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Sample records for cost thermopile detectors

  1. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as

  2. Magnon-drag thermopile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Marius V; Bridoux, German; Neumann, Ingmar; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2011-12-18

    Thermoelectric effects in spintronics are gathering increasing attention as a means of managing heat in nanoscale structures and of controlling spin information by using heat flow. Thermal magnons (spin-wave quanta) are expected to play a major role; however, little is known about the underlying physical mechanisms involved. The reason is the lack of information about magnon interactions and of reliable methods to obtain it, in particular for electrical conductors because of the intricate influence of electrons. Here, we demonstrate a conceptually new device that enables us to gather information on magnon-electron scattering and magnon-drag effects. The device resembles a thermopile formed by a large number of pairs of ferromagnetic wires placed between a hot and a cold source and connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. By controlling the relative orientation of the magnetization in pairs of wires, the magnon drag can be studied independently of the electron and phonon-drag thermoelectric effects. Measurements as a function of temperature reveal the effect on magnon drag following a variation of magnon and phonon populations. This information is crucial to understand the physics of electron-magnon interactions, magnon dynamics and thermal spin transport.

  3. Low-cost radon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, W.E.; Powers, T.L.; Ernsberger, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a detector for alpha particles produced by radioactive decay in a test medium. It comprises: a solid state diode having a depletion layer disposed close enough to the test medium that alpha particles emitted in the test medium deposit energy in the depletion layer; a first amplifier connected to amplify a signal produced by the diode. The first amplifier being operable to produce an output pulse upon energy being deposited in the depletion layer; a second amplifier having at least one connection in common with the first amplifier. The second amplifier having inputs connected other than to the signal produced by the diode. Both the first and second amplifiers produce output pulses due to transients and only the first amplifier produces output pulses due to alpha particles; and means to sense output pulses occurring on the first amplifier only, and to ignore output pulses occurring on both the first and second amplifiers

  4. Roll Angle Estimation Using Thermopiles for a Flight Controlled Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Using Xilinx’s System generator, the entire design was implemented at a relatively high level within Malab’s Simulink. This allowed VHDL code to...thermopile data with a Recursive Least Squares (RLS) filter implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). These results demonstrate the...accurately estimated by processing the thermopile data with a Recursive Least Squares (RLS) filter implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA

  5. Human location estimation using thermopile array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnin, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Utilization of Thermopile sensor at an early stage of human detection is challenging as there are many things that produce thermal heat other than human such as electrical appliances and animals. Therefrom, an algorithm for early presence detection has been developed through the study of human body temperature behaviour with respect to the room temperature. The change in non-contact detected temperature of human varied according to body parts. In an indoor room, upper parts of human body change up to 3°C whereas lower part ranging from 0.58°C to 1.71°C. The average changes in temperature of human is used as a conditional set-point value in the program algorithm to detect human presence. The current position of human and its respective angle is gained when human is presence at certain pixels of Thermopile’s sensor array. Human position is estimated successfully as the developed sensory system is tested to the actuator of a stand fan.

  6. Micromachined Polycrystalline Si Thermopiles in a T-shirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Leonov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology for in-plane poly-Si thermopiles has been developed. The bulk-micromachined thermopiles are located between two Si bars and connected thermally with those bars through thin-film thermal shunts. The patterned strips of thermocouple material together with thermal shunts form bridges between Si bars. Two versions of a thermoelectric generator (TEG with micromachined thermopiles have been assembled and tested on a person’s wrist, and when integrated in a T-shirt. The TEG still produces less than 1 μW in the office, but at ambient temperatures below 11-13 °C it produces more than 1 μW at a voltage of more than 2 V on the matched load. The new way of integration of wearable TEG in clothing is shown. The TEG is located under the textile, and the fabric is used as a flexible radiator.

  7. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  8. Metallization and photolithographic processes and procedures for MC2730 RTG thermopile intraconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, E.E.; Wright, R.E.; Knauss, G.L.

    1974-03-01

    Processes and procedures were developed for applying the thin film tungsten electrical intraconnections to the MC2730 RTG ''one-dimensional'' thermopile. After polishing, the surface to be metallized was cleaned with a detergent/organic solvent procedure and then etched with hydrofluoric acid to minimize the oxide. Tungsten contacts were sputtered onto the thermopile and the individual contacts photolithographically defined using a negative acting photoresist in conjunction with a potassium ferricyanide etchant. The processes were used to process 89 thermopiles with an 80 percent effective yield

  9. A Radiation Hardened by Design CMOS ASIC for Thermopile Readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, G.; Aslam, S.; DuMonthier, J.

    2012-01-01

    A radiation hardened by design (RHBD) mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed for a thermopile readout for operation in the harsh Jovian orbital environment. The multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC includes 18 low noise amplifier channels which have tunable gain/filtering coefficients, a 16-bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The 18 channels, SDADC and controller were designed to operate with immunity to single event latchup (SEL) and to at least 10 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID). The ASIC also contains a radiation tolerant 16-bit 20 MHz Nyquist ADC for general purpose instrumentation digitizer needs. The ASIC is currently undergoing fabrication in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Although this ASIC was designed specifically for the harsh radiation environment of the NASA led JEO mission it is suitable for integration into instrumentation payloads 011 the ESA JUICE mission where the radiation hardness requirements are slightly less stringent.

  10. EMC Phenomena in HEP Detectors: Prevention and Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) studies applied to high-energy physics (HEP) detectors. They are focused on the quantification of the front-end electronic (FEE) sensitivity to conductive noise coupled through the input/output cables. Immunity tests performed on FEE prototypes of both the CMS hadron calorimeter and the CMS silicon tracker are presented. These tests characterize the sensitivity of the FEE to common and differential mode noise coupled through the power cables and the slow control network. Immunity tests allow evaluating the weakest areas of the system to take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector, saving time and important costs

  11. A mathematical model of heat flow in a thermopile for measuring muscle heat production: implications for design and signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2015-09-01

    Contracting muscles produce heat which largely arises from the biochemical reactions that provide the energy for contraction. Measurements of muscle heat production have made, and continue to make, important contributions to our understanding of the bases of contraction. Most measurements of muscle heat production are made using a thermopile, consisting of a series of thermocouples arranged so that alternate thermocouples are in thermal contact with the muscle and with an isothermal reference. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed of a muscle lying on a thermopile consisting of antimony-bismuth thermocouples sandwiched between polymer sheets. The validity of the model was demonstrated by its ability to accurately predict thermopile outputs in response to applying heat to the thermopile surface, to generating heat in the thermocouples using the Peltier effect and to adding heat capacity on the thermopile surface. The model was then used to show how practical changes to thermopile construction could minimise response time and thermopile heat capacity and allow measurement of very low rates of heat production. The impulse response of a muscle-thermopile system was generated using the model and used to illustrate how a measured signal can be deconvolved with the impulse response to correct for lag introduced by the thermopile.

  12. A low-cost electrically pulsed shower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conversi, M; Gentile, S; Nardi, M

    1976-01-01

    A sampling total absorption detector characterized by an extremely low cost and providing also identification of particle tracks has been developed. Preliminary results on the performance of a model with 14 radiation lengths, exposed to electrons of energies E up to 4 GeV, show that this instrument can measure the primary electron energy with an accuracy (r.m.s.) $\\Delta E/E= \\pm(12 $%) / $\\sqrt E$ (E in GeV).

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Marcel; Lang, Walter; Dumstorff, Gerrit

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Reimers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  15. A LOW-COST GPR GAS PIPE & LEAK DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Cist; Alan Schutz

    2005-03-30

    A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

  16. Flow Type Bio-Chemical Calorimeter with Micro Differential Thermopile Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masataka; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis. The flow-type calorimeter consists of the MEMS differential thermopile sensor, a pair of micro channel reactor in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sheet in a three-fold thermostat chamber. The calorimeter in the passive mode was tested with dilution reactions of ethanol to water and NaCl aqueous solution to water. It was shown that the calorimeter detects exo- and endothermic reaction over 250 nW at solution flow rate of 0.05 ~ 1 µl/min with a settling time of about 4 minutes. In the active mode, a response test was conducted by using heat removal by water flow from the reactor channel. The active calorimetry enhances the response time about three to four times faster.

  17. Cost effective electronics for LAr and photo-detectors readout

    CERN Document Server

    Centro, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The T600 ICARUS detector has a DAQ system that has proved a quite satisfactory performance in the test run performed in Pavia in summer 2001. The electronics has been described in various papers and technical notes. In this paper, starting from the experience gained in the T600 operation, we propose an upgraded DAQ scheme that implements the same basic architecture with more performing new components and different modularity in view a multi-kton TPC (e.g. MODULAr) with a number of channels in the order of ~n*105. Also the electronics for PMTs detecting scintillation light in Ar will be shortly presented.

  18. CDL, a Precise, Low-Cost Coincidence Detector Latch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Joost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic detection of the coincidence of two events is still a key ingredient for high-performance applications, such as Positron Emission Tomography and Quantum Optics. Such applications are demanding, since the precision of their calculations and thus their conclusions directly depend on the duration of the interval in which two events are considered coincidental. This paper proposes a new circuitry, called coincidence detector latch (CDL, which is derived from standard RS latches. The CDL has the following advantages: low complexity, fully synthesizable, and high scalability. Even in its simple implementation, it achieves a coincidence window width as short as 115 ps, which is more than 10 times better than that reported by recent research.

  19. Performance of low-cost X-ray area detectors with consumer digital cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panna, A.; Gomella, A.A.; Harmon, K.J.; Chen, P.; Miao, H.; Bennett, E.E.; Wen, H.

    2015-01-01

    We constructed X-ray detectors using consumer-grade digital cameras coupled to commercial X-ray phosphors. Several detector configurations were tested against the Varian PaxScan 3024M (Varian 3024M) digital flat panel detector. These include consumer cameras (Nikon D800, Nikon D700, and Nikon D3X) coupled to a green emission phosphor in a back-lit, normal incidence geometry, and in a front-lit, oblique incidence geometry. We used the photon transfer method to evaluate detector sensitivity and dark noise, and the edge test method to evaluate their spatial resolution. The essential specifications provided by our evaluation include discrete charge events captured per mm 2 per unit exposure surface dose, dark noise in equivalents of charge events per pixel, and spatial resolution in terms of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the detector's line spread function (LSF). Measurements were performed using a tungsten anode X-ray tube at 50 kVp. The results show that the home-built detectors provide better sensitivity and lower noise than the commercial flat panel detector, and some have better spatial resolution. The trade-off is substantially smaller imaging areas. Given their much lower costs, these home-built detectors are attractive options for prototype development of low-dose imaging applications

  20. Thin film encapsulated 1D thermoelectric detector in an IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    A thermopile-based detector array for use in a miniaturized Infrared (IR) spectrometer has been designed and fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The emphasis is on the optimal of the detector array at the system level, while considering the thermal design, the dimensional constraints

  1. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069357; Blank, Thomas; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The sh...

  2. Computational cost for detecting inspiralling binaries using a network of laser interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Archana; Bose, Sukanta; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev

    2002-01-01

    We extend a coherent network data-analysis strategy developed earlier for detecting Newtonian waveforms to the case of post-Newtonian (PN) waveforms. Since the PN waveform depends on the individual masses of the inspiralling binary, the parameter-space dimension increases by one from that of the Newtonian case. We obtain the number of templates and estimate the computational costs for PN waveforms: for a lower mass limit of 1M o-dot , for LIGO-I noise and with 3% maximum mismatch, the online computational speed requirement for single detector is a few Gflops; for a two-detector network it is hundreds of Gflops and for a three-detector network it is tens of Tflops. Apart from idealistic networks, we obtain results for realistic networks comprising of LIGO and VIRGO. Finally, we compare costs incurred in a coincidence detection strategy with those incurred in the coherent strategy detailed above

  3. Computational cost for detecting inspiralling binaries using a network of laser interferometric detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pai, A; Dhurandhar, S V

    2002-01-01

    We extend a coherent network data-analysis strategy developed earlier for detecting Newtonian waveforms to the case of post-Newtonian (PN) waveforms. Since the PN waveform depends on the individual masses of the inspiralling binary, the parameter-space dimension increases by one from that of the Newtonian case. We obtain the number of templates and estimate the computational costs for PN waveforms: for a lower mass limit of 1M sub o sub - sub d sub o sub t , for LIGO-I noise and with 3% maximum mismatch, the online computational speed requirement for single detector is a few Gflops; for a two-detector network it is hundreds of Gflops and for a three-detector network it is tens of Tflops. Apart from idealistic networks, we obtain results for realistic networks comprising of LIGO and VIRGO. Finally, we compare costs incurred in a coincidence detection strategy with those incurred in the coherent strategy detailed above.

  4. Microwave frequency detector at X-band using GaAs MMIC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Liao Xiaoping; Jiao Yongchang

    2009-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and experimental results of an MEMS microwave frequency detector are presented for the first time. The structure consists of a microwave power divider, two CPW transmission lines, a microwave power combiner, an MEMS capacitive power sensor and a thermopile. The detector has been designed and fabricated on GaAs substrate using the MMIC process at the X-band successfully. The MEMS capacitive power sensor is used for detecting the high power signal, while the thermopile is used for detecting the low power signal. Signals of 17 and 10 dBm are measured over the X-band. The sensitivity is 0.56 MHz/fF under 17 dBm by the capacitive power sensor, and 6.67 MHz/μV under 10 dBm by the thermopile, respectively. The validity of the presented design has been confirmed by the experiment.

  5. Portable low-cost flat panel detectors for real-time digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovea, Mihai; Neagu, Marian; Stefanescu, Bogdan; Mateiasi, Gabriela; Porosnicu, Ioana; Angheluta, Elena [Accent Pro 2000 S.R.L., Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-01

    The X-ray inspection is one of the most common used non-destructive testing methods in industry applications, but for the portable X-ray digital solution are not so many accessible, low-cost and versatile detection devices. The efficiency of a non-destructive X-ray portable device is represented by the quality of digital images, by its low acquisition time combined with a high resolution, in condition of low noise and at an affordable cost. The paper presents two X-ray portable imaging systems developed by us, suitable also for aerospace NDT applications, which are also very versatile for being easily adapted for other fields that requires mobile solutions. The first device described in the paper represent a portable large-size (210 mm X 550 mm) and high-resolution (27/54 microns) flat panel detector based on linear translation of a X-Ray TDI detector, destined for various components/parts real-time transmission measurements. The second system it is also a flat panel detectors, with a size of 510 mm X 610 mm, with the detector size from 0.2 mm until 1.5 mm, which can operate by applying the dual-energy method, very useful for discriminating materials by evaluating their Atomic effective number. The high resolution and low-cost of this flat-panels widens their applicability by covering large requirements, from identifying unwanted materials within a structure until detection of very thin cracks in complex components.

  6. Portable low-cost flat panel detectors for real-time digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovea, Mihai; Neagu, Marian; Stefanescu, Bogdan; Mateiasi, Gabriela; Porosnicu, Ioana; Angheluta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray inspection is one of the most common used non-destructive testing methods in industry applications, but for the portable X-ray digital solution are not so many accessible, low-cost and versatile detection devices. The efficiency of a non-destructive X-ray portable device is represented by the quality of digital images, by its low acquisition time combined with a high resolution, in condition of low noise and at an affordable cost. The paper presents two X-ray portable imaging systems developed by us, suitable also for aerospace NDT applications, which are also very versatile for being easily adapted for other fields that requires mobile solutions. The first device described in the paper represent a portable large-size (210 mm X 550 mm) and high-resolution (27/54 microns) flat panel detector based on linear translation of a X-Ray TDI detector, destined for various components/parts real-time transmission measurements. The second system it is also a flat panel detectors, with a size of 510 mm X 610 mm, with the detector size from 0.2 mm until 1.5 mm, which can operate by applying the dual-energy method, very useful for discriminating materials by evaluating their Atomic effective number. The high resolution and low-cost of this flat-panels widens their applicability by covering large requirements, from identifying unwanted materials within a structure until detection of very thin cracks in complex components.

  7. Thermopiles - a new thermal desorption technology for recycling highly organic contaminated soils down to natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemers, J.; Cardot, J.; Falcinelli, U.; Zwaan, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Thermopile R technology, developed by Deep Green, provides an implementation system allowing to treat hydrocarbon and PAH contaminated materials down to natural levels or down to levels where they are treatable with a traditional thermal desorption unit, in a controlled batch system. The materials are indirectly heated while a substantial part of the energy is reused to heat the pile of soil. The system differs from most of the indirect thermal desorption systems by its very high energetic efficiency as well as its ability to be set -up remotely. The system does not face preferential path problems, since the heating medium is only conduction, which is very indifferent with regard to soil type (clay, sand, silt, etc.). That property is critical to an in-depth clean-up with a batch system. Other systems, based on heat, are mostly sending heat vectors (gases, hot air, steam, etc.) through the soil, which implies preferential paths, which are the main cause for not completely cleaning the soil with most batch technologies (down to natural levels). The soil to treat is placed in a pile or in a modular container in which perforated steel pipes are installed along a hexagonal pattern. During treatment those pipes are heated by hot gases (about 600 deg. C) coming from the afterburner. Consequently the soil reaches the contaminant's desorption temperature. The desorbed pollutants are then drawn by convection and diffusion into the heating pipes via the perforations. Once in the pipes the desorbed gases are mixed with the heating gases. They are sucked by the ID fan and sent to the afterburner. The hydrocarbons in gaseous phase are then oxidized in the afterburner. In this manner, they provide a part of the energy needed to heat the soil itself. The pilot unit is also equipped with a purge that allows the evacuation of a part of the gases circulating in the system; Different additional gas treatments can be applied as required by the type of contaminants and the

  8. Performance of semiconductor radiation sensors for simple and low-cost radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Birumachi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a simple but reliable radiation detector for the general public, photon detection performances of radiation sensors have been studied in photon calibration fields and by Monte Carlo simulations. A silicon p-i-n photodiode and a CdTe detector were selected for the low cost sensors. Their energy responses to ambient dose equivalent H * (10) were evaluated over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The response of the CdTe decreases markedly with increasing photon energy. On the other hand, the photodiode has the advantage of almost flat response above 150 keV. The sensitivities of these sensors are 4 to 6 cpm for the natural radiation. Detection limits of the radiation level are low enough to know the extreme increase of radiation due to emergency situations of nuclear power plants, fuel treatment facilities and so on. (author)

  9. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Lejeune, P.; Lasri, T.; Leclercq, D. [IEMN, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS and Lille 1 University, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Savelli, G.; Hauser, D.; Michon, P.-M. [CEA, LITEN, Thermoelectricity Laboratory, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28

    This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (μSIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of μSIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in μSIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.

