of the population in the CASTLE study were smokers. The CHD risk differences (based on percent of patients with TC >240 mg/dL) in favor of ATV+RTV resulted in an average improvement in life expectancy of 0.031 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (11 days), and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,409,734/QALY. Use of the LPV/r regimen saved $24,518 and $36,651 at 5 and 10 years, respectively, with lifetime cost savings estimated at $38,490. A sensitivity analysis using a cohort of all smokers on antihypertensive medication estimated an average improvement in life expectancy of 31 quality-adjusted days in favor of ATV+RTV, and a cost-effectiveness ratio of $520,861/QALY: a ratio that is still above the acceptable limit within the US. The use of an LPV/r-based regimen in antiretroviral-naïve patients with a baseline CHD risk similar to patients in the CASTLE study appears to be a more cost-effective use of resources compared with an ATV+RTV-based regimen. The very small added CHD risk predicted by LPV/r treatment is more than offset by the substantial short- and long-term cost savings expected with the use of LPV/r in antiretroviral-naïve individuals with average to moderately elevated CHD risk.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of female human papillomavirus vaccination in 179 countries: a PRIME modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc; Portnoy, Allison; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in settings with the highest burden of HPV is not universal, partly because of the absence of quantitative estimates of country-specific effects on health and economic costs. We aimed to develop and validate a simple generic model of such effects that could be used and understood in a range of settings with little external support. We developed the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to assess cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccination of girls against HPV before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical cancer and mortality. PRIME models incidence according to proposed vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18, vaccine coverage, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and HPV type distribution. It assumes lifelong vaccine protection and no changes to other screening programmes or vaccine uptake. We validated PRIME against existing reports of HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness, projected outcomes for 179 countries (assuming full vaccination of 12-year-old girls), and outcomes for 71 phase 2 GAVI-eligible countries (using vaccine uptake data from the GAVI Alliance). We assessed differences between countries in terms of cost-effectiveness and health effects. In validation, PRIME reproduced cost-effectiveness conclusions for 24 of 26 countries from 17 published studies, and for all 72 countries in a published study of GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccination of a cohort of 58 million 12-year-old girls in 179 countries prevented 690,000 cases of cervical cancer and 420,000 deaths during their lifetime (mostly in low-income or middle-income countries), at a net cost of US$4 billion. HPV vaccination was very cost effective (with every disability-adjusted life-year averted costing less than the gross domestic product per head) in 156 (87%) of 179 countries. Introduction of the vaccine in countries without national HPV vaccination at present would prevent substantially more cases

  11. Outcome impact and cost-effectiveness of quality assurance for radiotherapy planned for the EORTC 22071-24071 prospective study for head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Damien C.; Hurkmans, Coen W.; Melidis, Christos; Budach, Wilfried; Langendijk, Johannes H.; Peters, Lester J.; Gregoire, Vincent; Maingon, Philippe; Combescure, Christophe

    Introduction: One of the goals of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy (QART) is to reduce the variability and uncertainties related to treatment planning and beam delivery. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome impact and cost-effectiveness (CE) of various QART levels for a head and neck

  12. Cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training intervention for children with cancer: Results from the quality of life in motion study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, K.I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, EM; van Dongen, J.M.; van Litsenburg, R.R.L.; Takken, T.; Huisman, J.; Merks, J.H.; Bosmans, J.E.; Hakkenbrak, NA; Bierings, M.B.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, MM; Veening, M.A.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention for children with cancer compared with usual care. Sixty-eight children, aged 8-18 years old, during or within the first year post-cancer treatment were randomised to the

  13. Cost effectiveness of drug eluting coronary artery stenting in a UK setting: cost-utility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A; Grayson, A D; Palmer, N D; Perry, R A; Walley, T

    2006-01-01

    To assess the cost effectiveness of drug eluting stents (DES) compared with conventional stents for treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease in the UK. Cost-utility analysis of audit based patient subgroups by means of a simple economic model. Tertiary care. 12 month audit data for 2884 patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting at the Cardiothoracic Centre Liverpool between January 2000 and December 2002. Risk of repeat revascularisation within 12 months of index procedure and reduction in risk from use of DES. Economic modelling was used to estimate the cost-utility ratio and threshold price premium. Four factors were identified for patients undergoing elective surgery (n = 1951) and two for non-elective surgery (n = 933) to predict risk of repeat revascularisation within 12 months. Most patients fell within the subgroup with lowest risk (57% of the elective surgery group with 5.6% risk and 91% of the non-elective surgery group with 9.9% risk). Modelled cost-utility ratios were acceptable for only one group of high risk patients undergoing non-elective surgery (only one patient in audit data). Restricting the number of DES for each patient improved results marginally: 4% of stents could then be drug eluting on economic grounds. The threshold price premium justifying 90% substitution of conventional stents was estimated to be 112 pound sterling (212 USD, 162 pound sterling) (sirolimus stents) or 89 pound sterling (167 USD, 130 pound sterling) (paclitaxel stents). At current UK prices, DES are not cost effective compared with conventional stents except for a small minority of patients. Although the technology is clearly effective, general substitution is not justified unless the price premium falls substantially.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of lanreotide Autogel in treatment algorithms of acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermasz, Nienke R.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of effective pharmacological treatments has changed the management of acromegaly. However, chronic, life-long treatment with somatostatin analogues and/or growth hormone receptor antagonists is very expensive. We estimated the costs of treatment algorithms to control acromegaly from

  15. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels; Le Lay, Agathe; Hemels, Michiel E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path decision analytic model with a 6-month horizon was used. All patients started at the primary care path and were referred to outpatient or inpatient secondary care in the case of insufficient response to treatment. Model inputs included drug-specific probabilities derived from systematic literature review, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Nivolumab-Ipilimumab Combination Therapy Compared with Monotherapy for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Anna; Tran, Dang M; McDowell, Leann C; Keyvani, Dor; Barcelon, Jay Andrew; Merino, Oscar; Wilson, Leslie

    2017-06-01

    The approval of new immunotherapies has dramatically changed the treatment landscape of metastatic melanoma. These survival gains come with trade-offs in side effects and costs, as well as important considerations for third-party payer systems, physicians, and patients. To develop a Markov model to determine the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab, ipilimumab, and nivolumab-ipilimumab combination as firstline therapy in metastatic melanoma, while accounting for differential effectiveness in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive and negative patients. A 3-state Markov model (PD-L1 positive stable disease, PD-L1 negative stable disease, and progression and/or death) was developed using a U.S. societal perspective with a lifetime time horizon of 14.5 years. Transition probabilities were calculated from progression-free (PF) survival data reported in the CheckMate-067 trial. Costs were expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars and were determined using national sources. Adverse event (AE) management was determined using immune-related AE (irAE) data from CheckMate-067, irAE management guides for nivolumab and ipilimumab, and treatment guidelines. Utilities were obtained from published literature, using melanoma-specific studies when available, and were weighted based on incidence and duration of irAEs. Base case, one-way sensitivity, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Nivolumab-ipilimumab combination therapy was not the cost-effective choice ($454,092 per PF quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) compared with nivolumab monotherapy in a base case analysis at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per PFQALY. Combination therapy and nivolumab monotherapy were cost-effective choices compared with ipilimumab monotherapy. PD-L1 positive status, utility of nivolumab and combination therapy, and medication costs contributed the most uncertainty to the model. In a population of 100% PD-L1 negative patients, nivolumab was still the optimal treatment, but combination

  17. Psychological Treatment of Depression in People Aged 65 Years and Over: A Systematic Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jonsson

    Full Text Available Depression in elderly people is a major public health concern. As response to antidepressants is often unsatisfactory in this age group, there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological treatment options. Our objectives were twofold: firstly, to synthesize published trials evaluating efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment of depression in the elderly and secondly, to assess the quality of evidence.The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched up to 23 May 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of psychological treatment for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms in people aged 65 years and over. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence was graded according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.Twenty-two relevant RCTs were identified, eight of which were excluded from the synthesis due to a high risk of bias. Of the remaining trials, six evaluated problem-solving therapy (PST, five evaluated other forms of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, and three evaluated life review/reminiscence therapy. In frail elderly with depressive symptoms, the evidence supported the efficacy of PST, with large but heterogeneous effect sizes compared with treatment as usual. The results for life-review/reminiscence therapy and CBT were also promising, but because of the limited number of trials the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Safety data were not reported in any included trial. The only identified cost-effectiveness study estimated an incremental cost per additional point reduction in Beck Depression Inventory II score for CBT compared with talking control and treatment as usual.Psychological treatment is a feasible option for frail elderly with depressive symptoms. However, important questions

  18. Cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector using cost and efficiency data developed as part of the regulatory process of the U.S. Department of Energy's Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. These data are presented as a case study in the development of an ‘efficiency technology database’ which can be expanded and published as a resource to other researchers and policy makers seeking scenarios that optimize efficiency policies and forecast their likely impacts on energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The use of this data to evaluate cost-effectiveness according to a variety of metrics is demonstrated using the example of one refrigerator–freezer product class. Cost-effectiveness is then evaluated in terms of cost of conserved energy for refrigerators, room air conditioners, water heaters, cooking equipment, central air conditioners and gas furnaces. The resulting potential of cost-effective improvement ranges from 1% to 53% of energy savings, with a typical potential of 15–20%. - Highlights: ► We determined the potential for cost-effective efficiency for residential appliances. ► We cover 6 appliance groups using cost of conserved energy as a metric for cost-effectiveness. ► Data are source from the DOE's Appliance and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. ► Between 15% and 20% additional cost-effective efficiency improvement is possible.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery: Increasing the Economic Viability of the Most Effective Treatment for Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeremy A; Ewing, Joseph A; Hale, Allyson L; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Bour, Eric S; Scott, John D

    2015-08-01

    There has been considerable debate on the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery within larger population groups. Despite the recognition that morbid obesity and its comorbidities are best treated surgically, insurance coverage is not universally available. One of the more costly comorbidities of obesity is Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We propose a model that demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of increasing the number of bariatric surgical operations performed on patients with T2DM in the United States. We applied published population cost estimates (2012) for medical care of T2DM to a retrospective cohort of morbidly obese patients in South Carolina. We compared differences in 10-year medical costs between those having bariatric surgery and controls. Resolution of T2DM in the bariatric cohort was assumed to be 40 per cent. Considering only the direct medical costs of T2DM, the 10-year aggregate cost savings compared with a control group is $2.7 million/1000 patients; the total (direct and indirect) cost savings is $5.4 million/1000 patients. When considering resolution of T2DM alone, increasing the number of bariatric operations for a given population leads to a substantial cost savings over a 10-year period. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery is a cost-effective means of caring for the obese patient.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ribeiro Bahia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH under Brazilian public health system perspective (Unified Health System - "Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS". MATERIAL AND METHODS: A revision of the literature of the medical treatment of BPH using alpha-blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and combinations was carried out. A panel of specialists defined the use of public health resources during episodes of acute urinary retention (AUR, the treatment and the evolution of these patients in public hospitals. A model of economic analysis(Markov predicted the number of episodes of AUR and surgeries (open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate related to BPH according to stages of evolution of the disease. Brazilian currency was converted to American dollars according to the theory of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP 2010: US$ 1 = R$ 1.70. RESULTS: The use of finasteride reduced 59.6% of AUR episodes and 57.9% the need of surgery compared to placebo, in a period of six years and taking into account a treatment discontinuity rate of 34%. The mean cost of treatment was R$ 764.11 (US$449.78 and R$ 579.57 (US$ 340.92 per patient in the finasteride and placebo groups, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs was R$ 4.130 (US$ 2.429 per episode of AUR avoided and R$ 2.735 (US$ 1.609 per episode of surgery avoided. The comparison of finasteride + doxazosine to placebo showed a reduction of 75.7% of AUR episodes and 66.8% of surgeries in a 4 year time horizon, with a ICERs of R$ 21.191 (US$ 12.918 per AUR episodes avoided and R$ 11.980 (US$ 7.047 per surgery avoided. In the sensitivity analysis the adhesion rate to treatment and the cost of finasteride were the main variables that influenced the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the treatment of BPH with finasteride is cost-effective compared to placebo in the Brazilian public health system

  1. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of linezolid to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a healthcare system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dach, E; Morel, C M; Murthy, A; Pagani, L; Macedo-Vinas, M; Olearo, F; Harbarth, S

    2017-09-01

    Few industry-independent studies have been conducted to compare the relative costs and benefits of drugs to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis comparing two treatment strategies-linezolid versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin-for the treatment of MRSA infection. We used cost and effectiveness data from a previously conducted clinical trial, complementing with other data from published literature, to compare the two regimens from a healthcare system perspective. Effectiveness was expressed in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Several sensitivity analyses were performed using Monte Carlo simulation, to measure the effect of potential parameter changes on the base-case model results, including potential differences related to type of infection and drug toxicity. Treatment of MRSA infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin and linezolid were found to cost on average €146 and €2536, and lead to a gain of 0.916 and 0.881 QALYs, respectively. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin was found to be more cost-effective than linezolid in the base case and remained dominant over linezolid in most alternative scenarios, including different types of MRSA infection and potential disadvantages in terms of toxicity. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of €0, €50 000 and €200 000 per QALY gained, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin was dominant in 100%, 96% and 85% of model iterations. A 95% discount on the current purchasing price of linezolid would be needed when it goes off-patent for it to represent better value for money compared with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin. Combined treatment of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin is more cost-effective than linezolid in the treatment of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies for the cost effective treatment of Oak Ridge legacy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-03-01

    Research and development treatment strategies for treatment or elimination of several Oak Ridge plant liquid, solid, and legacy wastes are detailed in this report. Treatment strategies for volumetrically contaminated nickel; enriched uranium-contaminated alkali metal fluorides; uranium-contaminated aluminum compressor blades; large, mercury-contaminated lithium isotope separations equipment; lithium process chlorine gas streams; high-concentration aluminum nitrate wastes, and high-volume, low-level nitrate wastes are discussed. Research needed to support engineering development of treatment processes is detailed

  3. Acid rain abatement in Belgium: lessons in cost-effectiveness studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, C.; Proost, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness analysis is presented for combating emissions of acid precursors. The focus of concern is to reach the environmental quality goal at least cost. Two cost-effective approaches are elaborated. Firstly, the maximum allowable emission of each acid precursor seperately is allocated in a cost-effective way across the economic sectors. Secondly, the maximum allowable emissions of acid precursors are allocated in a cost-effective way across the three considered acid precursors as well as across the economic sectors. It is argued that not only the energy consumption but also the agricultural sector could play an important role in a cost-effective strategy by curtailing its ammonia emissions. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. The cost-effectiveness of an outpatient anesthesia consultation clinic before surgery: a matched Hong Kong cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outpatient anesthesia clinics are well established in North America, Europe and Australia, but few economic evaluations have been published. The Perioperative Systems in Hong Kong are best described as a hybrid model of the new and old systems of surgical care. In this matched cohort study, we compared the costs and effects of an outpatient anesthesia clinic (OPAC with the conventional system of admitting patients to the ward a day before surgery for their pre-anesthesia consultation. A second objective of the study was to determine the patient’s median Willingness To Pay (WTP value for an OPAC. Methods A total of 352 patients were matched (1:1 on their elective surgical procedure to either the clinic group or to the conventional group. The primary outcome was quality of recovery score and overall perioperative treatment cost (US$. To detect a difference in the joint cost-effect relationship between groups, a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC was drawn. A modified Poisson regression model was used to examine the factors associated with patients willing to pay more than the median WTP value for an OPAC. Results The quality of recovery scores on the first day after surgery between the clinic and conventional groups were similar (mean difference, -0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI, -0.6 to 0.3; P = 0.57. Although the preoperative costs were less in the clinic group (mean difference, -$463, 95% CI, -$648 to -$278 per patient; P P = 0.51. The CEAC showed that we could not be 95% confident that the clinic was cost-effective. Compared to the conventional group, clinic patients were three times more likely to prefer OPAC care (relative risk (RR 2.75, 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.55; P P Conclusions There is uncertainty about the cost-effectiveness of an OPAC in the Hong Kong setting. Most clinic patients were willing to pay a small amount for an anesthesia clinic consultation.

