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Sample records for cost optical deflection

  1. Calibration of optical cantilever deflection readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhiyu; Seeley, Tim; Kossek, Sebastian; Thundat, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Because of its ultrahigh sensitivity, the optical lever detection method similar to that used in the atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely employed as a standard technique for measuring microcantilever deflection. Along with the increasing interest in using the microcantilever as a sensing platform, there is also a requirement for a reliable calibration technique. Many researchers have used the concept of optical lever detection to construct microcantilever deflection readout instruments for chemical, physical, and biological detection. However, without an AFM piezo z scanner, it is very difficult to precisely calibrate these instruments. Here, we present a step-by-step method to conveniently calibrate an instrument using commercially available piezoresistive cantilevers. The experimental results closely match the theoretical calculation. Following this procedure, one can easily calibrate any optical cantilever deflection detection system with high reproducibility, precision, and reliability. A detailed discussion of the optical lever readout system design has been addressed in this article

  2. Optical forces through guided light deflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton

    2013-01-01

    . In this work we look into the object shaping aspect and its potential for controlled optical manipulation. Using a simple bent waveguide as example, our numerical simulations show that the guided deflection of light efficiently converts incident light momentum into optical force with one order...

  3. Optical beam deflection sensor: design and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, João M S; Marques, Renan B; Kitano, Cláudio; Rodrigues, Nicolau A S; Riva, Rudimar

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present a double-pass optical beam deflection sensor and its optical design method. To accomplish that, a mathematical model was proposed and computational simulations were performed, in order to obtain the sensor's characteristic curves and to analyze its behavior as function of design parameters. The mathematical model was validated by comparison with the characteristic curves acquired experimentally. The sensor was employed to detect acoustic pulses generated by a pulsed laser in a sample surface, in order to show its potential for monitoring applications handling high energy input as laser welding or laser ablation.

  4. Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hatami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deflection prediction of a cantilever beam subjected to static co-planar loading is investigated using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM and the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM. An axial compressive force, FA, and a transverse force, QA, are applied to the beam. It is considered that these forces are follower forces, i.e., they will rotate with the end section of the beam during the deformation, and they will remain tangential and perpendicular at all times, respectively. Comparison between DTM and HPM through numerical results demonstrates that DTM can be an exact and highly efficient procedure for solving these kind of problems. Also the influence of the effect of some parameters appeared in mathematical formulations such as area moment of inertia (I, Young’s modulus (E, transverse force (QA and compressive force (FA on slope variation are investigated in the present study. The results show that slope parameter as well as compressive force increases. By increasing the QA, slope parameter is increased significantly. By increasing the E, due to stiffness of the material, slope variation is decreased. It is evident that when the size of the beam section increases, the area moment of inertia (I will be increased and so the slope variation will be decreased.

  5. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  6. Measurement of morphing wing deflection by a cross-coherence fiber optic interferometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Miloš C.; Djinović, Zoran V.; Scheerer, Michael; Petricevic, Slobodan J.

    2018-01-01

    A fiber-optic interferometric technique aimed at measuring the deflection of aircrafts’ morphing wings is presented. The wing deflection induces a strain in the sensing fiber optic coils that are firmly fixed onto the wing. A change of the phase angle of the light propagating through the fiber is measured by an ‘all-in-fiber’ Michelson interferometer based on a 3 × 3 fiber-optic coupler. Two light sources of different coherence lengths and wavelengths are simultaneously used to ensure a wide measurement range and high accuracy. A new technique for determination of the zero deflection point using the cross-correlation of the two interferograms is proposed. The experiments performed on a specimen made of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic honeycomb structure demonstrated a relative uncertainty morphing wing deflection.

  7. Deflection of slow light by magneto-optically controlled atomic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D. L.; Wang, R. Q.; Zhou, Lan; Yi, S.; Sun, C. P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a semiclassical theory for light deflection by a coherent Λ-type three-level atomic medium in an inhomogeneous magnetic field or an inhomogeneous control laser. When the atomic energy levels (or the Rabi coupling by the control laser) are position-dependent due to the Zeeman effect caused by the inhomogeneous magnetic field (or due to inhomogeneity of the control field profile), the spatial dependence of the refraction index of the atomic medium will result in an observable deflection of slow signal light when the electromagnetically induced transparency cancels medium absorption. Our theoretical approach based on Fermat's principle in geometrical optics not only provides a consistent explanation for the most recent experiment in a straightforward way, but also predicts the two-photon detuning dependent behaviors and larger deflection angles by three orders of magnitude for the slow signal light deflection by the atomic media in an inhomogeneous off-resonant control laser field

  8. Optical Beam Deflection Based AFM with Integrated Hardware and Software Platform for an Undergraduate Engineering Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hong Loh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has been used extensively in nanoscience research since its invention. Recently, many teaching laboratories in colleges, undergraduate institutions, and even high schools incorporate AFM as an effective teaching tool for nanoscience education. This paper presents an optical beam deflection (OBD based atomic force microscope, designed specifically for the undergraduate engineering laboratory as a teaching instrument. An electronic module for signal conditioning was built with components that are commonly available in an undergraduate electronic laboratory. In addition to off-the-shelf mechanical parts and optics, the design of custom-built mechanical parts waskept as simple as possible. Hence, the overall cost for the setup is greatly reduced. The AFM controller was developed using National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS, an integrated hardware and software platform which can be programmed in LabVIEW. A simple yet effective control algorithm for scanning and feedback control was developed. Despite the use of an educational platform and low-cost components from the undergraduate laboratory, the developed AFM is capable of performing imaging in constant-force mode with submicron resolution and at reasonable scanning speed (approximately 18 min per image. Therefore, the AFM is suitable to be used as an educational tool for nanoscience. Moreover, the construction of the system can be a valuable educational experience for electronic and mechanical engineering students.

  9. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  10. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maswadi, Saher M.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb C.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Beier, Hope T.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i) efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii) undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separa...

  11. Expressions for optical scalars and deflection angle at second order in terms of curvature scalars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisnejo, Gabriel; Gallo, Emanuel

    2018-04-01

    We present formal expressions for the optical scalars in terms of the curvature scalars in the weak gravitational lensing regime at second order in perturbations of a flat background without mentioning the extension of the lens or their shape. Also, by considering the thin lens approximation for static and axially symmetric configurations we obtain an expression for the second-order deflection angle which generalizes our previous result presented by Gallo and Moreschi [Phys. Rev. D 83, 083007 (2011)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.083007]. As applications of these formulas we compute the optical scalars for some known family of metrics, and we recover expressions for the deflection angle. In contrast to other works in the subject, our formalism allows a straightforward identification of how the different components of the curvature tensor contribute to the optical scalars and deflection angle. We also discuss in what sense the Schwarzschild solution can be thought as a true thin lens at second order.

  12. Kalman filter-based EM-optical sensor fusion for needle deflection estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baichuan; Gao, Wenpeng; Kacher, Daniel; Nevo, Erez; Fetics, Barry; Lee, Thomas C; Jayender, Jagadeesan

    2018-04-01

    In many clinical procedures such as cryoablation that involves needle insertion, accurate placement of the needle's tip at the desired target is the major issue for optimizing the treatment and minimizing damage to the neighboring anatomy. However, due to the interaction force between the needle and tissue, considerable error in intraoperative tracking of the needle tip can be observed as needle deflects. In this paper, measurements data from an optical sensor at the needle base and a magnetic resonance (MR) gradient field-driven electromagnetic (EM) sensor placed 10 cm from the needle tip are used within a model-integrated Kalman filter-based sensor fusion scheme. Bending model-based estimations and EM-based direct estimation are used as the measurement vectors in the Kalman filter, thus establishing an online estimation approach. Static tip bending experiments show that the fusion method can reduce the mean error of the tip position estimation from 29.23 mm of the optical sensor-based approach to 3.15 mm of the fusion-based approach and from 39.96 to 6.90 mm, at the MRI isocenter and the MRI entrance, respectively. This work established a novel sensor fusion scheme that incorporates model information, which enables real-time tracking of needle deflection with MRI compatibility, in a free-hand operating setup.

  13. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher M. Maswadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic (OA microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii high sensitivity and (iv ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  14. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M; Ibey, Bennett L; Roth, Caleb C; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A; Beier, Hope T; Glickman, Randolph D; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2016-09-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i) efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii) undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii) high sensitivity and (iv) ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP) of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  15. Grated waveguide-based optical cavities as compact sensors for sub-nanometre cantilever deflections, and small refractive-index changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Dijkstra, Mindert; de Ridder, R.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; MacCraith, B; McDonagh, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on theoretical and experimental results of integrated optical (IO) cavities defined by grated waveguides in $Si_3N_4$ and Si, for the accurate detection of cantilever deflection and bulk index changes.

  16. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  17. Application of complex geometrical optics to determination of thermal, transport, and optical parameters of thin films by the photothermal beam deflection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, complex geometrical optics is, for what we believe is the first time, applied instead of geometrical or wave optics to describe the probe beam interaction with the field of the thermal wave in photothermal beam deflection (photothermal deflection spectroscopy) experiments on thin films. On the basis of this approach the thermal (thermal diffusivity and conductivity), optical (energy band gap), and transport (carrier lifetime) parameters of the semiconductor thin films (pure TiO2, N- and C-doped TiO2, or TiO2/SiO2 composites deposited on a glass or aluminum support) were determined with better accuracy and simultaneously during one measurement. The results are in good agreement with results obtained by the use of other methods and reported in the literature.

  18. Optical-Interferometry-Based CMOS-MEMS Sensor Transduced by Stress-Induced Nanomechanical Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Satoshi; Hizawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    We developed a Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor with a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) circuit for chemical sensing. The novel signal transducing technique was performed in three steps: mechanical deflection, transmittance change, and photocurrent change. A small readout photocurrent was processed by an integrated source follower circuit. The movable film of the sensor was a 350-nm-thick polychloro-para-xylylene membrane with a diameter of 100 µm and an air gap of 300 nm. The linearity of the integrated source follower circuit was obtained. We demonstrated a gas response using 80-ppm ethanol detected by small membrane deformation of 50 nm, which resulted in an output-voltage change with the proposed high-efficiency transduction. PMID:29304011

  19. Optical-Interferometry-Based CMOS-MEMS Sensor Transduced by Stress-Induced Nanomechanical Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Maruyama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor with a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET circuit for chemical sensing. The novel signal transducing technique was performed in three steps: mechanical deflection, transmittance change, and photocurrent change. A small readout photocurrent was processed by an integrated source follower circuit. The movable film of the sensor was a 350-nm-thick polychloro-para-xylylene membrane with a diameter of 100 µm and an air gap of 300 nm. The linearity of the integrated source follower circuit was obtained. We demonstrated a gas response using 80-ppm ethanol detected by small membrane deformation of 50 nm, which resulted in an output-voltage change with the proposed high-efficiency transduction.

  20. Optical-Interferometry-Based CMOS-MEMS Sensor Transduced by Stress-Induced Nanomechanical Deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Satoshi; Hizawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2018-01-05

    We developed a Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor with a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) circuit for chemical sensing. The novel signal transducing technique was performed in three steps: mechanical deflection, transmittance change, and photocurrent change. A small readout photocurrent was processed by an integrated source follower circuit. The movable film of the sensor was a 350-nm-thick polychloro-para-xylylene membrane with a diameter of 100 µm and an air gap of 300 nm. The linearity of the integrated source follower circuit was obtained. We demonstrated a gas response using 80-ppm ethanol detected by small membrane deformation of 50 nm, which resulted in an output-voltage change with the proposed high-efficiency transduction.

  1. Real-time In-Flight Strain and Deflection Monitoring with Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Dryden's efforts to develop in-flight monitoring based on Fiber Optics. One of the motivating factors for this development was the breakup of the Helios aircraft. On Ikhana the use of fiber optics for wing shape sensing is being developed. They are being used to flight validate fiber optic sensor measurements and real-time wing shape sensing predictions on NASA's Ikhana vehicle; validate fiber optic mathematical models and design tools; Assess technical viability and, if applicable, develop methodology and approach to incorporate wing shape measurements within the vehicle flight control system, and develop and flight validate advanced approaches to perform active wing shape control.

  2. Force and deflection sensor with shell membrane and optical gratings and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  3. A comparative study of the enhancement of molecular emission in a spatially confined plume through optical emission spectroscopy and probe beam deflection measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dayu; Liang, Peipei; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-01-01

    The spatial confinement effects of shock wave on the expansion of a carbon plume induced by pulsed laser ablation of graphite in air and the enhancement of the plume emission were studied by optical emission spectroscopy and probe beam deflection measurements. A metal disk was set in the way of the ablation-generated shock wave to block and reflect the supersonically propagating shock wave. The reflected shock wave propagated backwards and confined the expanding plume. The optical emission of CN molecules was enhanced in contrast to the case without the block disk and the emission enhancement was dependent on the position of the disk. Based on the results of time-integrated and -resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and the time- and space-resolved probe beam deflection measurements, the processes occurring in the plume were discussed and the mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of molecular emission in the spatially confined plume were investigated. - Highlights: ► Spatial confinement and optical emission enhancement of carbon plume were studied. ► Ablation-generated shockwave propagating in air was reflected by a block disk. ► The effects of reflected shockwave on the emission enhancement were confirmed. ► The reflect shockwave confined the carbon plume and enhanced the plume emission.

  4. A comparative study of the enhancement of molecular emission in a spatially confined plume through optical emission spectroscopy and probe beam deflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Dayu; Liang, Peipei; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The spatial confinement effects of shock wave on the expansion of a carbon plume induced by pulsed laser ablation of graphite in air and the enhancement of the plume emission were studied by optical emission spectroscopy and probe beam deflection measurements. A metal disk was set in the way of the ablation-generated shock wave to block and reflect the supersonically propagating shock wave. The reflected shock wave propagated backwards and confined the expanding plume. The optical emission of CN molecules was enhanced in contrast to the case without the block disk and the emission enhancement was dependent on the position of the disk. Based on the results of time-integrated and -resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and the time- and space-resolved probe beam deflection measurements, the processes occurring in the plume were discussed and the mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of molecular emission in the spatially confined plume were investigated. - Highlights: ► Spatial confinement and optical emission enhancement of carbon plume were studied. ► Ablation-generated shockwave propagating in air was reflected by a block disk. ► The effects of reflected shockwave on the emission enhancement were confirmed. ► The reflect shockwave confined the carbon plume and enhanced the plume emission

  5. Ion-optical studies for a range adaptation method in ion beam therapy using a static wedge degrader combined with magnetic beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, Naved; Saito, Nami; Bert, Christoph; Franczak, Bernhard; Steidl, Peter; Durante, Marco; Schardt, Dieter; Rietzel, Eike

    2010-01-01

    Fast radiological range adaptation of the ion beam is essential when target motion is mitigated by beam tracking using scanned ion beams for dose delivery. Electromagnetically controlled deflection of a well-focused ion beam on a small static wedge degrader positioned between two dipole magnets, inside the beam delivery system, has been considered as a fast range adaptation method. The principle of the range adaptation method was tested in experiments and Monte Carlo simulations for the therapy beam line at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ions Research. Based on the simulations, ion optical settings of beam deflection and realignment of the adapted beam were experimentally applied to the beam line, and additional tuning was manually performed. Different degrader shapes were employed for the energy adaptation. Measured and simulated beam profiles, i.e. lateral distribution and range in water at isocentre, were analysed and compared with the therapy beam values for beam scanning. Deflected beam positions of up to ±28 mm on degrader were performed which resulted in a range adaptation of up to ±15 mm water equivalence (WE). The maximum deviation between the measured adapted range from the nominal range adaptation was below 0.4 mm WE. In experiments, the width of the adapted beam at the isocentre was adjustable between 5 and 11 mm full width at half maximum. The results demonstrate the feasibility/proof of the proposed range adaptation method for beam tracking from the beam quality point of view.

  6. Which Flexible Ureteroscopes (Digital vs. Fiber-Optic) Can Easily Reach the Difficult Lower Pole Calices and Have Better End-Tip Deflection: In Vitro Study on K-Box. A PETRA Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, Laurian B; Somani, Bhaskar K; Sener, Emre T; Buttice, Salvatore; Proietti, Silvia; Ploumidis, Achilles; Iacoboaie, Catalin T; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Modern flexible ureteroscopes (fURSs) have good deflection, but despite this, approaching an acute angled calix can still be difficult. The goals of our in vitro study were to assess the ability of the available modern fURSs to effectively access the sharp angled calices and to compare the end-tip deflection of the various fiber-optic and digital fURSs. Using a bench-training model for FURS (K-Box, Porgès-Coloplast), we tried to access an acute angled calix with nine different fURSs (BOA vision, COBRA vision, R.Wolf; FLEX X 2 , FLEX Xc, K.Storz; LithoVue, Boston Scientific; URF-P5, URF-P6, URF-V, URF-V2, Olympus). Passing the fURSs through a ureteral access sheath (ReTrace, Porgès-Coloplast), the maximum end-tip deflection for every fURS was measured with the tip extended out from the sheath at 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm. Two ranking methods were designed for scoring the fURSs, one based on total ranking points and the other on total degrees of deflection. While all fiber-optic fURSs (except URF-P6) were able to access the sharp angled calix, none of the digital fURSs (except FLEX Xc) reached the difficult angled calix. Similarly, all fiber-optic fURSs had better end-tip deflection compared with the digital fURSs, except FLEX Xc, which was as deflectable as the fiber-optic fURSs. The fURSs showed an end-tip deflection (median difference of almost 21°) in favor of fiber-optic fURSs. Based on the scoring, the highest ranked fURS (best deflection) was FLEX X2 and the lowest ranked fURS (worst deflection) was URF-V2. Digital fURSs were less effective in accessing the sharp angled calix and they had lesser end-tip deflection compared with the fiber-optic counterparts. When approaching a difficult lower pole calix, it might be better to use a fiber-optic fURS.

  7. Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ∼100  mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ∼30  mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments.

  8. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheem, Sang K.