  10. Design issues of a low cost lock-in amplifier readout circuit for an infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, L.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the past, high resolution thermal sensors required expensive cooling techniques making the early thermal imagers expensive to operate and cumbersome to transport, limiting them mainly to military applications. However, the introduction of uncooled microbolometers has overcome many of earlier problems and now shows great potential for commercial optoelectric applications. The structure of uncooled microbolometer sensors, especially their smaller size, makes them attractive in low cost commercial applications requiring high production numbers with relatively low performance requirements. However, the biasing requirements of these microbolometers cause these sensors to generate a substantial amount of noise on the output measurements due to self-heating. Different techniques to reduce this noise component have been attempted, such as pulsed biasing currents and the use of blind bolometers as common mode reference. These techniques proved to either limit the performance of the microbolometer or increase the cost of their implementation. The development of a low cost lock-in amplifier provides a readout technique to potentially overcome these challenges. High performance commercial lock-in amplifiers are very expensive. Using this as a readout circuit for a microbolometer will take away from the low manufacturing cost of the detector array. Thus, the purpose of this work was to develop a low cost readout circuit using the technique of phase sensitive detection and customizing this as a readout circuit for microbolometers. The hardware and software of the readout circuit was designed and tested for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the microbolometer signal. An optical modulation system was also developed in order to effectively identify the desired signal from the noise with the use of the readout circuit. A data acquisition and graphical user interface sub system was added in order to display the signal recovered by the readout circuit. The readout

  11. Surface modification of SU-8 for metal/SU-8 adhesion using RF plasma treatment for application in thermopile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, Shakeel; Mattsson, Claes G; Thungström, Göran; Fondell, Mattis; Lindblad, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on plasma treatment of SU-8 epoxy in order to enhance adhesive strength for metals. Its samples were fabricated on standard silicon wafers and treated with (O 2 and Ar) RF plasma at a power of 25 W at a low pressure of (3 × 10 −3 Torr) for different time spans (10–70 s). The sample surfaces were characterized in terms of contact angle, surface (roughness and chemistry) and using a tape test. During the contact angle measurement, it was observed that the contact angle was reduced from 73° to 5° (almost wet) and 23° for (O 2 and Ar) treated samples, respectively. The root mean square surface roughness was significantly increased by 21.5% and 37.2% for (O 2 and Ar) treatment, respectively. A pattern of metal squares was formed on the samples using photolithography for a tape test. An adhesive tape was applied to the samples and peeled off at 180°. The maximum adhesion results, more than 90%, were achieved for the O 2 -treated samples, whereas the Ar-treated samples showed no change. The XPS study shows the formation of new species in the O 2 -treated sample compared to the Ar-treated samples. The high adhesive results were due to the formation of hydrophilic groups and new O 2 species in the O 2 -treated samples, which were absent in Ar-treated samples. (paper)

  12. Multisensor analyzer detector (MSAD) for low cost chemical and aerosol detection and pattern fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David C.; Merdes, Daniel W.; Lysak, Daniel B., Jr.; Curtis, Richard C.; Lang, Derek C.; Mazzara, Andrew F.; Nicholas, Nicholas C.

    2002-08-01

    MSAD is being developed as a low-cost point detection chemical and biological sensor system designed around an information fusion inference engine that also allows additional sensors to be included in the detection process. The MSAD concept is based on probable cause detection of hazardous chemical vapors and aerosols of either chemical or biological composition using a small portable unit containing an embedded computer system and several integrated sensors with complementary capabilities. The configuration currently envisioned includes a Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensor of chemical vapors and a detector of respirable aerosols based on Fraunhofer diffraction. Additional sensors employing Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) detection, Flame Photometric Detection (FPD), and other principles are candidates for integration into the device; also, available commercial detectors implementing IMS, SAW, and FPD will be made accessible to the unit through RS232 ports. Both feature and decision level information fusion is supported using a Continuous Inference Network (CINET) of fuzzy logic. Each class of agents has a unique CINET with information inputs from a number of available sensors. Missing or low confidence sensor information is gracefully blended out of the output confidence for the particular agent. This approach constitutes a plug and play arrangement between the sensors and the information pattern recognition algorithms. We are currently doing simulant testing and developing out CINETs for actual agent testing at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) later this year.

  13. Low‐cost flexible thin‐film detector for medical dosimetry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkai, C.; Han, Z.; Shulevich, Y.; Menichelli, D.; Hesser, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin‐film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin‐film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low‐power operation, and low‐cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin‐film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm2 – cm2 areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device use for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm×5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin‐film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low‐power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low‐noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are use to irradiate

  14. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin-film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin-film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low-power operation, and low-cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin-film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm² - cm² areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device used for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm × 5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin-film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low-power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low-noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are used to irradiate different thin

  15. Low-Cost Voltage Zero-Crossing Detector for AC-Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyov Maxim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are becoming more popular. Some of them like small hydropower turbines, wind turbines and diesel generators produce AC voltage with different frequency and voltage than the main grid. For them power electronics converters are necessary. Power electronics converters presented in industry use two or three level energy conversion, although direct AC to AC converters exist, but one of the main problems is the switch commutation when current or voltage is crossing the zero point. Zero crossing sensors are used to solve this problem. They consist of current or voltage measurement unit and zero crossing detector. Different approaches are used for zero crossing: hardware or software. Hardware approach is simple but it has low precision. Software approach has high precision but it is complicated and expensive. In this paper a simple low cost high precision approach is presented. It takes all advantages from both approaches. While tested with two types of microcontrollers the precision of experimental measurement is 25 μs - 40 μs.

  16. A High Density Low Cost Digital Signal Processing Module for Large Scale Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson T.; Grudberg, Peter M.; Warburton, William K.

    2013-06-01

    A 32-channel digital spectrometer PIXIE-32 is being developed for nuclear physics or other radiation detection applications requiring digital signal processing with large number of channels at relatively low cost. A single PIXIE-32 provides spectrometry and waveform acquisition for 32 input signals per module whereas multiple modules can be combined into larger systems. It is based on the PCI Express standard which allows data transfer rates to the host computer of up to 800 MB/s. Each of the 32 channels in a PIXIE-32 module accepts signals directly from a detector preamplifier or photomultiplier. Digitally controlled offsets can be individually adjusted for each channel. Signals are digitized in 12-bit, 50 MHz multi-channel ADCs. Triggering, pile-up inspection and filtering of the data stream are performed in real time, and pulse heights and other event data are calculated on an event-by event basis. The hardware architecture, internal and external triggering features, and the spectrometry and waveform acquisition capability of the PIXIE- 32 as well as its capability to distribute clock and triggers among multiple modules, are presented. (authors)

  17. Progress on uncooled PbSe detectors for low-cost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, German; Gomez, Luis J.; Villamayor, Victor; Alvarez, M.; Rodrigo, Maria T.; del Carmen Torquemada, Maria; Sanchez, Fernando J.; Verdu, Marina; Diezhandino, Jorge; Rodriguez, Purificacion; Catalan, Irene; Almazan, Rosa; Plaza, Julio; Montojo, Maria T.

    2004-08-01

    This work reports on progress on development of polycrystalline PbSe infrared detectors at the Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Armada (CIDA). Since mid nineties, the CIDA owns an innovative technology for processing uncooled MWIR detectors of polycrystalline PbSe. Based on this technology, some applications have been developed. However, future applications demand smarter, more complex, faster yet cheaper detectors. Aiming to open new perspectives to polycrystalline PbSe detectors, we are currently working on different directions: 1) Processing of 2D arrays: a) Designing and processing low density x-y addressed arrays with 16x16 and 32x32 elements, as an extension of our standard technology. b) Trying to make compatible standard CMOS and polycrystalline PbSe technologies in order to process monolithic large format arrays. 2) Adding new features to the detector such as monolithically integrated spectral discrimination.

  18. Observation of microwave radiation using low-cost detectors at the ANKA storage ring*

    CERN Document Server

    Judin, V; Hofmann, A; Huttel, E; Kehrer, B; Klein, M; Marsching, S; Müller, A S; Nasse, M; Smale, N; Caspers, F; Peier, P

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources emit Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) for wavelengths longer than or equal to the bunch length. At most storage rings CSR cannot be observed, because the vacuum chamber cuts off radiation with long wavelengths. There are different approaches for shifting the CSR to shorter wavelengths that can propagate through the beam pipe, e.g.: the accelerator optics can be optimized for a low momentum compaction factor, thus reducing the bunch length. Alternatively, laser slicing can modulate substructures on long bunches [1]. Both techniques extend the CSR spectrum to shorter wavelengths, so that CSR is emitted at wavelengths below the waveguide shielding cut off. Usually fast detectors, like superconducting bolometer detector systems or Schottky barrier diodes, are used for observation of dynamic processes in accelerator physics. In this paper, we present observations of microwave radiation at ANKA using an alternative detector, a LNB (Low Noise Block) system. These devices are usually use...

  19. Proposal of low-cost COTS safety MCU for radiation tolerant controls in CBM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Kebschull, Udo [Infrastructure and Computer Systems in Data Processing, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Amid general necessity of a robust slow control system for detectors, a DCS board with a cheap COTS MCU conceived for safety critical applications, and that supports conventional RTEMS+EPICS, is being designed for hostile environments. E.g. To operate inside detectors. For this purpose such MCU, which has redundancy features like lockstep run and ECC-SECDED error correction on flash and SRAM internal memories, was tested under radiation condition at the SPS beamtime parasitically to a detector test in CERN. In this preliminary beam-test, RTEMS+EPICS simplifies controls management and in this case supported data acquisition by monitoring the fault registers of the MCU and transmitting them with the ethernet interface, as a backup method the JTAG was used to inspect such registers to confirm the register reads. The results suggest that this is a reliable MCU for hostile conditions.

  20. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  1. An efficient and cost-effective microchannel plate detector for slow neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, B. B.; Vadas, J.; Bancroft, D.; deSouza, Z. O.; Huston, J.; Hudan, S.; Baxter, D. V.; deSouza, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach for efficiently imaging objects with slow neutrons in two dimensions is realized. Neutron sensitivity is achieved by use of a boron doped microchannel plate (MCP). The resulting electron avalanche is further amplified with a Z-stack MCP before being sensed by two orthogonally oriented wire planes. Coupling of the wire planes to delay lines efficiently encodes the position information as a time difference. To determine the position resolution, slow neutrons were used to illuminate a Cd-mask placed directly in front of the detector. Peaks in the resulting spectrum exhibited an average peak width of 329 μm FWHM, corresponding to an average intrinsic resolution of 216 μm. The center region of the detector exhibits a significantly better spatial resolution with an intrinsic resolution of <100 μm observed.

  2. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  3. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo moro 2, Rome, I-00185 (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  4. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  5. Report of the compact detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkby, J.; Kondo, T.; Olsen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

  6. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  7. Low-Cost, Fiber-Optic Hydrogen Gas Detector Using Guided-Wave, Surface-Plasmon Resonance in Chemochromic Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Haberman, D.P.; Hishmeh, G.A.; Ciszek, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Low-cost, hydrogen-gas-leak detectors are needed for many hydrogen applications, such as hydrogen-fueled vehicles where several detectors may be required in different locations on each vehicle. A fiber-optic leak detector could be inherently safer than conventional detectors, because it would remove all detector electronics from the vicinity of potential leaks. It would also provide freedom from electromagnetic interference, a serious problem in fuel-cell-powered electric vehicles. This paper describes the design of a fiber-optic, surface-plasmon-resonance hydrogen detector, and efforts to make it more sensitive, selective, and durable. Chemochromic materials, such as tungsten oxide and certain Lanthanide hydrides, can reversibly react with hydrogen in air while exhibiting significant changes in their optical properties. Thin films of these materials applied to a sensor at the end of an optical fiber have been used to detect low concentrations of hydrogen gas in air. The coatings include a thin silver layer in which the surface plasmon is generated, a thin film of the chemochromic material, and a catalytic layer of palladium that facilitates the reaction with hydrogen. The film thickness is chosen to produce a guided-surface plasmon wave along the interface between the silver and the chemochromic material. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the reflected spectrum into a portion near the resonance and a portion away from the resonance, and directs these two portions to two separate photodiodes. The electronic ratio of these two signals cancels most of the fiber transmission noise and provides a stable hydrogen signal

  8. Development of a cost efficient methodology to perform allocation of flammable and toxic gas detectors applying CFD tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, Rafael Brod; Rocha, Gean Felipe Almeida [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nalvarte, Gladys Augusta Zevallos [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Novik (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    This paper is aimed to present a computational procedure for flammable and toxic gas detector allocation and quantification developed by DNV. The proposed methodology applies Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations as well as operational and safety characteristics of the analyzed region to assess the optimal number of toxic and flammable gas detectors and their optimal location. A probabilistic approach is also used when applying the DNV software ThorEXPRESSLite, following NORSOK Z013 Annex G and presented in HUSER et al. 2000 and HUSER et al. 2001, when the flammable gas detectors are assessed. A DNV developed program, DetLoc, is used to run in an iterative way the procedure described above leading to an automatic calculation of the gas detectors location and number. The main advantage of the methodology presented above is the independence of human interaction in the gas detector allocation leading to a more precise and free of human judgment allocation. Thus, a reproducible allocation is generated when comparing several different analyses and a global criteria appliance is guaranteed through different regions in the same project. A case study is presented applying the proposed methodology. (author)

  9. Far infrared thermal detectors for laser radiometry using a carbon nanotube array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, John H.; Lee, Bob; Grossman, Erich N.

    2011-07-20

    We present a description of a 1.5 mm long, vertically aligned carbon nanotube array (VANTA) on a thermopile and separately on a pyroelectric detector. Three VANTA samples, having average lengths of 40 {mu}m, 150 {mu}m, and 1.5 mm were evaluated with respect to reflectance at a laser wavelength of 394 {mu}m(760 GHz), and we found that the reflectance decreases substantially with increasing tube length, ranging from 0.38 to 0.23 to 0.01, respectively. The responsivity of the thermopile by electrical heating (98.4 mA/W) was equal to that by optical heating (98.0 mA/W) within the uncertainty of the measurement. We analyzed the frequency response and temporal response and found a thermal decay period of 500 ms, which is consistent with the specific heat of comparable VANTAs in the literature. The extremely low (0.01) reflectance of the 1.5 mm VANTAs and the fact that the array is readily transferable to the detector's surface is, to our knowledge, unprecedented.

  10. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  11. The concept of an ACEX(R) cost-effective first level surface detector trigger in the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the new design of the first level trigger for the surface array in the Pierre Auger Observatory. The previous design was tested in a small test segment called Engineering Array (EA). It confirmed full functionality and reliability of the PLD approach. However, because of the high price of the chips available at that time, a new cost-effective design was developed. Altera ( R) offered cost-effective family, which allows reducing the total budget of the electronics without compromise in the functionality. The here described concept of a splitting of data processing into two sub-channels implemented into the parallel working chips, the chips synchronization and the automatization of internal processing management, together with the fully pipelined AHDL code became the framework for the further implementation in the environmental condition of the Argentinian pampa

  12. Development of a low cost, GPS-based upgrade to a standard handheld gamma detector for mapping environmental radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaens, J

    2006-02-01

    A low cost extension to a standard handheld radiation monitor was developed, allowing one to perform outdoor georeferenced gamma measurements. It consists of a commercial wireless Bluetooth GPS receiver, a commercial RS-232 to Bluetooth converter combined with a standard Bluetooth enabled pocket personal computer (PPC). The system is intended for use in difficult to access areas, typically for foot campaigns. As the operator walks, a straightforward homemade visual basic program alternately reads GPS position and gamma dose rate into the PPC, creating a data log. This allows a single operator on foot to map between 50 and 200 ha of environmental radiation per day in very rugged areas, depending on the accessibility of the terrain and the detail required. On a test field with known contamination, a spatial precision of about 5-10 m was obtainable. The device was also used to reveal complex contamination patterns in the flooding zones of a radioactively contaminated small river.

  13. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  14. Development of a low cost, GPS-based upgrade to a standard handheld gamma detector for mapping environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2006-01-01

    A low cost extension to a standard handheld radiation monitor was developed, allowing one to perform outdoor georeferenced gamma measurements. It consists of a commercial wireless Bluetooth[reg] GPS receiver, a commercial RS-232 to Bluetooth[reg] converter combined with a standard Bluetooth[reg] enabled pocket personal computer (PPC). The system is intended for use in difficult to access areas, typically for foot campaigns. As the operator walks, a straightforward homemade visual basic program alternately reads GPS position and gamma dose rate into the PPC, creating a data log. This allows a single operator on foot to map between 50 and 200 ha of environmental radiation per day in very rugged areas, depending on the accessibility of the terrain and the detail required. On a test field with known contamination, a spatial precision of about 5-10 m was obtainable. The device was also used to reveal complex contamination patterns in the flooding zones of a radioactively contaminated small river

  15. Development of a low cost, GPS-based upgrade to a standard handheld gamma detector for mapping environmental radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B2400 Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: jparidae@sckcen.be

    2006-02-15

    A low cost extension to a standard handheld radiation monitor was developed, allowing one to perform outdoor georeferenced gamma measurements. It consists of a commercial wireless Bluetooth[reg] GPS receiver, a commercial RS-232 to Bluetooth[reg] converter combined with a standard Bluetooth[reg] enabled pocket personal computer (PPC). The system is intended for use in difficult to access areas, typically for foot campaigns. As the operator walks, a straightforward homemade visual basic program alternately reads GPS position and gamma dose rate into the PPC, creating a data log. This allows a single operator on foot to map between 50 and 200 ha of environmental radiation per day in very rugged areas, depending on the accessibility of the terrain and the detail required. On a test field with known contamination, a spatial precision of about 5-10 m was obtainable. The device was also used to reveal complex contamination patterns in the flooding zones of a radioactively contaminated small river.

  16. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  17. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  18. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  19. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  20. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  1. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  2. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi [eds.