  5. Community-based rehabilitation offers cost-effective epilepsy treatment in rural Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diessen, Eric; van der Maas, Frank; Cabral, Vladimir; Otte, Willem M

    Treatment of epilepsy in low-income countries is a challenge considering the lack of resources, availability of antiepileptic drugs, and cultural beliefs. We used a community-based rehabilitation (CBR) service for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of epilepsy. A local network of trained

  6. Treatment of Advanced or Recurrent Cervical Cancer with Cisplatin or Cisplatin Containing Regimens: A Cost Effective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Geisler, Jayanth Swathirajan, Katherine L. Wood, Kelly J. Manahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival with adding paclitaxel (P or topotecan (T to cisplatin (C for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of these regimens.Methods: A decision model was developed based on Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG protocols 169 and 179. Arm 1 is 6 cycles of cisplatin. Arm 2 is 6 cycles of CP while arm 3 is 6 cycles of CT. Parameters include overall survival (OS, cost and complications. Sensitivity analyses were performed.Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for C versus CP is $13,654/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained. For CT compared to C, the ICER is $152,327/QALY. When compared simultaneously, CT is dominated. At a willingness to pay (WTP threshold of $50,000/QALY, C is the preferred option but CP is acceptable. Sensitivity analyses suggest that CT would become the preferred option if it was to improve OS to 24 months (compared to 9.4 months.Conclusions: In this model, CP is an acceptable alternative to cisplatin for the treatment of these patients with an increase in cost of only $13,654/QALY. The addition of topotecan did not increase survival enough to justify the increased cost.

  7. Functional outcome and cost-effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal F W; Essers, Brigitte A B; Schots, Judith P M; Dullaert, Koen; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2015-04-11

    Physical forces have been widely used to stimulate bone growth in fracture repair. Addition of bone growth stimulation to the conservative treatment regime is more costly than standard health care. However, it might lead to cost-savings due to a reduction of the total amount of working days lost. This economic evaluation was performed to assess the cost-effectiveness of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) compared to standard health care in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures. An economic evaluation was carried out from a societal perspective, alongside a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving five centres in The Netherlands. One hundred and two patients with a clinically and radiographically proven fracture of the scaphoid were included in the study and randomly allocated to either active bone growth stimulation or standard health care, using a placebo. All costs (medical costs and costs due to productivity loss) were measured during one year follow up. Functional outcome and general health related quality of life were assessed by the EuroQol-5D and PRWHE (patient rated wrist and hand evaluation) questionnaires. Utility scores were derived from the EuroQol-5D. The average total number of working days lost was lower in the active PEMF group (9.82 days) compared to the placebo group (12.91 days) (p = 0.651). Total medical costs of the intervention group (€1594) were significantly higher compared to the standard health care (€875). The total amount of mean QALY's (quality-adjusted life year) for the active PEMF group was 0.84 and 0.85 for the control group. The cost-effectiveness plane shows that the majority of all cost-effectiveness ratios fall into the quadrant where PEMF is not only less effective in terms of QALY's but also more costly. This study demonstrates that the desired effects in terms of cost-effectiveness are not met. When comparing the effects of PEMF to standard health care in terms of QALY's, PEMF

  8. Is implementation of the 2013 Australian treatment guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder cost-effective compared to current practice? A cost-utility analysis using QALYs and DALYs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Magnus, Anne; Lal, Anita; Dell, Lisa; Forbes, David; Phelps, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To assess, from a health sector perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness of three treatment recommendations in the most recent Australian Clinical Practice Guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The interventions assessed are trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for the treatment of PTSD in adults and TF-CBT in children, compared to current practice in Australia. Economic modelling, using existing databases and published information, was used to assess cost-effectiveness. A cost-utility framework using both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted was used. Costs were tracked for the duration of the respective interventions and applied to the estimated 12 months prevalent cases of PTSD in the Australian population of 2012. Simulation modelling was used to provide 95% uncertainty around the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Consideration was also given to factors not considered in the quantitative analysis but could determine the likely uptake of the proposed intervention guidelines. TF-CBT is highly cost-effective compared to current practice at $19,000/QALY, $16,000/DALY in adults and $8900/QALY, $8000/DALY in children. In adults, 100% of uncertainty iterations fell beneath the $50,000/QALY or DALY value-for-money threshold. Using SSRIs in people already on medications is cost-effective at $200/QALY, but has considerable uncertainty around the costs and benefits. While there is a 13% chance of health loss there is a 27% chance of the intervention dominating current practice by both saving dollars and improving health in adults. The three Guideline recommended interventions evaluated in this study are likely to have a positive impact on the economic efficiency of the treatment of PTSD if adopted in full. While there are gaps in the evidence base, policy-makers can have considerable confidence that the recommendations

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Access Expansion to Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattay, Thilo; Dumont, Ian P; Heinzow, Hauke S; Hutton, David W

    2017-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major burden on individuals and health care systems. The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO) enables primary care providers to deliver best-practice care for complex conditions to underserved populations. The US Congress passed the ECHO Act in late 2016, requiring the Department of Health and Human Services to investigate the model. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection in a primary care patient panel with and without the implementation of Project ECHO. We used Markov models to simulate disease progression, quality of life, and life expectancy among individuals with HCV infection and for the general population. Data from the University of New Mexico's ECHO operation for HCV show an increase in treatment rates. Corresponding increases in survival, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, and resulting budget impact between ECHO and non-ECHO patients with HCV were then compared. Project ECHO increased costs and QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ECHO was $10,351 per QALY compared with the status quo; >99.9% of iterations fell below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. We were unable to confirm whether the increase in rates of treatment associated with Project ECHO were due to increased or more targeted screening, higher adherence, or access to treatment. Our sensitivity analyses show that the results are largely independent of the cause. Budget impact analysis shows payers would have to invest an additional $339.54 million over a 5-year period to increase treatment by 4446 patients, per 1 million covered lives. Using a simulated primary care patient panel, we showed that Project ECHO is a cost-effective way to find and treat patients with HCV infection at scale using existing primary care providers. This approach could substantially reduce the burden of chronic HCV infection in the United States, but high

  10. The Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Scaling up Screening and Treatment of Syphilis in Pregnancy: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James G.; Jiwani, Aliya; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Hawkes, Sarah J.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Broutet, Nathalie; Kamb, Mary L.; Newman, Lori M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Syphilis in pregnancy imposes a significant global health and economic burden. More than half of cases result in serious adverse events, including infant mortality and infection. The annual global burden from mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and $309 million in medical costs. Syphilis screening and treatment is simple, effective, and affordable, yet, worldwide, most pregnant women do not receive these services. We assessed cost-effectiveness of scaling-up syphilis screening and treatment in existing antenatal care (ANC) programs in various programmatic, epidemiologic, and economic contexts. Methods and Findings We modeled the cost, health impact, and cost-effectiveness of expanded syphilis screening and treatment in ANC, compared to current services, for 1,000,000 pregnancies per year over four years. We defined eight generic country scenarios by systematically varying three factors: current maternal syphilis testing and treatment coverage, syphilis prevalence in pregnant women, and the cost of healthcare. We calculated program and net costs, DALYs averted, and net costs per DALY averted over four years in each scenario. Program costs are estimated at $4,142,287 – $8,235,796 per million pregnant women (2010 USD). Net costs, adjusted for averted medical care and current services, range from net savings of $12,261,250 to net costs of $1,736,807. The program averts an estimated 5,754 – 93,484 DALYs, yielding net savings in four scenarios, and a cost per DALY averted of $24 – $111 in the four scenarios with net costs. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Eliminating MTCT of syphilis through expanded screening and treatment in ANC is likely to be highly cost-effective by WHO-defined thresholds in a wide range of settings. Countries with high prevalence, low current service coverage, and high healthcare cost would benefit most. Future analyses can be

  11. Cost-effectiveness of RAS screening before monoclonal antibodies therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer based on FIRE3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Tang, Ruilei; Chen, Hongdou; Zheng, Hanrui; Fu, Ping; Li, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The surprising results published by FIRE-3 revealed that the overall survival (OS) of RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with Cetuximab(Cmab) and FOLFIRI combination was prolonged to 33.1 months. The substantial increase in testing and treatment costs, however, impose a considerable health burden on patients and society. Hence the study was aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of RAS screening before monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy based on FIRE-3 study. Four groups were analyzed: group 1, patients with KRAS testing treated with Cmab and FOLFIRI; group 2, patients with RAS testing treated with Cmab and FOLFIRI; group 3, patients with KRAS testing treated with bevacizumab(Bmab) and FOLFIRI; group 4, patients with RAS testing treated with Bmab and FOLFIRI. A Markov model comprising 3 health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease and death) was built. The costs were calculated from a Chinese payer perspective, and survival was reported in quality-adjusted life-months (QALMs). Average total lifetime costs ranged from $104,682.44 (RAS-Bmab) to $136,867.44 (RAS-Cmab), while the survival gained varied from 16.88 QALMs in RAS-Bmab to 21.85 QALMs in RAS-Cmab. The cost per QALM was $6,263.86 for RAS-Cmab, $6,145.84 for KRAS-Bmab, $6,201.57 for RAS-Bmab and $6,960.70 for KRAS-Cmab respectively. The KRAS-Cmab strategy was dominated by the other 3 groups. The first-treatment cost of RAS-Cmab was the most influential one to the model. In all, the RAS screening prior to Cmab treatment in mCRC seems to be a cost-effective strategy in the time of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy with the most gained QALMs. PMID:26418570

  12. Screening and Treatment for Subclinical Hypertensive Heart Disease in Emergency Department Patients With Uncontrolled Blood Pressure: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiner, Michael J; Marinica, Alexander L; Kuper, Kenneth; Goodman, Allen; Mahn, James J; Burla, Michael J; Brody, Aaron M; Carroll, Justin A; Josiah Willock, Robina; Flack, John M; Nasser, Samar A; Levy, Phillip D

    2017-02-01

    Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) is extremely prevalent and, if left unchecked, subclinical hypertensive heart disease (SHHD) may ensue leading to conditions such as heart failure. To address this, we designed a multidisciplinary program to detect and treat SHHD in a high-risk, predominantly African American community. The primary objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of our program. Study costs associated with identifying and treating patients with SHHD were calculated and a sensitivity analysis was performed comparing the effect of four parameters on cost estimates. These included prevalence of disease, effectiveness of treatment (regression of SHHD, reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH], or blood pressure [BP] control as separate measures), echocardiogram costs, and participant time/travel costs. The parent study for this analysis was a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing cardiac effects of standard and intense (<120/80 mm Hg) BP goals at 1 year in patients with uncontrolled HTN and SHHD. A total of 149 patients (94% African American) were enrolled, 133 (89%) had SHHD, 123 (93%) of whom were randomized, with 88 (72%) completing the study. Patients were clinically evaluated and medically managed over the course of 1 year with repeated echocardiograms. Costs of these interventions were analyzed and, following standard practices, a cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) less than $50,000 was defined as cost-effective. Total costs estimates for the program ranged from $117,044 to $119,319. Cost per QALY was dependent on SHHD prevalence and the measure of effectiveness but not input costs. Cost-effectiveness (cost per QALY less than $50,000) was achieved when SHHD prevalence exceeded 11.1% for regression of SHHD, 4.7% for reversal of LVH, and 2.9% for achievement of BP control. In this cohort of predominantly African American patients with uncontrolled HTN, SHHD prevalence was high and screening with

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-fluorouracil 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% in the treatment of actinic keratosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Diana; Puig-Peiró, Ruth; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Plazas, Maria Josep; Brosa, Max

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-fluorouracil 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% (5-FU/SA) in the treatment of isolated hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis lesions in Spain. An analytical decision-making model was constructed to compare whether 5-FU/SA was a cost-effective option compared with cryotherapy from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System with a time horizon of 6 months. Costs were expressed in 2014 euros. The cost of patients with hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis treated with 5-FU/SA or cryotherapy was €266 and €285, respectively. 5-FU/SA was associated with higher rates of treatment success and, consequently, more quality-adjusted life years, than cryotherapy. Therefore, 5-FU/SA was the dominant treatment, as it was associated with a lower treatment cost and greater effectiveness than cryotherapy. Economically, 5-FU/SA was a dominant option compared with cryotherapy in the treatment of isolated hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis lesions in Spain.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Early Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 by Stage of Liver Fibrosis in a US Treatment-Naive Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder S.; Marseille, Elliot A.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Pearson, Steve D.; Ollendorf, Daniel A.; Fox, Rena K.; Kahn, James G.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Novel treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are highly efficacious but costly. Thus, many insurers cover therapy only in advanced fibrosis stages. The added health benefits and costs of early treatment are unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of (1) treating all patients with HCV vs only those with advanced fibrosis and (2) treating each stage of fibrosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study used a decision-analytic model for the treatment of HCV genotype 1. The model used a lifetime horizon and societal perspective and was representative of all US patients with HCV genotype 1 who had not received previous treatment. Comparisons in the model included antiviral treatment of all fibrosis stages (METAVIR [Meta-analysis of Histological Data in Virial Hepatitis] stages F0 [no fibrosis] to F4 [cirrhosis]) vs treatment of stages F3 (numerous septa without cirrhosis) and F4 only and by specific fibrosis stage. Data were collected from March 1 to September 1, 2014, and analyzed from September 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. INTERVENTIONS Six HCV therapy options (particularly combined sofosbuvir and ledipasvir therapy) or no treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cost and health outcomes were measured using total medical costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), calculated as the difference in costs between strategies divided by the difference in QALYs. RESULTS We simulated 1000 individuals, but present the results normalized to a single HCV-infected person. In the base-case analysis, among patients receiving 8 or 12 weeks of sofosbuvir-ledipasvir treatment, treating all fibrosis stages compared with treating stages F3 and F4 adds 0.73 QALYs and $28 899, for an ICER of $39 475 per QALY gained. Treating at stage F2 (portal fibrosis with rare septa) costs $19 833 per QALY gained vs waiting until stage F3; treating at stage F1 (portal fibrosis without septa), $81 165 per QALY gained

  15. A methodological framework for assessing agreement between cost-effectiveness outcomes estimated using alternative sources of data on treatment costs and effects for trial-based economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achana, Felix; Petrou, Stavros; Khan, Kamran; Gaye, Amadou; Modi, Neena

    2018-01-01

    A new methodological framework for assessing agreement between cost-effectiveness endpoints generated using alternative sources of data on treatment costs and effects for trial-based economic evaluations is proposed. The framework can be used to validate cost-effectiveness endpoints generated from routine data sources when comparable data is available directly from trial case report forms or from another source. We illustrate application of the framework using data from a recent trial-based economic evaluation of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain BBG administered to babies less than 31 weeks of gestation. Cost-effectiveness endpoints are compared using two sources of information; trial case report forms and data extracted from the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD), a clinical database created through collaborative efforts of UK neonatal services. Focusing on mean incremental net benefits at £30,000 per episode of sepsis averted, the study revealed no evidence of discrepancy between the data sources (two-sided p values >0.4), low probability estimates of miscoverage (ranging from 0.039 to 0.060) and concordance correlation coefficients greater than 0.86. We conclude that the NNRD could potentially serve as a reliable source of data for future trial-based economic evaluations of neonatal interventions. We also discuss the potential implications of increasing opportunity to utilize routinely available data for the conduct of trial-based economic evaluations.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of Donepezil in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A UK Evaluation Using Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Getsios; Steve Blume; K. Jack. Ishak; Grant D.H. Maclaine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recommendations in the UK suggest restricting treatment of Alzheimer's disease with cholinesterase inhibitors, on cost-effectiveness grounds, to patients with moderate cognitive decline. As the economic analyses that informed these recommendations have been the subject of debate, we sought to address the potential limitations of existing models and produce estimates of donepezil treatment cost effectiveness in the UK using the most recent available data and simulation techniques. ...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to drug regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J Wolfson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in the United Kingdom (UK.A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR versus BR alone (BR in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Data were sourced from a phase II, placebo-controlled trial, NHS reference costs, and the literature; the US list price of bedaquiline was used and converted to pounds (£18,800. Costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted.The total discounted cost per patient (pp on BBR was £106,487, compared with £117,922 for BR. The total discounted QALYs pp were 5.16 for BBR and 4.01 for BR. The addition of bedaquiline to a BR resulted in a cost-saving of £11,434 and an additional 1.14 QALYs pp over a 10-year period, and is therefore considered to be the dominant (less costly and more effective strategy over BR. BBR remained dominant in the majority of sensitivity analyses, with a 81% probability of being dominant versus BR in the probabilistic analysis.In the UK, bedaquiline is likely to be cost-effective and cost-saving, compared with the current MDR-TB standard of care under a range of scenarios. Cost-savings over a 10-year period were realized from reductions in length of hospitalization, which offset the bedaquiline drug costs. The cost-benefit conclusions held after several sensitivity analyses, thus validating assumptions made, and suggesting that the results would hold even if the actual price of bedaquiline in the UK were higher than in the US.