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  9. Deflection of atomic beams with isotope separation by optical resonance radiation using stimulated emission and the ac stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkholm, J.E.; Liao, P.F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Improved atomic beam deflection and improved isotope separation, even in vapors, is proposed by substituting the A.C. Stark effect for the baseband chirp of the pushing beam in the prior proposal by I. Nebenzahl et al., Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 25, page 327 (September 1974). The efficiency inherent in re-using the photons as in the Nebenzahl et al proposal is retained; but the external frequency chirpers are avoided. The entire process is performed by two pulses of monochromatic coherent light, thereby avoiding the complication of amplifying frequency-modulated light pulses. The A.C. Stark effect is provided by the second beam of coherent monochromatic light, which is sufficiently intense to chirp the energy levels of the atoms or isotopes of the atomic beam or vapor. Although, in general, the A.C. Stark effect will alter the isotope shift somewhat, it is not eliminated. In fact, the appropriate choice of frequencies of the pushing and chirping beams may even relax the requirements with respect to the isotope absorption line shift for effective separation. That is, it may make the isotope absorption lines more easily resolvable

  10. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-07-15

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the “precursor” plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100–140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  11. Cost Effective, Scalable Optically Pumped Molecular Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholson, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    An optically pumped, For laser was demonstrated operating at 4.0 micrometers. This is the first demonstration of an HBr laser by direct optical pumping of the 0 right arrow 3 vibrational overtone band at 1.34 micrometers...

  12. Coupling effects of refractive index discontinuity, spot size and spot location on the deflection sensitivity of optical-lever based atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Yang Jun

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) plays an essential role in nanotechnology and nanoscience. The recent advances of AFM in bionanotechnology include phase imaging of living cells and detection of biomolecular interactions in liquid biological environments. Deflection sensitivity is a key factor in both imaging and force measurement, which is significantly affected by the coupling effects of the refractive index discontinuity between air, the glass window and the liquid medium, and the laser spot size and spot location. The effects of both the spot size and the spot location on the sensitivity are amplified by the refractive index discontinuity. The coupling effects may govern a transition of the deflection sensitivity from enhancement to degradation. It is also found that there is a critical value for the laser spot size, above which the deflection sensitivity is mainly determined by the refractive index of the liquid. Experimental results, in agreement with theoretical predication, elucidate the coupling effects

  13. Positively deflected anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the so-called 'deflected anomaly mediation' scenario to the case where threshold corrections of heavy messengers to the sparticle squared masses are positive. A concrete model realizing this scenario is also presented. The tachyonic slepton problem can be fixed with only a pair of messengers. The resultant sparticle mass spectrum is quite different from that in the conventional deflected anomaly mediation scenario, but is similar to the one in the gauge mediation scenario. The lightest sparticle is mostly B-ino

  14. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  15. Light deflection and Gauss-Bonnet theorem: definition of total deflection angle and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakida, Hideyoshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the light deflection in the Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. First, supposing a static and spherically symmetric spacetime, we propose the definition of the total deflection angle α of the light ray by constructing a quadrilateral Σ^4 on the optical reference geometry M^opt determined by the optical metric \\bar{g}_{ij}. On the basis of the definition of the total deflection angle α and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, we derive two formulas to calculate the total deflection angle α ; (1) the angular formula that uses four angles determined on the optical reference geometry M^opt or the curved (r, φ ) subspace M^sub being a slice of constant time t and (2) the integral formula on the optical reference geometry M^opt which is the areal integral of the Gaussian curvature K in the area of a quadrilateral Σ ^4 and the line integral of the geodesic curvature κ _g along the curve C_{Γ}. As the curve C_{Γ}, we introduce the unperturbed reference line that is the null geodesic Γ on the background spacetime such as the Minkowski or the de Sitter spacetime, and is obtained by projecting Γ vertically onto the curved (r, φ ) subspace M^sub. We demonstrate that the two formulas give the same total deflection angle α for the Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. In particular, in the Schwarzschild case, the result coincides with Epstein-Shapiro's formula when the source S and the receiver R of the light ray are located at infinity. In addition, in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter case, there appear order O(Lambda;m) terms in addition to the Schwarzschild-like part, while order O(Λ) terms disappear.

  16. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy investigations of uranium electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, R.E.; Rudnicki, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) has been successfully applied to the study of uranium oxide electrochemistry. A brief description of PDS and preliminary results that demonstrate the technique are presented. Concentration gradients formed at the electrode surface are measured by this technique. The gradients give insight into the reaction mechanisms. There is some evidence of the initiation of non-electrochemical dissolution of the uranium oxide. Optical absorption by the uranium oxide is measured by PDS and the first results indicate that the absorption of the surface does not change during electrochemical experiments. This result is contrary to literature measurements of bulk samples that indicate that the optical absorption should be strongly changing

  17. Flow deflection over a foredune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Smyth, Thomas A. G.; Nielsen, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin

    2015-02-01

    Flow deflection of surface winds is common across coastal foredunes and blowouts. Incident winds approaching obliquely to the dune toe and crestline tend to be deflected towards a more crest-normal orientation across the stoss slope of the foredune. This paper examines field measurements for obliquely incident winds, and compares them to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of flow deflection in 10° increments from onshore (0°) to alongshore (90°) wind approach angles. The mechanics of flow deflection are discussed, followed by a comparative analysis of measured and modelled flow deflection data that shows strong agreement. CFD modelling of the full range of onshore to alongshore incident winds reveals that deflection of the incident wind flow is minimal at 0° and gradually increases as the incident wind turns towards 30° to the dune crest. The greatest deflection occurs between 30° and 70° incident to the dune crest. The degree of flow deflection depends secondarily on height above the dune surface, with the greatest effect near the surface and toward the dune crest. Topographically forced flow acceleration ("speed-up") across the stoss slope of the foredune is greatest for winds less than 30° (i.e., roughly perpendicular) and declines significantly for winds with more oblique approach angles. There is less lateral uniformity in the wind field when the incident wind approaches from > 60° because the effect of aspect ratio on topographic forcing and streamline convergence is less pronounced.

  18. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , governs deflections produced by prisms of refractive index n. The refractive power, n − 1, of most materials is of the order of unity for visible light, which therefore gets deflected through several degrees by a prism. X-rays and neutrons however ...

  19. The comparison of the optical spectra of carbon coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Pham, T.T.; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Mao, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), s. 321-324 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * amorphous carbon * magnetron sputtering * CVD * optical spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Frequency and deflection analysis of cenosphere/glass fiber interply hybrid composite cantilever beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, J.; Joladarashi, Sharnappa; Biradar, Srikumar; Kumar, P. Naveen

    2018-04-01

    Interply hybrid laminates contain plies made of two or more different composite systems. Hybrid composites have unique features that can be used to meet specified design requirements in a more cost-effective way than nonhybrid composites. They offer many advantages over conventional composites including balanced strength and stiffness, enhanced bending and membrane mechanical properties, balanced thermal distortion stability, improved fatigue/impact resistance, improved fracture toughness and crack arresting properties, reduced weight and cost. In this paper an interply hybrid laminate composite containing Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite skin is analysied and effect of volume fraction of filler on frequency and load v/s deflection of hybrid composite are studied. Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite has increased specific strength, specific stiffness, specific density, savings in cost and weight. Glass fiber reinforced polymer composite has higher torsional rigidity when compared to metals. These laminate composites are fabricated to meet several structural applications and hence there is a need to study their vibration and deflection properties. Experimental investigation starts with fabrication of interply hybrid composite with cores of cenosphere reinforced epoxy composite volume fractions of CE 15, CE 25, CE15_UC as per ASTM E756-05C, and glasss fiber reinforced epoxy skin, cast product of required dimension by selecting glass fibre of proper thickness which is currently 0.25mm E-glass bidirectional woven glass fabric having density 2500kg/m3, in standard from cast parts of size 230mmX230mmX5mm in an Aluminum mould. Modal analysis of cantilever beam is performed to study the variation of natural frequency with strain gauge and the commercially available Lab-VIEW software and deflection in each of the cases by optical Laser Displacement Measurement Sensor to perform Load versus Deflection Analysis

  1. Cost-Effective Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis Sensor Using a Single Optical Source and Passive Optical Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iribas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified configuration for distributed Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors that aims to reduce the cost of the sensor by reducing the number of components required for the generation of the two optical waves involved in the sensing process. The technique is based on obtaining the pump and probe waves by passive optical filtering of the spectral components generated in a single optical source that is driven by a pulsed RF signal. The optical source is a compact laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator and the optical filters are based on fiber Bragg gratings. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate 1 m spatial resolution over a 20 km sensing fiber with a 0.9 MHz precision in the measurement of the Brillouin frequency shift, a performance similar to that of much more complex setups. Furthermore, we discuss the factors limiting the sensor performance, which are basically related to residual spectral components in the filtering process.

  2. Coherent Bichromatic Force Deflection of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyryev, Ivan; Baum, Louis; Aldridge, Leland; Yu, Phelan; Eyler, Edward E.; Doyle, John M.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the effect of the coherent optical bichromatic force on a molecule, the polar free radical strontium monohydroxide (SrOH). A dual-frequency retroreflected laser beam addressing the X˜2Σ+↔A˜2Π1 /2 electronic transition coherently imparts momentum onto a cryogenic beam of SrOH. This directional photon exchange creates a bichromatic force that transversely deflects the molecules. By adjusting the relative phase between the forward and counterpropagating laser beams we reverse the direction of the applied force. A momentum transfer of 70 ℏk is achieved with minimal loss of molecules to dark states. Modeling of the bichromatic force is performed via direct numerical solution of the time-dependent density matrix and is compared with experimental observations. Our results open the door to further coherent manipulation of molecular motion, including the efficient optical deceleration of diatomic and polyatomic molecules with complex level structures.

  3. Higher performance and lower cost optical DPSK receiver

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To demonstrate (benchtop experiment) a DPSK receiver with a free-space interferometer, showing that fiber-optic coupling, associated adaptive optics, and optical...

  4. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Integrating the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) framework into an Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Control Plane is a promising solution to alleviating most of OBS performance and design issues. However, implementing the already proposed OBS deflection routing schemes is not appli...

  5. Post mitigation impact risk analysis for asteroid deflection demonstration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Bancelin, David; Cano, Juan L.; Cichocki, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Even though mankind believes to have the capabilities to avert potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can validate this claim. Such a deflection demonstration attempt has to be cost effective, easy to validate, and safe in the sense that harmless asteroids must not be turned into potentially hazardous objects. Uncertainties in an asteroid's orbital and physical parameters as well as those additionally introduced during a mitigation attempt necessitate an in depth analysis of deflection mission designs in order to dispel planetary safety concerns. We present a post mitigation impact risk analysis of a list of potential kinetic impactor based deflection demonstration missions proposed in the framework of the NEOShield project. Our results confirm that mitigation induced uncertainties have a significant influence on the deflection outcome. Those cannot be neglected in post deflection impact risk studies. We show, furthermore, that deflection missions have to be assessed on an individual basis in order to ensure that asteroids are not inadvertently transported closer to the Earth at a later date. Finally, we present viable targets and mission designs for a kinetic impactor test to be launched between the years 2025 and 2032.

  6. A blade deflection monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  7. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  8. Integrated optical interrogation of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, III, Boyd M.; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Rajic, Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    The invention is an integrated optical sensing element for detecting and measuring changes in position or deflection. A deflectable member, such as a microcantilever, is configured to receive a light beam. A waveguide, such as an optical waveguide or an optical fiber, is positioned to redirect light towards the deflectable member. The waveguide can be incorporated into the deflectable member or disposed adjacent to the deflectable member. Means for measuring the extent of position change or deflection of the deflectable member by receiving the light beam from the deflectable member, such as a photodetector or interferometer, receives the reflected light beam from the deflectable member. Changes in the light beam are correlated to the changes in position or deflection of the deflectable member. A plurality of deflectable members can be arranged in a matrix or an array to provide one or two-dimensional imaging or sensing capabilities.

  9. Development of sacrificial support fixture using deflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Ashwini M.; Ashtankar, Kishor M.

    2018-04-01

    Sacrificial support fixtures are the structures used to hold the part during machining while rotating the part about the fourth axis of CNC machining. In Four axis CNC machining part is held in a indexer which is rotated about the fourth axis of rotation. So using traditional fixturing devices to hold the part during machining such as jigs, v blocks and clamping plates needs a several set ups, manufacturing time which increase the cost associated with it. Since the part is rotated about the axis of rotation in four axis CNC machining so using traditional fixturing devices to hold the part while machining we need to reorient the fixture each time for particular orientation of part about the axis of rotation. So our proposed methodology of fixture design eliminates the cost associate with the complicated fixture design for customized parts which in turn reduces the time of manufacturing of the fixtures. But while designing the layout of the fixtures it is found out that the machining the part using four axis CNC machining the accurate machining of the part is directly proportional to the deflection produced in a part. So to machine an accurate part the deflection produced in a part should be minimum. We assume that the deflection produced in a part is a result of the deflection produced in a sacrificial support fixture while machining. So this paper provides the study of the deflection checking in a part machined using sacrificial support fixture by using FEA analysis.

  10. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  11. Low-cost and high-capacity short-range optical interconnects using graded-index plastic optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Yang, H.; Lee, S.C.J.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a transmission rate of 51.8 Gb/s over 100-meters of perfluorinated multimode graded-index plastic optical fiber using discrete multitone modulation. The results prove suitability of plastic fibers for low-cost high-capacity optical interconnects.

  12. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  13. Cost-Effective Magnetoencephalography Based on Time Encoded Optical Fiber Interferometry for Epilepsy and Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    respectively. A length of dispersive fiber and a computer are used to first “decode” the optical interference signal into dispersed optical wave-packet...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0008 TITLE: Cost-Effective Magnetoencephalography Based on Time-Encoded Optical Fiber Interferometry for Epilepsy...10 Dec 2014 - 9 Jun 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a.16 CONTRACT NUMBER Encoded Optical Fiber Interferometry for Epilepsy and Tinnitus Diagnosis 5b

  14. Low-cost optical interconnect module for parallel optical data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Chad; Hirsch, Tom J.; Olla, M.; Spooner, C.; Yu, Jason J.

    1995-04-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a prototype parallel ten-channel unidirectional optical data link. When scaled to production, we project that this technology will satisfy the following market penetration requirements: (1) up to 70 meters transmission distance, (2) at least 1 gigabyte/second data rate, and (3) 0.35 to 0.50 MByte/second volume selling price. These goals can be achieved by means of the assembly innovations described in this paper: a novel alignment method that is integrated with low-cost, few chip module packaging techniques, yielding high coupling and reducing the component count. Furthermore, high coupling efficiency increases projected reliability reducing the driver's power requirements.

  15. A cost-performance model for ground-based optical communications receiving telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, J. R.; Robinson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical cost-performance model for a ground-based optical communications receiving telescope is presented. The model considers costs of existing telescopes as a function of diameter and field of view. This, coupled with communication performance as a function of receiver diameter and field of view, yields the appropriate telescope cost versus communication performance curve.

  16. Deflection system for charged-particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T

    1982-01-13

    A system is described for achromatically deflecting a beam of charged particles without producing net divergence of the beam comprising three successive magnetic deflection means which deflect the beam alternately in opposite directions; the first and second deflect by angles of less than 50/sup 0/ and the third by an angle of at least 90/sup 0/. Particles with different respective energies are transversely spaced as they enter the third deflection means, but emerge completely superimposed in both position and direction and may be brought to a focus in each of two mutually perpendicular planes, a short distance thereafter. Such a system may be particularly compact, especially in the direction in which the beam leaves the system. It is suitable for deflecting a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator so producing a vertical beam of electron (or with an X-ray target, of X-rays) which can be rotated about a horizontal patient for radiation therapy.

  17. Field distribution analysis in deflecting structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Deflecting structures are used now manly for bunch rotation in emittance exchange concepts, bunch diagnostics and to increase the luminosity. The bunch rotation is a transformation of a particles distribution in the six dimensional phase space. Together with the expected transformations, deflecting structures introduce distortions due to particularities - aberrations - in the deflecting field distribution. The distributions of deflecting fields are considered with respect to non linear additions, which provide emittance deteriorations during a transformation. The deflecting field is treated as combination of hybrid waves HE{sub 1} and HM{sub 1}. The criteria for selection and formation of deflecting structures with minimized level of aberrations are formulated and applied to known structures. Results of the study are confirmed by comparison with results of numerical simulations.

  18. Field distribution analysis in deflecting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, V.V.

    2013-02-01

    Deflecting structures are used now manly for bunch rotation in emittance exchange concepts, bunch diagnostics and to increase the luminosity. The bunch rotation is a transformation of a particles distribution in the six dimensional phase space. Together with the expected transformations, deflecting structures introduce distortions due to particularities - aberrations - in the deflecting field distribution. The distributions of deflecting fields are considered with respect to non linear additions, which provide emittance deteriorations during a transformation. The deflecting field is treated as combination of hybrid waves HE 1 and HM 1 . The criteria for selection and formation of deflecting structures with minimized level of aberrations are formulated and applied to known structures. Results of the study are confirmed by comparison with results of numerical simulations.

  19. Modulus of Subgrade Reaction and Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Potts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential equations govern the bending and deflection of roads under a concentrated load. Identifying critical parameters, such as the maximum deflection and maximum bending moments of a street supported by an elastic subgrade, is key to designing safe and reliable roadways. This project solves the underlying differential equation in pavement deflection and tests various parameters to highlight the importance in selecting proper foundation materials.

  20. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  1. Multivariable Parametric Cost Model for Ground Optical Telescope Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Reese, Gayle; Byberg, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multivariable statistical analysis of both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, diffraction-limited wavelength is found to be a secondary driver. Other parameters such as radius of curvature are examined. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e., multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models Based on aperture diameter are derived.

  2. Multivariable Parametric Cost Model for Ground Optical: Telescope Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Reese, Gayle; Byberg, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis of both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, diffraction limited wavelength is found to be a secondary driver. Other parameters such as radius of curvature were examined. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter were derived.