    2013-10-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  3. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  4. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  5. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  6. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  7. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  9. Rugged, Low Cost, Environmental Sensors for a Turbulent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B.; Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing scientific research and resource management require a diverse range of high-quality and low-cost sensors to maximize the number and type of measurements that can be obtained. To accomplish this, we have developed a series of diversified sensors for common environmental applications. The TP-DownHole is an ultra-compact temperature and pressure sensor designed for use in CMT (Continuous Multi-channel Tubing) multi-level wells. Its 1 mm water depth resolution, 30 cm altitude resolution, and rugged design make it ideal for both water level measurements and monitoring barometric pressure and associated temperature changes. The TP-DownHole sensor has also been incorporated into a self-contained, fully independent data recorder for extreme and remote environments. This device (the TP-Solo) is based around the TP-DownHole design, but has self-contained power and data storage and is designed to collect data independently for up to 6 months (logging at once an hour), creating a specialized tool for extreme environment data collection. To gather spectral information, we have also developed a very low cost photodiode-based Lux sensor to measure spectral irradiance; while this does not measure the entire solar radiation spectrum, simple modeling to rescale the remainder of the solar spectrum makes this a cost-effective alternative to a thermopile pyranometer. Lastly, we have developed an instrumentation amplifier which is designed to interface a wide range of sensitive instruments to common data logging systems, such as thermopile pyranometers, thermocouples, and many other analog output sensors. These three instruments are the first in a diverse family aimed to give researchers a set of powerful and low-cost tools for environmental instrumentation.

  10. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  11. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  13. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  14. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  15. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  16. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  17. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  18. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  19. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Jacobs, S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion is given of the initial detector design, focusing on the cost estimates and on the inner detector modules. With regard to inner modules, the rate problem was examined for the closest elements, and the question whether one should use argon or lead-liquid scintillator calorimeters was discussed. New designs which involved major modifications to the lepton detector are considered. The major motivations for alternative designs were twofold. One was that the original detector looked quite expensive, and a study of the tradeoff of money versus physics had not really been done yet. The second point was that, since the physics region to be explored was totally new ground, one would like to leave as many options open as possible and build a detector that was as flexible as possible. A scaled-down version of the original design, which was strongly favored by this study, appears to save an appreciable amount of money with a small decrease in the initial physics scope. The more modular designs seem quite attractive, but not enough time was spent to demonstrate feasibility

  20. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  1. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  2. Detector Plans for LS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nessi, M [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    All experiments plan an effective usage of the LS1 shutdown period. After three years of running they will go through a consolidation phase, mostly to fix problems that have emerged over time, like single points of failure in the infrastructure, failures of low voltage power supplies and optical links. Upgrades of some detector components will start, mainly related to the beam pipe, the innermost tracker elements and the trigger system. Detector components, which had to be staged for cost reasons in 2003, will then enter into the detector setup. The goal is to be fully ready for the new energy regime at nominal luminosity.

  3. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  4. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M

    2002-01-01

    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  5. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  6. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  7. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  8. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  10. Ionization detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E E

    1976-02-27

    This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode.

  11. Development of a Low-power, Low-cost, Front-end Electronics Module for Large-Scale Distributed Neutrino Detectors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltzberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Final technical report for Advanced detector research program award at UCLA. To date, only two objects have been observed using neutrino messengers. However, each observation illustrates the incisive power of neutrino observations for both astrophysics and for particle physics. The first source observed with neutrinos was the Sun by Ray Davis and collaborators using a chlorine nuclear target. Until then, only electromagnetic emissions produced near the surface of the Sun had been studied. With neutrinos, the hydrogen-burning core of the Sun is directly observed - we now know even with its predicted intensity. Because neutrinos are so deeply penetrating, they give a direct window on the most energetic processes in the universe, unobscured by photospheres, fireballs and materials opaque to light. The solar neutrino observations largest impact however was felt by particle physicists. This experiment and follow-up experiments with water, heavy water, and gallium all observed the well-known deficit of the predicted number of electron-type neutrinos. After several decades of research using both astrophysical and accelerator observations inspired by this result, the effect is now known to be due the transformation of electron-type neutrinos into one of the two other flavors of neutrinos. These observations were the first and strongest data that showed particle physicists that the mass (propagating) eigenstates and weak eigenstates of neutrinos and their weak eigenstates are not identical. In addition, this transformation was the first indication that neutrinos have a small, but non-zero mass. The second, and latest, discovery of a cosmic neutrinos source was the explosion of supernova SN1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In a type IIa supernova, 99% of the energy is expected to be released in the form of neutrinos since no other energy could escape the dense environment. The observations of SN1987a confirmed the theoretical models of this type of stellar core collapse

  12. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  13. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  14. In-core monitoring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelman, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The main task of in-core monitoring consists in securing observability of the reactor installation in all possible operation modes (normal, transient, accident and post-accident). Operation safety at acceptable cost can be achieved by optimized measurement errors. The range of sensors applied as in-core detectors for operative measurements in the industry is very limited in number. Among them might be cited self powered neutron detectors (SPND) and thermocouples. Sensors are incorporated in the in-core detectors assemblies (SVRD). The presentation makes an effort to touch upon the problems of assuring and increasing quality of in-core on-line measurements. So we do not consider systems using movable detectors, as the latter do not assure on-line measurements. (Authors)

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  16. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  17. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  18. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  19. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  20. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  1. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  2. The CosmicWatch Desktop Muon Detector: a self-contained, pocket sized particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, S. N.; Frankiewicz, K.; Conrad, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    The CosmicWatch Desktop Muon Detector is a self-contained, hand-held cosmic ray muon detector that is valuable for astro/particle physics research applications and outreach. The material cost of each detector is under 100 and it takes a novice student approximately four hours to build their first detector. The detectors are powered via a USB connection and the data can either be recorded directly to a computer or to a microSD card. Arduino- and Python-based software is provided to operate the detector and an online application to plot the data in real-time. In this paper, we describe the various design features, evaluate the performance, and illustrate the detectors capabilities by providing several example measurements.

  3. Testing 144- and 256-crystal BGO block detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.; Nutt, R.; Andreaco, M.; Williams, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    New block detectors have been fabricated incorporating large numbers of small crystals. The authors evaluate and compare the performance of the new detectors with a standard 64-crystal block detector from Siemens-CTI. The new detectors demonstrate greatly improved imaging capability for 511 keV gamma rays. Future PET tomographs incorporating such detectors should produce substantially better volume images with little increase in tomograph manufacturing costs. The detectors will require a new type of automatic calibration procedure. Various such procedures have been tested and are discussed. A technique using higher energy gamma rays has shown special promise

  4. Calibration of detector efficiency of neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Xu Rongkun; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    BF 3 neutron detector has been set up. Detector efficiency is calibrated by associated particle technique. It is about 3.17 x 10 -4 (1 +- 18%). Neutron yield of neutron generator per pulse (10 7 /pulse) is measured by using the detector

  5. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  7. Detectors plans for LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessi, M.

    2012-01-01

    All experiments plan an effective usage of the LS1 shutdown period. After three years of running they will go through a consolidation phase, mostly to fix problems that have emerged over time, like single points of failure in the infrastructure, failures of low-voltage power supplies and optical links. Upgrades of some detector components will start, mainly related to the beam pipe, the innermost tracker elements and the trigger system. Detector components, which had to be staged for cost reasons in 2003, will then enter into the detector setup. The goal is to be fully ready for the new energy regime at nominal luminosity. This article reviews the planned maintenance and modification works for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE experiments. (author)

  8. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  9. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  10. Coherent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C R; Church, S; Gaier, T; Lai, R; Ruf, C; Wollack, E

    2009-01-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  11. Coherent detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, C R [M/C 169-327, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Church, S [Room 324 Varian Physics Bldg, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gaier, T [M/C 168-314, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lai, R [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Ruf, C [1533 Space Research Building, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Wollack, E, E-mail: charles.lawrence@jpl.nasa.go [NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  12. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  13. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  14. The status of detectors at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, R.

    1990-09-01

    The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC

  15. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  16. Simulation of micromegas detector by Garfield program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Zhang Yi; Yang Herun; Xu Hushan; Duan Limin; Li Chunyan; Li Zuyu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a batch file which describes the detailed structure and the corresponding physical process of Micro-Mesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) detector, the macro commands and the control structures based on the Garfield program has been developed. And using the Garfield program controlled by this batch file, the detector's gain and spatial resolution have been investigated under different conditions. These results obtained by the simulation program not only exhibit the influences of the mesh and drift voltage, the mixture gas proportion, the distance between the mesh cathode and the printed circuit board readout anode, and the Lines Per Inch of the mesh cathode on the gain and spatial resolution of the detector, but also are very important to optimize the design, shorten the experimental period, and save cost during the detector development. Additionally, they also indicate that the Garfield program is a powerful tool for the Micromegas detector design and optimization. (authors)

  17. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  18. Alpha particle response study of polycrstalline diamond radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Topkar, Anita [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Chemical vapor deposition has opened the possibility to grow high purity synthetic diamond at relatively low cost. This has opened up uses of diamond based detectors for wide range of applications. These detectors are most suitable for harsh environments where standard semiconductor detectors cannot work. In this paper, we present the fabrication details and performance study of polycrystalline diamond based radiation detector. Effect of different operating parameters such as bias voltage and shaping time for charge collection on the performance of detector has been studied.

  19. New flux detectors for CANDU 6 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.; Medak, N.

    1992-06-01

    CANDU reactors utilize large numbers of in-core self-powered detectors for control and protection. In the original design, the detectors (coaxial cables) were wound on carrier tubes and immersed in the heavy water moderator. Failures occurred due to corrosion and other factors, and replacement was very costly because the assemblies were not designed with maintenance in mind. A new design was conceived based on straight detectors, of larger diameter, in a sealed package of individual 'well' tubes. This protected the detectors from hostile environments and enabled individual failed sensors to be replaced by inserting spares in vacant neighbouring tubes. The new design was made retrofittable to older CANDU reactors. Provision was made for on-line scanning of the core with a miniature fission chamber. The modified detectors were tested in a lengthy development program and found to exhibit superior performance to that of the original detectors. Most of the CANDU reactors have now adopted the new design. In the case of the Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau reactors, advantage was taken of the opportunity to redesign the detector layout (using better codes and the increased flexibility in positioning detectors) to achieve better coverage of abnormal events, leading to higher trip setpoints and wider operating margins

  20. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  1. Avalanche photodiodes for ISABELLE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    At ISABELLE some requirements for detecting bursts of photons are not met by standard photomultiplier tubes. The characteristics of immunity to magnetic fields, small size (few mm), low power consumption (approx. 100 mW), insensitivity to optical overloads, and wide dynamic range (approx. 60 dB) are achieved with difficulty, if at all, with PMTs. These are characteristics of the solid state avalanche photodiode (APD), the preferred detector for light-wave communications. Successful field tests with APD detectors stimulated the design of standard optical-fiber communication systems to replace wire carriers by the early 1980's. In other characteristics, i.e., counting rate, pulse-height resolution, effective quantum efficiency, detection efficiency, and reliability, bare APDs are equivalent to standard PMTs. APDs with currently available amplifiers cannot resolve single photoelectrons but they could provide reasonable detection efficiencies and pulse-height resolution for packets of approx. > 100 photons. Commercially available APDs can cost up to 100 times as much as PMTs per active area, but they are potentially much cheaper. Six topics are discussed: (1) detectors for light-wave communication and detectors for particles, (2) avalanche photodiodes, (3) commercially available APDs, (4) dynamic response of PMTs and bare APDs, (5) photon counting with cold APDs, and (6) conclusions and recommendations

  2. Mica fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.; Lehn, A.V.; Williamson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present development status of the mica fission detectors is summarized. It is concluded that the techniques have been refined and developed to a state such that the mica fission counters are a reliable and reproducible detector for fission events

  3. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  4. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  5. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  6. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  7. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  8. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  9. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  10. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  11. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, C.S.; Ramachandra Rao, M.N.; Ingale, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of self powered neutron detectors used for in-core flux measurements are described. The characteristics of the various detectors, with emitters Rh, V, Co, Py are presented. Details about the fabrication of these detectors are given. (A.K.)

  12. The JADE muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-01-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

  13. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  14. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  17. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  18. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  19. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  20. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  1. Comparison of forward and central collider detectors for beauty physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.; Harr, R.F.; Karchin, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of geometry, tracking, and muon triggering indicates that a central detector has a higher efficiency than a forward detector of equal psuedo rapidity coverage at both Tevatron and SSC energies. The difference at the Tevatron is considerable, about a factor of four. At the SSC, however, the difference is about a factor of two, so other considerations such as vertexing, particle ID, or cost may make a large forward detector an attractive option

  2. The vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.P.; Boissevain, J.G.; Fox, D.; Hecke, H. van; Jacak, B.V.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Sondheim, W.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The conceptual design of the vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration at RHIC is described, including simulations of its expected performance. The design consists of two con- centric layers of single-sided Si strips. The expected performance as a multiplicity detector and in measuring the pseudo-rapidity ({nu}) distribution is discussed as well as the expected vertex finding efficiency and accuracy. Various options which could be used to reduce the cost of the detector are also discussed.

  3. The vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.P.; Boissevain, J.G.; Fox, D.; van Hecke, H.; Jacak, B.V.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Sondheim, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of the vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration at RHIC is described, including simulations of its expected performance. The design consists of two concentric layers of single-sided Si strips. The expected performance as a multiplicity detector and in measuring the pseudo-rapidity η distribution is discussed as well as the expected vertex finding efficiency and accuracy. Various options which could be used to reduce the cost of the detector are also discussed

  4. Physics detector simulation facility system software description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Estep, P.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Marquez, M.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Traversat, B.

    1991-12-01

    Large and costly detectors will be constructed during the next few years to study the interactions produced by the SSC. Efficient, cost-effective designs for these detectors will require careful thought and planning. Because it is not possible to test fully a proposed design in a scaled-down version, the adequacy of a proposed design will be determined by a detailed computer model of the detectors. Physics and detector simulations will be performed on the computer model using high-powered computing system at the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF). The SSCL has particular computing requirements for high-energy physics (HEP) Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of SSCL physics and detectors. The numerical calculations to be performed in each simulation are lengthy and detailed; they could require many more months per run on a VAX 11/780 computer and may produce several gigabytes of data per run. Consequently, a distributed computing environment of several networked high-speed computing engines is envisioned to meet these needs. These networked computers will form the basis of a centralized facility for SSCL physics and detector simulation work. Our computer planning groups have determined that the most efficient, cost-effective way to provide these high-performance computing resources at this time is with RISC-based UNIX workstations. The modeling and simulation application software that will run on the computing system is usually written by physicists in FORTRAN language and may need thousands of hours of supercomputing time. The system software is the ''glue'' which integrates the distributed workstations and allows them to be managed as a single entity. This report will address the computing strategy for the SSC

  5. Ionization smoke detectors - the high-voltage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Production of high-voltage ionization smoke detectors ceased in 1978 following the development of lower voltage models which used much smaller amounts of radioactive material. Despite this fact, thousands of high-voltage detectors are still in use today in many large UK companies. The major users argue that there is no reason to stop using their detectors if they are still fit for their purpose - many could last for another 15 to 20 years if properly maintained. But pressure has been mounting on businesses to replace all their high-voltage detectors with new low-voltage models within the next couple of years. This could place a huge financial burden on the companies concerned, with costs possibly running into millions of pounds. Traditionally, the major detector installers offered cleaning and maintenance services for high-voltage detectors to their customers but these have now been withdrawn. The installers give no clear reasons for this decision except that the detectors are outmoded and should be disposed of as soon as possible. Most users would agree that conversion to low-voltage types is inevitable but their main worry is the financial strain of replacing all their detectors - and associated equipment - in one go. They would prefer to phase out their high-voltage detectors in stages over a number of years to spread the costs of conversion. The problems of maintenance is discussed. A dual voltage fire alarm panel which allows the high-voltage detectors to be phased out is mentioned. (Author)

  6. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  7. Detector development and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Following the ideas presented in the proposal to the DoE, we have begun to acquire the equipment needed to design, develop construct and test the electronic and mechanical features of detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments. A guiding principle for the effort is to achieve integrated electronic and mechanical designs which meet the demanding specifications of the modern hadron collider environment yet minimize costs. This requires state of the art simulation of signal processing as well as detailed calculations of heat transfer and finite element analysis of structural integrity

  8. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  9. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  10. Physics of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.

    1991-01-01

    The general concept of a radiation detector is based on three fundamental principles: sensitivity of the device to the radiation of interest which requires a large cross-section in the detector material, detector response function to the physical properties of the radiation. As an example, a scintillation detector for charged particles should allow to identify the charge of the particle, its kinetic energy and the time of impact combined with optimum resolutions. Optimum conversion of the detector response (like luminescence of a scintillator) into electronical signals for further processing. The following article will concentrate on the various aspects of the first two listed principles as far as they appear to be relevant for photon and charged particle detection using organic and inorganic scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  11. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  12. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    A unique multipurpose Cherenkov water detector, the NEVOD facility, uses quasispherical measuring modules to explore all the basic components of cosmic rays on Earth's surface, including neutrinos. Currently, the experimental complex includes the Cherenkov water detector, a calibration telescope system, and a coordinate detector. This paper traces the basic development stages of NEVOD, examines research directions, presents the results obtained, including the search for the solution to the 'muon puzzle', and discusses possible future development prospects.

  13. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  14. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  15. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photovoltaic Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Ran, Junxue; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ji, Xu; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-23

    Over the past two decades, solar- and astrophysicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero power consumption has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multistep epitaxial grown AlN as a VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance >96%) as a transparent electrode to collect excited holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light. The device exhibits an encouraging VUV photoresponse, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and extremely fast tempera response (80 ns, 10 4 -10 6 times faster than that of the currently reported VUV photoconductive devices). This work has provided an idea for developing zero power consumption and integrated VUV photovoltaic detectors with ultrafast and high-sensitivity VUV detection capability, which not only allows future spacecraft to operate with longer service time and lower launching cost but also ensures an ultrafast evolution of interstellar objects.