  18. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaranayake Lilani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPP could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP and public-private non-government (PNP. Cost and effectiveness data were collected at six sites providing directly observed treatment (DOT. Effectiveness for a 12-month cohort of new sputum positive patients was measured using cure and treatment success rates. Provider and patient costs were estimated, and analysed according to sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness is estimated from the perspective of the provider, patient and society in terms of the cost per TB case cured and cost per case successfully treated. Results Cost per case cured was significantly lower in PNP (US $354–446, and comparable between PWP (US $788–979 and public sites (US $700–1000. PPP models could significantly reduce costs to the patient by 64–100%. Relative to pure public sector provision and financing, expansion of PPPs could reduce government financing required per TB patient treated from $609–690 to $130–139 in PNP and $36–46 in PWP. Conclusion There is a strong economic case for expanding PPP in TB treatment and potentially for other types of health services. Where PPPs are tailored to target groups and supported by the public sector, scaling up of effective services could occur at much lower cost than solely relying on public sector models.

  19. Cost effectiveness of brace, physiotherapy, or both for treatment of tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A. A.; Korthals-de Bos, I. B. C.; van Tulder, M. W.; van Dijk, C. N.; Bouter, L. M.; Assendelft, W. J. J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of tennis elbow in the general population is high (1-3%). Tennis elbow often leads to limitation of activities of daily living and work absenteeism. Physiotherapy and braces are the most common treatments. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of the trial was that no

  20. A Treatment Program for Failure to Thrive: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniski, Walt; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of treatment of infants suffering from Failure to Thrive placed in foster medical placement homes (MPH, N=17) or admitted to hospitals (N=18) revealed that the MPH infants grew more than hospitalized infants and parents of MPH children had advantages of education and support. The MPH program cost less than 25 percent of hospital care.…

  1. Guidelines and cost effectiveness for the long-term treatment of children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra TL; Rutten-van Molken MPMH; Jager JC; Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam; CZO; iMTA

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of certain chronic diseases is growing and new treatments become available. Therefore, in the future, the resources required to care for chronically ill patients may increase. If available budgets are limited, it is important to consider the efficiency of interventions to guarantee a

  2. Cost-effectiveness landscape analysis of treatments addressing xerostomia in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasportas, Laura S.; Hosford, Andrew T.; Sodini, Maria A.; Waters, Dale J.; Zambricki, Elizabeth A.; Barral, Joëlle K.; Graves, Edward E.; Brinton, Todd J.; Yock, Paul G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Sirjani, Davud

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck (H&N) radiation therapy (RT) can induce irreversible damage to the salivary glands thereby causing long-term xerostomia or dry mouth in 68%–85% of the patients. Not only does xerostomia significantly impair patients’ quality-of-life (QOL) but it also has important medical sequelae, incurring high medical and dental costs. In this article, we review various measures to assess xerostomia and evaluate current and emerging solutions to address this condition in H&N cancer patients. These solutions typically seek to accomplish 1 of the 4 objectives: (1) to protect the salivary glands during RT, (2) to stimulate the remaining gland function, (3) to treat the symptoms of xerostomia, or (4) to regenerate the salivary glands. For each treatment, we assess its mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, clinical utilization, and cost. We conclude that intensity-modulated radiation therapy is both the most widely used prevention approach and the most cost-effective existing solution and we highlight novel and promising techniques on the cost-effectiveness landscape. PMID:23643579

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Afatinib versus Gefitinib for First-Line Treatment of Advanced EGFR-Mutated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaid, Christos; Luciani, Laura; LeLay, Katell; Do, Pascal; Bennouna, Jaafar; Perol, Maurice; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Vergnenègre, Alain; de Pouvourville, Gérard

    2017-10-01

    The irreversible ErbB family blocker afatinib and the reversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib were compared in the multicenter, international, randomized, head-to-head phase 2b LUX-Lung 7 trial for first-line treatment of advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLCs. Afatinib and gefitinib costs and patients' outcomes in France were assessed. A partitioned survival model was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of afatinib versus gefitinib for EGFR mutation-positive NSCLCs. Outcomes and safety were taken primarily from the LUX-Lung 7 trial. Resource use and utilities were derived from that trial, an expert-panel questionnaire, and published literature, limiting expenditures to direct costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated over a 10-year time horizon for the entire population, and EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutation (L858R) subgroups. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. For all EGFR mutation-positive NSCLCs, the afatinib-versus-gefitinib ICER of was €45,211 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (0.170 QALY gain for an incremental cost of €7697). ICERs for EGFR exon 19 deletion and L858R populations were €38,970 and €52,518, respectively. Afatinib had 100% probability to be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €70,000/QALY for patients with common EGFR mutations. First-line afatinib appears cost-effective compared with gefitinib for patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLCs. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of serum B-type natriuretic peptide testing and monitoring in patients with heart failure in primary and secondary care: an evidence synthesis, cohort study and cost-effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufulete, Maria; Maishman, Rachel; Dabner, Lucy; Mohiuddin, Syed; Hollingworth, William; Rogers, Chris A; Higgins, Julian; Dayer, Mark; Macleod, John; Purdy, Sarah; McDonagh, Theresa; Nightingale, Angus; Williams, Rachael; Reeves, Barnaby C

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects around 500,000 people in the UK. HF medications are frequently underprescribed and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)-guided therapy may help to optimise treatment. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of BNP-guided therapy compared with symptom-guided therapy in HF patients. Systematic review, cohort study and cost-effectiveness model. A literature review and usual care in the NHS. (a) HF patients in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of BNP-guided therapy; and (b) patients having usual care for HF in the NHS. Systematic review : BNP-guided therapy or symptom-guided therapy in primary or secondary care. Cohort study : BNP monitored (≥ 6 months' follow-up and three or more BNP tests and two or more tests per year), BNP tested (≥ 1 tests but not BNP monitored) or never tested. Cost-effectiveness model : BNP-guided therapy in specialist clinics. Mortality, hospital admission (all cause and HF related) and adverse events; and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the cost-effectiveness model. Systematic review : Individual participant or aggregate data from eligible RCTs. Cohort study : The Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hospital Episode Statistics and National Heart Failure Audit (NHFA). A systematic literature search (five databases, trial registries, grey literature and reference lists of publications) for published and unpublished RCTs. Five RCTs contributed individual participant data (IPD) and eight RCTs contributed aggregate data (1536 participants were randomised to BNP-guided therapy and 1538 participants were randomised to symptom-guided therapy). For all-cause mortality, the hazard ratio (HR) for BNP-guided therapy was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.04]. Patients who were aged Chris A Rogers' and Maria Pufulete's time contributing to the study. Syed Mohiuddin's time is supported by the NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West at University

  5. Repeat urethrotomy and dilation for the treatment of urethral stricture are neither clinically effective nor cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, T J; Castle, C; Andrich, D E; MacDonald, J T; Nicol, D L; Mundy, A R

    2004-07-01

    We developed an algorithm for the management of urethral stricture based on cost-effectiveness. United Kingdom medical and hospital costs associated with the current management of urethral stricture were calculated using private medical insurance schedules of reimbursement and clean intermittent self-catheterization supply costs. These costs were applied to 126 new patients treated endoscopically for urethral stricture in a general urological setting between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 1999. Treatment failure was defined as recurrent symptomatic stricture requiring further operative intervention following initial intervention. Mean followup available was 25 months (range 1 to 132). The costs were urethrotomy/urethral dilation 2,250.00 pounds sterling (3,375.00 dollars, ratio 1.00), simple 1-stage urethroplasty 5,015.00 pounds sterling (7,522.50 dollars, ratio 2.23), complex 1-stage urethroplasty 5,335.00 pounds sterling (8,002.50 dollars, ratio 2.37) and 2-stage urethroplasty 10,370 pounds sterling (15,555.00 dollars, ratio 4.61). Of the 126 patients assessed 60 (47.6%) required more than 1 endoscopic retreatments (mean 3.13 each), 50 performed biweekly clean intermittent self-catheterization and 7 underwent urethroplasty during followup. The total cost per patient for all 126 patients for stricture treatment during followup was 6,113 pounds sterling (9,170 dollars). This cost was calculated by multiplying procedure cost by the number of procedures performed. A strategy of urethrotomy or urethral dilation as first line treatment, followed by urethroplasty for recurrence yielded a total cost per patient of 5,866 pounds sterling (8,799 dollars). A strategy of initial urethrotomy or urethral dilation followed by urethroplasty in patients with recurrent stricture proves to be the most cost-effective strategy. This financially based strategy concurs with evidence based best practice for urethral stricture management.

  6. Assessment of global guidelines for preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a cost-effectiveness modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Lai, Ying-Si; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bendavid, Eran; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Andrews, Jason R

    2016-09-01

    WHO guidelines recommend annual treatment for schistosomiasis or soil-transmitted helminthiasis when prevalence in school-aged children is at or above a threshold of 50% and 20%, respectively. Separate treatment guidelines are used for these two helminthiases, and integrated community-wide treatment is not recommended. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of changing prevalence thresholds and treatment guidelines under an integrated delivery framework. We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulates integrated preventive chemotherapy programmes against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. We assessed a 5-year treatment programme with praziquantel (40 mg/kg per treatment) against schistosomiasis and albendazole (400 mg per treatment) against soil-transmitted helminthiasis at 75% coverage. We defined strategies as highly cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than the World Bank classification for a low-income country (gross domestic product of US$1045 per capita). We calculated the prevalence thresholds for cost-effective preventive chemotherapy of various strategies, and estimated treatment needs for sub-Saharan Africa. Annual preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis was highly cost-effective in treatment of school-aged children at a prevalence threshold of 5% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·7-5·2; current guidelines recommend treatment at 50% prevalence) and for community-wide treatment at a prevalence of 15% (7·3-18·5; current recommendation is unclear, some community treatment recommended at 50% prevalence). Annual preventive chemotherapy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis was highly cost-effective in treatment of school-aged children at a prevalence of 20% (95% UI 5·4-30·5; current guidelines recommend treatment at 20% prevalence) and the entire community at 60% (35·3-85·1; no guidelines available). When both helminthiases were co-endemic, prevalence

  7. Individualised therapy is more cost-effective than dose intensification in patients with Crohn's disease who lose response to anti-TNF treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Brynskov, Jørn; Thomsen, Ole Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the reasons for secondary loss of response to infliximab (IFX) maintenance therapy in Crohn's disease vary, dose intensification is usually recommended. This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of interventions defined by an algorithm designed to identify specific reasons...... by response rates, was similar: 58% and 53%, respectively, p=0.81; difference 5% (-19% to 28%). For per-protocol patients, treatment costs were even lower (56%) in the algorithm-treated group (€ 4062 vs € 9178, presponse rates (47% vs 53%, p=0.78; difference -5% (-33% to 22...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a prospective randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN51857546

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Ronald

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open discectomy is the standard surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with long-lasting sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. Minimally invasive approaches such as microendoscopic discectomy have gained attention in recent years. Reduced tissue trauma allows early ambulation, short hospital stay and quick resumption of daily activities. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in patients with lumbar disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18–70 years presenting with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation lasting more than 6–8 weeks are included. Patients with disc herniation larger than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, or disc herniation less than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter with concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eliglible for participation. Randomisation into microendoscopic discectomy or conventional unilateral transflaval discectomy will take place in the operating room after induction of anesthesia. The length of skin incision is equal in both groups. The primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient, measured by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica, at 8 weeks and 1 year after surgery. We will also evaluate several other outcome parameters, including perceived recovery, leg and back pain, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine kinase, quality of life, medical consumption, absenteeism and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multi-institutional trial, in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses are kept blinded of the allocated treatment during the follow-up period of 2 years. Discussion Currently, open discectomy is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Paliperidone Long-Acting Injectable Versus Other Antipsychotics for the Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druais, Sylvain; Doutriaux, Agathe; Cognet, Magali; Godet, Annabelle; Lançon, Christophe; Levy, Pierre; Samalin, Ludovic; Guillon, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    French clinical recommendations suggest prescribing long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics to patients with a maintenance treatment indication in schizophrenia. Despite this, and due to their relatively high acquisition and administration costs, LAIs are still underused in clinical practice in France, thus highlighting the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Our objective was to estimate the cost effectiveness of paliperidone LAI (or paliperidone palmitate), a once-monthly second-generation LAI antipsychotic, compared with the most common antipsychotic medications for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in France. A Markov model was developed to simulate the progression of a cohort of schizophrenic patients through four health states (stable treated, stable non-treated, relapse and death) and to consider up to three lines of treatment to account for changes in treatment management. Paliperidone LAI was compared with risperidone LAI, aripiprazole LAI, olanzapine LAI, haloperidol LAI (or haloperidol decanoate) and oral olanzapine. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and number of relapses were assessed over 5 years based on 3-month cycles with a discount rate of 4% and from a French health insurance perspective. Patients were considered to be stabilised after a schizophrenic episode and would enter the model at an initiation phase, followed by a prevention of relapse phase if successful. Data (e.g. relapse or discontinuation rates) for the initiation phase came from randomised clinical trials, whereas relapse rates in the prevention phase were derived from hospitalisation risks based on real-life French data to capture adherence effects. Safety and utility data were derived from international publications. Additionally, costs were retrieved from French health insurance databases and publications. Finally, expert opinion was used for validation purposes or in case of gaps in data. The robustness of results was assessed through deterministic and

  10. Rapid evidence review of the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment versus usual care for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kimberly; Dieperink, Eric; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Ferguson, Lauren; Helfand, Mark

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to conduct an evidence review of the effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder. We searched MEDLINE®, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO through February 2017. We used prespecified criteria to select studies, abstract data, and rate internal validity and strength of the evidence (PROSPERO number CRD42016036358). We included two randomized trials (RCT), five controlled cohort studies, and six modeling studies of mostly women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities. CNSDose (ABCB1, ABCC1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1) is the only pharmacogenomics test that significantly improved remission (one additional remitting patient in 12 weeks per three genotyped, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.5) and reduced intolerability in an RCT. ABCB1 genotyping leads to one additional remitting patient in 5 weeks per three genotyped (95% CI 3 to 20), but tolerability was not reported. In an RCT, GeneSight (CYP2D6, CYPC19, CYP1A2, SLC6A4, HTR2A) did not statistically significantly improve remission, and evidence is inconclusive about its tolerability. Evidence is generally low strength because RCTs were few and underpowered. Cost-effectiveness is unclear due to lack of directly observed cost-effectiveness outcomes. We found no studies that evaluated whether pharmacogenomics shortens time to optimal treatment, whether improvements were due to switches to genetically congruent medication, or whether effectiveness varies based on test and patient characteristics. Certain pharmacogenomics tools show promise of improving short-term remission rates in women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities. But, important evidence limitations preclude recommending their widespread use and indicate a need for further research.