  3. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  4. Making optics appealing in Colombia through low-cost experiments with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Juan R.; Barbosa, Nicolás.; Cotrino, Sergio; Guzmán, David A.; Mahecha, Víctor; Medina, Cristian; Navarrete, M. Cristina; Uribe, Leonardo; Valencia, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    With the aim of making optics reachable to all audiences, regardless of their age or area of study, we have decided to select, build and test a set of four experiments based on optical phenomena. An important factor in our approach is that the experiments should be used by any non-experienced exhibitor to amaze the audience and to arise in them interest in optics. Ease of setup is therefore desired. Requirements such as durability, repeatability and reduced cost are welcome as well. Taking advantage of the low prices of laser pointers, we focused on experiments which use this nowadays accessible element. The experiments that integrate our selection, costing less than USD75, are: a water stream optical fiber, curved light beams on a honey-water mixture, an optical music transmitter-receiver, and holographic film projections. Among the covered concepts are reflection and refraction of light, color, optical communications, optical interference and modern everyday life's applications. We have presented these setups in activities at our university to a wide range of educational levels, from 12-year old students, passing by last year high school students on a career day event, not leaving behind undergraduate students of any discipline. Moved by the positive response of the audience, we plan to expand its application to continuing education courses and kids' science fairs. We proved that having low-cost setups, useful when teaching science in developing countries, can help to broaden the target audience.

  5. Optical incremental rotary encoder in low-cost-design; Optischer inkrementaler Drehgeber in Low-Cost-Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, David; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Optik; Seybold, Jonathan; Mayer, Volker [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Kueck, Heinz [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Zeitmesstechnik, Fein- und Mikrotechnik

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new concept for low-cost optical encoders to come up to meet the increasing demand for inexpensive rotary sensors. The principal idea is to use a micro patterned plastic disc with metal coating, as it is used for Compact Discs or DVDs. Such encoder discs can be manufactured by an efficient injection compression moulding process. With this well established technique it is possible to achieve highly precise micro patterns while running a cost effective process for high volume production. (orig.)

  6. Low-cost diffuse optical tomography for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Taisuke; Zirak, Peyman; Weigel, Udo M.; Kristoffersen, Anna K.; Mateos, Nicolas; Valencia, Alejandra; Durduran, Turgut

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is an emerging imaging modality with potential applications in oncology, neurology, and other clinical areas. It allows the non-invasive probing of the tissue function using relatively inexpensive and safe instrumentation. An educational laboratory setup of a DOT system could be used to demonstrate how photons propagate through tissues, basics of medical tomography, and the concepts of multiple scattering and absorption. Here, we report a DOT setup that could be introduced to the advanced undergraduate or early graduate curriculum using inexpensive and readily available tools. The basis of the system is the LEGO Mindstorms NXT platform which controls the light sources, the detectors (photo-diodes), a mechanical 2D scanning platform, and the data acquisition. A basic tomographic reconstruction is implemented in standard numerical software, and 3D images are reconstructed. The concept was tested and developed in an educational environment that involved a high-school student and a group of post-doctoral fellows.

  7. Suppression of Noise to Obtain a High-Performance Low-Cost Optical Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, commercial encoders endowed with high precision are expensive sensors, and optical low-cost designs to measure the positioning angle have undesirable levels of system noise which reduce the good performance of devices. This research is devoted to the designing of mathematical filters to suppress noise in polarized transducers, in order to obtain high accuracy, precision, and resolution, along with an adaptive maximum response speed for low-cost optical encoders. This design was proved through a prototype inside a research platform, and experimental results show an accuracy of 3.9, a precision of 26, and a resolution of 17 [arc seconds], at least for the specified working conditions, for the sensing of the angular position of a rotary polarizer. From this work has been obtained a high-performance low-cost polyphase optical encoder, which uses filtering mathematical principles potentially generalizable to other inventions.

  8. Cost-effective method of manufacturing a 3D MEMS optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Emily; Zhang, Ping; Keebaugh, Doug; Chau, Kelvin

    2009-02-01

    growth of data and video transport networks. All-optical switching eliminates the need for optical-electrical conversion offering the ability to switch optical signals transparently: independent of data rates, formats and wavelength. It also provides network operators much needed automation capabilities to create, monitor and protect optical light paths. To further accelerate the market penetration, it is necessary to identify a path to reduce the manufacturing cost significantly as well as enhance the overall system performance, uniformity and reliability. Currently, most MEMS optical switches are assembled through die level flip-chip bonding with either epoxies or solder bumps. This is due to the alignment accuracy requirements of the switch assembly, defect matching of individual die, and cost of the individual components. In this paper, a wafer level assembly approach is reported based on silicon fusion bonding which aims to reduce the packaging time, defect count and cost through volume production. This approach is successfully demonstrated by the integration of two 6-inch wafers: a mirror array wafer and a "snap-guard" wafer, which provides a mechanical structure on top of the micromirror to prevent electrostatic snap-down. The direct silicon-to-silicon bond eliminates the CTEmismatch and stress issues caused by non-silicon bonding agents. Results from a completed integrated switch assembly will be presented, which demonstrates the reliability and uniformity of some key parameters of this MEMS optical switch.

  9. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  10. Experimental modeling of eddy currents and deflections for tokamak limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.; Knott, M.J.; Turner, L.R.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, experiments were performed to investigate deflection, current, and material stress in cantilever beams with the Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment (FELIX) at the Argonne National Laboratory. Since structures near the plasma are typically cantilevered, the beams provide a good model for the limiter blades of a tokamak fusion reactor. The test pieces were copper, aluminum, phosphor bronze, and brass cantilever beams, clamped rigidly at one end with a nonconducting support frame inside the FELIX test volume. The primary data recorded as functions of time were the beam deflection measured with a noncontact electro-optical device, the total eddy current measured with a Rogowski coil and linking through a central hole in the beam, and the material stress extracted from strain gauges. Measurements of stress and deflection were taken at selected positions along the beam. The extent of the coupling effect depends on several factors. These include the size, the electrical and mechanical properties of the beam, segmenting of the beam, the decay rate of the dipole field, and the strength of the solenoid field

  11. Mexico East-West Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  12. Alaska North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  13. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  14. Large membrane deflection via capillary force actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Christina A.; Hu, Xiaoyu; Mibus, Marcel A.; Reed, Michael L.; Knospe, Carl R.

    2018-06-01

    Experimental results from six prototype devices demonstrate that pressure changes induced in a liquid bridge via electrowetting can generate large deflections (20–75 µm) of an elastomeric membrane similar to those used in lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices. In all cases deflections are obtained with a low voltage (20 V) and very small power consumption (<1 µW). The effects of variations in the bridge size and membrane dimensions on measured displacements are examined. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured displacements in those cases where the liquid contact angles could be measured within the devices during electrowetting. Contact angle hysteresis and charge injection into the dielectric layers limited the repeatability of deflection behavior during repeated cycling. Approaches for achieving greater deflections and improved repeatability are discussed.

  15. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  16. Measurement methods of building structures deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation is leading to the occurrence of deformations manifested by, in particular, sloping terrain. The structures situated on the deforming subsoil are subject to uneven subsidence which is leading in consequence to their deflection. Before a building rectification process takes place by, e.g. uneven raising, the structure's deflection direction and value is determined so that the structure is restored to its vertical position as a result of the undertaken remedial measures. Deflection can be determined by applying classical as well as modern measurement techniques. The article presents examples of measurement methods used considering the measured elements of building structures’ constructions and field measurements. Moreover, for a given example of a mining area, the existing deflections of buildings were compared with mining terrain sloping.

  17. Tunable optical frequency comb enabled scalable and cost-effective multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network with source-free optical network units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Chongfu; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang

    2012-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) with source-free optical network units (ONUs), enabled by tunable optical frequency comb generation technology. By cascading a phase modulator (PM) and an intensity modulator and dynamically controlling the peak-to-peak voltage of a PM driven signal, a tunable optical frequency comb source can be generated. It is utilized to assist the configuration of a multiple source-free ONUs enhanced OFDMA-PON where simultaneous and interference-free multiuser upstream transmission over a single wavelength can be efficiently supported. The proposed multiuser OFDMA-PON is scalable and cost effective, and its feasibility is successfully verified by experiment.

  18. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C.L.; Spector, J.

    1994-12-27

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure is disclosed having a serpentine signal conductor within a channel groove. The channel groove is formed by a serpentine channel in a trough plate and a ground plane. The serpentine signal conductor is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors. A beam interaction trough intersects the channel groove to form a plurality of beam interaction regions wherein an electron beam may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor. 4 figures.

  19. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle α i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the α i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction. (author)

  20. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  1. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.

  2. Nonlinear core deflection in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungthong, P.; Giacomin, A. J.; Saengow, C.; Kolitawong, C.; Liao, H.-C.; Tseng, S.-C.

    2018-05-01

    Injection molding of thin slender parts is often complicated by core deflection. This deflection is caused by molten plastics race tracking through the slit between the core and the rigid cavity wall. The pressure of this liquid exerts a lateral force of the slender core causing the core to bend, and this bending is governed by a nonlinear fifth order ordinary differential equation for the deflection that is not directly in the position along the core. Here we subject this differential equation to 6 sets of boundary conditions, corresponding to 6 commercial core constraints. For each such set of boundary conditions, we develop an explicit approximate analytical solution, including both a linear term and a nonlinear term. By comparison with finite difference solutions, we find our new analytical solutions to be accurate. We then use these solutions to derive explicit analytical approximations for maximum deflections and for the core position of these maximum deflections. Our experiments on the base-gated free-tip boundary condition agree closely with our new explicit approximate analytical solution.

  3. Preparation of a monoenergetic sodium beam by laser cooling and deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellessen, J.; Sengstock, K.; Muller, J.H.; Ertmer, W.; Wallis, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a sodium atomic beam with a density of approx. 10 5 at cm 3 within a velocity interval of less than 3 m/s with a mean velocity of typically 50-160 m/s which has been produced by laser deflection of a laser cooled atomic beam. Laser cooling with the frequency chirp method decelerates and cools a considerable part of an atomic beam into a narrow velocity group with a temperature of approx 30 mK as a part of the resulting atomic beam. This velocity group has been selectively deflected up to 30 degrees - 40 degrees using a light field with k vectors always perpendicular to the atomic trajectory. If the light field is prepared by use of a cylindrical lens, the angle of deflection is nearly independent from the actual orbit radius. For a laser frequency detuning of about one natural linewidth to the red, the strong frequency dependence of the light pressure force leads to a beam collimation via detuning-locking of the atomic trajectory. To avoid optical pumping we used a frequency modulated laser beam with a sideband spacing matched to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state. As the cooling was performed by the frequency chirp method, one can use a part of the cooling laser beam as deflecting laser beam. Typical velocity distributions in the deflected and undeflected atomic beam, measured 22 cm downstream the deflection zone. It shows the perfect transfer of the cooled velocity group from the laser cooled beam into the deflected beam; curve c) shows as comparison the result for the deflection of the initial thermal atomic beam

  4. Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively

  5. Deflection of massive neutrinos by gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargion, D.

    1981-01-01

    The curvature undergone by massive neutrino trajectories, passing by a mass M at a distance b from the center of a body, is examined. Calculations led to the following angle of deflection: δ rho = 2GM/b#betta# 2 sub(infinity)C 2 (1 + #betta# 2 sub(infinity)), where #betta#sub(infinity) is the dimensionless velocity of the particle at infinity. The ultrarelativistic limit (#betta#sub(infinity) = 1) coincides with the usual massless deflection. Physical consequences are considered. (author)

  6. Numerical Study on Deflection Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania; Hawat, Waddah Al

    2017-10-01

    Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars are gaining popularity as sustainable alternatives to conventional reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete applications. The production of FRP bars has lower environmental impact compared to steel reinforcing bars. In addition, the non-corroding FRP materials can potentially decrease the cost or need for maintenance of reinforced concrete structural elements, especially in harsh environmental conditions that can impact both concrete and reinforcement. FRP bars offer additional favourable properties including high tensile strength and low unit weight. However, the mechanical properties of FRP bars can lead to large crack widths and deflections. The objective of this study is to investigate the deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with Glass FRP (GFRP) bars as a longitudinal main reinforcement. Six concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars were modelled using the finite element computer program ANSYS. The main variable considered in the study is the reinforcement ratio. The deflection equations in current North American codes including ACI 440.1R-06, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are used to compute deflections, and these are compared to numerical results. It was concluded in this paper that deflections predicted by ACI 440.1R-06 equations are lower than the numerical analysis results while ACI 440.1R-15 is in agreement with numerical analysis with tendency to be conservative. The values of deflections estimated by CSA S806-12 formulas are consistent with results of numerical analysis.

  7. A cost-effective LED and photodetector based fast direct 3D diffuse optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Manob Jyoti; Manjappa, Rakesh; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2017-07-01

    A cost-effective and high-speed 3D diffuse optical tomography system using high power LED light sources and silicon photodetectors has been designed and built, that can continuously scan and reconstruct spectroscopic images at a frame rate of 2 fps. The system is experimentally validated with tissue mimicking cylindrical resin phantom having light absorbing inhomogeneities of different size, shape and contrast, and at different locations.

  8. Cost-effective parallel optical interconnection module based on fully passive-alignment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Hoon; Heo, Young Soon; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Kang, Hyun Seo; Kim, Sung Chang

    2017-11-01

    In optical interconnection technology, high-speed and large data transitions with low error rate and cost reduction are key issues for the upcoming 8K media era. The researchers present notable types of optical manufacturing structures of a four-channel parallel optical module by fully passive alignment, which are able to reduce manufacturing time and cost. Each of the components, such as vertical-cavity surface laser/positive-intrinsic negative-photodiode array, microlens array, fiber array, and receiver (RX)/transmitter (TX) integrated circuit, is integrated successfully using flip-chip bonding, die bonding, and passive alignment with a microscope. Clear eye diagrams are obtained by 25.78-Gb/s (for TX) and 25.7-Gb/s (for RX) nonreturn-to-zero signals of pseudorandom binary sequence with a pattern length of 231 to 1. The measured responsivity and minimum sensitivity of the RX are about 0.5 A/W and ≤-6.5 dBm at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-12, respectively. The optical power margin at a BER of 10-12 is 7.5 dB, and cross talk by the adjacent channel is ≤1 dB.

  9. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  10. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delayen, Jean [Yorktown, VA

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  11. Determining large deflections in rectangular combined loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Bisshopp & Drucker 1945; Scott et al 1955; Lau 1982; Rao & Rao 1986; Baker 1993; Lee et al 1993; Frisch-Fay 1962; Fertis 1999). Prathap and Varadan (1976) had calculated large deflections in cantilever beams made of non-linear Ramberg–Osgood type material on which concentrated load effected on the free end.

  12. Statistics of light deflection in a random two-phase medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, A P

    2007-01-01

    The statistics of the angles of light deflection during its propagation in a random two-phase medium with randomly oriented phase interfaces is considered within the framework of geometrical optics. The probabilities of finding a randomly walking photon in different phases of the inhomogeneous medium are calculated. Analytic expressions are obtained for the scattering phase function and the scattering phase matrix which relates the Stokes vector of the incident light beam with the Stokes vectors of deflected beams. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  13. Probe beam deflection technique as acoustic emission directionality sensor with photoacoustic emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald A; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph; Shadaram, Mehdi

    2014-01-20

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the unique capability of measuring the vector or angular information of propagating acoustic waves using an optical sensor. Acoustic waves were generated using photoacoustic interaction and detected by the probe beam deflection technique. Experiments and simulations were performed to study the interaction of acoustic emissions with an optical sensor in a coupling medium. The simulated results predict the probe beam and wavefront interaction and produced simulated signals that are verified by experiment.

  14. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  15. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-06-08

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  16. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The deluge of date rate in today's networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  17. Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Hülsermann, Ralf; Kosiankowski, Dirk; Geilhardt, Frank; Gladisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher bit rates in access networks requires fiber deployment closer to the subscriber resulting in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. Besides higher access bit rates optical access network infrastructure and related technologies enable the network operator to establish larger service areas resulting in a simplified network structure with a lower number of network nodes. By changing the network structure network operators want to benefit from a changed network cost structure by decreasing in short and mid term the upfront investments for network equipment due to concentration effects as well as by reducing the energy costs due to a higher energy efficiency of large network sites housing a high amount of network equipment. In long term also savings in operational expenditures (OpEx) due to the closing of central office (CO) sites are expected. In this paper different architectures for optical access networks basing on state-of-the-art technology are analyzed with respect to network installation costs and power consumption in the context of access node consolidation. Network planning and dimensioning results are calculated for a realistic network scenario of Germany. All node consolidation scenarios are compared against a gigabit capable passive optical network (GPON) based FTTH access network operated from the conventional CO sites. The results show that a moderate reduction of the number of access nodes may be beneficial since in that case the capital expenditures (CapEx) do not rise extraordinarily and savings in OpEx related to the access nodes are expected. The total power consumption does not change significantly with decreasing number of access nodes but clustering effects enable a more energyefficient network operation and optimized power purchase order quantities leading to benefits in energy costs.

  18. Customizable Optical Force Sensor for Fast Prototyping and Cost-Effective Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Jorge A; Catalán, José M; Blanco, Andrea; García-Perez, José V; Badesa, Francisco J; Gacía-Aracil, Nicolás

    2018-02-07

    This paper presents the development of an optical force sensor architecture directed to prototyping and cost-effective applications, where the actual force requirements are still not well defined or the most suitable commercial technologies would highly increase the cost of the device. The working principle of this sensor consists of determining the displacement of a lens by measuring the distortion of a refracted light beam. This lens is attached to an elastic interface whose elastic constant is known, allowing the estimation of the force that disturbs the optical system. In order to satisfy the requirements of the design process in an inexpensive way, this sensor can be built by fast prototyping technologies and using non-optical grade elements. To deal with the imperfections of this kind of manufacturing procedures and materials, four fitting models are proposed to calibrate the implemented sensor. In order to validate the system, two different sensor implementations with measurement ranges of ±45 N and ±10 N are tested with the proposed models, comparing the resulting force estimation with respect to an industrial-grade load cell. Results show that all models can estimate the loads with an error of about 6% of the measurement range.