  16. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  17. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  18. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  19. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  20. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  1. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  2. Enhanced spectroscopic gas sensors using in-situ grown carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, A.; Cole, M. T.; Milne, W. I. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Hopper, R. H.; Boual, S.; Ali, S. Z. [Cambridge CMOS Sensors Ltd., Deanland House, 160 Cowley Road, Cambridge CB4 0DL (United Kingdom); Warner, J. H.; Robertson, A. R. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Udrea, F. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cambridge CMOS Sensors Ltd., Deanland House, 160 Cowley Road, Cambridge CB4 0DL (United Kingdom); Gardner, J. W. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we present a fully complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible microelectromechanical system thermopile infrared (IR) detector employing vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an advanced nano-engineered radiation absorbing material. The detector was fabricated using a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process with tungsten metallization, comprising a silicon thermopile and a tungsten resistive micro-heater, both embedded within a dielectric membrane formed by a deep-reactive ion etch following CMOS processing. In-situ CNT growth on the device was achieved by direct thermal chemical vapour deposition using the integrated micro-heater as a micro-reactor. The growth of the CNT absorption layer was verified through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The functional effects of the nanostructured ad-layer were assessed by comparing CNT-coated thermopiles to uncoated thermopiles. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that the radiation absorbing properties of the CNT adlayer significantly enhanced the absorptivity, compared with the uncoated thermopile, across the IR spectrum (3 μm–15.5 μm). This led to a four-fold amplification of the detected infrared signal (4.26 μm) in a CO{sub 2} non-dispersive-IR gas sensor system. The presence of the CNT layer was shown not to degrade the robustness of the uncoated devices, whilst the 50% modulation depth of the detector was only marginally reduced by 1.5 Hz. Moreover, we find that the 50% normalized absorption angular profile is subsequently more collimated by 8°. Our results demonstrate the viability of a CNT-based SOI CMOS IR sensor for low cost air quality monitoring.

  3. Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution

  4. Prototype performance of novel muon telescope detector at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.; Ames, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution. (author)

  5. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  6. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary

  7. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

  8. Realization of an automatic set up to measure electrical characteristic of solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Crosetto, D.; Gabutti, A.; Gervino, G.; Varesio, R.

    1986-01-01

    An automatic set-up is described to study electrical properties of silicon detectors for nuclear research. Particularly, I-V characteristics from silicon junction prototype detectors and amorphous samples to test the data acquisition system, are presented. This set-up joins a low cost to good versatility that makes it very useful in wide application ranges in silicon detector electrical characterization

  9. 3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.

  10. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  11. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  12. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  13. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  14. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  15. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  16. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  17. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  18. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are

  19. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  20. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  1. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  2. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  3. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  4. The GDH-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, K; Fausten, M; Menze, D; Michel, T; Nagel, A; Ryckbosch, D; Speckner, T; Vyver, R V D; Zeitler, G

    2002-01-01

    For the GDH-Experiment at ELSA, the helicity dependent total photoabsorption cross-section is to be determined. These measurements will be performed with the newly developed GDH-Detector which is presented here. The concept of the GDH-Detector is to detect at least one reaction product from all possible hadronic processes with almost complete acceptance concerning solid angle and efficiency. This is realized by an arrangement of scintillators and lead. The overall acceptance for hadronic processes is better than 99%. The electromagnetic background is suppressed by about five orders of magnitude by means of a threshold Cherenkov detector. In dedicated tests, it has been demonstrated that all individual components of the GDH-Detector fulfill the design goals. Measurements of unpolarized total photoabsorption cross-sections were performed to ensure that the complete GDH-Detector is operational.

  5. Introduction to detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Walenta, Albert H

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

  6. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  7. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  8. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  9. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  10. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  11. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  12. Status of the HISS MUSIC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Flores, F.; Bieser, F.

    1984-01-01

    This note describes the status of a new type of high resolution large area charged particle detector constructed for use at the Bevalac HISS facility. High charge resolution is attained by measuring many samples of the ionization produced along the path of a particle as it traverses 144 cm of P10 gas. A Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector was selected for use at HISS because it can cover a large area(1M x 1M) at relatively low cost and return individual charge identification for multiple fragments emitted from relativistic heavy ion interactions

  13. Electronics for the RHIC PHENIX detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The PHENIX detector for RHIC is being designed to measure lepton pairs, direct photons and hadrons emitted in collisions of heavy nuclei at center of mass energies up to 200 GeV/(nucleon-pair). The physics goal is tests of predictions concerning the existence and nature of a deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter. The relatively large final state multiplicities, which reach 1500 charged particles per unit of rapidity, place strong demands on detector segmentation and control of electronics cost and power consumption. An overview of present ideas concerning signal processing and data rates for PHENIX will be presented

  14. Large-Area Liquid Scintillation Detector Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, M. F.; Gurr, H. S.; Hruschka, A. A.; Jenkins, T. L.; Kropp, W.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.; Hruschka, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    A low-cost detector 18' x 2' x 5' has been developed for an underground cosmic ray neutrino experiment. The liquid employed is a high-clarity mineral oil-based mixture, and light is guided to the ends of the detector by total internal reflection at the surface of the Lucite container. Signals from 2 five-inch photomultipliers at each end give energy and event location for single penetrating particles, with relatively good discrimination against natural radioactivity by virtue of the substantial thickness. Data are presented on the response function of the tank, energy resolution, rates and thresholds. A number of modifications that have been tried are also described

  15. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  16. CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.

    1987-12-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  17. Fabrication of an integrated ΔE-E-silicon detector by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thungstroem, G.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Norlin, L.-O.; Petersson, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    The problem concerning mechanical stability of thin self-supporting ΔE detector in a ΔE-E semiconductor detector telescope, has been solved by integrating both detectors into one unit. We show here a low-cost method to integrate the detectors by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide. The ΔE-detector has a thickness of 6.5 μm and the E detector 290 μm with an area of 24.8 mm 2 . The system was characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical measurement, particle measurement and two-dimensional electrical simulation. (orig.)

  18. Fabrication of an integrated {Delta}E-E-silicon detector by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thungstroem, G. [Mid-Sweden Univ., Sundsvall (Sweden). Dept. of Inf. Technol.]|[Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Veldhuizen, E.J. van [Uppsala University, Department of Radiation Science, Box 535, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Westerberg, L. [Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory, Box 533, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Norlin, L.-O. [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Frescativaegen 24, S-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, C.S. [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The problem concerning mechanical stability of thin self-supporting {Delta}E detector in a {Delta}E-E semiconductor detector telescope, has been solved by integrating both detectors into one unit. We show here a low-cost method to integrate the detectors by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide. The {Delta}E-detector has a thickness of 6.5 {mu}m and the E detector 290 {mu}m with an area of 24.8 mm{sup 2}. The system was characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical measurement, particle measurement and two-dimensional electrical simulation. (orig.).

  19. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  20. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  1. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  2. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  3. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  4. A New Virtual Point Detector Concept for a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong

    2009-01-01

    For last several decades, the radiation measurement and radioactivity analysis techniques using gamma detectors have been well established. Especially , the study about the detection efficiency has been done as an important part of gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency depends strongly on source-to-detector distance. The detection efficiency with source-to-detector distance can be expressed by a complex function of geometry and physical characteristics of gamma detectors. In order to simplify the relation, a virtual point detector concept was introduced by Notea. Recently, further studies concerning the virtual point detector have been performed. In previous other works the virtual point detector has been considered as a fictitious point existing behind the detector end cap. However the virtual point detector position for the front and side of voluminous detectors might be different due to different effective central axis of them. In order to more accurately define the relation, therefore, we should consider the virtual point detector for the front as well as side and off-center of the detector. The aim of this study is to accurately define the relation between the detection efficiency and source-to-detector distance with the virtual point detector. This paper demonstrates the method to situate the virtual point detectors for a HPGe detector. The new virtual point detector concept was introduced for three area of the detector and its characteristics also were demonstrated by using Monte Carlo Simulation method. We found that the detector has three virtual point detectors except for its rear area. This shows that we should consider the virtual point detectors for each area when applying the concept to radiation measurement. This concept can be applied to the accurate geometric simplification for the detector and radioactive sources.

  5. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  6. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  7. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, J.A.; Marti, G.V.; Riso, J.M.; Gimenez, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author) [es

  8. The AGILE anticoincidence detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, F.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Mattaini, E.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.

    2006-01-01

    AGILE is a γ-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10 -4 . In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

  9. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  10. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  11. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  12. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  13. The HOTWAXS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diakun, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.m.duxbury@rl.ac.uk; Fairclough, J.P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sankar, G. [Royal Institution of GB, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Terrill, N.J. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-11

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  14. The HOTWAXS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Diakun, G.; Duxbury, D.M.; Fairclough, J.P.A.; Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I.; Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J.; Sankar, G.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R.; Terrill, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source

  15. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  16. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  17. BROOKHAVEN: Major detectors for RHIC under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    On March 9-10, a cost and schedule review at Brookhaven verified construction readiness for the PHENIX detector (May 1993, page 10). PHENIX thus joins STAR (Solenoidal Tracking at RHIC - November 1991, page 17), whose construction plan was ratified in January 1993, as a major detector to take data when the RHIC heavy ion collider is completed in mid-1999. The goal of both detectors is to search for the transition from ordinary nuclear matter to a new state of matter consisting of (momentarily) unconfined quarks and gluons. This transition to a ''quark-gluon plasma'' (QGP) is predicted to occur under extreme conditions of temperature and energy density, as is likely to be the case in the collision of heavy ions of sufficient energy. RHIC is expected to produce the highest energy densities ever observed on the nuclear scale

  18. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  19. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  20. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  1. Sensitive detectors in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

  2. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  3. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0 degrees C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0 degrees C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length

  4. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0{degrees}C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0{degrees}C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length.

  5. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  6. New detector techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Iarocci, Enzo

    1994-03-14

    The intense R&D effort being carried out in view of LHC has given rise in a relatively short time to a wide spectrum of new detector concepts and technologies. Subject of the lectures will be some of the most interesting new ideas and developments, in the field of noble liquid, crystal and scintillating fiber trackers. The emphasis will be on the basic aspects of detector operation.

  7. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  8. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  9. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The study group met from June 7 to 11, 1976, with the dual purpose of reviewing an earlier Lepton Detector report in order to resolve some of the remaining design problems and of considering possible alternatives. Since the role of this group was primarily that of providing a critique of the earlier work, the reader is referred to that earlier paper for the general motivation and design of the detector. Problems studied at this session are described

  10. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  11. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity measurements in ATLAS. Most changes were motivated by the number of interactions per bunch-crossing and the 25 ns bunch-spacing expected in LHC RUN II (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2

  12. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  13. Microsonic detector (MSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, J.T.; Haridas, P.; Oh, S.H.; Pless, I.A.; Stoughton, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

  14. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  15. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  16. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  17. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  18. Trends and new developments in gaseous detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, M.

    2004-01-01

    Almost one century ago the method of particle detection with gaseous detectors was invented. Since then they have been exploited successfully in many experiments using a wide variety of different applications. The development is still going on today. The underlying working principles are today well understood and with the help of modern simulation techniques, new configurations can be easily examined and optimized before a first experimental test. Traditional wire chamber ensembles demonstrate that they are still up to date and are well prepared to meet also the challenges of LHC. Applications will be discussed using TPCs in high multiplicity environments with standard Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) as readout as well as drift tubes in a muon spectrometer for a Large Hardron Collider (LHC) experiment. Triggered by the evolving printed circuit technology, a new generation of gaseous detectors with very high position resolution and rate capability has emerged. Two representatives (MICROMEGAS, GEM) have proved their reliability in various experiments and are promising candidates for future projects. Performance and results will be discussed for these detectors. Furthermore, achievements in RPC-based detectors will be discussed. The standard Trigger RPC is a reliable low-cost semi-industrial manufactured device with good time resolution. Thin gap RPCs (Multigap-, and High Rate Timing RPC) show very fast signal response at high efficiency and significantly increased rate capability and will be applied in TOF detectors

  19. Trends and new developments in gaseous detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M.

    Almost one century ago the method of particle detection with gaseous detectors was invented. Since then they have been exploited successfully in many experiments using a wide variety of different applications. The development is still going on today. The underlying working principles are today well understood and with the help of modern simulation techniques, new configurations can be easily examined and optimized before a first experimental test. Traditional wire chamber ensembles demonstrate that they are still up to date and are well prepared to meet also the challenges of LHC. Applications will be discussed using TPCs in high multiplicity environments with standard Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) as readout as well as drift tubes in a muon spectrometer for a Large Hardron Collider (LHC) experiment. Triggered by the evolving printed circuit technology, a new generation of gaseous detectors with very high position resolution and rate capability has emerged. Two representatives (MICROMEGAS, GEM) have proved their reliability in various experiments and are promising candidates for future projects. Performance and results will be discussed for these detectors. Furthermore, achievements in RPC-based detectors will be discussed. The standard Trigger RPC is a reliable low-cost semi-industrial manufactured device with good time resolution. Thin gap RPCs (Multigap-, and High Rate Timing RPC) show very fast signal response at high efficiency and significantly increased rate capability and will be applied in TOF detectors.

  20. Trends and new developments in gaseous detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoch, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: michael.hoch@cern.ch

    2004-12-11

    Almost one century ago the method of particle detection with gaseous detectors was invented. Since then they have been exploited successfully in many experiments using a wide variety of different applications. The development is still going on today. The underlying working principles are today well understood and with the help of modern simulation techniques, new configurations can be easily examined and optimized before a first experimental test. Traditional wire chamber ensembles demonstrate that they are still up to date and are well prepared to meet also the challenges of LHC. Applications will be discussed using TPCs in high multiplicity environments with standard Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) as readout as well as drift tubes in a muon spectrometer for a Large Hardron Collider (LHC) experiment. Triggered by the evolving printed circuit technology, a new generation of gaseous detectors with very high position resolution and rate capability has emerged. Two representatives (MICROMEGAS, GEM) have proved their reliability in various experiments and are promising candidates for future projects. Performance and results will be discussed for these detectors. Furthermore, achievements in RPC-based detectors will be discussed. The standard Trigger RPC is a reliable low-cost semi-industrial manufactured device with good time resolution. Thin gap RPCs (Multigap-, and High Rate Timing RPC) show very fast signal response at high efficiency and significantly increased rate capability and will be applied in TOF detectors.

  1. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  2. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  3. Frontier detectors for frontier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervelli, F.; Scribano, A.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named meeting. These concern developments of radiation detectors and counting techniques in high energy physics. Especially considered are tracking detectors, calorimeters, time projection chambers, detectors for rare events, solid state detectors, particle identification, and optical readout systems. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  4. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  5. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  6. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  7. Optimization of a neutron detector design using adjoint transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, C.; Manalo, K.; Huang, M.; Chin, M.; Edgar, C.; Applegate, S.; Sjoden, G.

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic aperture approach has been developed and investigated for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection in vehicles passing a checkpoint at highway speeds. SNM is postulated to be stored in a moving vehicle and detector assemblies are placed on the road-side or in chambers embedded below the road surface. Neutron and gamma spectral awareness is important for the detector assembly design besides high efficiencies, so that different SNMs can be detected and identified with various possible shielding settings. The detector assembly design is composed of a CsI gamma-ray detector block and five neutron detector blocks, with peak efficiencies targeting different energy ranges determined by adjoint simulations. In this study, formulations are derived using adjoint transport simulations to estimate detector efficiencies. The formulations is applied to investigate several neutron detector designs for Block IV, which has its peak efficiency in the thermal range, and Block V, designed to maximize the total neutron counts over the entire energy spectrum. Other Blocks detect different neutron energies. All five neutron detector blocks and the gamma-ray block are assembled in both MCNP and deterministic simulation models, with detector responses calculated to validate the fully assembled design using a 30-group library. The simulation results show that the 30-group library, collapsed from an 80-group library using an adjoint-weighting approach with the YGROUP code, significantly reduced the computational cost while maintaining accuracy. (authors)

  8. The resistive plate WELL detector as a single stage thick gaseous multiplier detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, Shikma; Breskin, Amos; Moleri, Luca; Kumar, Ashwini; Pitt, Michael [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) (Israel); Kudella, Simon [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector use high electric fields inside the h ole of a foil to achieve a high charge multiplication. As a thicker version of G EMs based on printed circuit board (PCB) structures, Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors combine the high gain of a GEM foil with the robustness, stability and low production costs of a PCB and allow a large quantity of applications that require the coverage of a large area at low cost and moderate spatial resolution. One application the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) develops as a member of the RD51 framework is the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector. This single stage detector allows a very stable, discharge free operation at high gain (10{sup 5}). The single stage operation allows a low total height and make s the RPWELL a candidate for the Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (DHCAL) of the International Large Detector (ILD) at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The talk gives an insight into the way the RPWELL works and shows results from the last test beam.

  9. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  10. Heterojunction Structures for Photon Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    IR: Fourier-transform infrared FTO: Fluorine doped tin oxide G-R: generation-recombination HEIWIP: heterojunction interfacial workfunction internal...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The work presented here report findings in (1) infrared detectors based on p-GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunctions , (2) J and H...aggregate sensitized heterojunctions for solar cell and photon detection applications, (3) heterojunctions sensitized with quantum dots as low cost

  11. Position Ring System using Anger Type Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel S. Karp, principal investigator

    2004-12-14

    The overall objective of our project was to develop PET scanners and imaging techniques that achieve high performance and excellent image quality. Our approach was based upon 3-D imaging (no septa) with position-sensitive Anger-logic detectors, whereby the encoding ratio of resolution elements to number of photo-multiplier tube channels is very high. This design led to a series of PET systems that emphasized cost-effectiveness and practicality in a clinical environment.

  12. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  14. An improved multicrystal 2-D BGO detector for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.; Taylor, A.J.; Rahimi, M.F.; Nutt, R.; Andreaco, M.; Williams, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate and compare two new 2-D array detectors for PET. Both consist of an 8 x 8 array of small BGO crystals coupled to a 2 x 2 array of photomultiplier tubes. The depth of the crystals is 3 cm in one detector and 2 cm in the other. The 2 cm detector is obviously superior in terms of material costs, but is also superior in energy resolution per crystal, and in its ability to clearly identify the crystal containing the primary interaction. The authors present a flexible and robust algorithm for crystal identification in such array detectors. The prospect of obtaining still better spatial resolution from such block detectors, with increased numbers of crystals, is discussed

  15. The pin detector - a simple, robust, cheap and effective nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a series of radiation detectors bases on the point anode is reported. Using readily available preformed pins from a variety of electrical connectors as the anodes, a family of devices has been created with useful properties as X-ray detectors, radiation monitors and internal beta counters. A wide variety of gas fillings can be used, argon/CH 4 premix being the most convenient. The structures are robust and call for no precision alignments so keeping costs down. Performance of the devices in respect of sensitivity and pulse height resolution is comparable to that of conventional wire counters. (author)

  16. Magnesium borate radiothermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskaya, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Minaeva, E.E.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    In the report the technology of obtaining polycrystalline magnesium borate activated by dysprosium is described briefly and the method of preparing the tabletted detectors from it is presented. The dependence of the light sum of the samples on the proportion of the components and on the sintering regime has shown that the most sensitive material is obtained at the proportion of boric anhydride and magnesium oxide 2.2-2.4 and at the dysprosium concentration about 1 milligram-atom per gram molecule of the base. The glow curve of such a material has a simple form with one peak the maximum of which is located at 190-200 0 C. The measurement of the main dosimetric characteristics of the magnesium borate tabletted detectors and the comparison with similar parmaeters of the lithium fluoride tabletted detectors have shown that at practically identical effective number the former detectors have the following substantial advantages: the sensitivity is ten-twenty times as large, they are substantially more technological on synthesis of the radiothermoluminophor and during the production of the tabletted detectors, they have a simple glow curve, they do not require the utilization of the thermocycling during the use. (author)

  17. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  18. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  19. Detector for dimuons produced in the relativistic heavy ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.; Igo, G.; Pope, B.; Shor, A.; Young, G.