  11. The cost and impact of scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness modelling studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Borquez, Annick; Case, Kelsey K.; Wheelock, Ana; Vassall, Anna; Hankins, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies inform resource allocation, strategy, and policy development. However, due to their complexity, dependence on assumptions made, and inherent uncertainty, synthesising, and generalising the results can be difficult. We assess cost-effectiveness models evaluating expected

  12. Cost-effective non-surgical treatment of chronic pressure ulcers in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Megan; Cox-Martin, Bill; Shaw, Paula; Carolan-Rees, Grace

    2014-03-01

    The Salisbury Pressure Ulcer Outreach Service successfully treats patients with chronic pressure ulcers that have not healed during routine community treatment. These patients have grade 4 pressure ulcers, involving extensive destruction, or damage to muscle and bone. A combination of scientific, seating and tissue viability expertise with a holistic approach results in non-surgical healing for 70% of patients. For those who still require surgery, outcomes are more successful with this approach, resulting in low recurrence rates. Prior to creation of the outreach service, patients were referred directly for surgical closure, resulting in high recurrence levels and long waiting lists. The authors compared costs of the Pressure Ulcer Outreach Service with the previous system of surgical closure. The model base case found that the Pressure Ulcer Outreach Service saved £8588 per patient, and that cost savings could be even greater if the outreach service was extended into preventative work.

  13. Expanding ART for Treatment and Prevention of HIV in South Africa: Estimated Cost and Cost-Effectiveness 2011-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Kahn, James G.; Bennett, Rod; Holmes, Charles B.; Garg, Navneet; Serenata, Celicia; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; De Filippo Mack, Christina; Williams, Phoebe; Jones, Louisa; Smyth, Caoimhe; Kutch, Kerry A.; Ying-Ru, Lo; Vitoria, Marco; Souteyrand, Yves; Crowley, Siobhan; Korenromp, Eline L.; Williams, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) significantly reduces HIV transmission. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of the impact of expanded ART in South Africa. Methods We model a best case scenario of 90% annual HIV testing coverage in adults 15–49 years old and four ART eligibility scenarios: CD4 count ART costs reflect South African data and international generic prices. ART reduces transmission by 92%. We conducted sensitivity analyses. Results Expanding ART to CD4 count ART and monitoring costs, all CD4 levels saves $0.6 billion versus current; other ART scenarios cost $9–194 per DALY averted. If ART reduces transmission by 99%, savings from all CD4 levels reach $17.5 billion. Sensitivity analyses suggest that poor retention and predominant acute phase transmission reduce DALYs averted by 26% and savings by 7%. Conclusion Increasing the provision of ART to ART uptake, retention, and adherence should be evaluated. PMID:22348000

  14. Cost-effectiveness of metformin plus vildagliptin compared with metformin plus sulphonylurea for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a Portuguese healthcare system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriato, Daniel; Calado, Frederico; Gruenberger, Jean-Bernard; Ong, Siew Hwa; Carvalho, Davide; Silva-Nunes, José; Johal, Sukhvinder; Viana, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vildagliptin plus metformin vs generic sulphonylurea plus metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, not controlled with metformin, from a Portuguese healthcare system perspective. A cost-effectiveness model was constructed using risk equations from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model with a 10,000-patient cohort and a lifetime horizon. The model predicted microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality in yearly cycles. Patients entered the model as metformin monotherapy failures and switched to alternative treatments (metformin plus basal-bolus insulin and subsequently metformin plus intensive insulin) when glycated hemoglobin A1c >7.5% was reached. Baseline patient characteristics and clinical variables were derived from a Portuguese epidemiological study. Cost estimates were based on direct medical costs only. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. There were fewer non-fatal diabetes-related adverse events (AEs) in patients treated with metformin plus vildagliptin compared with patients treated with metformin plus sulphonylurea (6752 vs 6815). Addition of vildagliptin compared with sulphonylurea led to increased drug acquisition costs but reduced costs of AEs, managing morbidities, and monitoring patients. Treatment with metformin plus vildagliptin yielded a mean per-patient gain of 0.1279 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and a mean per-patient increase in total cost of €1161, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €9072 per QALY. Univariate analyses showed that ICER values were robust and ranged from €4195 to €16,052 per QALY when different parameters were varied. The model excluded several diabetes-related morbidities, such as peripheral neuropathy and ulceration, and did not model second events. Patients were presumed to enter the model with no diabetes-related complications. Treatment with

  15. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a

  16. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  17. A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Patient Decision Aids: A Case Study Using Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Scott B.; Rajan, Tanya; Linder, Suzanne K.; Volk, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patient decision aids are important tools for facilitating balanced, evidence-based decision making. However, the potential of decision aids to lower health care utilization and costs is uncertain; few studies have investigated the cost-effectiveness of decision aids that change patient behavior. Using an example of a decision aid for colorectal cancer screening, we provide a framework for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. Methods A decision-analytic model with two strategies (decision aid or no decision aid) was used to calculate expected costs in U.S. dollars and benefits measured in life-years saved (LYS). Data from a systematic review of ten studies about decision aid effectiveness was used to calculate the percentage increase in the number of people choosing screening instead of no screening. We then calculated the incremental cost per LYS with the use of the decision aid. Results The no decision aid strategy had an expected cost of $3,023 and yielded 18.19 LYS. The decision aid strategy cost $3,249 and yielded 18.20 LYS. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the decision aid strategy was $36,126 per LYS. Results were sensitive to the cost of the decision aid and the percentage change in behavior caused by the decision aid. Conclusions This study provides proof-of-concept evidence for future studies examining the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. The results suggest that decision aids can be beneficial and cost-effective. PMID:25979678

  18. Cost-effectiveness of initiating antiretroviral therapy at different points in TB treatment in HIV-TB co-infected ambulatory patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Grobler, Anneke C; Deghaye, Nicola; Reddy, Tarylee; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Gray, Andrew; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during tuberculosis (TB) treatment improves survival in TB-HIV co-infected patients. In patients with CD4+ counts benefit of early ART initiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of starting ART at various time points during TB treatment in patients with CD4+ counts ≥50cells/mm3. Methods In the SAPiT trial, 642 HIV-TB co-infected patients were randomized to three arms, either receiving ART within 4 weeks of starting TB treatment (early treatment arm; Arm-1), after the intensive phase of TB treatment (late treatment arm; Arm-2), or after completing TB treatment (sequential arm; Arm-3). Direct healthcare costs were measured from a provider perspective using a micro-costing approach. The incremental cost per death averted was calculated using the trial outcomes. Results For patients with CD4+ count≥50cells/mm3, median monthly variable costs per patient were $116, $113 and $102 in Arms-1, -2 and -3, respectively. There were 12 deaths in 177 patients in Arm-1, 8 deaths in 180 patients in the Arm-2 and 19 deaths in 172 patients in Arm-3. While the costs were lower in Arm-3, it had a substantially higher mortality rate. The incremental cost per death averted associated with moving from Arm-3 to Arm-2 was $4199. There was no difference in mortality between Arm-1 and Arm-2, but Arm-1 was slightly more expensive. Conclusions Initiation of ART after the completion of the intensive phase of TB treatment is cost effective for patients with CD4+ counts≥50cells/mm3. PMID:26167618

  19. Evaluating PET-CT in routine surveillance and follow-up after treatment for cervical cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, P; Barton, P; Meads, C; Davenport, C; Małysiak, S; Kowalska, M; Zapalska, A; Guest, P; Martin-Hirsch, P; Borowiack, E; Khan, K; Sundar, S; Roberts, T

    2014-03-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis that compares positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging plus standard practice with standard practice alone in the diagnosis of recurrent or persistent cervical cancer during routine surveillance and follow-up of women who have previously been diagnosed and treated. Model-based economic evaluation using data from a systematic review, supplemented with data from other sources, and taking a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Secondary Care in England. Women at least 3 months after the completion of treatment, with either recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. A state transition (Markov) model was developed using TreeAge Pro 2011. The structure of the model was informed by the reviews of the trials and clinical input. In the model, two diagnostic strategies were examined. A one-way sensitivity analysis, probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and a value of information analysis were also carried out. Cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Adding PET-CT to the current treatment strategy of clinical examination and scanning [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or CT scan] during the routine surveillance and follow-up of women with recurrent or persistent cervical cancer is significantly more costly, with only a minimal increase in effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the strategy of PET-CT as an adjunct to the standard treatment strategy that included clinical examination, MRI, and/or CT scan, compared with the usual treatment alone, was over £1 million per QALY. The results of the current analysis suggest that use of PET-CT in the diagnosis of recurrent or persistent cervical cancer is not cost-effective. Current guidelines recommending imaging using PET-CT as a diagnostic or surveillance tool need to be reconsidered in light of these results. This study did not specifically investigate the use of PET-CT in women

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS: Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Aranguré Juan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily, non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA

  1. Cost-effectiveness of intensive inpatient treatments for severely obese children and adolescents in the Netherlands; a randomized controlled trial (HELIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Baan-Slootweg Olga H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensive combined lifestyle interventions are the recommended treatment for severely obese children and adolescents, but there is a lack of studies and their cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of two intensive one-year inpatient treatments and usual care for severely obese children and adolescents. Methods/Design Participants are 40 children aged 8-13 and 40 adolescents aged 13-18 with severe obesity (SDS-BMI ≥ 3.0 or SDS-BMI ≥ 2.3 with obesity related co-morbidity. They will be randomized into two groups that will receive a comprehensive treatment program of 12 months that focuses on nutrition, physical activity and behavior change of the participant and their parents. The two programs are the same in total duration (12 months, but differ in inpatient treatment duration. Group A will participate in a 6 month intensive inpatient treatment program during weekdays, followed by six monthly return visits of 2 days. Group B will participate in a 2 month intensive inpatient treatment program during weekdays, followed by biweekly return visits of 2 days during the next four months, followed by six monthly return visits of 2 days. Several different health care professionals are involved, such as pediatricians, dieticians, psychologists, social workers, nurses and physiotherapists. Results will also be compared to a control group that receives usual care. The primary outcome is SDS-BMI. Secondary outcomes include quality of life using the EQ-5D and cardiovascular risk factors. Data will be collected at baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside this study. Healthcare consumption will be based on actual resource use, using prospective data collection during 2 years through cost diaries. Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs will be calculated using the EQ-5D. Discussion This study will provide useful information on the effectiveness and

  2. Cost-effectiveness of malaria preventive treatment for HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Eun; Brandeau, Margaret L; Bendavid, Eran

    2017-10-06

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: at least 1 million pregnancies among HIV-infected women are complicated by co-infection with malaria annually, leading to increased risk of premature delivery, severe anaemia, delivery of low birth weight infants, and maternal death. Current guidelines recommend either daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent malaria and its complications. The cost-effectiveness of CTX compared to IPTp-SP among HIV-infected pregnant women was assessed. A microsimulation model of malaria and HIV among pregnant women in five malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa was constructed. Four strategies were compared: (1) 2-dose IPTp-SP at current IPTp-SP coverage of the country ("2-IPT Low"); (2) 3-dose IPTp-SP at current coverage ("3-IPT Low"); (3) 3-dose IPTp-SP at the same coverage as antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the country ("3-IPT High"); and (4) daily CTX at ART coverage. Outcomes measured include maternal malaria, anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Sensitivity analyses assessed the effect of adherence to CTX. Compared with the 2-IPT Low Strategy, women receiving CTX had 22.5% fewer LBW infants (95% CI 22.3-22.7), 13.5% fewer anaemia cases (95% CI 13.4-13.5), and 13.6% fewer maternal malaria cases (95% CI 13.6-13.7). In all simulated countries, CTX was the preferred strategy, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from cost-saving to $3.9 per DALY averted from a societal perspective. CTX was less effective than the 3-IPT High Strategy when more than 18% of women stopped taking CTX during the pregnancy. In malarious regions of sub-Saharan Africa, daily CTX for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count is cost-effective compared with 3-dose IPTp-SP as long as more than 82% of women adhere to

  3. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report of the co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    1989-08-01

    This report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the coordinated research program on 'Comparison of Cost-effectiveness of Risk Reduction among different Energy Systems': Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; Cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposures in underground uranium mines; Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF 6 by truck and trains

  4. Universal access to HIV treatment in developing countries: going beyond the misinterpretations of the 'cost-effectiveness' algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatti, Jean Paul; Marlink, Richard; Luchini, Stephane; Kazatchkine, Michel

    2008-07-01

    Economic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been proposed as the appropriate tool to set priorities for resource allocation among available health interventions. Controversy remains about the way CEA should be used in the field of HIV/AIDS. This paper reviews the general literature in health economics and public economics about the use of CEA for priority setting in public health, in order better to inform current debates about resource allocation in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Theoretical and practical limitations of CEA do not raise major problems when it is applied to compare alternatives for treating the same medical condition or public health problem. Using CEA to set priorities among different health interventions by ranking them from the lowest to the highest values of their cost per life-year saved is appropriate only under the very restrictive and unrealistic assumptions that all interventions compared are discrete and finite alternatives that cannot vary in terms of size and scale. In order for CEA to inform resource allocation compared across programmes to fight the AIDS epidemic, a pragmatic interpretation of this economic approach, like that proposed by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, is better suited. Interventions, like a number of preventive strategies and first-line antiretroviral treatments for HIV, whose marginal costs per additional life-year saved are less than three times the gross domestic product per capita, should be considered cost-effective. Because of their empirical and theoretical limitations, results of CEA should only be one element in priority setting among interventions for HIV/AIDS, which should also be informed by explicit debates about societal and ethical preferences.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of using recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before radioiodine ablation for thyroid cancer treatment in Spanish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J A; Muros, M A

    In thyroid cancer treatment, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) must be elevated before radioiodine ablation, either by exogenous (with recombinant human thyrotropin [rhTSH]) or endogenous stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). The use of rhTSH avoids hypothyroidism and favours the subsequent elimination of radioiodine, but involves the cost of the product. For this reason, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed, taking into account all costs involved and the benefits associated with the use of this therapy. Using a Markov modelling with two analysis arms (rhTSH and THW), stratified into high (100mCi/3700 MBq) and low (30mCi/1110 MBq) radioiodine doses, and using 17 weekly cycles, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) related to the use of rhTSH was determined. The clinical inputs included in the model were based on published studies and in a treatment survey conducted in Spain. Radioablation preparation with rhTSH is superior to THW, showing additional benefits (0.048 AVAC), as well as cost savings (-€614.16), with an incremental cost-effectiveness rate (ICER) of -€12,795/QALY. The univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses showed the result to be robust. The use of rhTSH previous to radioablation in Spain has cost savings, as well as a series of health benefits for the patient, making it highly cost-effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of gammaCore (non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation) for acute treatment of episodic cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, Mkaya; Liebler, Eric J; Tenaglia, Andrew T

    2017-11-01

    Cluster headache is a debilitating disease characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks that affects 0.15% to 0.4% of the US population. Episodic cluster headache manifests as circadian and circannual seasonal bouts of attacks, each lasting 15 to 180 minutes, with periods of remission. In chronic cluster headache, the attacks occur throughout the year with no periods of remission. While existing treatments are effective for some patients, many patients continue to suffer. There are only 2 FDA-approved medications for episodic cluster headache in the United States, while others, such as high-flow oxygen, are used off-label. Episodic cluster headache is associated with comorbidities and affects work, productivity, and daily functioning. The economic burden of episodic cluster headache is considerable, costing more than twice that of nonheadache patients. gammaCore adjunct to standard of care (SoC) was found to have superior efficacy in treatment of acute episodic cluster headaches compared with sham-gammaCore used with SoC in ACT1 and ACT2 trials. However, the economic impact has not been characterized for this indication. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of gammaCore adjunct to SoC compared with SoC alone for the treatment of acute pain associated with episodic cluster headache attacks. The model structure was based on treatment of acute attacks with 3 outcomes: failures, nonresponders, and responders. The time horizon of the model is 1 year using a payer perspective with uncertainty incorporated. Parameter inputs were derived from primary data from the randomized controlled trials for gammaCore. The mean annual costs associated with the gammaCore-plus-SoC arm was $9510, and mean costs for the SoC-alone arm was $10,040. The mean quality-adjusted life years for gammaCore-plus-SoC arm were 0.83, and for the SoC-alone arm, they were 0.74. The gammaCore-plus-SoC arm was dominant over SoC alone. All 1-way and multiway sensitivity analyses were cost-effective

  7. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure cost-effectiveness ratios cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Health interventions for the metal working industry: which is the most cost-effective? A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A M; Villarreal, E; Nuñez, G M; Garza, M E; Briones, H; Navarro, O

    2002-05-01

    This study ranked the cost-effectiveness of health interventions in the metal working industry in a developing country. Data were based on 82 034 workers of the Northern region of Mexico. Effectiveness was measured through 'healthy life years' (HeaLYs) gained. Costs were estimated per worker according to type and appropriate inputs from selected health interventions. 'Hand' was the anatomical region that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs and amputation was the injury that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs. The most effective health intervention corresponded to training, followed by medical care, education, helmets, safety shoes, lumbar supports, safety goggles, gloves and safety aprons. In dollar terms, education presented the best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$637) and safety aprons presented the worst cost-effectiveness ratio (US$1 147 770). Training proved to be a very expensive intervention, but presented the best effectiveness outcome and the second best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$2084). Cost-effectiveness analyses in developing countries are critical. Corporations might not have the same funds and technology as those in developed countries or multinational companies.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Echave

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG of aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI as second-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC patients previously treated with oxaliplatin. Methods: Based on clinical trial VELOUR results, a three-state Markov model (stable disease, progression and death with 2-week cycle duration was designed. Transition to health state «progression» implied the interruption of second-line treatment and administration of a third-line treatment (post-second line chemotherapy. Cost estimation included disease management cost (pharmaceutical, adverse event management, administration costs, etc.. Both cost and outcomes were discounted (3% annually. Sensitivity analyses (SA were performed to test model robustness. Results: Administration of aflibercept + FOLFIRI as second-line treatment provided 1.78 LYG (21 life-months gained. With FOLFIRI 1.43 LYG (17 months were obtained. The cost of the clinical management of aflibercept + FOLFIRI implied an additional investment of 13,564 compared with FOLFIRI for a lifetime horizon, being total costs for aflibercept + FOLFIRI of 38,346, compared to 24,782 with FOLFIRI. In the cost-effectiveness analysis 38,931/LYG was obtained with aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI versus FOLFIRI. Conclusion: Aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI increased overall survival versus FOLFIRI, so it is an effective strategy in the treatment of patients with mCRC. Aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI is an efficient strategy for second-line mCRC treatment from the National Health System perspective.