  19. Customizable Optical Force Sensor for Fast Prototyping and Cost-Effective Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Díez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an optical force sensor architecture directed to prototyping and cost-effective applications, where the actual force requirements are still not well defined or the most suitable commercial technologies would highly increase the cost of the device. The working principle of this sensor consists of determining the displacement of a lens by measuring the distortion of a refracted light beam. This lens is attached to an elastic interface whose elastic constant is known, allowing the estimation of the force that disturbs the optical system. In order to satisfy the requirements of the design process in an inexpensive way, this sensor can be built by fast prototyping technologies and using non-optical grade elements. To deal with the imperfections of this kind of manufacturing procedures and materials, four fitting models are proposed to calibrate the implemented sensor. In order to validate the system, two different sensor implementations with measurement ranges of ±45 N and ±10 N are tested with the proposed models, comparing the resulting force estimation with respect to an industrial-grade load cell. Results show that all models can estimate the loads with an error of about 6% of the measurement range.

  20. Low-cost RAU with Optical Power Supply Used in a Hybrid RoF IEEE 802.11 Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a low-cost RAU (Remote Antenna Unit) device. It was designed to work in a hybrid Wi-Fi/optical network based on the IEEE 802.11b/g standard. An unique feature of the device is the possibility of optical power supply.

  1. A High Optical Transmittance and Low Cost Touch Screen without Patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMADZAMINI, K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO materials such as Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO due to their optical and electrical properties are used in touch screens as electrodes and wires. This paper proposes a novel technique of using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT method in order to produce touch screens without pattering. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed methodology employs a uniform TCO coated screen with a maximum optical transmittance to convert the touch point coordinates into side electrodes voltages. The performance of the proposed method is tested experimentally on a FTO coated glass with a sheet resistance of 20 ohms/sq. The proposed methodology is found to be less complicated and low cost, since no pattern or electrodes are implemented in the display area.

  2. Deflection analysis for an SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet with two external supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    SSC dipole magnets are presently supported at five mounting locations coincident with the internal cold mass supports. There is growing interest in reducing the number of external supports from five to two for reasons of simplified installation and alignment and as a cost reduction measure. This reports examines the placement of two external supports required to minimize the deflection of the cold mass assembly

  3. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D.

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms

  4. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. The authors have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed in this paper, the author's intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made

  5. Low-cost coherent receiver for long-reach optical access network using single-ended detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebing; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Yu, Changyuan; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2014-09-15

    A low-cost coherent receiver using two 2×3 optical hybrids and single-ended detection is proposed for long-reach optical access network. This structure can detect the two polarization components of polarization division multiplexing (PDM) signals. Polarization de-multiplexing and signal-to-signal beat interference (SSBI) cancellation are realized by using only three photodiodes. Simulation results for 40 Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmissions indicate that the low-cost coherent receiver has 3.2 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio difference compared with the theoretical value.

  6. Study on low-cost calibration-free pH sensing with disposable optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Xudong; Kostov, Yordan; Tolosa, Leah; Rao, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of disposable calibration-free optical pH sensor. ► Derivation of theoretical calibration model. ► Strategy to eliminate inter-coaster inconsistency. - Abstract: As labor costs become more expensive, less labor-intensive disposable devices have become more ubiquitous. Similarly, the disposable optical pH sensor developed in our lab could provide a convenient yet cost-effective way for pH sensing in processes that require stringent pH control. This optical pH sensor is prepared in uniform individual lots of 100–200 sensors per lot. Calibration is accomplished on a few randomly selected sensors out of each lot. We show that all others in the same lot can then be used directly without requiring individual calibration. In this paper, a calibration model is derived to include all the factors that affect the signal of the disposable sensor. Experimental results show that the derived calibration model fits the experimental data. The readings of 28 randomly selected disposable sensors with 4 sensors from each of the 7 lots show an error less than 0.1 pH units in the useful sensing range of the sensor. The calibration model indicates that if further improvement on precision is desired, more uniform porous material and more advanced coating techniques will be required. When it comes to the effects of the varying coasters, house-made low-cost fluorometers, the variability in the brightness ratio of the blue-to-violet LEDs is the primary reason for the lack of precision. Other factors like LED light intensity distribution, optical properties of the filters and electronics also contribute to the coaster-to-coaster difference, but to a lesser extent. Two different methods for correcting the instrument variations were introduced. After correction, the collective reading errors for all the tested instruments were reduced to less than 0.2 pH units within the sensor's useful sensing range. Based on this result, our lab is currently implementing

  7. Structural and optical properties of Eu3+ activated low cost zinc soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alia Sheh Omar

    Full Text Available A low cost method was employed to synthesize ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors using recyclable bottle glass as silica source. The structural and optical properties of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.% glasses were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR, UV-visible (Uv-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Structural investigation using XRD measurement had broadened the halo peak with the doping of dopants. FTIR spectra showed the glass system consists of –OH and SiO4 bands. Meanwhile, the optical measurement using UV-Vis absorption has been induced a blue shift of the electronic absorption edge. The emission peak intensity of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors was enhanced with the progression of doping concentration and thus, revealed their potential as red emitting phosphors under 400 nm excitation. Keywords: Eu3+ doped ZnO-SLS glasses, Solid state method, Optical band gap, Photoluminescence

  8. PsT1: A Low-Cost Optical Simulator for Psychomotor Skills Training in Neuroendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Daniel Lorias; González Carranza, Vicente; Chico-Ponce de León, Fernando; Martinez, Arturo Minor

    2015-06-01

    Well-developed psychomotor skills are important for competence in minimally invasive surgery. Neuroendoscopy is no exception, and adaptation to different visual perspectives and careful handling of the surgical instruments are mandatory. Few training systems, however, focus on developing psychomotor skills for neuroendoscopy. Here, we introduce a new training system called PsT1 that provides visual feedback via the use of simple optics that emulate the endoscope at 0° and 30°. Time and error metrics are generated automatically with integrated software to ensure objective assessment. Neuroendoscopic optics were emulated with a low-cost, commercially available universal serial bus 2.0 camera and a light-emitting diode light source. Visual feedback of 30° was obtained by displacing the optical axis of the universal serial bus camera by 30°, and metrics (time, precision, and errors) were generated automatically by the software. Three evaluation modules were developed (spatial adaptation, depth adaptation, and dissection), and 35 expert and nonexpert neurosurgeons performed an initial evaluation of the system. A total of 81% and 90% of surgeons agreed that the visuals were satisfactory and movement and control were accurately replicated, respectively. The advantages and disadvantages of the system were compared. Here, we present a novel, low-cost, and easy-to-implement training system for developing basic neuroendoscopic psychomotor skills. The use of objective metrics, surgical instruments, and emulation of the neuroendoscope at 0° and 30° are competitive advantages of the current system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective Deflection of Polarized Light Via Coherently Driven Four-Level Atoms in a Double-Λ Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two circular polarized components, i.e., σ - and σ + polarization, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a double-Λ configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a polarized control light with spatially inhomogeneous profile. We analyse the deflection of the polarized probe light and we find that we can selectively determine which circular component will be deflected after the polarized probe light enters the atom medium via adjusting the polarization and detuning of the control field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Cost and Performance Comparison of an Earth-Orbiting Optical Communication Relay Transceiver and a Ground-Based Optical Receiver Subnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Wright, M.; Cesarone, R.; Ceniceros, J.; Shea, K.

    2003-01-01

    Optical communications can provide high-data-rate telemetry from deep-space probes with subsystems that have lower mass, consume less power, and are smaller than their radio frequency (RF) counterparts. However, because optical communication is more affected by weather than is RF communication, it requires ground station site diversity to mitigate the adverse effects of inclement weather on the link. An optical relay satellite is not affected by weather and can provide 24-hour coverage of deep-space probes. Using such a relay satellite for the deep-space link and an 8.4-GHz (X-band) link to a ground station would support high-data-rate links from small deep-space probes with very little link loss due to inclement weather. We have reviewed past JPL-funded work on RF and optical relay satellites, and on proposed clustered and linearly dispersed optical subnets. Cost comparisons show that the life cycle costs of a 7-m optical relay station based on the heritage of the Next Generation Space Telescope is comparable to that of an 8-station subnet of 10-m optical ground stations. This makes the relay link an attractive option vis-a-vis a ground station network.

  11. Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Woo-Ram; Jeong, Min-Soo; Lee, In; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors. (paper)

  12. Characterisation of a Mechanical Deflection Sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miyambo, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical Defl ection Sensor M MIYAMBO AND T PANDELANI CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: mmiyambo@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS...-time duration, which is integrated over time to provide the total measured impulse of a shallow-buried explosive charge near-field blast (Snyman et al, 2006). The Mechanical Deflection Sensor (MDS) was developed by the CSIR LS, in conjunction with Conical...

  13. Development of electron beam deflection circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Azaman

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a development of a power supply circuit to deflect and move the electron beam across the window of the Baby electron beam machine. It comprises a discussion of circuit design, its assembly and the test results. A variety of input and output conditions have been tested and it was found that the design is capable to supply 1.0 A with 50Hz on X-axis coil and 0.4A with 500Hz on Y-axis coil. (Author)

  14. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  15. Hot Flow Anomaly formation by magnetic deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) are localized plasma structures observed in the solar wind and magnetosheath near the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The authors present 1-D hybrid computer simulations illustrating a formation mechanism for HFAs in which the single, hot, ion population results from a spatial separation of two counterstreaming ion beams. The higher-density, cooler regions are dominated by the background (solar wind) ions, and the lower-density, hotter, internal regions are dominated by the beam ions. The spatial separation of the beam and background is caused by the deflection of the ions in large amplitude magnetic fields which are generated by ion/ion streaming instabilities

  16. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring System Based on CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-term monitoring of the midspan deflection of Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction on 309 national roads in Zibo city, this paper proposes Zhang’s calibration-based DIC deflection monitoring method. CCD cameras are used to track the change of targets’ position, Zhang’s calibration algorithm is introduced to acquire the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of CCD cameras, and the DIC method is combined with Zhang’s calibration algorithm to measure bridge deflection. The comparative test between Zhang’s calibration and scale calibration is conducted in lab, and experimental results indicate that the proposed method has higher precision. According to the deflection monitoring scheme, the deflection monitoring software for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is developed by MATLAB, and a 4-channel CCD deflection monitoring system for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is integrated in this paper. This deflection monitoring system includes functions such as image preview, simultaneous collection, camera calibration, deflection display, and data storage. In situ deflection curves show a consistent trend; this suggests that the proposed method is reliable and is suitable for the long-term monitoring of bridge deflection.

  17. Deflection of electron beams by ground planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods are used to determine the effect of a nearby ground plane on the trajectory of a relativistic electron beam passing through dense gas. The beam is shown to respond to the ground plane in one of two distinct modes, determined by beam current and energy. Low-power beams deflect from the ground plane and tear longitudinally. High-power beams do not deflect or tear but tilt, i.e., the beam axis is no longer parallel to the direction of propagation. This conclusion is reached by computing the net beam force as a superposition of the ''bare'' ground-plane forces, the shielding forces from the beam-generated plasma, the body coupling forces induced by beam tilt, and the force that arises as the beam separates from the plasma. Effects from electromagnetic retardation and ground resistivity are shown to be negligible in typical cases of interest, and the interaction between ground planes and other external forces is discussed as well

  18. Cost-effective large-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements by using conventional semiconducting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seunghwan; Song, Ho Young; Lee, Junghoon; Jang, Cheol-Yong; Jeong, Hakgeun

    2012-11-20

    In this article, we introduce a simple fabrication method for SiO(2)-based thin diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that uses the conventional processes widely used in the semiconductor industry. Photolithography and an inductively coupled plasma etching technique are easy and cost-effective methods for fabricating subnanometer-scale and thin DOEs with a refractive index of 1.45, based on SiO(2). After fabricating DOEs, we confirmed the shape of the output light emitted from the laser diode light source and applied to a light-emitting diode (LED) module. The results represent a new approach to mass-produce DOEs and realize a high-brightness LED module.

  19. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  20. Low Cost Plastic Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor Embedded in Mattress for Vital Signal Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiano, Demetrio; Sales, Salvador

    2017-12-13

    The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF) pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm) and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA ® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2-5 s (0.2-0.5 Hz). The sensor has a resolution of force applied on a single point of 2.2-4.5%/N on the normalized voltage output, and a bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is then suitable to monitor the respiration movements. Another issue to be addressed is the presence of hysteresis over load cycles. The sensor was loaded cyclically to estimate the drift of the system, and the hysteresis was found to be negligible.

  1. Low Cost Plastic Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor Embedded in Mattress for Vital Signal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Sartiano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2–5 s (0.2–0.5 Hz. The sensor has a resolution of force applied on a single point of 2.2–4.5%/N on the normalized voltage output, and a bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is then suitable to monitor the respiration movements. Another issue to be addressed is the presence of hysteresis over load cycles. The sensor was loaded cyclically to estimate the drift of the system, and the hysteresis was found to be negligible.

  2. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieradka, K.; MaloziePc, G.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.; Grabiec, P.; Janus, P.; Sierakowski, A.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  3. Low-cost fused taper polymer optical fiber (LFT-POF) splitters for environmental and home-networking solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, L. S.; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Harun, Mohd Hazwan; Gunab, Hadi; Sulaiman, Malik; Naim, Nani Fadzlina

    2017-08-01

    In visible optical communication over the multimode PMMA fibers, the overall cost of optical network can be reduced by deploying economical splitters for distributing the optical data signals from a point to multipoint in transmission network. The low-cost splitters shall have two main characteristics; good uniformity and high power efficiency. The most cost-effective and environmental friendly optical splitter having those characteristics have been developed. The device material is 100% purely based on the multimode step-index PMMA Polymer Optical Fiber (POF). The region which all fibers merged as single fiber is called as fused-taper POF. This ensures that all fibers are melted and fused properly. The results for uniformity and power efficiency of all splitters have been revealed by injecting red LED transmitter with 650 nm wavelength into input port while each end of output fibers measured by optical power meter. Final analysis shows our fused-taper splitter has low excess loss 0.53 dB and each of the output port has low insertion loss, which the average value is below 7 dB. In addition, the splitter has good uniformity that is 32:37:31% in which it is suitably used for demultiplexer fabrication.

  4. Compact and cost-effective multi-channel optical spectrometer for fine FBG sensing in IoT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Optical fiber sensor networks have attracted much attention in IoT technology and a fiber Bragg grating is one of key sensor devices there because of their advantages in a high affinity for optical fiber networks, compactness, immunity to electromagnetic interference and so on. Nevertheless, its sensitivity is not always satisfactory so as to be usable together with widespread cost-effective multi-channel spectrometers. In this paper, we introduce a new cost-effective approach for a portable multi-channel spectrometer with high spectral resolution and demonstrates some preliminary experimental results for fine FBG sensing.

  5. Gravitational light deflection in the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of defining the bending of a light path in general stationary space-times are discussed. It is shown how in situations of axial symmetry the use of 'triangulation lines' leads to a coordinate invariant definition of the bending angle between arbitrary points on a light path. An exact expression is derived for the bending angle in a static, spherically symmetric space-time of arbitrarily strong curvature. This formulation is used to calculate, to second PPN order, the apparent positional shift which is measured when observing, for example, an asteroid or a spacecraft situated close to superior conjunction with the Sun. The possibilities of measuring light deflection effects using modern observational facilities are considered. (author)

  6. Force-deflection behavior of piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Nagpal, Pawan

    2001-11-01

    In the present endeavour, force - deflection behavior of various piezoelectric actuator configurations has been analyzed for performance comparison. The response of stack actuator has been simulated using MATLAB Simulink, in a stack actuator-pendulum configuration. During simulation, stack actuator has been used in charge control feedback mode, because of the advantage of low hysteresis, and high linearity. The model incorporates three compensation blocks, viz 1) a PID position controller, 2) a PI piezoelectric current controller, and 3) a dynamic force feedback. A typical stack actuator, having 130 layers, 1.20x10-4 m thickness, 3.46x10-5m2 cross sectional area, of PZT-5H type, has been utilized for simulation. The response of the system has been tested by applying a sinusoidal input of frequency 500 Hz, and waveform amplitude of 1x10-3V.

  7. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  8. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  9. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  10. Low cost Polymer Optical Fibre based transmission system for feeding integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Khoe, G.D.; Visser, D. Taco; Lenstra, Daan; Schouten, F. Hugo

    2002-01-01

    A bi-directional transmission system using low cost Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) to feed the required large number of radio access points in next-generation integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs is proposed. Results from simulations and experiments show that, by tuning system parameters, a

  11. Virtual machining considering dimensional, geometrical and tool deflection errors in three-axis CNC milling machines

    OpenAIRE

    Soori, Mohsen; Arezoo, Behrooz; Habibi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Virtual manufacturing systems can provide useful means for products to be manufactured without the need of physical testing on the shop floor. As a result, the time and cost of part production can be decreased. There are different error sources in machine tools such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. Some of these errors can be decreased by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However other e...

  12. Virtual machining considering dimensional, geometrical and tool deflection errors in three-axis CNC milling machines

    OpenAIRE

    Soori, Mohsen; Arezoo, Behrooz; Habibi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Virtual manufacturing systems can provide useful means for products to be manufactured without the need of physical testing on the shop floor. As a result, the time and cost of part production can be decreased. There are different error sources in machine tools such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. Some of these errors can be decreased by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However other e...

  13. A proton microbeam deflection system to scan target surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, D.

    1978-12-01

    A system to deflect the proton beam within the Karlsruhe microbeam setup is described. The deflection is achieved whithin a transverse electrical field generated between parallel electrodes. Their tension is controlled by a pattern generator, thus enabling areal and line scans with a variable number of scan points at variable scan speed. The application is demonstrated at two different examples. (orig.) [de

  14. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  15. Study on the causes and methods of influencing concrete deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Xiang; Tang, Jinyu

    2017-09-01

    Under the long-term effect of static load on reinforced concrete beam, the stiffness decreases and the deformation increases with time. Therefore, the calculation of deflection is more complicated. According to the domestic and foreign research results by experiment the flexural deflection of reinforced concrete, creep, age, the thickness of the protective layer, the relative slip, the combination of steel yielding factors of reinforced concrete deflection are summarized, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional direct measurement of deflection, that by increasing the beam height, increasing the moment of inertia, ncrease prestressed reinforcement ratio, arching, reduce the load, and other measures to reduce the deflection of prestressed construction, improve the reliability of structure.