    1985-01-01

    The use of dimuons as a probe of the quark-gluon plasma is explored. Expected rates and backgrounds in the range of dimuon masses from 0.5 to 4.0 GeV/c 2 are presented. A conceptual design is developed for a detector with sufficient resolution and background rejection to observe dimuons in high multiplicity collisions expected at RHIC. Machine requirements and a cost estimate for the detector are also presented

  20. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  1. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  2. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzika, G.

    1992-11-01

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  3. Improved photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

  4. The ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, HM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a charged particle tracking system, the Inner Detector, built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The Pixel and microstrip (SCT) subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. Since the LHC startup in 2009, the ATLAS inner tracker has played a central role in many ATLAS physics analyses. Rapid improvements in the calibration and alignment of the detector allowed it to reach nearly the nominal performance in the timespan of a few months. The tracking performance proved to be stable as the LHC luminosity increased by five orders of magnitude during the 2010 proton run, New developments in the offline reconstruction for the 2011 run will improve the tracking performance in high pile-up conditions as well as in highly boosted jets will be discussed.

  5. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  6. Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-μm (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

  7. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  8. The AFP detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration; Caforio, Davide; Czekierda, Sabina; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta; Sicho, Petr; Zabinski, Bartlomiej

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  9. Semiconductor Thermal Neutron Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The  CdTe  and  GaN  detector  with  a  Gd  converter  have  been developed  and  investigated  as  a  neutron  detector  for neutron  imaging.  The  fabricated  Gd/CdTe  detector  with  the  25  mm  thick  Gd  was  designed  on  the  basis  of  simulation results  of  thermal  neutron  detection  efficiency  and  spatial  resolution.  The  Gd/CdTe  detector  shows  the  detection  of neutron  capture  gamma  ray  emission  in  the  155Gd(n,  g156Gd,  157Gd(n,  g158Gd  and  113Cd(n,  g114Cd  reactions  and characteristic X-ray emissions due to conversion-electrons generated inside the Gd film. The observed efficient thermal neutron detection with the Gd/CdTe detector shows its promise in neutron radiography application. Moreover, a BGaN detector has also investigated to separate neutron signal from gamma-ray clearly. 

  10. Detectors for rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possibility of combining the advantages of photographic data retrieval with the flexibility of operation of conventional gaseous or liquid detectors operated with electronic data retrieval. Possible applications of the proposed detectors to such problems as nucleon decay, neutrinoelectron interaction, and the search for magnetic monopoles are examined. Topics considered include the photography of ionization patterns, the photography of ionization tracks with the multistep avalanche chambers, and exploiting the stimulated scintillation light. Two processes which give rise to the emission of light when ionizing electrons interact in gases under the influence of an electric field are described

  11. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  12. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  13. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  14. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  16. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Seya, Toru; Watanabe, Masaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the reliability of a failed fuel detector which detects radioactivity of nuclear fission products leaked out from fuel elements in cooling water. Constitution: Collected specimen is introduced into a separator and co-existing material considered to be an impediment is separated and removed by ion exchange resins, after which this specimen is introduced into a container housing therein a detector to systematically measure radioactivity. Thereby, it is possible to detect a signal lesser in variation in background, and inspection work also becomes simple. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Neutron detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Shirayama, Shinpei.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  19. High efficiency scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

  20. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  1. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity monitoring and measurements in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Most changes were motivated by the large (up to 50) number of interactions per bunch-crossing and short (25 ns) bunch-spacing expected in LHC run 2 (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2.

  2. Electret radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubu, M.

    1981-01-01

    The electret radiation detector consists of 30 to 35% of bee wax and of 65 to 70% of colophony. It is mainly the induction conductivity of charo.es between the dipoles in the electret which is used for detection. In the manufacture of the detector, the average atomic number of the electret can be altered by adding various compounds, such as ZnO, which also increases efficiency for gamma radiation. An alpha or beta emitter can also be built-in in the electret. (B.S.)

  3. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  4. DEPFET-detectors: New developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Andricek, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Eckardt, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Haelker, O. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Hermann, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Lechner, P. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Richter, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schaller, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schopper, F. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Soltau, H. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Strueder, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Treis, J. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Woelfl, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Zhang, C. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available.

  5. DEPFET-detectors: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.; Andricek, L.; Eckardt, R.; Haelker, O.; Hermann, S.; Lechner, P.; Richter, R.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.; Treis, J.; Woelfl, S.; Zhang, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available

  6. Reliability studies of high operating temperature MCT photoconductor detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Jintong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiangyang

    2010-10-01

    This paper concerns HgCdTe (MCT) infrared photoconductor detectors with high operating temperature. The near room temperature operation of detectors have advantages of light weight, less cost and convenient usage. Their performances are modest and they suffer from reliable problems. These detectors face with stability of the package, chip bonding area and passivation layers. It's important to evaluate and improve the reliability of such detectors. Defective detectors were studied with SEM(Scanning electron microscope) and microscopy. Statistically significant differences were observed between the influence of operating temperature and the influence of humidity. It was also found that humility has statistically significant influence upon the stability of the chip bonding and passivation layers, and the amount of humility isn't strongly correlated to the damage on the surface. Considering about the commonly found failures modes in detectors, special test structures were designed to improve the reliability of detectors. An accelerated life test was also implemented to estimate the lifetime of the high operating temperature MCT photoconductor detectors.

  7. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweany, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.; Dazeley, S.; Svoboda, R.

    2008-01-01

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons

  8. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  9. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  10. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808/3546 filled/total LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept...

  11. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  12. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The process of determining the energy-dependent detection probability with measurements using Ge (Li) and high-grade germanium detectors is described. The paper explains which standards are best for a given purpose and given requirements as to accuracy, and how to assess measuring geometry variations and summation corrections. (DG) [de

  13. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  14. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G

    2001-05-18

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  15. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Soluk, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  16. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  17. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  18. The Borexino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David

    2010-04-01

    The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

  19. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  20. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  1. The LUCID-2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  2. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  3. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  4. Radiation detector. [100 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P D; Hollands, D V

    1975-12-04

    A radiation detector is described in which the radiation is led to a sensor via a 100 A thick gold film filter, which reduces the infrared components of the irradiation to a greater extent than the ultra-violet component reaching the sensor.

  5. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    foresees a TPC with around 200 points measured along a track, and read out by a system of micro-pattern gas detectors. These novel gas amplification devices promise to provide a stable, reliable readout system, which can be realized with comparatively little material in the endplate compared to a traditional wire readout.

  6. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  7. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  8. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  9. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  10. Smoke Detector Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  11. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  12. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  13. Large-aperture hybrid photo-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Nakayama, H.; Kusaka, A.; Kakuno, H.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Aihara, H.; Tanaka, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Kyushima, H.; Suyama, M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed the first complete large-aperture (13-inch diameter) hybrid photo-detector (HPD). The withstanding voltage problem has been overcome and we were able to attain an HPD operating voltage of +20 kV. Adoption of our newly developed backside illumination avalanche diode (AD) was also critical in successfully countering the additional problem of an increase in AD leakage after the activation process. We observed single photon signal timing jitter of under 450 ps in FWHM, electron transit time of ∼12 ns, and clear pulse height separation up to several photoelectron peaks, all greatly superior to the performance of any conventional large-aperture photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In addition, our HPD has a much simpler structure than conventional large-aperture PMTs, which simplifies mass production and lowers manufacturing cost. We believe that these attributes position our HPD as the most suitable photo-detector for the next generation mega-ton class water-Cherenkov detector, which is expected to be more than 20x larger than the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector

  14. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  15. nuSTORM Costing document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bross, Alan D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Detailed costing of the nuSTORM conventional facilities has been done by the Fermilab Facilities Engineering Services Section (FESS) and is reported on in the nuSTORM Project Definition Report (PDR) 6-13-1. Estimates for outfitting the primary proton beam line, the target station, the pion capture/transport line and decay ring are based on either experience from existing Fermilab infrastructure (NuMI) or is based on the detailed costing exercises for DOE CD-1 approval for future experiments (mu2e and LBNE). The detector costing utilized the Euronu costing for the Neutrino Factory Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), extrapolations from MINOS as-built costs and from recent vendor quotes. Costs included all manpower and are fully burdened (FY2013 dollars). The costs are not escalated, however, beyond the 5-year project timeline, since a project start for nuSTORM is unknown. Escalation can be estimated from various models (see Figure 1). LBNE has used the Jacob’s model to determine their cost escalation.

  16. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors

  17. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors.

  18. The status of BAT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  19. Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  20. New electronically black neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, D.M.; Feldman, W.C.; Hurlbut, C.

    1986-03-01

    Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors

  1. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochinskii, N V; Sun, G C; Kostamo, P; Silenas, A; Saynatjoki, A; Grant, J; Owens, A; Kozorezov, A G; Noschis, E; Van Eijk, C; Nagarkar, V; Sekiya, H; Pribat, D; Campbell, M; Lundgren, J; Arques, M; Gabrielli, A; Padmore, H; Maiorino, M; Volpert, M; Lebrun, F; Van der Putten, S; Pickford, A; Barnsley, R; Anton, M E.G.; Mitschke, M; Gros d' Aillon, E; Frojdh, C; Norlin, B; Marchal, J; Quattrocchi, M; Stohr, U; Bethke, K; Bronnimann, C H; Pouvesle, J M; Hoheisel, M; Clemens, J C; Gallin-Martel, M L; Bergamaschi, A; Redondo-Fernandez, I; Gal, O; Kwiatowski, K; Montesi, M C; Smith, K

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

  2. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d'Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

  3. Black and grey neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbard, F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the development and use of ''black'' and ''grey'' detectors is reviewed. Such detectors are widely used for counting neutrons in (p,n) and (α,n) experiments and in neutron cross section measurements. Accuracy of each detector is stressed. 19 figures

  4. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  5. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-15

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm

  6. Mobility and powering of large detectors. Moving large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is considered of moving large lepton detectors at ISABELLE for readying new experiments, detector modifications, and detector repair. A large annex (approximately 25 m x 25 m) would be built adjacent to the Lepton Hall separated from the Lepton Hall by a wall of concrete 11 m high x 12 m wide (for clearance of the detector) and approximately 3 m thick (for radiation shielding). A large pad would support the detector, the door, the cryogenic support system and the counting house. In removing the detector from the beam hall, one would push the pad into the annex, add a dummy beam pipe, bake out the beam pipe, and restack and position the wall on a small pad at the door. The beam could then operate again while experimenters could work on the large detector in the annex. A consideration and rough price estimate of various questions and proposed solutions are given

  7. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  8. A calibration method for phoswich detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gawlikowicz, W; Schröder, W U

    2002-01-01

    A new method of particle identification and energy calibration is proposed for phoswich detectors consisting of a fast plastic scintillator optically coupled to a CsI(Tl) crystal. In this method, functional relationships between integrated yields of three properly selected portions of the observed composite light output signal are parameterized in terms of three physical components (overlapping in time) of this signal. Then, a complete set of calibration constants is derived, linking these integrated partial yields to particle atomic numbers (Z) and energies (E). The calibration is based on the correlations between partial yields observed in actual data from the physics or 'production' runs, and energy deposits calculated for detector elements. The method is found suitable for a wide range of incident particle species and energies, largely eliminating the need for costly and time-consuming conventional calibration experiments with a variety of beams, targets, and bombarding energies.

  9. The Mini-SPT (Space Particle Telescope) for dual use: Precision flux measurement of low energy proton electron and heavy ion with tracking capability and A compact, low-cost realtime local radiation hazard/alarm detector to be used on board a satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpat, Behcet; Ergin, Tulun; Kalemci, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    The Mini-SPT project is the first, and most important, step towards the ambitious goal of creating a low-cost, compact, radiation hardened and high performance space particle telescope that can be mounted, in the near future, as standard particle detector on any satellite. Mini-SPT will be capable of providing high quality physics data on local space environment. In particular high precision flux measurement and tracking of low energy protons and electrons on different orbits with same instrumentation is of paramount importance for studies as geomagnetically trapped fluxes and space weather dynamics, dark matter search, low energy proton anisotropy and its effects on ICs as well as the solar protons studies. In addition, it will provide real-time "differentiable warnings" about the local space radiation hazard to other electronics systems on board the hosting satellite, including different criticality levels and alarm signals to activate mitigation techniques whenever this is strictly necessary to protect them from temporary/permanent failures. A real-time warning system will help satellite subsystems to save significant amount of power and memory with respect to other conventional techniques where the "mitigation" solutions are required to be active during entire mission life. The Mini-SPT will combine the use of technologies developed in cutting-edge high energy physics experiments (including technology from CMS experiments at CERN) and the development of new charged particle detecting systems for their use for the first time in space. The Mini-SPT essential objective is, by using for the first time in space SIPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers) technology for TOF and energy measurements, the production of high quality data with a good time, position and energy resolutions. The mini-SPT will consists of three main sub-units: a- A tracking and dE/dX measuring sub-detector which will be based on silicon pixel detectors (SPD) coupled to the rad-hard chip ROC-DIG (Read

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  11. Semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  12. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  14. Television area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

  15. CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00038772

    2011-01-01

    The present Compact Muon Solenoid silicon pixel tracking system has been designed for a peak luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1 and total dose corresponding to two years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. With the steady increase of the luminosity expected at the LHC, a new pixel detector with four barrel layers and three endcap disks is being designed. We will present the key points of the design: the new geometry, which minimizes the material budget and increases the tracking points, and the development of a fast digital readout architecture, which ensures readout efficiency even at high rate. The expected performances for tracking and vertexing of the new pixel detector are also addressed.

  16. The LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Starting from 2015 LHC will perform a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side A–side C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  17. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  18. Ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  19. Aerogel for FARICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lopatin, S.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Podgornov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Porosev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-01

    We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2–3–4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30–45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

  20. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

  1. Seismic intrusion detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  2. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  3. The ALEPH detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

  4. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  5. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  6. The Upgraded DØ detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš; Šimák, Vladislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 565, - (2006), s. 463-537 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA210; GA MŠk 1P05LA257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Fermilab * DZero * DØ * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  7. Thermal detector; Thermsiche verklikker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wey, A.; Dijkman, R. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    How much extra power will go through the different types of connection and cables in houses? Even though the knowledge of network companies with regard to their own cables is decreasing, they are forced to get more out of their own networks or even to squeeze them dry. In this way they can earn a great deal of money. A brief description is given of a thermal telltale (detector) which shows how far they can go.

  8. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  9. STAR detector overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackermann, K. H.; Adams, N.; Adler, C.; Šumbera, Michal; Zborovský, Imrich

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 499, 2/3 (2003), s. 624-632 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 475; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : relativistic heavy ions * tracking detectors * electromagnetic calorimeters Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.166, year: 2003

  10. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  11. A fossils detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffetaut, E.

    1998-01-01

    Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. Accurate and independent spectral response scale based on silicon trap detectors and spectrally invariant detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Jarle

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to establish an independent high accuracy spectral response scale over a broad spectral range based on standard laboratory equipment at a moderate cost. This had to be done by a primary method, where the responsivity of the detector is linked to fundamental constants. Summary, conclusion and future directions: In this thesis it has been demonstrated that an independent spectral response scale from the visual to the IR based on simple relative measurements can be established. The accuracy obtained by the hybrid self-calibration method demonstrates that state of the art accuracy is obtained with self-calibration principles. A calculable silicon trap detector with low internal losses over a wide spectral range is needed to establish the scale, in addition to a linear, spectrally independent detector with a good signal to noise ratio. By fitting the parameters in the responsivity model to a purely relative measurement we express the spectral response in terms of fundamental constants with a known uncertainty This is therefore a primary method. By applying a digital filter on the relative measurements of the InGaAs detectors in the infrared reduces the standard deviation by 30 %. In addition, by optimising the necessary scaling constant converting the relative calibration to absolute values, we have managed to establish an accurate and cost efficient spectral response scale in the IR. The full covariance analysis, which takes into account the correlation in the absolute values of the silicon detector, the correlation caused by the filter and the scaling constant, shows that the spectral response scale established in the infrared with InGaAs detectors is done with high accuracy. A similar procedure can be used in the UV, though it has not been demonstrated here. In fig. 10 the responsitivities of the detectors (a) and their associated uncertainties (b) at the 1 sigma level of confidence is compared for the three publications. We see that the responsivity

  13. X-ray detectors in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare systems are subject to continuous adaptation, following trends such as the change of demographic structures, the rise of life-style related and chronic diseases, and the need for efficient and outcome-oriented procedures. This also influences the design of new imaging systems as well as their components. The applications of X-ray imaging in the medical field are manifold and have led to dedicated modalities supporting specific imaging requirements, for example in computed tomography (CT), radiography, angiography, surgery or mammography, delivering projection or volumetric imaging data. Depending on the clinical needs, some X-ray systems enable diagnostic imaging while others support interventional procedures. X-ray detector design requirements for the different medical applications can vary strongly with respect to size and shape, spatial resolution, frame rates and X-ray flux, among others. Today, integrating X-ray detectors are in common use. They are predominantly based on scintillators (e.g. CsI or Gd 2 O 2 S) and arrays of photodiodes made from crystalline silicon (Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si) or they employ semiconductors (e.g. Se) with active a-Si readout matrices. Ongoing and future developments of X-ray detectors will include optimization of current state-of-the-art integrating detectors in terms of performance and cost, will enable the usage of large size CMOS-based detectors, and may facilitate photon counting techniques with the potential to further enhance performance characteristics and foster the prospect of new clinical applications

  14. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  15. The DELPHI Microvertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingefors, N.; Borner, H.; Boulter, R.; Caccia, M.; Chabaud, V.; Dijkstra, H.; Eerola, P.; Gross, E.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Hyams, B.; Karlsson, M.; Maehlum, G.; Ratz, K.; Roditi, I.; Straver, J.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Dufour, Y.; Brueckman, P.; Jalocha, P.; Kapusta, P.; Turala, M.; Zalewska, A.; Lindgren, J.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Ronnqvist, C.; Saarikko, H.; Saarikko, J.P.; Tuuva, T.; Almagne, B. d'; Bambade, P.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Amery, A.; Booth, P.S.L.; Campion, A.R.; McNulty, R.; Smith, N.A.; Andreazza, A.; Battaglia, M.; Biffi, P.; Bonvicini, V.; Kucewicz, W.; Meroni, C.; Redaelli, N.; Stocchi, A.; Troncon, C.; Vegni, G.; Dauncey, P.; Mazzucato, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peisert, A.; Baubillier, M.; Chauveau, J.; Silva, W. da; Genat, J.F.; Rossel, F.; Adye, T.; Apsimon, R.; Bizell, J.; Denton, L.; Kalmus, G.E.; Lidbury, J.; Seller, P.; Tyndel, M.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Lounis, A.; Schaeffer, M.; Turchetta, R.; Brenner, R.; Sundell, E.