  10. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Tam, King; Veerman, Lennert; Blakely, Tony

    2017-02-01

    An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs). The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs) was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in saturated fat and salt). The study suggests that taxes and subsidies on foods and beverages can potentially be combined to achieve substantial improvements in population health and cost-savings to the health sector. However, the magnitude of health benefits is sensitive to measures of price elasticity, and further work is needed to incorporate potential benefits or harms associated with changes in other foods and nutrients that are not currently modelled, such as red and processed meats and fibre. With potentially large health benefits for the Australian population and large benefits in reducing health sector spending on the treatment of non-communicable diseases, the formulation of a tax and subsidy package should be given a more prominent role in Australia's public health nutrition strategy.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the national implementation of integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services in Ghana for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano Ferrer, Blanca; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Gyapong, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these strategies under programme conditions. Methods: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment given was the effectiveness measure used. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment data was obtained from a household survey conducted 2 and 8...... years after implementation of iCCM in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-5 years who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. Costs data was obtained mainly from the National Malaria Control...... Programme (NMCP), the Ministry of Health, CHPS compounds and from a household survey. Results: Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia was more cost-effective under the iCCM than under CHPS in the Volta Region, even after adjusting for different discount rates...

  12. Modified natural cycle versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of three simulated treatment scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Tonch, Nino; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Hoek, Annemieke; Land, Jolande A.

    2013-01-01

    Can modified natural cycle IVF or ICSI (MNC) be a cost-effective alternative for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF or ICSI (COH)? The comparison of simulated scenarios indicates that a strategy of three to six cycles of MNC with minimized medication is a cost-effective alternative for one

  13. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: A dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-Van Reenen (Heleen); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in

  14. POEM is a cost-effective procedure: cost-utility analysis of endoscopic and surgical treatment options in the management of achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heidi J; Neupane, Ruel; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Majumder, Arnab; Marks, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare motility disorder of the esophagus. Treatment is palliative with the goal of symptom remission and slowing the progression of the disease. Treatment options include per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LM) and endoscopic treatments such as pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin type A injections (BI). We evaluate the economics and cost-effectiveness of treating achalasia. We performed cost analysis for POEM, LM, PD and BI at our institution from 2011 to 2015. Cost of LM was set to 1, and other procedures are presented as percentage change. Cost-effectiveness was calculated based on cost, number of interventions required for optimal results for dilations and injections and efficacy reported in the current literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by a cost-utility analysis using quality-adjusted life year gained, defined as a symptom-free year in a patient with achalasia. Average number of interventions required was 2.3 dilations or two injections for efficacies of 80 and 61 %, respectively. POEM cost 1.058 times the cost of LM, and PD and BI cost 0.559 and 0.448 times the cost of LM. Annual cost per cure over a period of 4 years for POEM, and LM were consistently equivalent, trending the same as PD although this has a lower initial cost. The cost per cure of BI remains stable over 3 years and then doubles. The cost-effectiveness of POEM and LM is equivalent. Myotomy, either surgical or endoscopic, is more cost-effective than BI due to high failure rates of the economical intervention. When treatment is being considered BI should be utilized in patients with less than 2-year life expectancy. Pneumatic dilations are cost-effective and are an acceptable approach to treatment of achalasia, although myotomy has a lower relapse rate and is cost-effective compared to PD after 2 years.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rivaroxaban for treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisen, Marieke; Treur, Maarten J; Heemstra, Harald E; Giesen, Eric B W; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-08-01

    Until recently, standard treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) concerned a combination of short-term low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and long-term vitamin-K antagonist (VKA). Risk of bleeding and the requirement for regular anticoagulation monitoring are, however, limiting their use. Rivaroxaban is a novel oral anticoagulant associated with a significantly lower risk of major bleeds (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.37-0.79) compared to LMWH/VKA therapy, and does not require regular anticoagulation monitoring. To evaluate the health economic consequences of treating acute VTE patients with rivaroxaban compared to treatment with LMWH/VKA, viewed from the Dutch societal perspective. A life-time Markov model was populated with the findings of the EINSTEIN phase III clinical trial to analyze cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban therapy in treatment and prevention of VTE from a Dutch societal perspective. Primary model outcomes were total and incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as life expectancy and costs. Over a patient's lifetime, rivaroxaban was shown to be dominant, with health gains of 0.047 QALYs and cost savings of €304 compared to LMWH/VKA therapy. Dominance was robustly present in all sensitivity analyses. Major drivers of the differences between the two treatment arms were related to anticoagulation monitoring (medical costs, travel costs, and loss of productivity) and the occurrence of major bleeds. Rivaroxaban treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism results in health gains and cost savings compared to LMWH/VKA therapy. This conclusion holds for the Dutch setting, both for the societal perspective, as well as the healthcare perspective.

  16. Study protocol: cost-effectiveness of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients in comparison with usual care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F.; Thijs, A.; Seidell, J.C.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition is a common consequence of disease in older patients. Both in hospital setting and in community setting oral nutritional support has proven to be effective. However, cost-effectiveness studies are scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness

  17. Study protocol : cost-effectiveness of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients in comparison with usual care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; Bosmans, Judith E; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common consequence of disease in older patients. Both in hospital setting and in community setting oral nutritional support has proven to be effective. However, cost-effectiveness studies are scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness

  18. Ranolazine for the treatment of chronic stable angina: a cost-effectiveness analysis from the UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Craig I; Freemantle, Nick; Kohn, Christine G

    2015-11-06

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of ranolazine when added to standard-of-care (SoC) antianginals compared with SoC alone in patients with stable coronary disease experiencing ≥3 attacks/week. An economic model utilising a UK health system perspective, a 1-month cycle-length and a 1-year time horizon. Patients with stable coronary disease experiencing ≥3 attacks/week starting in 1 of 4 angina frequency health states based on Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina Frequency (SAQAF) scores (100=no; 61-99=monthly; 31-60=weekly; 0-30=daily angina). Ranolazine added to SoC or SoC alone. Patients were allowed to transition between SAQAF states (first cycle only) or death (any cycle) based on probabilities derived from the randomised, controlled Efficacy of Ranolazine in Chronic Angina trial and other studies. Patients not responding to ranolazine in month 1 (not improving ≥1 SAQAF health state) discontinued ranolazine and were assumed to behave like SoC patients. Costs (£2014) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for patients receiving and not receiving ranolazine. Ranolazine patients lived a mean of 0.701 QALYs at a cost of £5208. Those not receiving ranolazine lived 0.662 QALYs at a cost of £5318. The addition of ranolazine to SoC was therefore a dominant economic strategy. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to ranolazine cost; exceeding £20,000/QALY when ranolazine's cost was >£203/month. Ranolazine remained a dominant strategy when indirect costs were included and mortality rates were assumed to increase with worsening severity of SAQAF health states. Monte Carlo simulation found ranolazine to be a dominant strategy in ∼71% of 10,000 iterations. Although UK-specific data on ranolazine's efficacy and safety are lacking, our analysis suggest ranolazine added to SoC in patients with weekly or daily angina is likely cost-effective from a UK health system perspective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  19. Cost-effective cloud computing: a case study using the comparative genomics tool, roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudtarkar, Parul; Deluca, Todd F; Fusaro, Vincent A; Tonellato, Peter J; Wall, Dennis P

    2010-12-22

    Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource-Roundup-using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon's computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing infrastructure.

  20. The cost and impact of scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness modelling studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness studies inform resource allocation, strategy, and policy development. However, due to their complexity, dependence on assumptions made, and inherent uncertainty, synthesising, and generalising the results can be difficult. We assess cost-effectiveness models evaluating expected health gains and costs of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP interventions.We conducted a systematic review comparing epidemiological and economic assumptions of cost-effectiveness studies using various modelling approaches. The following databases were searched (until January 2013: PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, EconLIT, and region-specific databases. We included modelling studies reporting both cost and expected impact of a PrEP roll-out. We explored five issues: prioritisation strategies, adherence, behaviour change, toxicity, and resistance. Of 961 studies retrieved, 13 were included. Studies modelled populations (heterosexual couples, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs in generalised and concentrated epidemics from Southern Africa (including South Africa, Ukraine, USA, and Peru. PrEP was found to have the potential to be a cost-effective addition to HIV prevention programmes in specific settings. The extent of the impact of PrEP depended upon assumptions made concerning cost, epidemic context, programme coverage, prioritisation strategies, and individual-level adherence. Delivery of PrEP to key populations at highest risk of HIV exposure appears the most cost-effective strategy. Limitations of this review include the partial geographical coverage, our inability to perform a meta-analysis, and the paucity of information available exploring trade-offs between early treatment and PrEP.Our review identifies the main considerations to address in assessing cost-effectiveness analyses of a PrEP intervention--cost, epidemic context, individual adherence level, PrEP programme coverage

  1. Cost-effectiveness of add-on treatments to metformin in a Swedish setting: liraglutide vs sulphonylurea or sitagplitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen Carlsson, Katarina; Persson, Ulf

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate long-run cost-effectiveness in a Swedish setting for liraglutide compared with sulphonylureas (glimepiride) or sitagliptin, all as add-on to metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled with metformin in monotherapy. The IHE Cohort Model of Type 2 Diabetes was used to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes from a societal perspective. Model input data were obtained from two clinical trials, the Swedish National Diabetes Register and the literature. Cost data reflected year 2013 price level. The robustness of results was checked with one-way-sensitivity analysis and probability sensitivity analysis. The cost per QALY gained for liraglutide (1.2 mg) compared to SU (glimepiride 4 mg), both as add-on to metformin, ranged from SEK 226,000 to SEK 255,000 in analyzed patient cohorts. The cost per QALY for liraglutide (1.2 mg) vs sitagliptin (100 mg) as second-line treatment was lower, ranging from SEK 149,000 to SEK 161,000. Costs of preventive treatment were driving costs, but there was also a cost offset from reduced costs of complications of ∼ 20%. Notable cost differences were found for nephropathy, stroke, and heart failure. The predicted life expectancy with liraglutide increased the cost of net consumption for liraglutide. The analysis was an ex-ante analysis using model input data from clinical trials which may not reflect effectiveness in real-world clinical practice in broader patient populations. This limitation was explored in the sensitivity analysis. The lack of specific data on loss of production due to diabetes complications implied that these costs may be under-estimated. Treatment strategies with liraglutide 1.2 mg improved the expected quality-of-life and increased costs when compared to SU and to sitagliptin for second-line add-on treatments. The cost per QALY for liraglutide was in the range considered medium by Swedish authorities.

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of first-line induction and maintenance treatment sequences in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taipale K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kaisa Taipale,1 Katherine B Winfree,2 Mark Boye,2 Mickael Basson,3 Ghassan Sleilaty,4 James Eaton,5 Rachel Evans,5 Christos Chouaid6 1Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence International, Oy Eli Lilly Finland AB, Helsinki, Finland; 2Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Corporate Affairs, Lilly France, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 4Bio-Medicines Medical Affairs, Lilly France, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France; 5ICON Health Economics and Epidemiology, ICON Plc, Milton Park, UK; 6Thoracic Oncology, Service de Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France Background: Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness data for induction–maintenance (I–M sequences for the treatment of patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (nsqNSCLC are limited because of a lack of direct evidence. This analysis aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of I–M pemetrexed with those of other I–M regimens used for the treatment of patients with advanced nsqNSCLC in the French health-care setting. Materials and methods: A previously developed global partitioned survival model was adapted to the France-only setting by restricting treatment sequences to include 12 I–M regimens most relevant to France, and incorporating French costs and resource-use data. Following a systematic literature review, network meta-analyses were performed to obtain hazard ratios for progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS relative to gemcitabine + cisplatin (induction sequences or best supportive care (BSC (maintenance sequences. Modeled health-care benefits were expressed as life-years (LYs and quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs (estimated using French EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire tariffs. The study was conducted from the payer perspective (National Health Insurance. Cost- and benefit-model inputs were discounted at an annual rate of 4%. Results: Base-case results showed pemetrexed

  3. A randomised controlled multicentre trial of treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa including assessment of cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability - the TOuCAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, S G; Clark, A F; Roberts, C; Byford, S; Barrett, B; Griffiths, A; Edwards, V; Bryan, C; Smethurst, N; Rowlands, L; Roots, P

    2010-03-01

    Adolescent Service Use Schedule (CA-SUS). Satisfaction was measured quantitatively using a questionnaire designed for the study and qualitative (free) responses on it. The questionnaire data were supplemented by qualitative analysis of user and carer focus groups. Of the 167 patients randomised, 65% adhered to the allocated treatment. Adherence was lower for inpatient treatment (49%) than for general CAMHS (71%) or specialist outpatient treatment (77%) (p = 0.013). Every subject was traced at both 1 and 2 years, with the main outcome measure completed (through contact with the subject, family members or clinicians), by 94% at 1 year, 93% at 2 years, but only 47% at 5 years. A validated outcome category was assigned for 98% at 1 year, 96% at 2 years and 60% at 5 years. There was significant improvement in all groups at each time point, with the number achieving a good outcome being 19% at 1 year, 33% at 2 years and 64% (of those followed up) at 5 years. Analysis demonstrated no difference in treatment effectiveness of randomisation to inpatient compared with outpatient treatment, or, specialist over generalist treatment at any time point, when baseline characteristics were taken into account. Generalist CAMHS treatment was slightly more expensive over the first 2 years of the study, largely because greater numbers were subsequently admitted to hospital after the initial treatment phase. The specialist outpatient programme was the dominant treatment in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness. Specialist treatments had a higher probability of being more cost-effective than generalist treatments and outpatient treatment had a higher probability of being more cost-effective than inpatient care. Parental satisfaction with treatment was generally good, though better with specialist than generalist treatment. Young people's satisfaction was much more mixed, but again better with specialist treatment, including inpatient care. Poor adherence to randomisation (despite initial consent

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Candida Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection and Empirical Antifungal Treatment among Patients with Suspected Fungal Peritonitis in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Arnaud; Iriart, Xavier; Molinier, Laurent; Georges, Bernard; Berry, Antoine; Massip, Patrice; Juillard-Condat, Blandine

    2017-12-01

    Mortality from intra-abdominal candidiasis in intensive care units (ICUs) is high. It takes many days for peritoneal-fluid fungal culture to become positive, and the recommended empirical antifungal therapy involves excessive costs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) should produce results more rapidly than fungal culture. To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the combination of several diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage Candida peritonitis in non-neutropenic adult patients in ICUs. We constructed a decision tree model to evaluate the cost effectiveness. Cost and effectiveness were taken into account in a 1-year time horizon and from the French National Health Insurance perspective. Six strategies were compared: fluconazole or echinocandin as an empirical therapy, plus diagnosis by fungal culture or detection by PCR of all Candida species, or use of PCR to detect most fluconazole-resistant Candida species (i.e., Candida krusei and Candida glabrata). The use of fluconazole empirical treatment and PCR to detect all Candida species is more cost effective than using fluconazole empirical treatment without PCR (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €40,055/quality-adjusted life-year). Empirical treatment with echinocandin plus PCR to detect C. krusei and C. glabrata is the most effective strategy, but has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €93,776/quality-adjusted life-year. If the cost of echinocandin decreases, then strategies involving PCR plus empirical echinocandin become more cost-effective. Detection by PCR of all Candida species and of most fluconazole-resistant Candida species could improve the cost-effectiveness of fluconazole and echinocandin given to non-neutropenic patients with suspected peritoneal candidiasis in ICUs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Australian guidelines for cost-effectiveness studies of pharmaceuticals: the thin end of the boomerang?