  16. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J.; Alfonso-Almazán, José M.; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Chorro, Francisco J.; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-02-01

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model.

  17. Deflection tomography of a complex flow field based on the visualization of projection array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Bin; Miao Zhanli, E-mail: zb-sh@163.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266061 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Tomographic techniques are used for the investigation of complex flow fields by means of deflectometric methods. A new deflection tomographic setup for obtaining an array of multidirectional deflectograms is presented. Deflection projections in different angles of view can be captured synchronously in same optical path condition and arranged on the camera in two rows with three views in each row. Tikhonov regularization method is used to reconstruct temperature distribution from deflectometric projection data. The conjugate gradient method is used to compute the regularized solution for the least-square equations. The asymmetric flame temperature distribution in the horizontal section was reconstructed from limited view angle projections. The experimental results of reconstruction from real projection data were satisfactory when compared with the direct thermocouple measurements.

  18. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs.Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT, nickel titanium (NiTi, and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL brackets, active self-ligating (ASL brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance.Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force.Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly.

  19. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Todd; DeFanti, Thomas A.; Dawe, Greg; Prudhomme, Andrew; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Cutchin, Steve

    2011-03-01

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have created a new, relatively low-cost augmented reality system that enables users to touch the virtual environment they are immersed in. The Heads-Up Virtual Reality device (HUVR) couples a consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user's hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a force-feedback (haptic) device to interact with the 3D image, literally 'touching' the object's angles and contours as if it was a tangible physical object. HUVR can be used for training and education in structural and mechanical engineering, archaeology and medicine as well as other tasks that require hand-eye coordination. One of the most unique characteristics of HUVR is that a user can place their hands inside of the virtual environment without occluding the 3D image. Built using open-source software and consumer level hardware, HUVR offers users a tactile experience in an immersive environment that is functional, affordable and scalable.

  20. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Margolis, Todd

    2011-01-23

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have created a new, relatively low-cost augmented reality system that enables users to touch the virtual environment they are immersed in. The Heads-Up Virtual Reality device (HUVR) couples a consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user\\'s hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a force-feedback (haptic) device to interact with the 3D image, literally \\'touching\\' the object\\'s angles and contours as if it was a tangible physical object. HUVR can be used for training and education in structural and mechanical engineering, archaeology and medicine as well as other tasks that require hand-eye coordination. One of the most unique characteristics of HUVR is that a user can place their hands inside of the virtual environment without occluding the 3D image. Built using open-source software and consumer level hardware, HUVR offers users a tactile experience in an immersive environment that is functional, affordable and scalable.

  1. Blind polarization demultiplexing by constructing a cost function for coherent optical PDM-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenming; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Xingwen; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-07-13

    We propose a training symbols-free polarization demultiplexing method by constructing a cost function (CCF-PDM) for coherent optical PDM-OFDM. This method is applicable for high-speed, wide-bandwidth OFDM signals, different subcarrier modulation formats and long-haul transmission. It shows comparable performance with that of conventional method but without overhead and converges fast. Since the neighboring subcarriers experience similar polarization effects, we set the initial matrix parameters by the neighboring subcarrier to reduce the number of iteration for the gradient algorithm and prevent swapping the data of the two orthogonal polarizations. We verify this method in experiment by transmitting 66.6-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 4QAM subcarrier modulation over 5440 km SSMF and 133.3-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 16QAM subcarrier modulation over 960 km SSMF respectively. We compare its performance with that of training symbols. We also analyze the convergence speed of this method.

  2. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a ±2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  3. Open source 3D printers: an appropriate technology for building low cost optics labs for the developing communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwamuri, J.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2017-08-01

    The recent introduction of RepRap (self-replicating rapid prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry based technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable development. In this paper, we explore some specific technological improvements and how distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printing can be used to provide open-source 3-D printable optics components for developing world communities through the ability to print less expensive and customized products. This paper presents an open-source low cost optical equipment library which enables relatively easily adapted customizable designs with the potential of changing the way optics is taught in resource constraint communities. The study shows that this method of scientific hardware development has a potential to enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms. Conclusions on the technical viability of 3-D printing to assist in development and recommendations on how developing communities can fully exploit this technology to improve the learning of optics through hands-on methods have been outlined.

  4. Coupler induced monopole component and its minimization in deflecting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ambattu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflecting cavities are used in particle accelerators for the manipulation of charged particles by deflecting or crabbing (rotating them. For short deflectors, the effect of the power coupler on the deflecting field can become significant. The particular power coupler type can introduce multipole rf field components and coupler-specific wakefields. Coupler types that would normally be considered like standard on-cell coupler, waveguide coupler, or mode-launcher coupler could have one or two rf feeds. The major advantage of a dual-feed coupler is the absence of monopole and quadrupole rf field components in the deflecting structure. However, a dual-feed coupler is mechanically more complex than a typical single-feed coupler and needs a splitter. For most applications, deflecting structures are placed in regions where there is small space hence reducing the size of the structure is very desirable. This paper investigates the multipole field components of the deflecting mode in single-feed couplers and ways to overcome the effect of the monopole component on the beam. Significant advances in performance have been demonstrated. Additionally, a novel coupler design is introduced which has no monopole field component to the deflecting mode and is more compact than the conventional dual-feed coupler.

  5. Development of a technology for fabricating low-cost parallel optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberge, Geert; Hendrickx, Nina; Geerinck, Peter; Bosman, Erwin; Van Put, Steven; Van Daele, Peter

    2006-04-01

    We present a fabrication technology for integrating polymer waveguides and 45° micromirror couplers into standard electrical printed circuit boards (PCBs). The most critical point that is being addressed is the low-cost manufacturing and the compatibility with current PCB production. The latter refers to the processes as well as material compatibility. In the fist part the waveguide fabrication technology is discussed, both photo lithography and laser ablation are proposed. It is shown that a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) offers a lot of potential for defining single mode interconnections. Emphasis is on multimode waveguides, defined by KrF excimer laser (248 nm) ablation using acrylate polymers. The first conclusion out of loss spectrum measurements is a 'yellowing effect' of laser ablated waveguides, leading to an increased loss at shorter wavelengths. The second important conclusion is a potential low loss at a wavelength of 850 nm, 980 nm and 1310 nm. This is verified at 850 nm by cut-back measurements on 10-cm-long waveguides showing an average propagation loss of 0.13 dB/cm. Photo lithographically defined waveguides using inorganic-organic hybrid polymers show an attenuation loss of 0.15 dB/cm at 850 nm. The generation of debris and the presence of microstructures are two main concerns for KrF excimer laser ablation of hybrid polymers. In the second part a process for embedding metal coated 45° micromirrors in optical waveguiding layers is described. Mirrors are selectively metallized using a lift-off process. Filling up the angled via without the presence of air bubbles and providing a flat surface above the mirror is only possible by enhancing the cladding deposition process with ultrasound agitation. Initial loss measurements indicate an excess mirror loss of 1.5 dB.

  6. Prediction of Optimal Design and Deflection of Space Structures Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kamyab Moghadas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work is to determine the optimal design and maximum deflection of double layer grids spending low computational cost using neural networks. The design variables of the optimization problem are cross-sectional area of the elements as well as the length of the span and height of the structures. In this paper, a number of double layer grids with various random values of length and height are selected and optimized by simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm. Then, radial basis function (RBF and generalized regression (GR neural networks are trained to predict the optimal design and maximum deflection of the structures. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  7. Coupling between eddy current and deflection in cantilevered beams in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the coupling between eddy currents and deflection in cantilevered beams in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This coupling effect reduces the current, deflection, and material stress to levels far less severe than would be predicted if coupling is disregarded. The experiments were conducted using the FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction experiment) facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. The beams, which provide a simple model for the limiter blades in a tokamak fusion reactor, are subjected to crossed time-varying and constant magnetic fields. The time-varying field simulates the decaying field during a plasma disruption and the constant field models the toroidal field. Several test pieces are employed to allow variations in thicknesses and mechanical and electrical properties. Various magnetic field levels and decay time constants of time-varying are used to study the extent of the coupling from weak to strong coupling. The ratios of constant field to time-varying field are kept in the range from 10:1 to 20:1 as would be appropriate to tokamak limiters. Major parameters measured as functions of time are beam deflection, measured with an electro-optical device; total circulating current, measured with a Rogowski coil; strain recorded by strain gauges; and magnetic fields measured with Hall probes

  8. A multichannel deflection plates control system for the ALF facility at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriy, B.

    2006-01-01

    A deflection plates control system was developed as part of SPIRIT (Single Photon Ionization/Resonant Ionization to Threshold), a new secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument that uses tunable vacuum ultraviolet light from the APS ALF (Argonne Linear Free-electron laser) facility for postionization. The system comprises a crate controller with PC104 embedded computer, 32 amplifiers, and two 1-kV power supplies. Thirty-two D/A converters are used to control voltages at the deflection plates within ± 400 V with 100-mV resolution. An algorithm for simultaneous sweeping of up to 16 XY areas with 10-(micro)s time resolution also has been implemented in the embedded computer. The purpose of the system is to supply potentials to various ion optical elements for electrostatic control of keV primary and secondary ion beams in this SNMS instrument. The control system is of particular value in supplying (1) bipolar potentials for steering ions, (2) multiple potentials for octupole lenses that shape the ion beams, and (3) ramped deflection potentials for rastering the primary ion beam. The system has been in use as part of the SPIRIT instrument at the ALF facility since 2002.

  9. Dynamics and control of a solar collector system for near Earth object deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shenping; Li Junfeng; Gao Yunfeng

    2011-01-01

    A solar collector system is a possible method using solar energy to deflect Earth-threatening near-Earth objects. We investigate the dynamics and control of a solar collector system including a main collector (MC) and secondary collector (SC). The MC is used to collect the sunlight to its focal point, where the SC is placed and directs the collected light to an asteroid. Both the relative position and attitude of the two collectors should be accurately controlled to achieve the desired optical path. First, the dynamical equation of the relative motion of the two collectors in the vicinity of the asteroid is modeled. Secondly, the nonlinear sliding-mode method is employed to design a control law to achieve the desired configuration of the two collectors. Finally, the deflection capability of this solar collector system is compared with those of the gravitational tractor and solar sail gravitational tractor. The results show that the solar collector is much more efficient with respect to deflection capability.

  10. Weak deflection gravitational lensing for photons coupled to Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Guang; Xie, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Beyond the Einstein-Maxwell model, electromagnetic field might couple with gravitational field through the Weyl tensor. In order to provide one of the missing puzzles of the whole physical picture, we investigate weak deflection lensing for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole under a unified framework that is valid for its two possible polarizations. We obtain its coordinate-independent expressions for all observables of the geometric optics lensing up to the second order in the terms of ɛ which is the ratio of the angular gravitational radius to angular Einstein radius of the lens. These observables include bending angle, image position, magnification, centroid and time delay. The contributions of such a coupling on some astrophysical scenarios are also studied. We find that, in the cases of weak deflection lensing on a star orbiting the Galactic Center Sgr A*, Galactic microlensing on a star in the bulge and astrometric microlensing by a nearby object, these effects are beyond the current limits of technology. However, measuring the variation of the total flux of two weak deflection lensing images caused by the Sgr A* might be a promising way for testing such a coupling in the future.

  11. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, N.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1992-12-15

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse. 13 figs.

  12. PR/VI North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 26,000...

  13. Hawaiian Islands East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  14. Lateral deflection of the SOL plasma during a giant ELM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, I.S.; Wuerz, H.

    2001-01-01

    In recent H-mode experiments at JET with giant ELMs a lateral deflection of hot tokamak plasma striking the divertor plate has been observed. This deflection can effect the divertor erosion caused by the hot plasma irradiation. Based on the MHD model for the vapor shield plasma and the hot plasma, the Seebeck effect is analyzed for explanation of the deflection. At t=-∞ both plasmas are at rest and separated by a boundary parallel to the target. The interaction between plasmas develops gradually ('adiabatically') as exp(t/t 0 ) with t 0 ∼10 2 μs the ELM duration time. At inclined impact of the magnetized hot plasma a toroidal current develops in the interaction zone of the plasmas. The JxB force accelerates the interacting plasmas in the lateral direction. The cold plasma motion essentially compensates the current. The magnitude of the hot plasma deflection is comparable to the observed one

  15. PR/VI East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 26,000...

  16. U.S. East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the conterminous United States is the DEFLEC96 model. The computationused about 1.8 million terrestrial and...

  17. U.S. North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the conterminous United States is the DEFLEC96 model. The computationused about 1.8 million terrestrial and...

  18. Hawaiian Islands North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  19. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  20. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  1. Superconducting multi-cell trapped mode deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Andrei; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Gonin, Ivan; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Zholents, Alexander

    2017-10-10

    A method and system for beam deflection. The method and system for beam deflection comprises a compact superconducting RF cavity further comprising a waveguide comprising an open ended resonator volume configured to operate as a trapped dipole mode; a plurality of cells configured to provide a high operating gradient; at least two pairs of protrusions configured for lowering surface electric and magnetic fields; and a main power coupler positioned to optimize necessary coupling for an operating mode and damping lower dipole modes simultaneously.

  2. Catastrophic Disruption Threshold and Maximum Deflection from Kinetic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The use of a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth was described in the NASA Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives (2007) as the most mature approach for asteroid deflection and mitigation. The NASA DART mission will demonstrate asteroid deflection by kinetic impact at the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 65803 Didymos in October, 2022. The kinetic impactor approach is considered to be applicable with warning times of 10 years or more and with hazardous asteroid diameters of 400 m or less. In principle, a larger kinetic impactor bringing greater kinetic energy could cause a larger deflection, but input of excessive kinetic energy will cause catastrophic disruption of the target, leaving possibly large fragments still on collision course with Earth. Thus the catastrophic disruption threshold limits the maximum deflection from a kinetic impactor. An often-cited rule of thumb states that the maximum deflection is 0.1 times the escape velocity before the target will be disrupted. It turns out this rule of thumb does not work well. A comparison to numerical simulation results shows that a similar rule applies in the gravity limit, for large targets more than 300 m, where the maximum deflection is roughly the escape velocity at momentum enhancement factor β=2. In the gravity limit, the rule of thumb corresponds to pure momentum coupling (μ=1/3), but simulations find a slightly different scaling μ=0.43. In the smaller target size range that kinetic impactors would apply to, the catastrophic disruption limit is strength-controlled. A DART-like impactor won't disrupt any target asteroid down to significantly smaller size than the 50 m below which a hazardous object would not penetrate the atmosphere in any case unless it is unusually strong.

  3. Experimental investigations of the large deflection capabilities of a compliant parallel mechanism actuated by shape memory alloy wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, M; Nagarajan, T; Singaperumal, M

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the coupled effect of the force developed by the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and the force required for the large deflection of an elastica member in a compliant parallel mechanism. The compliant mechanism developed in house consists of a moving platform mounted on a superelastic pillar and three SMA wire actuators to manipulate the platform. A three-axis MEMS accelerometer has been mounted on the moving platform to measure its tilt angle. Three miniature force sensors have been designed and fabricated out of cantilever beams, each mounted with a pair of strain gauges, to measure the force developed by the respective actuators. The force sensors are highly sensitive and cost effective compared to commercially available miniature force sensors. Calibration of the force sensors has been accomplished with known weights, and for the three-axis MEMS accelerometer a rotary base has been considered which is usually used in optical applications. The calibration curves obtained, with R-squared values between 0.9997 and 1.0, show that both the tilt and force sensors considered are most appropriate for the respective applications. The mechanism fixed with the sensors and the drivers for the SMA actuators is integrated with a National Instrument's data acquisition system. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical results and it was found that the relative error is less than 2%. This is a preliminary study in the development of a mechanism for eye prosthesis and similar applications

  4. Ballistic Deflection Transistors for THz Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    glass nano-materials. Si-on-glass is an interesting material with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electronics to solar cells. We used our...planar geometry allows for a flexible design and easy integration as a multi-element sensor or with either optical nano-concentrators or THz coupling

  5. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  6. Observing Bridge Dynamic Deflection in Green Time by Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian; Zhao, Yongqian; Chen, Mingzhi

    2018-01-01

    As traditional surveying methods are limited to observe bridge dynamic deflection; information technology is adopted to observe bridge dynamic deflection in Green time. Information technology used in this study means that we use digital cameras to photograph the bridge in red time as a zero image. Then, a series of successive images are photographed in green time. Deformation point targets are identified and located by Hough transform. With reference to the control points, the deformation values of these deformation points are obtained by differencing the successive images with a zero image, respectively. Results show that the average measurement accuracies of C0 are 0.46 pixels, 0.51 pixels and 0.74 pixels in X, Z and comprehensive direction. The average measurement accuracies of C1 are 0.43 pixels, 0.43 pixels and 0.67 pixels in X, Z and comprehensive direction in these tests. The maximal bridge deflection is 44.16mm, which is less than 75mm (Bridge deflection tolerance value). Information technology in this paper can monitor bridge dynamic deflection and depict deflection trend curves of the bridge in real time. It can provide data support for the site decisions to the bridge structure safety.

  7. Study on pipe deflection by using numerical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini; Zaki Mubarak, Amir; Agustiar, Rizki

    2018-05-01

    Piping systems are widely used in a refinery or oil and gas industry. The piping system must be properly designed to avoid failure or leakage. Pipe stress analysis is conducted to analyze the loads and critical stress occurred, so that the failure of the pipe can be avoided. In this research, it is analyzed the deflection of a pipe by using Finite Element Method. The pipe is made of A358 / 304SS SCH10S Stainless Steel. It is 16 inches in size with the distance between supports is 10 meters. The fluid flown is Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) with the range of temperature of -120 ° C to -170 ° C, and a density of 461.1 kg / m 3. The flow of LNG causes deflection of the pipe. The pipe deflection must be within the permissible tolerable range. The objective is to analyze the deflection occurred in the piping system. Based on the calculation and simulation, the deflection is 4.4983 mm, which is below the maximum limit of deflection allowed, which is 20.3 mm.