    1993-01-01

    The DELPHI Microvertex detector, which has been in operation since the start of the 1990 LEP run, consists of three layers of silicon microstrip detectors at average radii of 6.3, 9.0 and 11.0 cm. The 73 728 readout strips, oriented along the beam, have a total active area of 0.42 m 2 . The strip pitch is 25 μm and every other strip is read out by low power charge amplifiers, giving a signal to noise ratio of 15:1 for minimum ionizing particles. On-line zero suppression results in an average data size of 4 kbyte for Z 0 events. After a mechanical survey and an alignment with tracks, the impact parameter uncertainty as determined from hadronic Z 0 decays is well described by √(69/p t ) 2 +24 2 μm, with p t in GeV/c. For the 45 GeV/c tracks from Z 0 →μ + μ - decays we find an uncertainty of 21 μm for the impact parameter, which corresponds to a precision of 8 μm per point. The stability during the run is monitored using light spots and capacitive probes. An analysis of tracks through sector overlaps provides an additional check of the stability. The same analysis also results in a value of 6 μm for the intrinsic precision of the detector. (orig.)

  16. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Document Server

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  19. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  20. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  1. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  2. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  3. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: llope@rice.edu [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2014-09-21

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.

  4. Silicon position-sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  5. The use of GaSe semiconductor detectors for monitoring high energy muon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, A M; Murri, R; Quirini, A; Rizzo, A; Vasanelli, L

    1976-01-01

    GaSe semiconductor detectors have been successfully tested during one year for monitoring muon beams in the GeV range in the neutrino experiment at CERN. Their performances are comparable with those of commercial Si surface barrier detectors for this particular application. Crystal growth, detector fabrication and characterization are briefly described. Various advantages (cost, ruggedness, resistance to radiation damage, manufacturing simplicity, etc.) are discussed. (8 refs).

  6. The case for a directional dark matter detector and the status of current experimental efforts

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S; Battat, J B R; Billard, J; Bozorgnia, N; Burgos, S; Caldwell, T; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Colas, P; Dafni, T; Daw, E; Dujmic, D; Dushkin, A; Fedus, W; Ferrer, E; Finkbeiner, D; Fisher, P H; Forbes, J; Fusayasu, T; Galan, J; Gamble, T; Ghag, C; Giomataris, Yu; Gold, M; Gomez, H; Gómez, M E; Gondolo, P; Green, A; Grignon, C; Guillaudin, O; Hagemann, C; Hattori, K; Henderson, S; Higashi, N; Ida, C; Iguaz, F J; Inglis, A; Irastorza, I G; Iwaki, S; Kaboth, A; Kabuki, S; Kadyk, J; Kallivayalil, N; Kubo, H; Kurosawa, S; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lamy, T; Lanza, R; Lawson, T B; Lee, A; Lee, E R; Lin, T; Loomba, D; López, J; Luzón, G; Manobu, T; Martoff, J; Mayet, F; McCluskey, B; Miller, E; Miuchi, K; Monroe, J; Morgan, B; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Naka, T; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Nicklin, G G; Nishimura, H; Niwa, K; Paling, S M; Parker, J; Petkov, A; Pipe, M; Pushkin, K; Robinson, M; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, J; Sahin, T; Sanderson, R; Sanghi, N; Santos, D; Sato, O; Sawano, T; Sciolla, G; Sekiya, H; Slatyer, T R; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Sugiyama, A; Takada, A; Takahashi, M; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Taniue, K; Tomas, A; Tomita, H; Tsuchiya, K; Turk, J; Tziaferi, E; Ueno, K; Vahsen, S; Vanderspek, R; Vergados, J; Villar, J A; Wellenstein, H; Wolfe, I; Yamamoto, R K; Yegoryan, H

    2010-01-01

    We present the case for a dark matter detector with directional sensitivity. This document was developed at the 2009 CYGNUS workshop on directional dark matter detection, and contains contributions from theorists and experimental groups in the field. We describe the need for a dark matter detector with directional sensitivity; each directional dark matter experiment presents their project's status; and we close with a feasibility study for scaling up to a one ton directional detector, which would cost around $150M.

  7. POSSuMUS: a position sensitive scintillating muon SiPM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ruschke, Alexander

    The development of a modular designed large scale scintillation detector with a two-dimensional position sensitivity is presented in this thesis. This novel POsition Sensitive Scintillating MUon SiPM Detector is named POSSuMUS. The POSSuMUS detector is capable to determine the particle’s position in two space dimensions with a fast trigger capability. Each module is constructed from two trapezoidal shaped plastic scintillators to form one rectangular shaped detector module. Both trapezoids are optically insulated against each other. In both trapezoids the scintillation light is collected by plastic fibers and guided towards silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). SiPMs are light sensors which are capable to detect even smallest amounts of light. By combining several detector modules, position sensitive areas from 100 cm2 to few m2 are achievable with few readout channels. Therefore, POSSuMUS provides a cost effective detector concept. The position sensitivity along the trapezoidal geometry of one detector module ...

  8. Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerts, David; Bean, Robert; Paff, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.

  9. GEM Detectors in the Experiments at e+e- Colliders in BINP

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, T V

    2017-01-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors possess a high spatial resolution in tens micron scale together with high rate capability up to 107 cm-2s-1. In addition, they have all advantages of gaseous detectors, such as relatively low costs per unit area, the possibility to equip a large area as well as a high uniformity. Cascaded Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors are used in the collider experiments at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), and they are being developed for a number of new projects. In this article the review of GEM based detectors for the tagging system of the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider and for the DEUTERON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is presented. The GEM detector application of the CMD-3 detector upgrade at the VEPP-2000 collider and the Super τ Factory detector are discussed.

  10. Development of smart wireless detector system for gamma ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Ismail Mustapha; Jaafar Abdullah; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Hearie Hassan; Yoong, Chong Foh

    2012-01-01

    Data transmission in field works especially that is related to industry, gas and chemical is paramount importance to ensure data accuracy and delivery time. A development of wireless detector system for remote data acquisition to be applied in conducting fieldwork in industry is described in this paper. A wireless communication which is applied in the project development is a viable and cost-effective method of transmitting data from the detector to the laptop on the site to facilitate data storage and analysis automatically, which can be used in various applications such as column scanning. The project involves hardware design for the detector and electronics parts besides programming for control board and user interface. A prototype of a wireless gamma scintillation detector is developed with capabilities of transmitting data to computer via radio frequency (RF) and recording the data within the 433 MHz band at baud rate of 19200. (author)

  11. Development of smart wireless detector system for gamma ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abd. Rahman; Chong, Foh Yoong; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Ismail Mustapha; Jaafar Abdullah; Hearie Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Data transmission in field works especially that is related to industry, gas and chemical is paramount importance to ensure data accuracy and delivery time. A development of wireless detector system for remote data acquisition to be applied in conducting fieldwork in industry is described in this paper. A wireless communication which is applied in the project development is a viable and cost-effective method of transmitting data from the detector to the laptop on the site to facilitate data storage and analysis automatically, which can be used in various applications such as column scanning. The project involves hardware design for the detector and electronics parts besides programming for control board and user interface. A prototype of a wireless gamma scintillation detector is developed with capabilities of transmitting data to computer via radio frequency (RF) and recording the data within the 433 MHz band at baud rate of 19200. (author)

  12. Interesting detector shapes for 3rd generation CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelriess, Marc [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics (IMP)

    2011-07-01

    Third generation CT scanners typically comprise detectors which are flat or whose shape is the segment of a cylinder or a sphere that is focussed onto the focal spot of the X-ray source. There appear to be two design criteria that favor this choice of detector shape. One is the possibility of performing fan-beam and cone-beam filtered backprojection in the native geometry (without rebinning) and the other criterium is to enable the use of focussed anti scatter grids. It is less known, however, that other detector shapes may also have these properties. While these designs have been evaluated for 2D CT from a rather theoretical standpoint more than one decade ago we revisit and generalize these considerations, extend them to 3D circular, sequential and spiral cone-beam CT and propose an optimal design in terms of detector costs. (orig.)

  13. MUPPATS: a multiparticle 3D imaging detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Koenig, W.; Kanter, E.P.; Vager, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the foil-induced dissociation of fast molecular ions is a potentially powerful method to determine the stereochemical structures of the molecular projectiles. We have recently developed a detector system specifically designed for such experiments. The MUPPATS detector is a large-area multistep low pressure gas counter. The requirements of multiparticle detection with good position and time resolution leads to a rather complex data-readout and reduction scheme. The system relies on several state-of-the-art techniques, developed in high-energy physics during recent years, to dramatically reduce the cost of the MUPPATS detector. Preliminary results for several polyatomic molecular ions have already been obtained. Some new avenues of research opened up by this detector are also described

  14. Comparison of square law, linear and bessel detectors for CA and OS CFAR algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Melebari, A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available . These detectors have difference detection performances and computational costs. In this paper, the detection performances of these three detectors are investigated for CA-CFAR and Order Statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR) algorithms using simulated and measured data of semi...

  15. Development of a Metal Detector for Smartphones and Its Use in the Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Geraldo A.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we describe how to develop an inductive metal detector that can be integrated to any Android or iOS smartphone with a standard audio port at low cost. The results indicate the metal detector can be used in the physics teaching laboratory as a practical application of principles of electromagnetism. It allows one to differentiate…

  16. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

    2002-01-01

    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  17. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  18. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  19. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  20. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  1. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  2. 2011 ATLAS Detector Performance - ID and Forward detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Davies‎, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Abdel Khalek, S

    2012-01-01

    This poster describes the performance of 2 parts of ATLAS: - The Inner Detector which consists of 3 subdetectors: the Pixel detector, the SemiConductor Tracker (or SCT) and the Transition Radiation Tracker (or TRT). Here, we report on Pixel detector and SCT performance over 2011. - ALFA detector which will determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP), and the total proton-proton cross section, by tracking elastically scattered protons at very small angles in the limit of the Coulomb Nuclear interference region.

  3. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the silicon detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sampling layers – twenty of thickness 5/7X0, followed by ten of thickness 10/7X0. The silicon detectors dominate the cost of our design, so we use simple .... understanding of the cross talk, we are continuing to work on a quantitative model.

  4. Plastic scintillation detectors for dose monitoring in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, J.; Machado, J.; Peralta, L.; Matela, N.

    2018-01-01

    Plastic scintillators detectors (PSDs) have been studied as dosimeters, since they provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional ionization chambers. Measurement and analysis of energy dependency were performed on a Siemens Mammomat tomograph for two different peak kilovoltages: 26 kV and 35 kV. Both PSD displayed good linearity for each energy considered and almost no energy dependence.

  5. Gas pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M.M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 μm CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm 2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm 2 ) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 μm pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 μm) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

  6. Photon detector for MEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, we have continued work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, a search for the rare decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity of a few parts in 10 13 . The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.38 MeV photon produced in a μ → eγ decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm 2 , a directional resolution of 10 degrees, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of 7%. It will consists of four independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e + e - pairs, and thereby, determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The inner drift chamber layer includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. Our, group together with a group from the University of Houston, is responsible for the design and construction of the photon detector, as well as developing the computer codes necessary for Monte Carlo simulations and data analysis. During the past year, our efforts have focused primarily on two tasks, delay line cathode read-out and software development. This report describes our recent work on delay lines and data analysis along with a discussion of the new plans for multiplexing in the photon arm

  7. Increasing accuracy of vehicle detection from conventional vehicle detectors - counts, speeds, classification, and travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle classification is an important traffic parameter for transportation planning and infrastructure : management. Length-based vehicle classification from dual loop detectors is among the lowest cost : technologies commonly used for collecting th...

  8. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  9. Particle localization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.

    1976-01-01

    A proportional detector for the localization of particles comprises a leak-tight chamber filled with fluid and fitted with an electrode of a first type consisting of one or more conducting wires and with an electrode of a second type consisting of one or more conducting plates having the shape of a portion of cylindrical surface and a contour which provides a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point of the wires and the solid angle which subtends the plate at that point, means being provided for collecting the electrical signal which appears on the plates. 12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

  10. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  11. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass

  12. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  13. Detector for failed fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide automatic monitor for the separation or reactor water and sampling water, in a failed fuel element detector using a sipping chamber. Constitution: A positional detector for the exact mounting of a sipping chamber on a channel box and a level detector for the detection of complete discharge of cooling water in the sipping chamber are provided in the sipping chamber. The positional detector is contacted to the upper end of the channel box and operated when the sipping chamber is correctly mounted to the fuel assemblies. The level detector comprises a float and a limit switch and it is operated when the water in the sipping chamber is discharged by a predetermined amount. Isolation of reactor water and sampling water are automatically monitored by the signal from these two detectors. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Neutron detector development at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, B.; Harder, J.A.; Mead, J.A.; Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional thermal neutron detectors have been the subject of research and development at Brookhaven for over 20 years. Based primarily on multi-wire chambers filled with a gas mixture containing 3 He, these detectors have been used in wide-ranging studies of molecular biology and material science samples. At each phase of development, experimenters have sought improvements in key parameters such as position resolution, counting rate, efficiency, solid-angle coverage and stability. A suite of detectors has been developed with sensitive areas ranging from 5x5 to 50x50 cm 2 . These devices incorporate low-noise-position readout and the best position resolution for thermal neutron gas detectors. Recent developments include a 1.5 mx20 cm detector containing multiple segments with continuously sensitive readout, and detectors with unity gain for ultra-high rate capability and long-term stability

  15. The CMS detector before closure

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2006-01-01

    The CMS detector before testing using muon cosmic rays that are produced as high-energy particles from space crash into the Earth's atmosphere generating a cascade of energetic particles. After closing CMS, the magnets, calorimeters, trackers and muon chambers were tested on a small section of the detector as part of the magnet test and cosmic challenge. This test checked the alignment and functionality of the detector systems, as well as the magnets.

  16. Diffusion processes in dyed detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lferde, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the dyed and fluorescent track detectors, the diffusion speed of the swelling agent, the sensitization molecules and the dye have been measured under various conditions. It is shown that the sensitization affects the entire detector while dyeing is restricted to the upper and lower layers of the detector. By combining the optimal values of the reactions parameters a higher contrast and sensitivity may be achieved. (author)

  17. Silicon microstrip detectors on 6'' technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Günther, M; Martignon, G; Bacchetta, N; Bisello, D; Leonardi, G L; Lucas, T; Wilburn, C

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of microstrip detectors on 4'' high-resistivity wafers that allow for a maximum workable area of about 42 cm sup 2 has been well established. Using 6'' wafers the workable area increases up to 100 cm sup 2 (more than twice the area of a 4'' wafer) allowing a larger number of detectors to be processed at the same time on the same wafer resulting in a sizable reduction of cost. After a prototyping stage, the CDF silicon tracker upgrade is now receiving final production sensors from Micron Semiconductor Ltd. The performance of double-sided single-metal small stereo angle sensors for the CDF SVXII and ISL detectors has been studied. Results include probe station measurements and test beam results. The problems encountered from prototyping to the final devices are described. A brief overview of the response of the sensors to irradiation with gamma-rays and p sup + up to a dose of 0.5 Mrad (well above the doses expected during Run II of the Tevatron) is included. (author)

  18. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  19. Commissioning the SNO+ Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caden, E.; Coulter, I.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SNO+ is a multipurpose liquid scintillator neutrino experiment based at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The experiment’s main physics goal is a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Tellurium-130, but SNO+ will also study low energy solar neutrinos, geo- and reactor-antineutrinos, among other topics. We are reusing much of the hardware from the original SNO experiment, but significant work has taken place to transform the heavy water detector into a liquid scintillator detector. We present upgrades and improvements to the read-out electronics and trigger system to handle the higher data rates expected by a scintillator experiment. We show the successful installation and testing of a hold-down rope net for the acrylic vessel to counter-act the buoyancy of organic liquid scintillator. We also describe the new scintillator process plant and cover gas systems that have been constructed to achieve the purification necessary to meet our physics goals. We are currently commissioning the experiment with ultra-pure water in preparation for filling with scintillator in early 2017 and present the current status of this work.

  20. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

  3. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

  4. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  5. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli.

    Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire first half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

  7. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

  8. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  9. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

  10. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  11. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  12. The IMB proton decay detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, R.C.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Smith, D.W.; Sobel, H.; Wuest, C.; Bionta, R.M.; Cortez, B.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Greenberg, J.; Park, H.S.; Shumard, E.; Sinclair, D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Velde, J.C. van der; Goldhaber, M.; Blewitt, G.; Lehmann, E.; LoSecco, J.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Learned, J.; Svoboda, R.; Jones, T.W.; Ramana Murthy, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven proton decay detector which is nearing completion in a salt mine in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. The detector is a water Cerenkov one with a fiducial volume of 4,000 tons and a threshold of 24 MeV. Initial results indicate that the detector is working according to specification and has a high potential for deep underground cosmic ray applications. I will give a brief account of the IMB detector construction and operation and also its present status and possible cosmic ray applications. (orig.)