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Drummond

    1991-01-01

    In the summer of 1990, the Australian government took a major step by requiring evidence of cost-effectiveness of new medicines prior to reimbursement by the public health care system. This paper assesses whether the methodological principles behind the guidelines are sound and whether they raise important new logistical and policy implications. It is concluded that, whilst the guidelines may represent ‘the thin end of the wedge’ for the pharmaceutical industry, in that other countries may fo...

  6. Comparing the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic studies: a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, D.D.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Wellish, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a model to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two or more diagnostic tests. The model defines a cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) for a diagnostic test as the ratio of effective cost to base cost, only dollar costs considered. Effective cost includes base cost, cost of dealing with expected side effects, and wastage due to imperfect test performance. Test performance is measured by diagnostic utility (DU), a measure of test outcomes incorporating the decision-analytic variables sensitivity, specificity, equivocal fraction, disease probability, and outcome utility. Each of these factors affecting DU, and hence CER, is a local, not universal, value; these local values strongly affect CER, which in effect becomes a property of the local medical setting. When DU = +1 and there are no adverse effects, CER = 1 and the patient benefits from the test dollar for dollar. When there are adverse effects effective cost exceeds base cost, and for an imperfect test DU 1. As DU approaches 0 (worthless test), CER approaches infinity (no effectiveness at any cost). If DU is negative, indicating that doing the test at all would be detrimental, CER also becomes negative. We conclude that the CER model is a useful preliminary method for ranking the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests, and that the comparisons would best be done using local values; different groups might well arrive at different rankings. (Author)

  7. Efficacy and cost effectiveness of telemedicine for improving access to care in the Paris region: study protocols for eight trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Nathanael; Zarca, Kevin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Calinaud, Christine

    2016-02-08

    With the development of information and communication technologies, telemedicine has been proposed as a way to improve patient management by facilitating access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The Paris Ile de France Regional Health Agency is currently funding a comprehensive program of telemedicine experiments. This article describes the protocols for the evaluation of the implementation of telemedicine in the Paris region. Over 2,500 patients have been included in eight studies addressing the use of telemedicine in the context of specific diseases or settings. Two projects are randomized controlled trials, while the six other projects are based on before-after designs (differences in differences studies). Based on the MAST model and the French national framework, we identified endpoints to assess the impact of telemedicine on five dimensions: clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, security of the application, patient satisfaction and quality of life and perception of professionals. Telemedicine encompasses a wide range of services and stakeholders, and thus study protocols must be tailored to the specific constraints and interests of the users. NCT02110433 (03/07/2014), NCT02157740 (05/27/2014), NCT02374697 (02/05/2015), NCT02157727 (05/27/2014), NCT02229279 (08/28/2014), NCT02368769 (02/05/2015), NCT02164747 (NCT02164747), NCT02309905 (11/27/2014).

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of radon protection methods in domestic properties: a comparative case study in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskeran, Thomas; Denman, Antony; Phillips, Paul; Tornberg, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Building regulations in the UK have since 1992 required that radon-proof membranes be installed in new domestic properties to protect residents against the adverse effects of radon. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of the current regulatory regime with an alternative that would entail new properties being tested for radon after construction, and being remediated if necessary. The alternative regime is found to be more cost-effective for a sample of properties in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, UK. For this regime, the central estimate of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, the measure of cost-effectiveness used, is Pounds 2869 compared to Pounds 6182 for installing membranes, results suggesting a case for re-examining the current regulations on radon protection in new properties. Pilot studies will, however, be needed to consider how different means of protecting residents of new properties against radon might operate in practice and to provide improved evidence on their relative cost-effectiveness

  9. Cross-market cost-effectiveness analysis of erlotinib as first-line maintenance treatment for patients with stable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnenègre A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alain Vergnenègre1, Joshua A Ray2, Christos Chouaid3, Francesco Grossi4, Helge G Bischoff5, David F Heigener6, Stefan Walzer21Department of Pneumology, Hôpital du Cluzeau, Limoges, France; 2Global Health Economics and Strategic Pricing, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Service, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 4Lung Cancer Unit, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy; 5Thoracic Oncology, Onkologie Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Department of Thoracic Oncology, Krankenhaus Großhansdorf, Großhansdorf, GermanyBackground: Platinum-doublet, first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is limited to 4–6 cycles. An alternative strategy used to prolong the duration of first-line treatment and extend survival in metastatic NSCLC is first-line maintenance therapy. Erlotinib was approved for first-line maintenance in a stable disease population following results from a randomized, controlled Phase III trial comparing erlotinib with best supportive care. We aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of erlotinib 150 mg/day versus best supportive care when used as first-line maintenance therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC and stable disease.Methods: An economic decision model was developed using patient-level data for progression-free survival and overall survival from the SATURN (SequentiAl Tarceva in UnResectable NSCLC study. An area under the curve model was developed; all patients entered the model in the progression-free survival health state and, after each month, moved to progression or death. A time horizon of 5 years was used. The model was conducted from the perspective of national health care payers in France, Germany, and Italy. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results: Treatment with erlotinib in first-line maintenance resulted in a mean life expectancy of 1.39 years in all countries

  10. Assessing the Effect of Potential Reductions in Non-Hepatic Mortality on the Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis C Treatment in Early Stages of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Spradling, Philip R.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2018-01-01

    Background Most cost-effectiveness analyses of hepatitis C (HCV) therapy focus on the benefits of reducing liver-related morbidity and mortality. Objectives Our objective was to assess how cost-effectiveness estimates of HCV therapy can vary depending on assumptions regarding the potential impact of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. Methods We adapted a state-transition model to include potential effects of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. We assumed successful treatment could reduce non-hepatic mortality by as little as 0 % to as much as 100 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment and comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment. Results Comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment, when we included a 44 % reduction in nonhepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by HCV treatment fell by 76 % (from US$314,100 to US$76,900) for patients with no fibrosis and by 43 % (from US$62,500 to US$35,800) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment, assuming a 44 % reduction in non-hepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per QALY gained by HCV treatment fell by 64 % (from US$186,700 to US$67,300) for patients with no fibrosis and by 27 % (from US$35,000 to US$25,500) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Conclusion Including reductions in non-hepatic mortality from HCV treatment can have substantial effects on the estimated cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:27480538

  11. Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Aaron P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to whether statins are cost-effective for primary prevention. However, after accounting for each study’s assumptions about statin costs, we found substantial agreement among the studies. Studies that assumed statins to be more expensive found them to be less cost-effective, and vice-versa. Furthermore, treatment of low-risk groups became cost-effective as statins became less expensive. Conclusions Drug price is the primary determinant of statin cost-effectiveness within a given risk group. As more statin drugs become generic, patients at low risk for coronary disease may be treated cost-effectively. Though many factors must be weighed in any medical decision, from a cost-effectiveness perspective, statins may now be considered an appropriate therapy for many patients at low risk for heart disease.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of sunitinib as second-line treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Li,1 Hong Ye Ren,2 Juanjuan Zhang,2 Peng Dong,2 Yan Wang,3 Andrea L Stevens,3 Yi Han,3 Min Huang4 1Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research for the Ministry of National Education, Department of GI Oncology, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital & Institute, 2Pfizer Inc., Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3WG Consulting, New York, NY, USA; 4School of Pharmacy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sunitinib as a second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors that no longer respond to imatinib 400 mg/d, compared with imatinib 600 mg/d, 800 mg/d, or best supportive care (BSC in the People’s Republic of China. Methods: This study was conducted from the government payer’s perspective with a time horizon of 5 years. Three health states were considered: progression-free survival, disease progression survival, and death, with a cycle length of 6 weeks. Probabilities of disease progression and death were estimated based on survival functions using exponential distribution and progression survival data in the clinical trials. Drug costs were based on drug retail prices and the patient assistance program in the People’s Republic of China, and adverse event management costs were based on published data and/or expert opinion. Uncertainties for parameters in the study were addressed through one-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: When sunitinib was compared with imatinib 600 mg/d and BSC, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was RMB75,715 with RMB121,080 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained. Sunitinib demonstrated lower costs and higher QALYs than imatinib 800 mg/d. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the willingness-to-pay per QALY gained was set to be three times the per capita gross domestic product of the People’s Republic of

  13. Cost-effectiveness of meglumine antimoniate versus miltefosine caregiver DOT for the treatment of pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A Berger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral miltefosine has been shown to be non-inferior to first-line, injectable meglumine antimoniate (MA for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in children. Miltefosine may be administered via in-home caregiver Directly Observed Therapy (cDOT, while patients must travel to clinics to receive MA. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing miltefosine by cDOT versus MA for pediatric CL in southwest Colombia.We developed a Monte Carlo model comparing the cost-per-cure of miltefosine by cDOT compared to MA from patient, government payer, and societal perspectives (societal = sum of patient and government payer perspective costs. Drug effectiveness and adverse events were estimated from clinical trials. Healthcare utilization and costs of travel were obtained from surveys of providers and published sources. The primary outcome was cost-per-cure reported in 2015 USD. Treatment efficacy, costs, and adherence were varied in sensitivity analysis to assess robustness of results. Treatment with miltefosine resulted in substantially lower cost-per-cure from a societal and patient perspective, and slightly higher cost-per-cure from a government payer perspective compared to MA. Mean societal cost-per-cure were $531 (SD±$239 for MA and $188 (SD±$100 for miltefosine, a mean cost-per-cure difference of +$343. Mean cost-per-cure from a patient perspective were $442 (SD ±$233 for MA and $30 (SD±$16 for miltefosine, a mean difference of +$412. Mean cost-per-cure from a government perspective were $89 (SD±$55 for MA and $158 (SD±$98 for miltefosine, with a mean difference of -$69. Results were robust across a variety of assumptions in univariate and multi-way analysis.Treatment of pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis with miltefosine via cDOT is cost saving from patient and societal perspectives, and moderately more costly from the government payer perspective compared to treatment with MA. Results were robust over a range of sensitivity

  14. Adding bevacizumab to single agent chemotherapy for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: A cost effectiveness analysis of the AURELIA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Weiya Z; Schaffer, Elisabeth M; Coles, Theresa; Roque, Dario R; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kim, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    AURELIA, a randomized phase III trial of adding bevacizumab (B) to single agent chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, demonstrated improved progression free survival (PFS) in the B+CT arm compared to CT alone. We aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding B to CT in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. A decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding bevacizumab (B) to single agent chemotherapy (CT) based on the arms of the AURELIA trial. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and progression free survival (PFS) were modeled over fifteen months. Model inputs were extracted from published literature and public sources. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per QALY gained and ICERs per progression free life year saved (PF-LYS) were calculated. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of results. The ICER associated with B+CT is $410,455 per QALY gained and $217,080 per PF-LYS. At a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY, adding B to single agent CT is not cost effective for this patient population. Even at a WTP threshold of $100,000/QALY, B+CT is not cost effective. These findings are robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite gains in QALY and PFS, the addition of B to single agent CT for treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer is not cost effective. Benefits, risks, and costs associated with treatment should be taken into consideration when prescribing chemotherapy for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1b treatment-naïve patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Jin, Xiuze; Duan, Cheng-A-Xin; Chang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C is the second fastest growing infectious disease in China. The standard-of-care for chronic hepatitis C in China is Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PR), which is associated with tolerability and efficacy issues. An interferon- and ribavirin-free, all-oral regimen comprising daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV), which displays higher efficacy and tolerability, has recently been approved in China. This study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of DCV+ASV (24 weeks) for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1b treatment-naïve patients compared with PR regimen (48 weeks) in China. A cohort-based Markov model was developed from Chinese payer perspective to project the lifetime outcomes of treating 10,000 patients with an average age of 44.5 with two hypothetical regimens, DCV+ASV and PR. Chinese-specific health state costs and efficacy data were used. The annual discount rate was 5%. Base-case analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted. For HCV Genotype 1b treatment-naïve patients, DCV+ASV proved to be dominant over PR, with a cost saving of ¥33,480(5,096 USD) and gains in QALYs and life years of 1.29 and 0.85, respectively. The lifetime risk of compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death was greatly reduced with DCV+ASV. Univariate sensitivity analysis demonstrated that key influencers were the discount rate, time horizon, initial disease severity and sustained virological response rate of DCV+ASV, with all scenarios resulting in additional benefit. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that DCV+ASV has a high likelihood (100%) of being cost-effective. DCV+ASV is not only an effective and well-tolerated regimen to treat chronic HCV genotype 1b infection treatment-naïve patients, but also is more cost-effective than PR regimen. DCV+ASV can benefit both the public health and reimbursement system in China.

  16. A health economic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of OPTIFAST® for the treatment of obesity in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, Mark; Marczewska, Agnieszka; Araujo Torress, Krysmaru; Rasouli, Bahareh; Perugini, Moreno

    2018-04-20

    Obesity is associated with high direct medical costs and indirect costs resulting from productivity loss. High prevalence of obesity generates a justified need to identify cost-effective weight loss approaches from a payer's perspective. Within the variety of weight management techniques, OPTIFAST ® is a clinically recognized and scientifically proven total meal replacement Low Calorie Diet that provides meaningful results in terms of weight loss and reduction in comorbidities. The objective of this study is assess potential cost-savings of OPTIFAST ® program in the USA, as compared to "no intervention" and pharmacotherapy. An event-driven decision analytic model was used to estimate payer's cost-savings from reimbursement of the 1-year OPTIFAST ® program over 3 years in the USA. The analysis was performed for the broad population of obese persons (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ) undergoing the OPTIFAST ® program versus liraglutide 3 mg, naltrexone/bupropion and versus "no intervention". The model included risk of complications related to increased BMI. Data sources included published literature, clinical trials, official USA price/tariff lists and national population statistics. The primary perspective was that of a USA payer; costs provided in 2016 US dollars. OPTIFAST ® leads over a period of 3 years to cost-savings of USD 9,285 per class I and II obese patient (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) as compared to liraglutide and USD 685 as compared to naltrexone/bupropion. In the same time perspective, the OPTIFAST ® program leads to a reduction of cost of obesity complications of USD 1,951 as compared to "no intervention" with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of USD 6,475 per QALY. Scenario analyses show also substantial cost-savings in patients with class III obesity (BMI ≥40.0 kg/m 2 ) and patients with obesity (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m2) and type 2 diabetes versus all three previous comparators and bariatric surgery. Reimbursing OPTIFAST ® leads to meaningful cost

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of celecoxib compared with diclofenac in the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis (OA) within the Swedish health system using an adaptation of the NICE OA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas; Pennington, Becky; Ekelund, Mats; Akehurst, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Celecoxib for the treatment of pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) was reviewed by the Tandvårds- och läkemedelsförmånsverket-Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Board (TLV) in Sweden in late 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of celecoxib plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to diclofenac plus a PPI in a Swedish setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK developed a health economic model as part of their 2008 assessment of treatments for OA. In this analysis, the model was reconstructed and adapted to a Swedish perspective. Drug costs were updated using the TLV database. Adverse event costs were calculated using the regional price list of Southern Sweden and the standard treatment guidelines from the county council of Stockholm. Costs for treating cardiovascular (CV) events were taken from the Swedish DRG codes and the literature. Over a patient's lifetime treatment with celecoxib plus a PPI was associated with a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 0.006 per patient when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. There was an increase in discounted costs of 529 kr per patient, which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 82,313 kr ($12,141). Sensitivity analysis showed that treatment was more cost effective in patients with an increased risk of bleeding or gastrointestinal (GI) complications. The results suggest that celecoxib plus a PPI is a cost effective treatment for OA when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. Treatment is shown to be more cost effective in Sweden for patients with a high risk of bleeding or GI complications. It was in this population that the TLV gave a positive recommendation. There are known limitations on efficacy in the original NICE model.