  8. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150° while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°. In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99 with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range.

  9. On Possibility of Direct Asteroid Deflection by Electric Solar Wind Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikallio, Sini; Janhunen, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    The Electric Solar Wind Sail (E-sail) is a new propulsion method for interplanetary travel which was invented in 2006 and is currently under development. The E-sail uses charged tethers to extract momentum from the solar wind particles to obtain propulsive thrust. According to current estimates, the E-sail is 2-3 orders of magnitude better than traditional propulsion methods (chemical rockets and ion engines) in terms of produced lifetime-integrated impulse per propulsion system mass. Here we analyze the problem of using the E-sail for directly deflecting an Earth-threatening asteroid. The problem then culminates into how to attach the E-sail device to the asteroid. We assess a number of alternative attachment strategies and arrive at a recommendation of using the gravity tractor method because of its workability for a wide variety of asteroid types. We also consider possible techniques to scale up the E-sail force beyond the baseline one Newton level to deal with more imminent or larger asteroid or cometary threats. As a baseline case we consider a 3 million ton asteroid which can be deflected with a baseline 1 N E-sail in 5-10 years. Once developed, the E-sail would appear to provide a safe and reasonably low-cost way of deflecting dangerous asteroids and other heavenly bodies in cases where the collision threat becomes known several years in advance.

  10. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  11. Real-time implementation of a 1.25-Gbit/s DMT transmitter for robust and low-cost LED-based plastic optical fiber applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.C.J.; Breyer, F.; Cárdenas, D.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time implementation of a DMT transmitter in FPGA is demonstrated for low-cost, standard 1-mm step-index plastic optical fiber applications based on commercial resonant-cavity LED and large-diameter (540 µm) photodiode.

  12. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on different methods of analysis that are currently used by design codes to predict the short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced concrete slab systems and compares the predicted deflections with measured deflections. The experimental work to measure deflections involved the testing of ...

  13. Planar junctionless phototransistor: A potential high-performance and low-cost device for optical-communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new junctionless optical controlled field effect transistor (JL-OCFET) and its comprehensive theoretical model is proposed to achieve high optical performance and low cost fabrication process. Exhaustive study of the device characteristics and comparison between the proposed junctionless design and the conventional inversion mode structure (IM-OCFET) for similar dimensions are performed. Our investigation reveals that the proposed design exhibits an outstanding capability to be an alternative to the IM-OCFET due to the high performance and the weak signal detection benefit offered by this design. Moreover, the developed analytical expressions are exploited to formulate the objective functions to optimize the device performance using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) approach. The optimized JL-OCFET not only demonstrates good performance in terms of derived drain current and responsivity, but also exhibits superior signal to noise ratio, low power consumption, high-sensitivity, high ION/IOFF ratio and high-detectivity as compared to the conventional IM-OCFET counterpart. These characteristics make the optimized JL-OCFET potentially suitable for developing low cost and ultrasensitive photodetectors for high-performance and low cost inter-chips data communication applications.

  14. Improvements in or relating to electron beam deflection arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This relates to the deflection of ribbon-like electron beams in X-ray tubes particularly in radiographic equipment. The X-ray tubes includes a source of a ribbon-shaped beam of electrons relatively narrow in a direction orthogonal to the direction of the beam and relatively wide in a second orthogonal direction. An elongated target projects X-rays about a chosen direction in response to the incident beam. There is a means (toroidal former, deflection coils or plates) for deflecting the electron beam to scan the region of incidence along the target and correction means for changing the shape of the electron beam depending on the deflection so that the region of incidence of the deflected beam remains a linear region substantially parallel to the region of incidence of the undeflected beam. The apparatus for this, and variations, are described. A medical radiography unit (computerise axial tomography) including the X-ray tube described is also detailed. (U.K.)

  15. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  16. Evaluation of a low-cost optical particle counter (Alphasense OPC-N2) for ambient air monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh R.; Shaw, Marvin; Pound, Ryan; Kramer, Louisa J.; Price, Robin; Young, Stuart; Lewis, Alastair C.; Pope, Francis D.

    2018-02-01

    A fast-growing area of research is the development of low-cost sensors for measuring air pollutants. The affordability and size of low-cost particle sensors makes them an attractive option for use in experiments requiring a number of instruments such as high-density spatial mapping. However, for these low-cost sensors to be useful for these types of studies their accuracy and precision need to be quantified. We evaluated the Alphasense OPC-N2, a promising low-cost miniature optical particle counter, for monitoring ambient airborne particles at typical urban background sites in the UK. The precision of the OPC-N2 was assessed by co-locating 14 instruments at a site to investigate the variation in measured concentrations. Comparison to two different reference optical particle counters as well as a TEOM-FDMS enabled the accuracy of the OPC-N2 to be evaluated. Comparison of the OPC-N2 to the reference optical instruments shows some limitations for measuring mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. The OPC-N2 demonstrated a significant positive artefact in measured particle mass during times of high ambient RH (> 85 %) and a calibration factor was developed based upon κ-Köhler theory, using average bulk particle aerosol hygroscopicity. Application of this RH correction factor resulted in the OPC-N2 measurements being within 33 % of the TEOM-FDMS, comparable to the agreement between a reference optical particle counter and the TEOM-FDMS (20 %). Inter-unit precision for the 14 OPC-N2 sensors of 22 ± 13 % for PM10 mass concentrations was observed. Overall, the OPC-N2 was found to accurately measure ambient airborne particle mass concentration provided they are (i) correctly calibrated and (ii) corrected for ambient RH. The level of precision demonstrated between multiple OPC-N2s suggests that they would be suitable devices for applications where the spatial variability in particle concentration was to be determined.

  17. Heavy colored SUSY partners from deflected anomaly mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei [Department of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University,Zhengzhou 450000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica,Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Wenyu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology,Beijing 100124 (China); Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-07-27

    We propose a deflected anomaly mediation scenario from SUSY QCD which can lead to both positive and negative deflection parameters (there is a smooth transition between these two deflection parameter regions by adjusting certain couplings). Such a scenario can naturally give a SUSY spectrum in which all the colored sparticles are heavy while the sleptons are light. As a result, the discrepancy between the Brookheaven g{sub μ}−2 experiment and LHC data can be reconciled in this scenario. We also find that the parameter space for explaining the g{sub μ}−2 anomaly at 1σ level can be fully covered by the future LUX-ZEPLIN 7.2 Ton experiment.

  18. Deflection of Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam Prestressed With CFRP Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvachandran P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced polymer (CFRP bars are weak in yielding property which results in sudden failure of structure at failure load. Inclusion of non-pretensioned steel reinforcement in the tension side of CFRP based prestressed concrete beam will balance the yielding requirements of member and it will show the definite crack failure pattern before failure. Experimental investigation has been carried out to study the deflection behavior of partially prestressed beam. Experimental works includes four beam specimens stressed by varying degree of prestressing. The Partial Prestressing Ratio (PPR of specimen is considered for experimental works in the range of 0.6 to 0.8. A new deflection model is recommended in the present study considering the strain contribution of CFRP bar and steel reinforcement for the fully bonded member. New deflection model converges to experimental results with the error of less than 5% .

  19. Force-deflection analysis of offset indentations on pressurised pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, T.H.; Luo, R.; Becker, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The indenter force vs. deflection characteristics of pressurised pipes with long offset indentations under plane strain conditions have been investigated using finite element (FE) and analytical methods with four experimental tests performed on aluminium rings. Two different materials and five different geometries were used to investigate their effects on the elastic-plastic behaviour. A comparison of the experimental, FE and the analytical results indicates that the analytical formulation developed in this paper, for predicting the force-deflection curves for pressurised pipes with offset indenters, is reasonably accurate. Also, all of the analyses presented in this paper indicate that by using a representative flow stress, which is defined as the average of the yield and ultimate tensile stresses, the analytical method can accurately predict the force-deflection curves

  20. Large deflection of viscoelastic beams using fractional derivative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahranini, Seyed Masoud Sotoodeh; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Farid, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with large deflection of viscoelastic beams using a fractional derivative model. For this purpose, a nonlinear finite element formulation of viscoelastic beams in conjunction with the fractional derivative constitutive equations has been developed. The four-parameter fractional derivative model has been used to describe the constitutive equations. The deflected configuration for a uniform beam with different boundary conditions and loads is presented. The effect of the order of fractional derivative on the large deflection of the cantilever viscoelastic beam, is investigated after 10, 100, and 1000 hours. The main contribution of this paper is finite element implementation for nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic fractional model using the storage of both strain and stress histories. The validity of the present analysis is confirmed by comparing the results with those found in the literature.

  1. A Cost-Effective Optical Device for the Characterization of Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millier, Brian; Aleman Milán, Gianna

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of an apparatus to measure the optical birefringence of a liquid crystal is described. The instrument also includes temperature control and monitoring circuitry to allow for the measurement of the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature. An important feature of this design is that the students are able to…

  2. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Margolis, Todd; DeFanti, Thomas A.; Dawe, Greg; Prudhomme, Andrew; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Cutchin, Steven

    2011-01-01

    consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user's hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a

  3. Deflection of light and particles by moving gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wucknitz, Olaf; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Various authors have investigated the problem of light deflection by radially moving gravitational lenses, but the results presented so far do not appear to agree on the expected deflection angles. Some publications claim a scaling of deflection angles with 1-v to first order in the radial lens velocity v, while others obtained a scaling with 1-2v. In this paper we generalize the calculations for arbitrary lens velocities and show that the first result is the correct one. We discuss the seeming inconsistency of relativistic light deflection with the classical picture of moving test particles by generalizing the lens effect to test particles of arbitrary velocity, including light as a limiting case. We show that the effect of radial motion of the lens is very different for slowly moving test particles and light and that a critical test particle velocity exists for which the motion of the lens has no effect on the deflection angle to first order. An interesting and not immediately intuitive result is obtained in the limit of a highly relativistic motion of the lens towards the observer, where the deflection angle of light reduces to zero. This phenomenon is elucidated in terms of moving refractive media. Furthermore, we discuss the dragging of inertial frames in the field of a moving lens and the corresponding Lense-Thirring precession, in order to shed more light on the geometrical effects in the surroundings of a moving mass. In a second part we discuss the effect of transversal motion on the observed redshift of lensed sources. We demonstrate how a simple kinematic calculation explains the effects for arbitrary velocities of the lens and test particles. Additionally we include the transversal motion of the source and observer to show that all three velocities can be combined into an effective relative transversal velocity similar to the approach used in microlensing studies

  4. Bistable out-of-plane stress-mismatched thermally actuated bilayer devices with large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessling, B A; Lucas, T M; Moiseeva, E V; Aebersold, J W; Harnett, C K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore microfabricated bistable actuators released as thin films from a silicon wafer. The actuators are based on a serpentine design where two cantilevers are coupled at the tips by a thin-film bar. These devices are parameterized by two lengths: cantilever length and the length of the coupling bar. These two dimensions are systematically varied to study the effect of design parameters on bistability. The three-dimensional devices have extremely large deflection (hundreds of microns rather than tens of microns for most planar microactuators of similar size) and are thermally actuated out of the plane of the wafer by applying a bias across either the left or right side of the serpentine. The bistability of these devices is evaluated using electron and optical microscopy. Potential applications include non-volatile mechanical memory, optical shutters, and reconfigurable antenna elements

  5. A simple theoretical extension to the analysis of photothermal deflection signal for low thermal diffusivity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, Jyotsna; Lekshmi, S.; Nair, K.P.R.; Rasheed, T.M.A

    2004-01-01

    A modified amplitude method to analyze the photothermal probe beam deflection signal for the determination of low thermal diffusivity values of materials is proposed. This simple theoretical model, which is an extension of the amplitude method proposed by Quelin et al., takes into account the dependence of the photothermal signal on the height of the probe beam above the sample surface which affects mirage measurements when the thermal diffusivity of the coupling medium is greater than that of the sample. The present work is similar to the modification to the phase method proposed by Bertolotti et al. for determination of low thermal diffusivity. The method can be applied irrespective of whether the sample is optically transparent or optically opaque and is independent of thickness

  6. Strong deflection lensing by a Lee–Wick black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We study strong deflection gravitational lensing by a Lee–Wick black hole, which is a non-singular black hole generated by a high derivative modification of Einstein–Hilbert action. The strong deflection lensing is expected to produce a set of relativistic images very closed to the event horizon of the black hole. We estimate its observables for the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center. It is found that the Lee–Wick black hole can be distinguished from the Schwarzschild black hole via such lensing effects when the UV scale is not very large, but the requiring resolution is much higher than current capability.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of 3-D computerized tomography colonography versus optical colonoscopy for imaging symptomatic gastroenterology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Manuel; Aldridge, Robert W; Wylie, Peter; Bell, James; Epstein, Owen

    2013-04-01

    When symptomatic gastroenterology patients have an indication for colonic imaging, clinicians have a choice between optical colonoscopy (OC) and computerized tomography colonography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3-D CTC). 3-D CTC provides a minimally invasive and rapid evaluation of the entire colon, and it can be an efficient modality for diagnosing symptoms. It allows for a more targeted use of OC, which is associated with a higher risk of major adverse events and higher procedural costs. A case can be made for 3-D CTC as a primary test for colonic imaging followed if necessary by targeted therapeutic OC; however, the relative long-term costs and benefits of introducing 3-D CTC as a first-line investigation are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of 3-D CTC versus OC for colonic imaging of symptomatic gastroenterology patients in the UK NHS. We used a Markov model to follow a cohort of 100,000 symptomatic gastroenterology patients, aged 50 years or older, and estimate the expected lifetime outcomes, life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs (£, 2010-2011) associated with 3-D CTC and OC. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the base-case cost-effectiveness results to variation in input parameters and methodological assumptions. 3D-CTC provided a similar number of LYs (7.737 vs 7.739) and QALYs (7.013 vs 7.018) per individual compared with OC, and it was associated with substantially lower mean costs per patient (£467 vs £583), leading to a positive incremental net benefit. After accounting for the overall uncertainty, the probability of 3-D CTC being cost effective was around 60 %, at typical willingness-to-pay values of £20,000-£30,000 per QALY gained. 3-D CTC is a cost-saving and cost-effective option for colonic imaging of symptomatic gastroenterology patients compared with OC.

  8. Cost-effective optical fiber pressure sensor based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, M. Fátima; Rodriguez, Camilo A.; Martins, Joana; Tavares, Cátia; Marques, Carlos; Alberto, Nélia; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a cost-effective procedure to manufacture optical fiber pressure sensors is presented. This has a high relevance for integration in robotic exoskeletons or for gait plantar pressure monitoring within the physical rehabilitation scenarios, among other applications. The sensing elements are based on Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) micro-cavities, created from the recycling of optical fibers previously destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect. To produce the pressure sensors, the fiber containing the FPI micro-cavities was embedded in an epoxy resin cylinder used as pressure transducer and responsible to transfer the pressure applied on its surface to the optical fiber containing the FPI micro-cavity. Before the embedding process, some FPI sensors were also characterized to strain variations. After that, the effect of the encapsulation of the FPI structure into the resin was assessed, from which a slight decrease on the FPI interferogram fringes visibility was verified, indicating a small increase in the micro-cavity length. Up on the sensors characterization, a linear dependence of the wavelength shift with the induced pressure was obtained, which leads to a maximum sensitivity of 59.39 ± 1.7 pm/kPa. Moreover, direct dependence of the pressure sensitivity with the micro-cavity volume and length was found.

  9. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  10. Orthogonally interdigitated shielded serpentine travelling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, E.C.; Hudson, C.L.

    1995-07-25

    A new deflection structure which deflects a beam of charged particles, such as an electron beam, includes a serpentine set for transmitting a deflection field, and a shielding frame for housing the serpentine set. The serpentine set includes a vertical serpentine deflection element and a horizontal serpentine deflection element. These deflection elements are identical, and are interdigitatedly and orthogonally disposed relative to each other, for forming a central transmission passage, through which the electron beam passes, and is deflected by the deflection field, so as to minimize drift space signal distortion. The shielding frame includes a plurality of ground blocks, and forms an internal serpentine trough within these ground blocks, for housing the serpentine set. The deflection structure further includes a plurality of feedthrough connectors which are inserted through the shielding frame, and which are electrically connected to the serpentine set. 10 figs.

  11. A novel mechano-optical sensor based on read-out with a Si3N4 grated waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Microcantilever-based sensors can be used to detect molecular absorption of, for example, hydrogen gas, which causes changes in the surface stress, leading to deflection of the cantilever. Such a deflection can be determined by means of optical beam deflection, capacitance-, or piezo-resistance

  12. Permanent deformation and deflection relationship from pavement condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Leiva-Villacorta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of permanent deformation in flexible pavements has been a research topic for several decades. Currently there are models included in the structural design of pavements that can predict this type of failure. However, the variables required for the prediction of this distress are complex or difficult to obtain in the field, making its application in pavement evaluation also difficult. Measurement of the deflection of pavement structures by means of non-destructive testing is a technique used to assess the condition of the pavement. This research study seeks to correlate data from deflections of the pavement surface with probable permanent deformation in time. In addition, prediction of the remaining life of the pavement structure using a specified criterion is also analyzed. In order to accomplish these objectives, data acquired from 4 different full scale accelerated pavement test tracks was used to develop a permanent deformation model as a function of deflection, load repetitions and pavement layer thickness. The developed model considered a time series model that incorporates an Auto-regressive parameter of order 1. The proposed model presents an advantage over currently available models because it reduces the required parameters to predict the permanent deformation and/or remaining life in the structure and because these variables can be easily found and updated in a pavement management system. Keywords: HVS, Permanent deformation, Deflections, APT, Time series, Instrumentation

  13. Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Antenna gain impact on UWB wind turbine blade deflection sensing is studied in this paper. Simulations are applied with a 4.5-meter blade tip. The antennas with high gain (HG) and low gain (LG) in free space are simulated inside a blade. It is interesting to find that tip antennas with HG and LG...