  13. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  14. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansley, S. P.; Betzel, G.T.; Meyer, J.; Metcalf, P.; Reinisch, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolu tion resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kY), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MY). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response S. P. Lansley () . G. T. Betzel . J. Meyer Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand e-mail: stuart.lansley canterbury.ac.nz S. P. Lansley The Macdiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand P. Metcalfe Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia L. Reinisch Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA with dose (at 100 kY) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 Y compared to a bias of 61.75 Y used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the syn thetic diamond detector. Overall

  15. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Barrentine, E. M.; Brown, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. The National Research Council's Committee on Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program has identified the inclusion of a thermal imager as critical for both current and future land imaging missions. Such an imaging instrument operating in two bands located at approximately 11 and 12 microns (for example, in Landsat 8, and also Landsat 9 when launched) will provide essential information for furthering our hydrologic understanding at scales of human influence, and produce field-scale moisture information through accurate retrievals of evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 9 is slated to recycle the TIRS-2 instrument launched with Landsat 8 that uses cooled quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), hence requiring expensive and massive cryocooler technology to achieve its required spectral and spatial accuracies. Our goal is to conceptualize and develop a thermal imaging instrument which leverages recent and imminent technology advances in uncooled detectors. Such detector technology will offer the benefit of greatly reduced instrument cost, mass, and power at the expense of some acceptable loss in detector sensitivity. It would also allow a thermal imaging instrument to be fielded on board a low-cost platform, e.g., a CubeSat. Sustained and enhanced land imaging is crucial for providing high-quality science data on change in land use, forest health, crop status, environment, and climate. Accurate satellite mapping of ET at the agricultural field scale (the finest spatial scale of the environmental processes of interest) requires high-quality thermal data to produce the corresponding accurate land surface temperature (LST) retrievals used to drive an ET model. Such an imaging instrument would provide important information on the following: 1) the relationship between land-use and land/water management practices and water use dynamics; 2) the

  16. Assessment of ambient-temperature, high-resolution detectors for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution, gamma- and x-ray spectrometry are used routinely in nuclear safeguards verification measurements of plutonium and uranium in the field. These measurements are now performed with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors that require cooling liquid-nitrogen temperatures, thus limiting their utility in field and unattended safeguards measurement applications. Ambient temperature semiconductor detectors may complement HPGe detectors for certain safeguards verification applications. Their potential will be determined by criteria such as their performance, commercial availability, stage of development, and costs. We have conducted as assessment of ambient temperature detectors for safeguards measurement applications with these criteria in mind

  17. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  18. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  19. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  20. Utilization of virtual reality for reading the superheated emulsion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Sobrinho, Jose C.; Santo, Andre C.E.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Mol, Antonio C.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on Virtual Reality for reading the Superheated Emulsion Detector (Bubble Detector). The proposed method is an alternative to: automatic counters offered by the manufacturers of detectors, since they have a relatively high cost (acquisition, maintenance and periodic calibration), and visual counting of detectors, since it only has an advantage when there are a small number of bubbles. The method starts with the collection of detector's digital images in order to obtain a sequence of images to create an animation that is displayed with the help of Virtual Reality. To this end, it is modeled, using OpenGL graphics library, a virtual environment for visualizing and manipulating virtual detector. It is made, then a calibration of this virtual environment thus ensuring the correspondence of the model with reality. The reading of the detector (bubbles count) is made visually by the user with the assistance of stereo vision and a 3D cursor to navigation, marking and counting the bubbles. The user views a further auxiliary display that shows the three-dimensional cursor position, the labeled amount of bubbles and the measured dose. After testing, the following results were achieved: better precision in counting the bubbles compared with the 10% reported by the manufacturer of the automatic reader; achieving a low cost tool that requires no calibration constant in the process of maintenance and/or lifetime; minimizing the problem of manual counting for large number of bubbles and ease of use, because can be operated by a common user. (author)

  1. Utilization of virtual reality for reading the superheated emulsion detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Sobrinho, Jose C.; Santo, Andre C.E.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Mol, Antonio C.A., E-mail: volksparati@hotmail.com, E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a method based on Virtual Reality for reading the Superheated Emulsion Detector (Bubble Detector). The proposed method is an alternative to: automatic counters offered by the manufacturers of detectors, since they have a relatively high cost (acquisition, maintenance and periodic calibration), and visual counting of detectors, since it only has an advantage when there are a small number of bubbles. The method starts with the collection of detector's digital images in order to obtain a sequence of images to create an animation that is displayed with the help of Virtual Reality. To this end, it is modeled, using OpenGL graphics library, a virtual environment for visualizing and manipulating virtual detector. It is made, then a calibration of this virtual environment thus ensuring the correspondence of the model with reality. The reading of the detector (bubbles count) is made visually by the user with the assistance of stereo vision and a 3D cursor to navigation, marking and counting the bubbles. The user views a further auxiliary display that shows the three-dimensional cursor position, the labeled amount of bubbles and the measured dose. After testing, the following results were achieved: better precision in counting the bubbles compared with the 10% reported by the manufacturer of the automatic reader; achieving a low cost tool that requires no calibration constant in the process of maintenance and/or lifetime; minimizing the problem of manual counting for large number of bubbles and ease of use, because can be operated by a common user. (author)

  2. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  3. Progress in the development of explosives materials detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.D.; Conrad, F.J.; Sandlin, L.L.; Burrows, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    Five hand-held explosives vapor detectors (Elscint Model EXD-2, ITI Model 70, Leigh-Marsland Model S-201, Pye Dynamics Model PD.2.A, and Xonics Model GC-710) were evaluated for sensitivity to a variety of explosives, identification of false alarm agents, and general performance and maintenance characteristics. The results of this evaluation, as presented, indicate that there is no single explosives detector which is best-suited for use at all nuclear facilities. Rather, there are several site-specific elements which must be considered when choosing an explosives detector. There are several new explosives detector technologies being developed which will out-perform existing commercial equipment. Some of these new detectors may be commercially available by the end of fiscal year 1980 and will be cost-effective to purchase and operate. The following areas of explosives detection research are discussed: nitrogen-phosphorous detectors, plasma chromatography, mass spectroscopy, small animal olfactory, vapor preconcentration, nuclear quadrupole resonance, far infrared radiation imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermal neutron activation, and computerized tomography

  4. New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to ∼50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.

  5. Present and future of flat panel detectors in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    Present status of development of flat panel detectors and their clinical application in the world have been surveyed, and future trends are also explored especially in the field of material researches and methods of manufacturing. Also the importance of role of medical physicists on user side is described because characteristic physics measurement of a detector assembly is unavoidable and essential in quality assurance in clinical routine and acceptance test in hospitals. Even though physics measurements and clinical evaluations on flat panel detectors have shown remarkable progress and advances in these several years, future problems of cost down in manufacturing and quality assurance to prevent individual differences between detector assemblies must be resolved. Results of evaluation in mammography, chest radiography, fluoroscopy for cardiovascular examination, bone tumor examination and radiotherapy application indicate that flat panel detectors are future promising materials. Their systematic operation is contributing to heighten accuracy of image examinations and preciseness of radiation therapy. Encouragement to medical physicists relevant to flat panel detectors is also raised in this paper. (author)

  6. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subba Ramu, M.C.; Mishra, U.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of the application of nuclear track detectors with emphasis on recent developments in the field of radiation protection. Track etch detectors have been used for the measurements of low level radiation in the environment, fast neutron and radon daughter inhalation dose. Recent developments in the field of dosimetry seem to be promising. In fast neutron dosimetry, track etch detectors can be used without inclusion of fissile materials by using the electrochemical etching technique. These detectors can provide important information in the energy range upto 250 keV. Survey of this range of energy with TLD is difficult because they are extremely energy dependent and over-respond to low energy neutrons. Measurement of radon using track detectors can help to lower the cost of the radon dosimeters. Certain detectors are sensitive to alpha particles from radon and their progeny. Higher sensitivity permits their use in a passive type of personnel dosimeter, which does not require the troublesome aspects of air sampling for the collection of radon daughter samples. (author), 38 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  7. The transition radiation detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a fixed target heavy-ion experiment at the future FAIR accelerator facility. The CBM Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is one of the key detectors to provide electron identification above momenta of 1 GeV/c and charged particle tracking. Due its capability to identify charged particles via their specific energy loss, the TRD in addition will provide valuable information for the measurement of fragments. These requirements can be fulfilled with a XeCO{sub 2} based Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) detector in combination with an adequate radiator. The default MWPC is composed of a symmetric amplification area of 7 mm thickness, followed by a 5 mm drift region to enhance the TR-photon absorption probability in the active gas volume. This geometry provides also efficient and fast signal creation, as well as read-out, of the order of 200 μs per charged particle track. The performance of this detector is maximized by reducing the material budget between the radiator and gas volume to a minimum. The full detector at SIS100 will be composed of 200 modules in 2 sizes. To limit cost and production time the number of various module types is limited to 6 types and 4 types of Front End Board (FEB) flavors are required. An overview of the design and performance of the TRD detector is given.

  8. The desktop muon detector: A simple, physics-motivated machine- and electronics-shop project for university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, S. N.; Conrad, J. M.; Kirby, C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the construction of a desktop muon detector, an undergraduate-level physics project that develops machine-shop and electronics-shop technical skills. The desktop muon detector is a self-contained apparatus that employs a plastic scintillator as the detection medium and a silicon photomultiplier for light collection. This detector can be battery powered and is used in conjunction with the provided software. The total cost per detector is approximately 100. We describe physics experiments we have performed, and then suggest several other interesting measurements that are possible, with one or more desktop muon detectors.

  9. This detector can't be built (without lots of work)

    CERN Document Server

    Breidenbach, M

    2002-01-01

    Most of us believe that e sup + e sup - detectors are technically trivial compared to those for hadron colliders and that detectors for linear colliders are extraordinarily trivial. The cross sections are tiny; there are approximately no radiation issues (compared to real machines) and for linear colliders, the situation is even simpler. The crossing rate is miniscule, so that hardware triggers are not needed, the DAQ is very simple, and the data processing requirements are quite modest. The challenges arise from the emphasis on precision measurements within reasonable cost constraints. The Silicon Detector, SD, is a ''preconceptual'' design of a high performance detector for the NLC, with reasonably uncompromised performance in general and stressing superb energy flow performance with its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal). However, it is assumed from the beginning that funding will be very tight and that the detector costs must be constrained and rational. It also remains to be demonstrated by detailed simu...

  10. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Koichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of detecting the failure of a fuel rod by imparting a wire disconnection detecting function to a central electrode at the center of a failure mode thereto. Constitution: A wire disconnection detecting terminal is provided at the terminal opposite to the signal output terminal of a central electrode in a failed fuel detector used for detecting the failure of a fuel rod in an atomic power plant using liquid metal as a coolant, and a voltage monitor for monitoring the terminal voltage is connected to the terminal. The disconnection of the central electrode is detected by the failure of the output of the voltage monitor, and an alarm is thus generated. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passe, J.; Petitcolas, H.; Verdant, R.

    1975-01-01

    The self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) enable to measure continuously high fluxes of thermal neutrons. They are particularly suitable for power reactor cores because of their robustness. Description of two kinds of SPND's characterized by the electrical current production way is given here: the first SPND's which present a V, Ag or Rh emitter are sensitive enough but they offer a few minute delay time: the second SPND's which are depending on the gamma activation have a short delay time. The emitter is made of Co or Pt. In any case, the signal is linear with reaction rates. Finally, the applications are briefly repeated here: irradiation facility monitor in research reactors, and flux map and space instability control in power reactors [fr

  12. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  13. Neutron television camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron area detector system is being developed at the Institut Laue-Langevin which is based on a system for x-rays. The system has a large counting rate capability; this is extremely important where the total background count exceeds the total counts in the signals of interest. Its spatial resolution is of the order of one mm, while the screen size is 400 mm. The main limitation of the system is its limited counting efficiency, and this is directly attributable to the optical self-absorption of the neutron phosphor. All coherent noise in the system, i.e., all noise synchronized with the TV scans, has to be kept lower than the first bit threshold. However, this requirement can be relaxed when dealing with diffraction patterns, such as those from single crystals, for which a local background is subtracted from the pattern

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  15. Space-based detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload “LISA Technology Package” will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical...... of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu...... as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton....

  16. Scintillator detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Dibianca, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a scintillator detector array for use in computerized tomography and comprises a housing including a plurality of chambers, the said housing having a front wall transmissive to x-rays and side walls opaque to x-rays, such as of tungsten and tantalum, a liquid scintillation medium including a soluble fluor, the solvent for the fluor being disposed in the chambers. The solvent comprises either an intrinsically high Z solvent or a solvent which has dissolved therein a high Z compound e.g. iodo or bromonaphthalene; or toluene, xylene or trimethylbenzene with a lead or tin alkyl dissolved therein. Also disposed about the chambers are a plurality of photoelectric devices. (author)

  17. Radon gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madnick, P.A.; Sherwood, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a radon gas detector. It comprises: a housing having an interior chamber, the interior chamber being completely closed to ambient light, the interior chamber being divided into an environment connecting chamber and a radiation ascertaining chamber; radiation sensitive means mounted between the environment connecting chamber and the radiation ascertaining chamber; air movement means mounted in connection with the environment connecting chamber. The air movement means for moving ambient air through the environment connecting chamber; electronic means for detecting radiation within the air which is passing through the environment connecting chamber. The electronic means also including radiation counting means. The electronic means producing an output based on the type and quantity of radiation in the environment connecting chamber; and display electronics for receiving the output and displaying accordingly a display representative of the amount and type of radiation located within the environment connecting chamber and hence within the ambient air

  18. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  19. ''Invisible'' axion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is given of various ideas which have been put forth to detect ''invisible'' axions, i.e., axions with f/sub a/ between 3 x 10 7 GeV and 2 x 10 12 GeV. These experiments would attempt to detect the axions which constitute the halo of our galaxy or axions which are emitted by our sun; or they would attempt to detect the force mediated by virtual axions. Various relevant axion parameters are given as f/sub a/. Among the experiments described are: galactic axion detector using a cavity; ''spin coupled'' axion detection; axion to photon conversion in an inhomogeneous static magnetic field; and macroscopic forces mediated by axions. 27 refs

  20. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  1. Porous material neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Yacouba [Oak Ridge, TN; Kocsis, Menyhert [Venon, FR

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  3. Particle detector spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs

  4. DETECTORS: scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the continual search for improved detection techniques, new materials are continually proving profitable. A good example is scintillating plastic fibres - tiny transparent threads sometimes finer than a human hair which transmit light. The narrowness and flexibility of these fibres was a major breakthrough for endoscopy - non-invasive techniques for viewing the otherwise inaccessible in surgery or machine inspection. In a more sophisticated form, these fibres find ready application in communications technology, where the goal is to transmit information rather than electrical power, replacing conventional and unwieldy current-carrying wire conductors. In particle physics, fibres have long been used to take the tiny scintillations produced when high energy particles hit fluorescent materials and 'conduct' them to photosensitive detectors some distance away

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  6. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  7. Self-powered radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Wallace.

    1980-01-01

    This invention aims to create a self fed radiation detector comprising a long central emitter-conductor absorbing the neutrons, wrapped in an insulating material, and a thin collector-conductor placed coaxially around the emitter and the insulation, the emitter being constructed of several stranded cables in a given conducting material so that the detector is flexible enough [fr

  8. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  9. The VENUS detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shojiro

    1983-01-01

    The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

  10. Monitor for reactor neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakami, Hisayuki; Shibata, Masatoshi

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention judges as to whether a neutron detector is normal or not while considering the change of indication value depending on the power change of a reactor core. That is, the device of the present invention comprises a standard value setting device for setting the standard value for calibrating the neutron detector and an abnormality judging device for comparing the standard value with a measured value of the neutron detector and judging the abnormality when the difference is greater than a predetermined value. The measured value upon initialization of each of the neutron detectors is determined as a quasi-standard value. An average value of the difference between the measured value and the quasi-standard value of a plurality of effective neutron detectors at a same level for the height of the reactor core is multiplied to a power rate based on the reactor core power at a position where the neutron detector is disposed upon calibration. The value obtained by adding the multiplied value and the quasi-standard value is determined as a standard value. The abnormality judging device compares the standard value with the measured value of the neutron detector and, if the difference is greater than a predetermined value, the neutron detector is determined as abnormal. As a result, judgement can be conducted more accurately than conventional cases. (I.S.)

  11. Fast Timing for Collider Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in fast timing particle detectors have opened up new possibilities to design collider detectors that fully reconstruct and separate event vertices and individual particles in the time domain. The applications of these techniques are considered for the physics at HL-LHC.

  12. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  13. The ARGUS silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ball, S.; Ehret, K.; Geyer, C.; Hesselbarth, J.; Hoelscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Huepper, A.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Brogle, M.; Horisberger, R.

    1994-01-01

    A silicon microstrip vertex detector has been built as an upgrade to the ARGUS detector for increased precision and efficiency in the reconstruction of decay vertices. This paper discusses the mechanical and electronic design of this device and presents first results from its successful test operation yielding an impact parameter resolution of about 18 μm. ((orig.))

  14. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  15. Performance of the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falaleev, V P; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Karyukhin, A N; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perevozchikov, V; Pernegger, H; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Belokopytov, Yu; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Gouz, Yu; Jarlskog, Ch

    1996-01-01

    DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e^+e^- physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4\\pi solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

  16. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the

  17. Scalar top study: Detector optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This scenario could for example occur if the vertex detector is exposed to a large dose of machine background from the accelerator. The optimization of the radius of the innermost layer is an important aspect in the design of a vertex detector for a linear collider. VX32: Five layers and double material thickness (0.128% X0 ...

  18. Cryogenic detectors for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive introduction to cryogenic detector developments for particle physics is presented, covering conventional detectors cooled to low temperature (scintillators and semiconductors), superconductive and thermal sensitive devices, as well as the basics of cold electronics. After giving a critical overview of current work, we elaborate on possible new ways for further improvements and briefly evaluate the feasibility of the main proposed applications

  19. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  20. Detectors for MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Jack; Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, it was thought that the proton radius was known with an uncertainty of 1%. However, experiments carried-out at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) involving muonic hydrogen yielded a radius 4% smaller with an uncertainty of .1%, a 7.9 σ inconsistency. This problem of properly measuring the radius now requires new and different measurements. The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will thus be the first to utilize elastic muon scattering with sufficient precision to address the proton radius measurement. MUSE will run in PSI's PiM1 beamline, using a stack of GEM chambers and thin scintillation detectors to identify and track the beam particle species in this mixed e, pi, mu beam. Scattered particles will be measured in two arms with ten layers of Straw Tube Tracking (STT) detectors and a double plastic scintillator wall for timing of and triggering on scattered particles. The STT chambers will employ the anti-Proton Annihilations at Darmstadt (PANDA) design. Each straw consists of a thin wire with high voltage surrounded by an aluminized Mylar tube inflated with a mix of Argon and Carbon Dioxide, the ratio of which is important for optimal operation. The Argon gas, ionized by incoming charged particles, releases electrons which attract to the central wire. The CO2 acts as a quencher, taking-up electrons to prevent an unstable avalanche effect. This project will investigate the effects of altering the gas mixture in the STTs on signal size and timing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OISE-1358175, PHY-1614850, and PHY-1614938. Thank you to the teams at HUJI and PSI, in particular, Dr. G. Ron, Dr. T. Rostomyan, Dr. K. Dieters, and D. Cohen.