  18. Health economic studies: an introduction to cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, Peter D; Berven, Sigurd

    2014-10-15

    Narrative overview. To provide clinicians with a basic understanding of economic studies, including cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses. As decisions regarding public health policy, insurance reimbursement, and patient care incorporate factors other than traditional outcomes such as satisfaction or symptom resolution, health economic studies are increasingly prominent in the literature. This trend will likely continue, and it is therefore important for clinicians to have a fundamental understanding of the common types of economic studies and be able to read them critically. In this brief article, the basic concepts of economic studies and the differences between cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies are discussed. An overview of the field of health economic analysis is presented. Cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies all integrate cost and outcome data into a decision analysis model. These different types of studies are distinguished mainly by the way in which outcomes are valued. Obtaining accurate cost data is often difficult and can limit the generalizability of a study. With a basic understanding of health economic analysis, clinicians can be informed consumers of these important studies.

  19. [Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis between darunavir/ritonavir and other protease inhibitors in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency syndrome type 1-infected patients in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Erik; Brogan, Anita J; Hill, Andrew; Adriaenssen, Ines; Sawyer, Anthony W; Domingo-Pedrol, Pere; Gostkorzewicz, Joana; Ledesma, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    GESIDA (AIDS Study Group) has proposed preferred regimens of antiretroviral treatment as initial therapy in HIV infected patients. The objective of this analysis is to compare the costs and effectiveness of darunavir/r QD and other ritonavir-boosted (/r) protease inhibitors (PIs) currently recommended in GESIDA guidelines for treatment-naïve patients. A cost-efficacy model compared the boosted PIs recommended as preferred or alternative treatment choices, each used with a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. Efficacy was measured by 48-week virological response (viral load < 50 copies/mL) adjusted by baseline viral load and CD4 cell count. To generate efficiency frontiers and cost-efficacy ratios, one-year antiretroviral therapy costs in Spain, and 48-week efficacy values were used. The model estimated that starting treatment with darunavir/r QD was the most cost-effective choice compared with the other preferred PI/r based therapies. The average cost per patient with a virological response was lower for darunavir/r QD (13,420€) than for atazanavir/r QD (14,000€), or lopinavir/r BID (13,815€). Among the preferred PI/r-based therapies, darunavir/r QD also was estimated to be the most efficient option for treatment-naïve patients. Atazanavir/r QD and lopinavir/r BID were found to be «dominated» by darunavir/r) and, consequently, were outside the efficiency frontier of PI/r-based first-line treatment. Given a fixed budget of 10 million euros for PI/r-based first-line therapy, the model estimated that darunavir/r QD would yield more responders (745) than atazanavir/r QD (714), or lopinavir/r BID (724). At the same time, darunavir/r QD would reduce the number of individuals failing treatment (150) compared with atazanavir/r QD (172) and lopinavir/r BID (286). In this model, darunavir/r QD was found to be the most cost-effective choice, among the preferred PI/r-based therapies recommended in the Spanish guidelines for treatment-naïve patients

  20. Cost-effectiveness of investing in sidewalks as a means of increasing physical activity: a RESIDE modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Gunn, Lucy; McCormack, Gavin R; Cobiac, Linda J; Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shiell, Alan

    2016-09-20

    Studies consistently find that supportive neighbourhood built environments increase physical activity by encouraging walking and cycling. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of investing in built environment interventions as a means of promoting physical activity is lacking. In this study, we assess the cost-effectiveness of increasing sidewalk availability as one means of encouraging walking. Using data from the RESIDE study in Perth, Australia, we modelled the cost impact and change in health-adjusted life years (HALYs) of installing additional sidewalks in established neighbourhoods. Estimates of the relationship between sidewalk availability and walking were taken from a previous study. Multistate life table models were used to estimate HALYs associated with changes in walking frequency and duration. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of variations in population density, discount rates, sidewalk costs and the inclusion of unrelated healthcare costs in added life years. Installing and maintaining an additional 10 km of sidewalk in an average neighbourhood with 19 000 adult residents was estimated to cost A$4.2 million over 30 years and gain 24 HALYs over the lifetime of an average neighbourhood adult resident population. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$176 000/HALY. However, sensitivity results indicated that increasing population densities improves cost-effectiveness. In low-density cities such as in Australia, installing sidewalks in established neighbourhoods as a single intervention is unlikely to cost-effectively improve health. Sidewalks must be considered alongside other complementary elements of walkability, such as density, land use mix and street connectivity. Population density is particularly important because at higher densities, more residents are exposed and this improves the cost-effectiveness. Health gain is one of many benefits of enhancing neighbourhood walkability and future studies might

  1. Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin, Menna; Fricker, Jon D.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values Presented during Session 3: Policy and Funding, moderated by Magdy Mikhail, at the 9th International Conference on Managing Pavement Assets (ICMPA9) in Alexandria, VA. Includes conference paper and PowerPoint slides.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention: comparison between intraluminal bronchoscopic treatment and surgical resection for T1N0 lung cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasic, A.; Brokx, HA; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Paul, RM; Postmus, P.E.; Sutedja, G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with early-stage lung cancer (ESLC) and severe comorbidities, the cost-effectiveness of early intervention may be reduced by screening and treatment-related morbidity and mortality in addition to the risk for non-cancer-related deaths. OBJECTIVES: The use of bronchoscopic

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With Chemotherapy Only: The Influence of New Medication and Diagnostic Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Litsenburg, R.R.L.; Uyl-de Groot, C.A.; Raat, H.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has reached 80-90%. Future improvement in treatment success will involve new technologies and medication, adding to the pressure on limited financial resources. Therefore a retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis of ALL

  4. Cost-effectiveness of exercise therapy in the treatment of non-specific neck pain and low back pain : a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; van Dongen, Johanna M; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of exercise therapy in the treatment of patients with non-specific neck pain and low back pain. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES: The search was performed in 5 clinical and 3 economic electronic databases. ELIGIBILITY

  5. Refining cost-effectiveness analyses using the net benefit approach and econometric methods: an example from a trial of anti-depressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Kendricks, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation analyses can be enhanced by employing regression methods, allowing for the identification of important sub-groups and to adjust for imperfect randomisation in clinical trials or to analyse non-randomised data. To explore the benefits of combining regression techniques and the standard Bayesian approach to refine cost-effectiveness analyses using data from randomised clinical trials. Data from a randomised trial of anti-depressant treatment were analysed and a regression model was used to explore the factors that have an impact on the net benefit (NB) statistic with the aim of using these findings to adjust the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Exploratory sub-samples' analyses were carried out to explore possible differences in cost-effectiveness. Results The analysis found that having suffered a previous similar depression is strongly correlated with a lower NB, independent of the outcome measure or follow-up point. In patients with previous similar depression, adding an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to supportive care for mild-to-moderate depression is probably cost-effective at the level used by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to make recommendations. This analysis highlights the need for incorporation of econometric methods into cost-effectiveness analyses using the NB approach.

  6. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood.Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (<1% change. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the interventions individually, then determined the optimal combination based on maximising net monetary benefit at a threshold of AU$50,000 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY. The simulations suggested that the combination of taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000 in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted, followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs, the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs, and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs. The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in

  7. An Asian regional analysis of cost-effectiveness of early irbesartan treatment versus conventional antihypertensive, late amlodipine, and late irbesartan treatments in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Demarteau, Nadia; Hu, Shanlian; Lee, Tae-Jin; Morad, Zaher; Supaporn, Thanom; Yang, Wu-Chang; Palmer, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, often leading to diabetic nephropathy, has increased globally, especially in Asia. Irbesartan treatment delays the progression of kidney disease at the early (microalbuminuria) and late (proteinuria) stages of nephropathy in hypertensive type 2 diabetics. This treatment has proven to be cost-effective in Western countries. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of early irbesartan treatment in Asian settings. An existing lifetime model was reprogrammed in Microsoft Excel to compare irbesartan started at an early stage to irbesartan or amlodipine started at a late stage, and standard treatments from a health-care perspective in China, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan. The main effectiveness parameters were incidences of end-stage renal disease, time in dialysis, and life expectancy. All costs were converted to 2004 US$ using official purchasing power parity. Local data were obtained for costs, transplantation,dialysis, and mortality rates. Probabilities regarding disease progression after treatment with the investigated drugs were extracted from two published clinical trials. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Early use of irbesartan yielded the largest clinical and economic benefits reducing need for dialysis by 61% to 63% versus the standard treatment, total costs by 9% (Thailand) to 42% (Taiwan), and increasing life expectancy by 0.31 to 0.48 years. Early irbesartan had a 66% (Thailand) to 95% (Taiwan) probability of being dominant over late irbesartan. Although the absolute results varied in different settings, reflecting differences in epidemiology, management, and costs, early irbesartan treatment was a cost-effective alternative in the Asian settings.

  8. Obesity-related health impacts of fuel excise taxation- an evidence review and cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brown

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing automobile dependence and improving rates of active transport may reduce the impact of obesogenic environments, thereby decreasing population prevalence of obesity and other diseases where physical inactivity is a risk factor. Increasing the relative cost of driving by an increase in fuel taxation may therefore be a promising public health intervention for obesity prevention. Methods A scoping review of the evidence for obesity or physical activity effect of changes in fuel price or taxation was undertaken. Potential health benefits of an increase in fuel excise taxation in Australia were quantified using Markov modelling to simulate obesity, injury and physical activity related health impacts of a fuel excise taxation intervention for the 2010 Australian population. Health adjusted life years (HALYs gained and healthcare cost savings from diseases averted were estimated. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were reported and results were tested through sensitivity analysis. Results Limited evidence on the effect of policies such as fuel taxation on health-related behaviours currently exists. Only three studies were identified reporting associations between fuel price or taxation and obesity, whilst nine studies reported associations specifically with physical activity, walking or cycling. Estimates of the cross price elasticity of demand for public transport with respect to fuel price vary, with limited consensus within the literature on a probable range for the Australian context. Cost-effectiveness modelling of a AUD0.10 per litre increase in fuel excise taxation using a conservative estimate of cross price elasticity for public transport suggests that the intervention would be cost-effective from a limited societal perspective (237 HALYs gained, AUD2.6 M in healthcare cost savings, measured against a comparator of no additional increase in fuel excise. Under “best case” assumptions, the intervention

  9. Obesity-related health impacts of fuel excise taxation- an evidence review and cost-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Cobiac, L; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Carter, R

    2017-05-04

    Reducing automobile dependence and improving rates of active transport may reduce the impact of obesogenic environments, thereby decreasing population prevalence of obesity and other diseases where physical inactivity is a risk factor. Increasing the relative cost of driving by an increase in fuel taxation may therefore be a promising public health intervention for obesity prevention. A scoping review of the evidence for obesity or physical activity effect of changes in fuel price or taxation was undertaken. Potential health benefits of an increase in fuel excise taxation in Australia were quantified using Markov modelling to simulate obesity, injury and physical activity related health impacts of a fuel excise taxation intervention for the 2010 Australian population. Health adjusted life years (HALYs) gained and healthcare cost savings from diseases averted were estimated. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were reported and results were tested through sensitivity analysis. Limited evidence on the effect of policies such as fuel taxation on health-related behaviours currently exists. Only three studies were identified reporting associations between fuel price or taxation and obesity, whilst nine studies reported associations specifically with physical activity, walking or cycling. Estimates of the cross price elasticity of demand for public transport with respect to fuel price vary, with limited consensus within the literature on a probable range for the Australian context. Cost-effectiveness modelling of a AUD0.10 per litre increase in fuel excise taxation using a conservative estimate of cross price elasticity for public transport suggests that the intervention would be cost-effective from a limited societal perspective (237 HALYs gained, AUD2.6 M in healthcare cost savings), measured against a comparator of no additional increase in fuel excise. Under "best case" assumptions, the intervention would be more cost-effective (3181 HALYs gained, AUD34.2

  10. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Hypertension Screening and Treatment in Adults with Hypertension in Rural Nigeria in the Context of a Health Insurance Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T A Rosendaal

    Full Text Available High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI program in rural Nigeria.A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of population-level hypertension screening and subsequent antihypertensive treatment for the population at-risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD within the KSHI program. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted in the KSHI scenario compared to no access to hypertension care. We used setting-specific and empirically-collected data to inform the model. We defined two strategies to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment based on 1 presence of hypertension grade 1 and 10-year CVD risk of >20%, or grade 2 hypertension irrespective of 10-year CVD risk (hypertension and risk based strategy and 2 presence of hypertension in combination with a CVD risk of >20% (risk based strategy. We generated 95% confidence intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the reference scenario.Screening and treatment for hypertension was potentially cost-effective but the results were sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions with a wide range of uncertainty. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the first and second strategy respectively ranged from US$ 1,406 to US$ 7,815 and US$ 732 to US$ 2,959 per DALY averted, depending on the assumptions on risk reduction after treatment and compared to no access to antihypertensive treatment.Hypertension care within a subsidized private health insurance program may be cost-effective in rural Nigeria and public-private partnerships such as the KSHI program may provide opportunities

  11. Decision analytic cost-effectiveness model to compare prostate cryotherapy to androgen deprivation therapy for treatment of radiation recurrent prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kathleen A; Jones, Rob J; Paul, Jim; Birrell, Fiona; Briggs, Andrew H; Leung, Hing Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of salvage cryotherapy (SC) in men with radiation recurrent prostate cancer (RRPC). Design Cost-utility analysis using decision analytic modelling by a Markov model. Setting and methods Compared SC and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a cohort of patients with RRPC (biopsy proven local recurrence, no evidence of metastatic disease). A literature review captured published data to inform the decision model, and resource use data were from the Scottish Prostate Cryotherapy Service. The model was run in monthly cycles for RRPC men, mean age of 70 years. The model was run over the patient lifetime, to assess changes in patient health states and the associated quality of life, survival and cost impacts. Results are reported in terms of the discounted incremental costs and discounted incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained between the 2 alternative interventions. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis used a 10 000 iteration Monte Carlo simulation. Results SC has a high upfront treatment cost, but delays the ongoing monthly cost of ADT. SC is the dominant strategy over the patient lifetime; it is more effective with an incremental 0.56 QALY gain (95% CI 0.28 to 0.87), and less costly with a reduced lifetime cost of £29 719 (€37 619) (95% CI −51 985 to −9243). For a ceiling ratio of £30 000, SC has a 100% probability to be cost-effective. The cost neutral point was at 3.5 years, when the upfront cost of SC (plus any subsequent cumulative cost of side effects and ADT) equates the cumulative cost in the ADT arm. Limitations of our model may arise from its insensitivity to parameter or structural uncertainty. Conclusions The platform for SC versus ADT cost-effective analysis can be employed to evaluate other treatment modalities or strategies in RRPC. SC is the dominant strategy, costing less over a patient's lifetime with improvements in QALYs. Trial registration number This economic analysis

  12. Patients' costs and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment in DOTS and non-DOTS facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Steffen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Costs of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment may represent a significant burden for the poor and for the health system in resource-poor countries.The aim of this study was to analyze patients' costs of tuberculosis care and to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the directly observed treatment (DOT strategy per completed treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.We interviewed 218 adult patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Information on direct (out-of-pocket expenses and indirect (hours lost costs, loss in income and costs with extra help were gathered through a questionnaire. Healthcare system additional costs due to supervision of pill-intake were calculated considering staff salaries. Effectiveness was measured by treatment completion rate. The ICER of DOT compared to self-administered therapy (SAT was calculated.DOT increased costs during the treatment phase, while SAT increased costs in the pre-diagnostic phase, for both the patient and the health system. Treatment completion rates were 71% in SAT facilities and 79% in DOT facilities. Costs per completed treatment were US$ 194 for patients and U$ 189 for the health system in SAT facilities, compared to US$ 336 and US$ 726 in DOT facilities. The ICER was US$ 6,616 per completed DOT treatment compared to SAT.Costs incurred by TB patients are high in Rio de Janeiro, especially for those under DOT. The DOT strategy doubles patients' costs and increases by fourfold the health system costs per completed treatment. The additional costs for DOT may be one of the contributing factors to the completion rates below the targeted 85% recommended by WHO.