  14. Focused ion beam induced deflections of freestanding thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.-R.; Chen, P.; Aziz, M. J.; Branton, D.; Vlassak, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Prominent deflections are shown to occur in freestanding silicon nitride thin membranes when exposed to a 50 keV gallium focused ion beam for ion doses between 10 14 and 10 17 ions/cm 2 . Atomic force microscope topographs were used to quantify elevations on the irradiated side and corresponding depressions of comparable magnitude on the back side, thus indicating that what at first appeared to be protrusions are actually the result of membrane deflections. The shape in high-stress silicon nitride is remarkably flat-topped and differs from that in low-stress silicon nitride. Ion beam induced biaxial compressive stress generation, which is a known deformation mechanism for other amorphous materials at higher ion energies, is hypothesized to be the origin of the deflection. A continuum mechanical model based on this assumption convincingly reproduces the profiles for both low-stress and high-stress membranes and provides a family of unusual shapes that can be created by deflection of freestanding thin films under beam irradiation

  15. Application of the mechanical deflection sensor in blast research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the occupants. To enable the development of protection solutions for occupants inside military vehicles, the occupant loading must be thoroughly understood. The aim is to show the capability to measure the positive dynamic deflection of the hull plate using...

  16. Correlation function of gravitational deflection angles of light paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Tomita, Kenji.

    1990-04-01

    The correlation function of gravitational deflection angles of light paths is investigated in a simplified cosmological model universe. Under several reasonable assumptions, an analytic formula for the correlation function is derived. The implication to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy and the distance defined by the observed angular (linear) scale of a source is also discussed. (author)

  17. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  18. Deflecting cavity for beam diagnostics at Cornell ERL injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Sergey; Bazarov, Ivan; Shemelin, Valery; Sikora, John; Smolenski, Karl; Veshcherevich, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A single-cell, 1300-MHz, TM110-like mode vertically deflecting cavity is designed and built for beam slice emittance measurements, and to study the temporal response of negative electron affinity photocathodes in the ERL injector at Cornell University. We describe the cavity shape optimization procedure, RF and mechanical design, its performance with beam.

  19. To test photon statistics by atomic beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhu; Chen Yudan; Huang Weigang; Liu Liang

    1985-02-01

    There exists a simple relation between the photon statistics in resonance fluorescence and the statistics of the momentum transferred to an atom by a plane travelling wave [Cook, R.J., Opt. Commun., 35, 347(1980)]. Using an atomic beam deflection by light pressure, we have observed sub-Poissonian statistics in resonance fluorescence of two-level atoms. (author)

  20. Welding by using doubly-deflected rotating electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabek, J.W.; Friedel, K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the welding process by using double-deflected rotating electron beam, as a method to obtain good quality welds. It is shown possible variants of work of modified beam, principles of creation, process control and results of welding. Comparison of quality welds obtained by using traditional and modified electron beams is made too. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs

  1. Interferometric weak value deflections: Quantum and classical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, John C.; Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Vudyasetu, Praveen K.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the weak value deflection given in an article by Dixon et al.[P. B. Dixon et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 173601 (2009)] both quantum mechanically and classically, including diffraction effects. This article is meant to cover some of the mathematical details omitted in that article owing to space constraints.

  2. Vehicle path-planning in three dimensions using optics analogs for optimizing visibility and energy cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Neil C.; Lewis, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Path planning is an important issue for space robotics. Finding safe and energy-efficient paths in the presence of obstacles and other constraints can be complex although important. High-level (large-scale) path planning for robotic vehicles was investigated in three-dimensional space with obstacles, accounting for: (1) energy costs proportional to path length; (2) turn costs where paths change trajectory abruptly; and (3) safety costs for the danger associated with traversing a particular path due to visibility or invisibility from a fixed set of observers. Paths optimal with respect to these cost factors are found. Autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles were considered operating either in a space environment around satellites and space platforms, or aircraft, spacecraft, or smart missiles operating just above lunar and planetary surfaces. One class of applications concerns minimizing detection, as for example determining the best way to make complex modifications to a satellite without being observed by hostile sensors; another example is verifying there are no paths (holes) through a space defense system. Another class of applications concerns maximizing detection, as finding a good trajectory between mountain ranges of a planet while staying reasonably close to the surface, or finding paths for a flight between two locations that maximize the average number of triangulation points available at any time along the path.

  3. Assessing community exposure to hazardous air pollutants by combining optical remote sensing and "low-cost" sensor technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikelnaya, O.; Polidori, A.; Wimmer, R.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Andersson, P.; Brohede, S.; Izos, O.

    2017-12-01

    Industrial facilities such as refineries and oil processing facilities can be sources of chemicals adversely affecting human health, for example aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. In an urban setting, such as the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), exposure to harmful air pollutants (HAP's) for residents of communities neighboring such facilities is of serious concern. Traditionally, exposure assessments are performed by modeling a community exposure using emission inventories and data collected at fixed air monitoring sites. However, recent field measurements found that emission inventories may underestimate HAP emissions from refineries; and HAP measurements data from fixed sites is lacking spatial resolution; as a result, the impact of HAP emissions on communities is highly uncertain. The next generation air monitoring technologies can help address these challenges. For example, dense "low-cost" sensors allow continuous monitoring of concentrations of pollutants within communities with high temporal- and spatial- resolution, and optical remote sensing (ORS) technologies offer measurements of emission fluxes and real-time ground-concentration mapping of HAPs. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is currently conducting a multi-year study using ORS methods and "low-cost" Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensors to monitor HAP emissions from selected industrial facilities in the SCAB and their ambient concentrations in neighboring communities. For this purpose, quarterly mobile ORS surveys are conducted to quantify facility-wide emissions for VOCs, aromatic hydrocarbons and HCHO, and to collect ground-concentration profiles of these pollutants inside neighboring communities. Additionally, "low-cost" sensor nodes for deployment in neighborhood(s) downwind of the facilities have been developed in order to obtain long-term, granular data on neighborhood VOC concentrations, During this presentation we will discuss initial results of quarterly ORS

  4. Low-cost, high-precision micro-lensed optical fiber providing deep-micrometer to deep-nanometer-level light focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sy-Bor; Sundaram, Vijay M; McBride, Daniel; Yang, Yu

    2016-04-15

    A new type of micro-lensed optical fiber through stacking appropriate high-refractive microspheres at designed locations with respect to the cleaved end of an optical fiber is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. This new type of micro-lensed optical fiber can be precisely constructed with low cost and high speed. Deep micrometer-scale and submicrometer-scale far-field light spots can be achieved when the optical fibers are multimode and single mode, respectively. By placing an appropriate teardrop dielectric nanoscale scatterer at the far-field spot of this new type of micro-lensed optical fiber, a deep-nanometer near-field spot can also be generated with high intensity and minimum joule heating, which is valuable in high-speed, high-resolution, and high-power nanoscale detection compared with traditional near-field optical fibers containing a significant portion of metallic material.

  5. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors

  6. Low-cost nonlinear optics experiment for undergraduate instructional laboratory and lecture demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchiello, Rozane de F.; Pereira, Luiz A. A.; Gómez, Sergio L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and affordable experiment on the thermal lens effect, suitable for an undergraduate educational laboratory or as a tabletop demonstration in a lecture on nonlinear optics. Such an experiment exploits the formation of a lens in an absorbing medium illuminated by a laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. As an absorber, we use a commercial soy sauce, which exhibits a strong thermal lensing effect. Additionally, we show how to measure the radius of a Gaussian beam using the knife-edge method, and how to estimate the focal length of the induced thermal lens.

  7. Implementation of an optical diagnosis strategy saves costs and does not impair clinical outcomes of a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Greuter, Marjolein J E; Hazewinkel, Yark; Coupé, Veerle M H; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-12-01

     In an optical diagnosis strategy, diminutive polyps that are endoscopically characterized with high confidence are removed without histopathological analysis and distal hyperplastic polyps are left in situ. We evaluated the effectiveness and costs of optical diagnosis.  Using the Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal CAncer (ASCCA) model, we simulated biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening in individuals aged 55 - 75 years. In this program, we compared an optical diagnosis strategy with current histopathology assessment of all diminutive polyps. Base-case assumptions included 76 % high-confidence predictions and sensitivities of 88 %, 91 %, and 88 % for endoscopically characterizing adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively. Outcomes were colorectal cancer burden, number of colonoscopies, life-years, and costs.  Both the histopathology strategy and the optical diagnosis strategy resulted in 21 life-days gained per simulated individual compared with no screening. For optical diagnosis, €6 per individual was saved compared with the current histopathology strategy. These cost savings were related to a 31 % reduction in colonoscopies in which histopathology was needed for diminutive polyps. Projecting these results onto the Netherlands (17 million inhabitants), assuming a fully implemented FIT-based screening program, resulted in an annual undiscounted cost saving of € 1.7 - 2.2 million for optical diagnosis.  Implementation of optical diagnosis in a FIT-based screening program saves costs without decreasing program effectiveness when compared with current histopathology analysis of all diminutive polyps. Further work is required to evaluate how endoscopists participating in a screening program should be trained, audited, and monitored to achieve adequate competence in optical diagnosis.

  8. Optical fibre angle sensor used in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golebiowski, J; Milcarz, Sz; Rybak, M

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for displacement and angle measurements in many movable MEMS structures. The use of fibre optical sensors helps to measure micrometre displacements and small rotation angles. Advantages of this type of transducers are their simple design, high precision of processing, low costs and ability of a non-contact measurement. The study shows an analysis of a fibre-optic intensity sensor used for MEMS movable structure rotation angle measurement. An intensity of the light in the photodetector is basically dependent on a distance between a reflecting surface and a head surface of the fibre transmitting arm, and the deflection angle. Experimental tests were made for PMMA 980/1000 plastic fibres, Θ NA =33°. The study shows both analytical and practical results. It proves that calculated and experimental characteristics for the analysed transducers are similar.

  9. Development of a low-cost, 11 µm spectral domain optical coherence tomography surface profilometry prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliali, Nyasha J.; Baricholo, Peter; Neethling, Pieter H.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2017-06-01

    A spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) surface profilometry prototype has been developed for the purpose of surface metrology of optical elements. The prototype consists of a light source, spectral interferometer, sample fixture and software currently running on Microsoft® Windows platforms. In this system, a broadband light emitting diode beam is focused into a Michelson interferometer with a plane mirror as its sample fixture. At the interferometer output, spectral interferograms of broadband sources were measured using a Czerny-Turner mount monochromator with a 2048-element complementary metal oxide semiconductor linear array as the detector. The software performs importation and interpolation of interferometer spectra to pre-condition the data for image computation. One dimensional axial OCT images were computed by Fourier transformation of the measured spectra. A first reflection surface profilometry (FRSP) algorithm was then formulated to perform imaging of step-function-surfaced samples. The algorithm re-constructs two dimensional colour-scaled slice images by concatenation of 21 and 13 axial scans to form a 10 mm and 3.0 mm slice respectively. Measured spectral interferograms, computed interference fringe signals and depth reflectivity profiles were comparable to simulations and correlated to displacements of a single reflector linearly translated about the arm null-mismatch point. Surface profile images of a double-step-function-surfaced sample, embedded with inclination and crack detail were plotted with an axial resolution of 11 μm. The surface shape, defects and misalignment relative to the incident beam were detected to the order of a micron, confirming high resolution of the developed system as compared to electro-mechanical surface profilometry techniques.

  10. A reliable low-cost wireless and wearable gait monitoring system based on a plastic optical fibre sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilro, L; Pinto, J L; Oliveira, J G; Nogueira, R N

    2011-01-01

    A wearable and wireless system designed to evaluate quantitatively the human gait is presented. It allows knee sagittal motion monitoring over long distances and periods with a portable and low-cost package. It is based on the measurement of transmittance changes when a side-polished plastic optical fibre is bent. Four voluntary healthy subjects, on five different days, were tested in order to assess inter-day and inter-subject reliability. Results have shown that this technique is reliable, allows a one-time calibration and is suitable in the diagnosis and rehabilitation of knee injuries or for monitoring the performance of competitive athletes. Environmental testing was accomplished in order to study the influence of different temperatures and humidity conditions

  11. Simulating and visualizing deflections of a remote handling mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.saarinen@vtt.fi [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Hämäläinen, Vesa; Karjalainen, Jaakko; Määttä, Timo; Siuko, Mikko [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Esqué, Salvador [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hamilton, David [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► An infinitesimal transformation represents elastic deflections. ► Equivalent spring factor is used to combine several deformations. ► Initial VR model accuracy improved from 80 to 5 mm. ► The deflection model is capable of adapting to changes in load at the end-effector. ► The algorithms and approach described are generic and can be adopted for other mechanisms. -- Abstract: Continuing ITER divertor second cassette (SC) remote handling (RH) test campaign has been carried out at divertor test platform (DTP2) in Finland. One of the goals has been to develop and implement efficient algorithms and software tools for simulating and visualizing for the operator the non-instrumented deflections of the RH mechanisms under loading conditions. Based on assumptions of the classical beam theory, the presented solution suggests utilization of an infinitesimal transformation to represent elastic deflections in a mechanical structure. Both structural analysis and measurements of the real structure are utilised during the process. The solution suggests one possible implementation strategy of a software component called structural simulator (SS), which is a software component of the remote handling control system (RHCS) architectural model specified by ITER organisation. Utilisation of the proposed SS necessitates modification of the initial virtual reality (VR) model of RH equipment to a format, which can visually represent the structural deflections. In practise this means adding virtual joints into the model. This will improve the accuracy of the VR visualization and will ensure that the virtual representation of the RH equipment closely aligns with the actual RH equipment. Cassette multifunctional mover (CMM) and second cassette end effector (SCEE) carrying SC were selected to be the initial target system for developing the approach. Demonstrations proved that the approach used can give high levels of accuracy even in complex structures such as the CMM

  12. Simulating and visualizing deflections of a remote handling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarinen, Hannu; Hämäläinen, Vesa; Karjalainen, Jaakko; Määttä, Timo; Siuko, Mikko; Esqué, Salvador; Hamilton, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An infinitesimal transformation represents elastic deflections. ► Equivalent spring factor is used to combine several deformations. ► Initial VR model accuracy improved from 80 to 5 mm. ► The deflection model is capable of adapting to changes in load at the end-effector. ► The algorithms and approach described are generic and can be adopted for other mechanisms. -- Abstract: Continuing ITER divertor second cassette (SC) remote handling (RH) test campaign has been carried out at divertor test platform (DTP2) in Finland. One of the goals has been to develop and implement efficient algorithms and software tools for simulating and visualizing for the operator the non-instrumented deflections of the RH mechanisms under loading conditions. Based on assumptions of the classical beam theory, the presented solution suggests utilization of an infinitesimal transformation to represent elastic deflections in a mechanical structure. Both structural analysis and measurements of the real structure are utilised during the process. The solution suggests one possible implementation strategy of a software component called structural simulator (SS), which is a software component of the remote handling control system (RHCS) architectural model specified by ITER organisation. Utilisation of the proposed SS necessitates modification of the initial virtual reality (VR) model of RH equipment to a format, which can visually represent the structural deflections. In practise this means adding virtual joints into the model. This will improve the accuracy of the VR visualization and will ensure that the virtual representation of the RH equipment closely aligns with the actual RH equipment. Cassette multifunctional mover (CMM) and second cassette end effector (SCEE) carrying SC were selected to be the initial target system for developing the approach. Demonstrations proved that the approach used can give high levels of accuracy even in complex structures such as the CMM

  13. Model-Based Building Detection from Low-Cost Optical Sensors Onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzalos, K.; Koutsourakis, P.; Kalisperakis, I.; Grammatikopoulos, L.

    2015-08-01

    The automated and cost-effective building detection in ultra high spatial resolution is of major importance for various engineering and smart city applications. To this end, in this paper, a model-based building detection technique has been developed able to extract and reconstruct buildings from UAV aerial imagery and low-cost imaging sensors. In particular, the developed approach through advanced structure from motion, bundle adjustment and dense image matching computes a DSM and a true orthomosaic from the numerous GoPro images which are characterised by important geometric distortions and fish-eye effect. An unsupervised multi-region, graphcut segmentation and a rule-based classification is responsible for delivering the initial multi-class classification map. The DTM is then calculated based on inpaininting and mathematical morphology process. A data fusion process between the detected building from the DSM/DTM and the classification map feeds a grammar-based building reconstruction and scene building are extracted and reconstructed. Preliminary experimental results appear quite promising with the quantitative evaluation indicating detection rates at object level of 88% regarding the correctness and above 75% regarding the detection completeness.

  14. Design rules for a compact and low-cost optical position sensing of MOEMS tilt mirrors based on a Gaussian-shaped light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Marcus; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    A tilt mirror's deflection angle tracking setup is examined from a theoretical point of view. The proposed setup is based on a simple optical approach and easily scalable. Thus, the principle is especially of interest for small and fast oscillating MEMS/MOEMS based tilt mirrors. An experimentally established optical scheme is used as a starting point for accurate and fast mirror angle-position detection. This approach uses an additional layer, positioned under the MOEMS mirror's backside, consisting of a light source in the center and two photodetectors positioned symmetrical around the center. The mirror's back surface is illuminated by the light source and the intensity change due to mirror tilting is tracked via the photodiodes. The challenge of this method is to get a linear relation between the measured intensity and the current mirror tilt angle even for larger angles. State-of-the-art MOEMS mirrors achieve angles up to ±30°, which exceeds the linear angle approximations. The use of an LED, small laser diode or VCSEL as a lightsource is appropriate due to their small size and inexpensive price. Those light sources typically emit light with a Gaussian intensity distribution. This makes an analytical prediction of the expected detector signal quite complicated. In this publication an analytical simulation model is developed to evaluate the influence of the main parameters for this optical mirror tilt-sensor design. An easy and fast to calculate value directly linked to the mirror's tilt-angle is the "relative differential intensity" (RDI = (I1 - I2) / (I1 + I2)). Evaluation of its slope and nonlinear error highlights dependencies between the identified parameters for best SNR and linearity. Also the energy amount covering the detector area is taken into account. Design optimizing rules are proposed and discussed based on theoretical considerations.