  1. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  2. The D0 detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

  3. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1998-11-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.

  4. The PHOBOS detector at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Basilev, S.; Baum, R.; Betts, R. R.; Białas, A.; Bindel, R.; Bogucki, W.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Ceglia, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A. E.; Coghen, T.; Connor, C.; Czyż, W.; Dabrowski, B.; Decowski, M. P.; Despet, M.; Fita, P.; Fitch, J.; Friedl, M.; Gałuszka, K.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Godlewski, J.; Gomes, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halik, J.; Halliwell, C.; Haridas, P.; Hayes, A.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kita, W.; Kotuła, J.; Kraner, H.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Law, C.; Lemler, M.; Ligocki, J.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Neal, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Patel, M.; Pernegger, H.; Plesko, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Ross, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Ryan, J.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Scaduto, J.; Shea, J.; Sinacore, J.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Straczek, A.; Stodulski, M.; Strek, M.; Stopa, Z.; Sukhanov, A.; Surowiecka, K.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zalewski, K.; Żychowski, P.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    This manuscript contains a detailed description of the PHOBOS experiment as it is configured for the Year 2001 running period. It is capable of detecting charged particles over the full solid angle using a multiplicity detector and measuring identified charged particles near mid-rapidity in two spectrometer arms with opposite magnetic fields. Both of these components utilize silicon pad detectors for charged particle detection. The minimization of material between the collision vertex and the first layers of silicon detectors allows for the detection of charged particles with very low transverse momenta, which is a unique feature of the PHOBOS experiment. Additional detectors include a time-of-flight wall which extends the particle identification range for one spectrometer arm, as well as sets of scintillator paddle and Cherenkov detector arrays for event triggering and centrality selection.

  5. Radiation detectors for personnel monitoring - current developments and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The radiation detectors for personnel monitoring range from the conventional passive dosimeters like the film badge and the TLD, to sophisticated active dosimeters for integrated gamma, beta and neutron dose measurement. With the availability of high accuracy active dosimeters, the process of personnel monitoring, acceptability among radiation workers, record keeping and dose control have become more simplified. However the high level of sophistication in the active dosimeter has its own inevitable price tag and the new breed of active dosimeters are prohibitively costly. The silver lining, in the otherwise dark cost scenario of these dosimeters is the potential for cost reduction at least in some of the dosimeters in the near future

  6. Performance simulation and structure design of Binode CdZnTe gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Libo; Li Yulan; Fu Jianqiang; Jiang Hao; Zhang Lan; He Bin; Li Yuanjing

    2014-01-01

    A new electrode structure CdZnTe (Cadmium Zinc Telluride) detector named Binode CdZnTe has been pro- posed in this paper. Together with the softwares of MAXWELL, GEANT4, and ROOT, the charge collection process and its gamma spectrum of the detector have been simulated and the detector structure has been optimized. In order to improve its performance further, Compton scattering effect correction has been used. The simulation results demonstrate that with refined design and Compton scattering effect correction, Binode CdZnTe detectors is capable of achieving 3.92% FWHM at 122 keV, and 1.27% FWHM at 662 keV. Com- pared with other single-polarity (electron-only) detector configurations, Binode CdZnTe detector offers a cost effective and simple structure alternative with comparable energy resolution. (authors)

  7. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  8. NEW LENSLET BASED IFS WITH HIGH DETECTOR PIXEL EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Three IFS types currently used for optical design are: lenslet array, imager slicer, and lenslet array and fiber combined. Lenslet array based Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) is very popular for many astrophysics applications due to its compactness, simplicity, as well as cost and mass savings. The disadvantage of lenslet based IFS is its low detector pixel efficiency. Enough spacing is needed between adjacent spectral traces in cross dispersion direction to avoid wavelength cross-talk, because the same wavelength is not aligned to the same column on detector. Such as on a recent exoplanet coronagraph instrument study to support the coming astrophysics decadal survey (LUVOIR), to cover a 45 λ/D Field of View (FOV) with a spectral resolving power of 200 at shortest wavelength, a 4k x 4k detector array is needed. This large format EMCCD pushes the detector into technology development area with a low TRL. Besides the future mission, it will help WFIRST coronagraph IFS by packing all spectra into a smaller area on detector, which will reduce the chance for electrons to be trapped in pixels, and slow the detector degradation during the mission.The innovation we propose here is to increase the detector packing efficiency by grouping a number of lenslets together to form many mini slits. In other words, a number of spots (Point Spread Function at lenslet focus) are aligned into a line to resemble a mini slit. Therefore, wavelength cross-talk is no longer a concern anymore. This combines the advantage of lenslet array and imager slicer together. The isolation rows between spectral traces in cross dispersion direction can be reduced or removed. So the packing efficiency is greatly increased. Furthermore, the today’s microlithography and etching technique is capable of making such a lenslet array, which will relax the detector demand significantly. It will finally contribute to the habitable exoplanets study to analyzing their spectra from direct images. Detailed theory

  9. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  10. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  11. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  12. Silicon Drift Detectors - A Novel Technology for Vertex Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D.

    1996-10-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) are novel position sensing silicon detectors which operate in a manner analogous to gas drift detectors. Single SDD's were shown in the CERN NA45 experiment to permit excellent spatial resolution (pseudo-rapidity. Over the last three years we undertook a concentrated R+D effort to optimize the performance of the detector by minimizing the inactive area, the operating voltage and the data volume. We will present test results from several wafer prototypes. The charge produced by the passage of ionizing particles through the bulk of the detectors is collected on segmented anodes, with a pitch of 250 μm, on the far edges of the detector. The anodes are wire-bonded to a thick film multi-chip module which contains preamplifier/shaper chips and CMOS based switched capacitor arrays used as an analog memory pipeline. The ADC is located off-detector. The complete readout chain from the wafer to the DAQ will be presented. Finally we will show physics performance simulations based on the resolution achieved by the SVT prototypes.

  13. Troubleshooting Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  14. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  15. The 150 ns detector project: progress with small detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Russell, S.R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.; Segal, Julie

    1994-01-01

    This project's long term goal is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors, 256x256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024x1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front end preamplifiers are being integrated first, since their design and performance are both the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is also concentrating on devising and perfecting detector structures which are thick enough (1 mm) to absorb over 99% of the incident X-rays in the energy range of interest. In this paper we discuss our progress toward the 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors. We have fabricated sample detectors at Stanford's Center for Integrated Systems and are preparing both to test them individually and to wirebond them to the preamplifier samples to produce our first working small 1D and 2D detectors. We will describe our solutions to the design problems associated with collecting charge in less than 30 ns from 1 mm thick pixels in high resistivity silicon. We have constructed and tested the front end of our preamplifier design using a commercial 1.2 μm CMOS technology and are moving on to produce a few channels of the complete preamplifier, including a switchable gain stage and output stage. We will discuss both the preamplifier design and our initial test results. ((orig.))

  16. The 150 ns detector project: progress with small detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, W.K. (X-ray Instrumentation Associates, 2513 Charleston Rd, Ste 207, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)); Russell, S.R. (X-ray Instrumentation Associates, 2513 Charleston Rd, Ste 207, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)); Kleinfelder, Stuart A. (VLSI Physics, 19 Drury Lane, Berkeley, CA 94705 (United States)); Segal, Julie (Integrated Ckts Lab., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    This project's long term goal is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors, 256x256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024x1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front end preamplifiers are being integrated first, since their design and performance are both the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is also concentrating on devising and perfecting detector structures which are thick enough (1 mm) to absorb over 99% of the incident X-rays in the energy range of interest. In this paper we discuss our progress toward the 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors. We have fabricated sample detectors at Stanford's Center for Integrated Systems and are preparing both to test them individually and to wirebond them to the preamplifier samples to produce our first working small 1D and 2D detectors. We will describe our solutions to the design problems associated with collecting charge in less than 30 ns from 1 mm thick pixels in high resistivity silicon. We have constructed and tested the front end of our preamplifier design using a commercial 1.2 [mu]m CMOS technology and are moving on to produce a few channels of the complete preamplifier, including a switchable gain stage and output stage. We will discuss both the preamplifier design and our initial test results. ((orig.))

  17. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R

    2012-01-01

    A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

  18. Segmented Monolithic Germanium Detector Arrays for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Ethan L.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental results from the Phase I effort were extremely encouraging. During Phase I PHDs Co. made the first strides toward a new detector technology that could have great impact on synchrotron x-ray absorption (XAS) measurements, and x-ray detector technology in general. Detector hardware that allowed critical demonstration measurements of our technology was designed and fabricated. This new technology allows good charge collection from many pixels on a single side of a multi-element monolithic germanium planar detector. The detector technology provides 'dot-like' collection electrodes having very low capacitance. The detector technology appears to perform as anticipated in the Phase I proposal. In particular, the 7-pixel detector studied showed remarkable properties; making it an interesting example of detector physics. The technology is enabled by the use of amorphous germanium contact technology on germanium planar detectors. Because of the scalability associated with the fabrication of these technologies at PHDs Co., we anticipate being able to supply larger detector systems at significantly lower cost than systems made in the conventional manner.

  19. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs

  20. New developments in PET detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lingxin; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Bin; Liu Haojia

    2010-01-01

    The researches on PET detector are always active and innovative area. The research direction of PET detector includes improving performances of scintillator-based detectors, investigating new detectors suitable for multi-modality imaging (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI), meeting requirements of TOF and DOI technologies and boosting the development of the technologies. In this paper, new developments in PET detector technology about scintillation crystal, photodetector and semiconductor detector is introduced. (authors)

  1. The Martian Oasis Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; tomasko, M. G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.

    2000-07-01

    public and Congress providing an attainable goal for both robotic and manned missions. The instrument required to detect an active oasis is a high spatial resolution (few tens of meters) Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectrometer coupled with a high resolution camera (five m/pixel). This combination creates too large a data volume to possibly return data for the entire Martian Surface; therefore it has been designed as one of the first in a new generation of 'smart' detectors, called the Mars Oasis Detector (MOD).

  2. SoLid Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labare, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    SoLid is a reactor anti-neutrino experiment where a novel detector is deployed at a minimum distance of 5.5 m from a nuclear reactor core. The purpose of the experiment is three-fold: to search for neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline; to measure the pure 235U neutrino energy spectrum; and to demonstrate the feasibility of neutrino detectors for reactor monitoring. This report presents the unique features of the SoLid detector technology. The technology has been optimised for a high background environment resulting from low overburden and the vicinity of a nuclear reactor. The versatility of the detector technology is demonstrated with a 288 kg detector prototype which was deployed at the BR2 nuclear reactor in 2015. The data presented includes both reactor on, reactor off and calibration measurements. The measurement results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The 1.6t SoLid detector is currently under construction, with an optimised design and upgraded material technology to enhance the detector capabilities. Its deployement on site is planned for the begin of 2017 and offers the prospect to resolve the reactor anomaly within about two years.

  3. Rotating detectors and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F.

    2000-08-01

    In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton s bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)

  4. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  5. Detector materials: germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1981-11-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1981 Nuclear Science Symposium. The basic physical properties of elemental semiconductors are reviewed. The interaction of energetic radiation with matter is discussed in order to develop a feeling for the appropriate semiconductor detector dimensions. The extremely low net dopant concentrations which are required are derived directly from the detector dimensions. A survey of the more recent techniques which have been developed for the analysis of detector grade semiconductor single crystals is presented

  6. Multicell x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, B.N.; Shelley, P.S.; Love, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is concerned with improving multicell detectors, particularly those used in computerized tomography. Existing ionization detectors have problems maintaining the precise dimensional spacing between electrodes required for accuracy. In addition, mechanical vibrations set up microphonic effects between the electrode plates. In this invention, pairs of electrode plates are separated by grooved insulating members. The upper and lower edges of an array of electrode plates are inserted in corresponding grooves in the insulating members, and, the whole electrode assembly is securely anchored in the detector chamber

  7. CLIC Detector and Physics Status

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)627941

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to LCWS2016 presents recent developments within the CLICdp collaboration. An updated scenario for the staged operation of CLIC has been published; the accelerator will operate at 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV and 3 TeV. The lowest energy stage is optimised for precision Higgs and top physics, while the higher energy stages offer extended Higgs and BSM physics sensitivity. The detector models CLIC_SiD and CLIC_ILD have been replaced by a single optimised detector; CLICdet. Performance studies and R&D in technologies to meet the requirements for this detector design are ongoing.

  8. SSC muon detector group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4π detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC

  9. SSC muon detector group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

  10. Applications of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a scientific research-work are summarized. Nuclear track detectors were used for new applications or in unusual ways. Photographic films, nuclear emulsions and dielectric track detectors were investigated. The tracks were detected by optical microscopy. Empirical formulation has been derived for the neutron sensitivity of certain dielectric materials. Methods were developed for leak testing of closed alpha emitting sources. New procedures were found for the application and evaluation of track detector materials. The results were applied in the education, personnel dosimetry, radon dosimetry etc. (R.J.)

  11. The CMS detector magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A

    2000-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general-purpose detector designed to run in mid-2005 at the highest luminosity at the LHC at CERN. Its distinctive features include a 6 m free bore diameter, 12.5 m long, 4 T superconducting solenoid enclosed inside a 10,000 tonne return yoke. The magnet will be assembled and tested on the surface by the end of 2003 before being transferred by heavy lifting means to a 90 m deep underground experimental area. The design and construction of the magnet is a `common project' of the CMS Collaboration. It is organized by a CERN based group with strong technical and contractual participation by CEA Saclay, ETH Zurich, Fermilab Batavia IL, INFN Geneva, ITEP Moscow, University of Wisconsin and CERN. The return yoke, 21 m long and 14 m in diameter, is equivalent to 1.5 m of saturated iron interleaved with four muon stations. The yoke and the vacuum tank are being manufactured. The indirectly-cooled, pure- aluminium-stabilized coil is made up from five modules internally wound with four ...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierluigi Paolucci

    2013-01-01

    In the second part of 2013 the two main activities of the RPC project are the reparation and maintenance of the present system and the construction and installation of the RE4 system. Since the opening of the barrel, repair activities on the gas, high-voltage and electronic systems are being done in parallel, in agreement with the CMS schedule. In YB0, the maintenance of the RPC detector was in the shadow of other interventions, nevertheless the scaffolding turned out to be a good solution for our gas leaks searches. Here we found eight leaking channels for about 100 l/h in total. 10 RPC/DT modules were partially extracted –– 90 cm –– in YB0, YB–1 and YB–2 to allow for the replacement of FE and LV distribution boards. Intervention was conducted on an additional two chambers on the positive endcap to solve LV and threshold control problems. Until now we were able to recover 0.67% of the total number of RPC electronic channels (1.5% of the channels...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT collaboration is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance – after three years since the last access to the chambers and their front-end electronics – and upgrade. The most critical maintenance interventions are chambers and Minicrate repairs, which have not begun yet, because they need proper access to each wheel of the CMS barrel, meaning space for handling the big chambers in the few cases where they have to be extracted, and, more in general, free access from cables and thermal shields in the front and back side of the chambers. These interventions are planned for between the coming Autumn until next spring. Meanwhile, many other activities are happening, like the “pigtail” intervention on the CAEN AC/DC converters which has just taken place. The upgrade activities continue to evolve in good accordance with the schedule, both for the theta Trigger Board (TTRB) replacement and for the Sector Collector (SC) relocation from the UXC to the US...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2013-01-01

    During LS1, the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) collaboration is focusing its efforts on installation and commissioning of the fourth endcap station (RE4) and on the reparation and maintenance of the present system (1100 detectors). The 600 bakelite gaps, needed to build 200 double-gap RE4 chambers are being produced in Korea. Chamber construction and testing sites are located at CERN, in Ghent University, and at BARC (India). At present, 42 chambers have been assembled, 32 chambers have been successfully tested with cosmic rays runs and 7 Super Modules, made by two chambers, have been built at CERN by a Bulgarian/Georgian/Italian team and are now ready to be installed in the positive endcap. The 36 Super Modules needed to complete the positive endcap will be ready in September and installation is scheduled for October 2013. The Link-Board system for RE4 is under construction in Naples. Half of the system has been delivered at CERN in June. Six crates (Link-Board Boxes) and 75 boards, needed to instrument t...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

      2011 data-taking was very satisfactory for both the RPC detector and trigger. The RPC system ran very smoothly in 2011, showing an excellent stability and very high data-tacking efficiency. Data loss for RPC was about 0.37%, corresponding to 19 pb−1. Most of the performance studies, based on 2011 data, are now completed and the results have been already approved by CMS to be presented at the RPC 2012 conference (February 2012 at LNF). During 2011, the number of disconnected chambers increased from six to eight corresponding to 0.8% of the full system, while the single-gap-mode chambers increased from 28 to 31. Most of the problematic chambers are due to bad high-voltage connection and electronic failures that can be solved only during the 2013-2014 Long Shutdown. 98.4% of the electronic channels were operational. The average detection efficiency in 2011 was about 95%, which was the same value measured during the HV scan done at the beginning of the 2011 data-taking. Efficiency has be...

  16. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  17. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  18. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  19. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    In the past months, the DT electronics has run in a stable and reliable way, demonstrated again through the CRAFT exercise. Operation when the CMS magnetic field was on has been satisfactory. The detector safety control and monitoring is improving constantly as the DT group accumulates running experience. The DT DAQ and DCS systems proved very stable during the intensive CRAFT period. The few issues that were identified by the DCS and on-line monitoring did not prevent the run to continue, so that the record of the DT in the data taking efficiency was very good. The long running period was also used to continue the transition from a system run by experts to one run by shifters, which was in the large part successful. Improvements, mostly in consolidation of error reporting, were identified and will be addressed in the coming shut-down. During the CRAFT data taking, DT triggered about 300 million cosmics with the magnet at 3.8T and the silicon strip tracker in the readout. Although a dedicated configuratio...

  20. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.