  13. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus usual care in daily practice in the treatment of refractory generalised anxiety disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Salas-Cansado, Marina; Álvarez, Enrique; Olivares, José M; Carrasco, Jose L; Ferro, M Belén; Rejas, Javier

    2013-06-01

    To model the cost-effectiveness (CEA) of the use of pregabalin versus usual care (UC) in outpatients with refractory generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) treated in daily practice in mental health settings in Spain. This CEA model used data extracted from a 6-month prospective non-interventional trial: the Amplification of Definition of ANxiety (ADAN) study, which was conducted to determine the cost-of-illness in GAD subjects. Refractory subjects were those who reported persistent symptoms of anxiety and showed suboptimal response in the Hamilton-anxiety scale (HAM-A ≥ 16) after a standard dose regimen of anxiolytics other than pregabalin, alone or in combination, over 6 months. The pregabalin arm was documented with data extracted from patients who received pregabalin in the study for the first time, added or replacing the existing therapy. In the UC arm, treatment might include one or more of the following: a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, other anti-depressants, a benzodiazepine or an anti-epileptic drug other than pregabalin. The time horizon of the modelling was 6 months in the base-case scenario, and the National Health System perspective was chosen to calculate costs. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, which were derived using the EQ-5D questionnaire, at baseline and end-of-trial visits. Results of the CEA model was expressed as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis using bootstrapping techniques was also carried out to obtain the cost-effectiveness plane and the corresponding acceptability curve. Data from a total of 429 subjects per arm (mean HAM-A score 25.7) meeting eligible criteria for inclusion in CEA modelling were extracted from the original trial. Compared with UC, pregabalin (average dose 218 mg/day) was associated with significantly higher QALY gain; 0.1209 ± 0.1030 versus 0.0994

  14. Cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin as first line treatment for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan González García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer is the third most frequent neoplastic tumour in Spain, with around 27 000 new cases diagnosed per year; 80-95% of these are non-small-cell cancer (NSCLC, and the majority of cases are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, and for this reason it is one of the oncologic conditions with higher mortality rates (21.4% mean survival at 5 years. The main treatment regimens used for first-line treatment of NSCLC are: isplatin/pemetrexed (cis/pem, cisplatin/gemcitabine/ bevacizumab (cis/gem/bev, and carboplatin/paclitaxel/ bevacizumab (carb/pac/bev. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of antineoplastic 1st line NSCLC treatment regimens, from the point of view of hospital management. Methodology: A cost-efficacy mathematical model was prepared, based on a decision tree. The efficacy variable was Progression Free Survival, obtained from the PARAMOUNT, AVAIL and SAIL Phase III clinical trials. The study was conducted from the perspective of the hospital management, considering only the direct costs of drug acquisition. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted to confirm the robustness of outcomes. Results: The PFS obtained in clinical trials with cis/pem, cis/ gem/bev and carb/pac/bev was: 6.9, 6.7 and 6.2 months, respectively. Based on our model, the mean cost of treatment per patient for these regimens was: 19 942 €, 15 594 € and 36 095 €, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per month of additional PFS between cis/pem and cis/gem/bev was 19 303 €. Estimating a 30% reduction in acquisition costs for pemetrexed (Alimta®Eli Lilly Nederland B.V., due to the forthcoming launch of generic medications, the cis/pem treatment would become the predominant alternative for 1st line treatment of NSCLC patients, by offering the best health results at a lower cost.

  15. Cost-effective management of hydrocarbon plumes using monitored natural attenuation: case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Engineered remediation of hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at operating service station sites is expensive, disruptive, does not improve the management of risks to receptors, and does not provide certainty of outcome. When plumes are delineated, potential receptors identified and primary sources removed, monitored natural attenuation (MINA) is a cost-effective remediation option. If available, hydrocarbon concentration data from successive groundwater monitoring events showing that a plume is stable or reducing will provide enough primary evidence that natural attenuation is occurring. Where potential receptors will not be impacted in the short to medium term, MNA provides the same level of risk management as engineered remediation with much less cost, no disruption to the service station business, and with a certainty of meeting the objectives of the remediation

  16. Study protocol: Cost-effectiveness of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients in comparison with usual care

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    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren Marian AE

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a common consequence of disease in older patients. Both in hospital setting and in community setting oral nutritional support has proven to be effective. However, cost-effectiveness studies are scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients, starting at hospital admission until three months after discharge. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial. Patients are included at hospital admission and followed until three months after discharge. Patients are eligible to be included when they are ≥ 60 years old and malnourished according to the following objective standards: Body Mass Index (BMI in kg/m2 Conclusion In this randomized controlled trial we will evaluate the effect of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients after hospital discharge, compared to usual care. Primary endpoints of the study are changes in activities of daily living, body weight, body composition, quality of life, and muscle strength. An economic evaluation will be performed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in comparison with usual care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (ISRCTN29617677, registered 14-Sep-2005

  17. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen® for the treatment of bee and wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenhull, J; Elremeli, M; Cherry, M G; Mahon, J; Lai, M; Darroch, J; Oyee, J; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Boyle, R

    2012-01-01

    Each year in the UK, there are between two and nine deaths from anaphylaxis caused by bee and wasp venom. Anaphylactic reactions can occur rapidly following a sting and can progress to a life-threatening condition within minutes. To avoid further reactions in people with a history of anaphylaxis to bee and wasp venom, the use of desensitisation, through a process known as venom immunotherapy (VIT), has been investigated and is in use in the UK. VIT consists of subcutaneous injections of increasing amounts of purified bee and/or wasp venom extract. Pharmalgen® products (ALK Abelló) have had UK marketing authorisation for VIT (as well as diagnosis) of allergy to bee venom (using Pharmalgen Bee Venom) and wasp venom (using Pharmalgen Wasp Venom) since March 1995. This review assessed the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen in providing immunotherapy to individuals with a history of type 1 [immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated] systemic allergic reaction to bee and wasp venom. A comprehensive search strategy using a combination of index terms (e.g. Pharmalgen) and free-text words (e.g. allerg$) was developed and used to interrogate the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library. Papers were included if they studied venom immunotherapy using Pharmalgen (PhVIT) in patients who had previously experienced a systemic reaction to a bee and/or a wasp sting. Comparators were any alternative treatment options available in the NHS without VIT. Included outcomes were systemic reactions, local reactions, mortality, anxiety related to the possibility of future allergic reactions, health-related quality of life (QoL) and adverse reactions (ARs) to treatment. Cost-effectiveness outcomes included cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Because of the small number of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), no meta-analyses were conducted. A de novo economic model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of Ph

  18. Cost-effectiveness of budesonide Turbuhaler in the treatment of mild-to-moderate asthma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumasa Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma therapy including inhaled corticosteroids (ICS has been shown to be effective in many parts of the world, but its use is still limited in Japan. A 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was therefore undertaken to assess the efficacy of the ICS budesonide Turbuhaler (budesonide administered via the dry-powder inhaler Turbuhaler in patients in Japan with mild-to-moderate asthma. Prior to, and during, the study, all concomitant medications, except corticosteroid preparations, were allowed (i.e. all pre-study medication was to be maintained throughout the study. In total, 218 patients randomized to receive budesonide Turbuhaler 200 μg/day (n = 53, 400 μg/day (n = 55, 800 μg/day (n = 57 or placebo (n = 53 were included in the analysis. Due to the increased demand and interest for health economic data in Japan, this retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis reports on the economic impact of budesonide Turbuhaler compared with placebo (i.e. usual care, based on this clinical trial. At each dosage, budesonide Turbuhaler was significantly more effective than the placebo, according to the number of symptom-free and episode-free days. The number of emergency visits, days of lost production and days of hospitalization were all lower in the budesonide Turbuhaler groups, leading to significantly (P < 0.05 reduced total health-care and productivity costs compared with placebo. These findings were generally stable to sensitivity analysis. However, this reduction in costs will obviously have to be compared with the acquisition cost of budesonide Turbuhaler (which was excluded in the analysis as a price had not been determined when it becomes available on the market. Budesonide Turbuhaler, while improving the health of patients, could thus have a considerable impact on the costs of treating asthma in Japan, by shifting large hospital care costs towards relatively small out-patient medication costs.

  19. Recombinant interferon alpha 2b for ocular surface squamous neoplasia: An efficient and cost-effective treatment modality in Asian Indian patients

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    Swathi Kaliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to study the efficacy of interferon alpha 2b (INF α2b in the treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN and analyze its cost-effectiveness in India. Study Design: This was a retrospective study of thirty patients with OSSN treated with topical INF α2b (1 MIU/cc ± perilesional INF α2b (5 MIU/cc. Results: The tumor involved cornea (n = 9, 30%, conjunctivo-limbal-corneal surface (n = 19, 63%, or bulbar conjunctiva (n = 2, 7%. The mean basal dimension of the tumor was 16 mm. The tumors belonged to Tis (n = 6, 20% or T3 (n = 24, 80% based on the American Joint Committee Classification, 7th edition. In the six patients with Tis, three cycles of topical INF α2b were used for immunoprevention. In the remaining 24 patients, INF α2b was advised for immunoreduction, but served as immunotherapy with 100% tumor regression in 22 (92% cases, and resulted in 95% immunoreduction in 2 (6% cases. Complete tumor regression by immunotherapy (n = 22 was achieved with a mean number of three topical INF α2b cycles and two perilesional injections. All these 22 patients received three additional topical INF α2b cycles after complete tumor regression. For immunoreduction (n = 2, both patients received six cycles of topical INF α2b which was three perilesional INF α2b injections. The mean total treatment cost per patient with INF α2b was INR 9164 ($US 137. Based on maximum basal diameter of tumor at presentation, the mean total treatment cost per patient with INF α2b was INR 4866 ($US 73 for eyes with microscopic evidence of tumor residue (n = 6, INR 9607 ($US 143 for tumors ≤10 mm (n = 13, and INR 10,985 ($US 164 for tumors >10 mm (n = 11, with two patients needing additional surgical excision for complete tumor control. Conclusion: INF α2b can be used for immunoreduction, immunotherapy, or immunoprevention of OSSN. INF α2b is a cost-effective treatment modality for OSSN at an average total treatment cost of INR 9164 ($US

  20. Is total pancreatectomy as feasible, safe, efficacious, and cost-effective as pancreaticoduodenectomy? A single center, prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Riccardo; Ricci, Claudio; Taffurelli, Giovanni; Guariniello, Anna; Di Gioia, Anthony; Di Marco, Mariacristina; Pagano, Nico; Serra, Carla; Calculli, Lucia; Santini, Donatella; Minni, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Total pancreatectomy is actually considered a viable option in selected patients even if large comparative studies between partial versus total pancreatectomy are not currently available. Our aim was to evaluate whether total pancreatectomy can be considered as feasible, safe, efficacious, and cost-effective as pancreaticoduodenectomy. A single center, prospective, observational trial, regarding postoperative outcomes, long-term results, and cost-effectiveness, in a tertiary referral center was conducted, comparing consecutive patients who underwent elective total pancreatectomy and/or pancreaticoduodenectomy. Seventy-three consecutive elective total pancreatectomies and 184 pancreaticoduodenectomies were compared. There were no significant differences regarding postoperative outcomes and overall survival. The quality of life, evaluated in 119 patients according to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, showed that there were no significant differences regarding the five items considered. The mean EQ-5D-5L score was similar in the two procedures (total pancreatectomy = 0.872, range 0.345-1.000; pancreaticoduodenectomy = 0.832, range 0.393-1.000; P = 0.320). The impact of diabetes according to the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire did not show any significant differences except for question 13 (total pancreatectomy = 0.60; pancreaticoduodenectomy = 0.19; P = 0.022). The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that the quality-adjusted life year was not significantly different between the two procedures (total pancreatectomy = 0.910, range 0.345-1.000; pancreaticoduodenectomy = 0.910, range -0.393-1.000; P = 0.320). From this study, it seems reasonable to suggest that total pancreatectomy can be considered as safe, feasible, and efficacious as PD and acceptable in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  1. Regional disparity and cost-effective SO2 pollution control in China: A case study in 5 mega-cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada, Momoe; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Yujiro; Togawa, Takuya; Geng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development, increasing sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission becomes a key environmental issue in China. To respond to this challenge, the Chinese government established a top-down scheme to reduce its SO 2 emissions. However, regional disparity and the associated cost differences brought uncertainties to the policy effectiveness and efficiency. Few studies focus on this field. Therefore, this study tries to fill such a gap by investigating the differences of SO 2 emissions, reduction potential, and cost-effectiveness through use of the GAINS-China model in five mega-cities in China, namely, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, and Hong Kong. A scenario analysis approach is employed, focusing on two technologies named flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and limestone injection (LINJ). Results demonstrated that a large SO 2 reduction potential exists, as well as a great disparity, among the five mega-cities. Chongqing had the largest reduction potential with lowest unit cost, while Beijng and Hong Kong showed the lowest reduction potential with higher unit cost. In Beijing and Shanghai, FGD and LINJ in the power generation sector had the larger reduction potential with the highest cost-effectiveness. However, in Chongqing, the industry sectors also had large reduction potentials. Finally, appropriate SO 2 control strategies and policies are raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • The cost-effectiveness of SO 2 control policy was analyzed in five mega-cities in China. • Reduction potential and cost-effectiveness were closely linked to regional disparity. • Beijing and Hong Kong showed lower reduction potential and higher marginal reduction cost. • Chongqing showed the largest reduction potential and the lowest marginal reduction cost

  2. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report of the co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, Jacques [ed.

    1989-08-01

    This report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the coordinated research program on 'Comparison of Cost-effectiveness of Risk Reduction among different Energy Systems': Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; Cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposures in underground uranium mines; Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF{sub 6} by truck and trains.

  3. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report for the period 1 May 1982 - 20 February 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J [CEPN Centre d` Etude sur l` Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

    1989-08-01

    The report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the co-ordinated research programme on ``Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness of Risk Reduction Among Different Energy Systems``: cost-effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposure in underground uranium mines; cost effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF{sub 6} by truck and trains. Figs and tabs.

  4. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report for the period 1 May 1982 - 20 February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1989-08-01

    The report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the co-ordinated research programme on ''Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness of Risk Reduction Among Different Energy Systems'': cost-effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposure in underground uranium mines; cost effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF 6 by truck and trains. Figs and tabs

  5. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of interferon beta-1b as treatment for patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, C

    2016-05-01

    The BENEFIT study has demonstrated the benefits of early treatment with interferon beta 1b (IFNβ-1b). The objective of this study was to estimate the efficiency of early vs delayed IFNβ-1b treatment in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Spain. A Markov model reflecting the social perspective was developed with time horizons ranging from 2 years to lifetime. A cohort of 1000 patients with CIS, whose health status had been measured on the Expanded Disability Symptom Scale (EDSS), included patients who received early IFNβ-1b treatment and those who did not. Data from the BENEFIT study were used to model EDSS progression and transitions to MS. Costs were estimated from published literature. Patient utilities were derived from EQ-5D data and published data. Mortality was estimated using life tables and EDSS data. Costs (€ at 2013 rates) and outcomes were discounted at 3% per annum. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. In the base case, both the incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of IFNβ-1b versus no treatment were dominant (more effective and less costly) from a social perspective. From the perspective of the Spanish Health System, the ICUR was € 40,702/QALY and the ICER was € 13/relapse avoided. Early treatment with IFNβ-1b after a CIS versus delayed treatment is efficient from a social perspective, but it may not be efficient from the pers