  15. Low-cost and high-speed optical mark reader based on an intelligent line camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Stephan; Chan, Leona; Fung, Celine; Albrecht, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is thoroughly reliable and highly efficient provided that high standards are maintained at both the planning and implementation stages. It is necessary to ensure that OMR forms are designed with due attention to data integrity checks, the best use is made of features built into the OMR, used data integrity is checked before the data is processed and data is validated before it is processed. This paper describes the design and implementation of an OMR prototype system for marking multiple-choice tests automatically. Parameter testing is carried out before the platform and the multiple-choice answer sheet has been designed. Position recognition and position verification methods have been developed and implemented in an intelligent line scan camera. The position recognition process is implemented into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), whereas the verification process is implemented into a micro-controller. The verified results are then sent to the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for answers checking and statistical analysis. At the end of the paper the proposed OMR system will be compared with commercially available system on the market.

  16. A Low-Cost and Portable Dual-Channel Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yun; Chen, Shimeng; Wang, Fang; Peng, Wei

    2017-12-04

    A miniaturization and integration dual-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system was proposed and demonstrated in this paper. We used a yellow light-emitting diode (LED, peak wavelength 595 nm) and built-in web camera as a light source and detector, respectively. Except for the detection channel, one of the sensors was used as a reference channel to compensate nonspecific binding and physical absorption. We packaged the LED and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors together, which are flexible enough to be applied to mobile devices as a compact and portable system. Experimental results show that the normalized intensity shift and refractive index (RI) of the sample have a good linear relationship in the RI range from 1.328 to 1.348. We used this sensor to monitor the reversible, specific interaction between lectin concanavalin A (Con A) and glycoprotein ribonuclease B (RNase B), which demonstrate its capabilities of specific identification and biochemical samples concentration detection. This sensor system has potential applications in various fields, such as medical diagnosis, public health, food safety, and environment monitoring.

  17. Photonic Integrated Circuits for Cost-Effective, High Port Density, and Higher Capacity Optical Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappa, Pierangelo

    Bandwidth-hungry services, such as higher speed Internet, voice over IP (VoIP), and IPTV, allow people to exchange and store huge amounts of data among worldwide locations. In the age of global communications, domestic users, companies, and organizations around the world generate new contents making bandwidth needs grow exponentially, along with the need for new services. These bandwidth and connectivity demands represent a concern for operators who require innovative technologies to be ready for scaling. To respond efficiently to these demands, Alcatel-Lucent is fast moving toward photonic integration circuits technologies as the key to address best performances at the lowest "bit per second" cost. This article describes Alcatel-Lucent's contribution in strategic directions or achievements, as well as possible new developments.

  18. Deflecting modes of the side-coupled cavity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Shigemi.

    1990-11-01

    The deflecting modes of the 805 MHz side-coupled cavity structure with the relativistic factor 0.566 are studied. Our main concern is the dispersion properties among different configurations of side-coupling cells and their interpretations. It is shown that the ninety degree side-coupling cell configuration, so to speak, the Mickey Mouse configuration has a merit in reducing the HEM{sub 1} passband. Another concern is the magnitude of the transverse coupling impedance around the synchronization condition. It is shown that the existence of the coupling cell introduces the nonuniformity of the deflecting mode and gives different impedance relative to the beam axis and that the coupling impedance at {pi}/10 exceeds 50 M{Omega}/m if the quality value of the mode is around 12000.

  19. Deflecting modes of the side-coupled cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Shigemi.

    1990-11-01

    The deflecting modes of the 805 MHz side-coupled cavity structure with the relativistic factor 0.566 are studied. Our main concern is the dispersion properties among different configurations of side-coupling cells and their interpretations. It is shown that the ninety degree side-coupling cell configuration, so to speak, the Mickey Mouse configuration has a merit in reducing the HEM 1 passband. Another concern is the magnitude of the transverse coupling impedance around the synchronization condition. It is shown that the existence of the coupling cell introduces the nonuniformity of the deflecting mode and gives different impedance relative to the beam axis and that the coupling impedance at π/10 exceeds 50 MΩ/m if the quality value of the mode is around 12000

  20. Calculating the momentum enhancement factor for asteroid deflection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberling, Tamra; Gisler, Galen; Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of kinetic-impact deflection of threatening near-Earth asteroids will be tested for the first time in the proposed AIDA (Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment) mission, involving NASAs DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test). The impact of the DART spacecraft onto the secondary of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos at a speed of 5 to 7 km/s is expected to alter the mutual orbit by an observable amount. Furthermore, the velocity transferred to the secondary depends largely on the momentum enhancement factor, typically referred to as beta. Here, we use two hydrocodes developed at Los Alamos, RAGE and PAGOSA, to calculate an approximate value for beta in laboratory-scale benchmark experiments. Convergence studies comparing the two codes show the importance of mesh size in estimating this crucial parameter.

  1. Precise atomic mass measurements by deflection mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, R C

    2003-01-01

    Since its inception nearly 90 years ago by J.J. Thomson, the precise determination of atomic masses by the classical technique of deflecting charged particles in electric and magnetic fields has provided a large body of data on naturally occurring nuclides. Currently, such measurements on stable nuclides have frequently achieved a precision of better than two parts in 10 sup 9 of the mass. A review of the technique, together with a brief summary of the important historical developments in the field of precise atomic mass measurements, will be given. The more recent contributions to this field by the deflection mass spectrometer at the University of Manitoba will be provided as illustrations of the culmination of the techniques used and the applications that have been studied. A brief comparison between this and newer techniques using Penning traps will be presented.

  2. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ian-Woo

    2008-01-01

    We present a model of supersymmetry breaking in which the contributions from gravity/modulus, anomaly, and gauge mediation are all comparable. We term this scenario 'deflected mirage mediation', which is a generalization of the KKLT-motivated mirage mediation scenario to include gauge mediated contributions. These contributions deflect the gaugino mass unification scale and alter the pattern of soft parameters at low energies. Competitive gauge-mediated terms can naturally appear within phenomenological models based on the KKLT setup by the stabilization of the gauge singlet field responsible for the masses of the messenger fields. We analyze the renormalization group evolution of the supersymmetry breaking terms and the resulting low energy mass spectra.

  3. Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)

  4. Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Orthotropic Membranes in Large Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou-Lian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the research on the vibration of orthotropic membrane, which commonly applied in the membrane structural engineering. We applied the large deflection theory of membrane to derive the governing vibration equations of orthotropic membrane, solved it, and obtained the power series formula of nonlinear vibration frequency of rectangular membrane with four edges fixed. The paper gave the computational example and compared the two results from the large deflection theory and the small one, respectively. Results obtained from this paper provide some theoretical foundation for the measurement of pretension by frequency method; meanwhile, the results provide some theoretical foundation for the research of nonlinear vibration of membrane structures and the response solving of membrane structures under dynamic loads.

  5. Normal Conducting Deflecting Cavity Development at the Cockcroft Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Woolley, B; Jones, R M; Grudiev, A; Dolgashev, V; Wheelhouse, A; Mackenzie, J; McIntosh, P A; Hill, C; Goudket, P; Buckley, S; Lingwood, C

    2013-01-01

    Two normal conducting deflecting structures are currently being developed at the Cockcroft Institute, one as a crab cavity for CERN linear collider CLIC and one for bunch slice diagnostics on low energy electron beams for Electron Beam Test Facility EBTF at Daresbury. Each has its own challenges that need overcome. For CLIC the phase and amplitude tolerances are very stringent and hence beamloading effects and wakefields must be minimised. Significant work has been undertook to understand the effect of the couplers on beamloading and the effect of the couplers on the wakefields. For EBTF the difficulty is avoiding the large beam offset caused by the cavities internal deflecting voltage at the low beam energy. Prototypes for both cavities have been manufactured and results will be presented.

  6. Progress on the gyrocon deflection-modulated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    The gyrocon is a high-power deflection-modulated amplifier that can have excellent spatial bunching and, hence, high dc-to-rf conversion efficiency. A program to design and build a prototype amplifier at 450 MHz is discussed. Peak powers of 150 kW and conversion efficiencies of 23% have been measured; the testing program is being pursued to improve this performance. Some possible mechanisms for the difference between the experimental and calculated performance are discussed

  7. Deflection of weakly magnetic materials by superconducting OGMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Gerber, R.; Fletcher, D.; Parker, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Applications of a superconducting Open Gradient Magnetic Separator to fractional separation in air of weakly magnetic materials are presented. The dependence of particle deflection of these materials on the magnetic field strength, release location, magnetic susceptibility, particle density and other properties is investigated. The aim is to maximise the deflection of the magnetically stronger component of the feed to facilitate its separation from the particle stream round the magnet. Materials (e.g. CuSO/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/) with chi/rho- ratios of the order of 7 x 10/sup -8/ m/sup 3//kg have been deflected. The applicability of dry magnetic separation has thus been considerably extended since up to now the separation of such materials has been restricted to High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The dependence of the separation efficiency upon the method of feeding and the influence of the residence time are studied in order to establish the optimum parameters for the recovery of the desired fraction. The experimental results are compared with predictions of a theory that is based upon novel approximative calculations of magnetic fields in which the use of elliptic integrals is avoided

  8. Angular deflection of rotary nickel titanium files: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gambarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new manufacturing method of twisting nickel titanium wire to produce rotary nickel titanium (RNT files has recently been developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the new manufacturing process increased the angular deflection of RNT files, by comparing instruments produced using the new manufacturing method (Twisted Files versus instruments produced with the traditional grinding process. Testing was performed on a total of 40 instruments of the following commercially available RNT files: Twisted Files (TF, Profile, K3 and M2 (NRT. All instruments tested had the same dimensions (taper 0.06 and tip size 25. Test procedures strictly followed ISO 3630-1. Data were collected and statistically analyzed by means ANOVA test. The results showed that TF demonstrated significantly higher average angular deflection levels (P<0.05, than RNT manufactured by a grinding process. Since angular deflection represent the amount of rotation (and consequently deformation that a RNT file can withstand before torsional failure, such a significant improvement is a favorable property for the clinical use of the tested RNT files.

  9. Moduli stabilization and supersymmetry breaking in deflected mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a model of supersymmetry breaking in which the contributions from gravity/modulus, anomaly, and gauge mediation are all comparable. We term this scenario 'deflected mirage mediation', which is a generalization of the KKLT-motivated mirage mediation scenario to include gauge mediated contributions. These contributions deflect the gaugino mass unification scale and alter the pattern of soft parameters at low energies. In some cases, this results in a gluino LSP and light stops; in other regions of parameter space, the LSP can be a well-tempered neutralino. We demonstrate explicitly that competitive gauge-mediated terms can naturally appear within phenomenological models based on the KKLT setup by addressing the stabilization of the gauge singlet field which is responsible for the masses of the messenger fields. For viable stabilization mechanisms, the relation between the gauge and anomaly contributions is identical in most cases to that of deflected anomaly mediation, despite the presence of the Kaehler modulus. Turning to TeV scale phenomenology, we analyze the renormalization group evolution of the supersymmetry breaking terms and the resulting low energy mass spectra. The approach sets the stage for studies of such mixed scenarios of supersymmetry breaking at the LHC.

  10. A study of the deflections of metal road guardrail elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prentkovskis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Statistical data on traffic accidents in 2008 in Lithuania is presented. Referring to statistical data, ‘grounding on an obstacle’ makes one-tenth of all registered traffic accidents – 9.4% (an obstacle may be a road guardrail, a lamp post, a tree, a bar, a gate, etc.. Road guardrails of various types are installed on the shoulders and dividing strips of urban and suburban roads. They are as follows: reinforced concrete guardrails, cable guardrails and metal guardrails. Metal guardrails, consisting of Σ-shape metal posts and a protective W-shape horizontal beam, are most popular. The authors of the present paper examine the deformation processes of the elements of the above mentioned guardrail. A mathematical model of metal road guardrail was developed. Metal road guardrail was modelled using one-dimensional first-order finite elements, taking into account only elastic deformations, as well as the effect of soil on the buried post section of the guardrail. Based on the developed mathematical model of metal road guardrail, the deflections of its elements caused by the impact of a vehicle moving at varying speed were determined. The obtained values of deflections of guardrail elements (a protective W-shape horizontal beam and a Σ-shape post presented in paper do not exceed the admissible values (of beam deflections.

  11. A non-contact, thermal noise based method for the calibration of lateral deflection sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, Nic; Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of lateral forces and displacements has been a long standing problem in lateral force microscopies. Recently, it was shown by Wagner et al. that the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode may be used to calibrate the deflection sensitivity of the detector. This method is quick, non-destructive and may be performed in situ in air or liquid. Here we make a full quantitative comparison of the lateral inverse optical lever sensitivity obtained by the lateral thermal noise method and the shape independent method developed by Anderson et al. We find that the thermal method provides accurate results for a wide variety of rectangular cantilevers, provided that the geometry of the cantilever is suitable for torsional stiffness calibration by the torsional Sader method, in-plane bending of the cantilever may be eliminated or accounted for and that any scaling of the lateral deflection signal between the measurement of the lateral thermal noise and the measurement of the lateral deflection is eliminated or corrected for. We also demonstrate that the thermal method may be used to characterize the linearity of the detector signal as a function of position, and find a deviation of less than 8% for the instrument used

  12. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  13. Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Deng, Lei; Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    -shift keying (QPSK)/16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) with direct detection, over SMF (100m and 5km) and MMF (100m and 1km) short-range links, for their potential application in low-cost rack-to-rack optical interconnects. Moreover, we assess the performance of quaternary-pulse amplitude...

  14. A low-cost, portable optical sensing system with wireless communication compatible of real-time and remote detection of dissolved ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shijie; Doherty, William; McAuliffe, Michael AP; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Lewis, Liam; Huyet, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    A low-cost and portable optical chemical sensor based ammonia sensing system that is capable of detecting dissolved ammonia up to 5 ppm is presented. In the system, an optical chemical sensor is designed and fabricated for sensing dissolved ammonia concentrations. The sensor uses eosin as the fluorescence dye which is immobilized on the glass substrate by a gas-permeable protection layer. A compact module is developed to hold the optical components, and a battery powered micro-controller system is designed to read out and process the data measured. The system operates without the requirement of laboratory instruments that makes it cost effective and highly portable. Moreover, the calculated results in the system can be transmitted to a PC wirelessly, which allows the remote and real-time monitoring of dissolved ammonia.

  15. MEMS Tunneling Micro Thermometer Based onTip Deflection of Bimetallic Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrand K. Nezhadian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM technology promises to significantly reduce the size, weight and cost of a variety of sensor systems. In this article has been described a highly sensitive novel type of thermometer based on deflection of a “bimetallic” microbeam. The proposed thermometer converts the thermal changes of a cantilevered bimetallic beam of submillimeter size into an electrical signal through tunneling-current modulation. The governing thermo-mechanical equation of a bimetallic cantilever beam has been derived and solved analytically. The obtained results show that the proposed tunneling micro thermometer is very sensitive to temperature changes due to exponential increasing of tunneling current but because of small gap between metallic electrodes, measurable range of temperature changes is small.

  16. Isotope separation by laser deflection of an atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1975-02-01

    Separation of isotopes of barium was accomplished by laser deflection of a single isotopic component of an atomic beam. With a tunable narrow linewidth dye laser, small differences in absorption frequency of different barium isotopes on the 6s 2 1 S 0 --6s6p 1 P 1 5536A resonance were exploited to deflect atoms of a single isotopic component of an atomic beam through an angle large enough to physically separate them from the atomic beam. It is shown that the principal limitation on separation efficiency, the fraction of the desired isotopic component which can be separated, is determined by the branching ratio from the excited state into metastable states. The isotopic purity of the separated atoms was measured to be in excess of 0.9, limited only by instrumental uncertainty. To improve the efficiency of separation, a second dye laser was employed to excite atoms which had decayed to the 6s5d metastable state into the 6p5d 1 P 1 state from which they could decay to the ground state and continue to be deflected on the 5535A transition. With the addition of the second laser, separation efficiency of greater than 83 percent was achieved, limited by metastable state accumulation in the 5d 2 1 D 2 state which is accessible from the 6p5d 1 P 1 level. It was found that the decay rate from the 6p5d state into the 5d 2 metastable state was fully 2/3 the decay rate to the ground state, corresponding to an oscillator strength of 0.58. (U.S.)

  17. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  18. Angular dispersion and deflection function for heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhen; Han Jianlong; Hu Zhengguo; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    The differential cross sections for elastic scattering products of 17 F on 208 Pb have been measured. The angular dispersion plots of ln(dσ/dθ) versus θ 2 are obtained from the angular distribution of the elastic scattering differential cross sections. Systematical analysis on the angular dispersion for the available experimental data indicates that there is an angular dispersion turning angle at forward angular range within the grazing angle. This turning angle can be clarified as nuclear rainbow in classical deflection function. The exotic behaviour of the nuclear rainbow angle offers a new probe to investigate the halo and skin phenomena. (authors)

  19. Calculation of deflection for cross laminated timber floor panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarić Ljiljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analytically calculated values of effective flexural stiffness and deflections of five-layer CLT panels height 14 cm due to the payload defined in Eurocode 1 for floors in residential buildings are compared. Effective flexural stiffness was calculated using Gamma method, K-method and Kreuzinger's analogy. Three floor panels with identical height but with different combinations of lamination thicknesses in cross-layers were analyzed. The panels are 4.5 meters long and 1 meter wide. Lamination thicknesses in cross-sections of panels are 33,4 cm+21,9 cm, then 33 cm+22,5 cm and 52,8 cm.

  20. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, Omer; Zouros, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  1. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Dept. of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel Univ., 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Zouros, Theo J.M. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Lab, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, P.O. Box 60228, GR 15310 Ag. Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  2. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Omer; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  3. Gyrocon: a deflection-modulated, high-power microwave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1977-10-01

    A large-signal, relativistic theory of the electron-field interaction in a new class of microwave amplifiers is presented and applied to the analysis of a high-power, 450-MHz amplifier for accelerator applications. The analysis indicates that electronic efficiencies in excess of 90 percent are obtainable and that overall efficiencies of 90 percent are possible. The amplifier is unique in several respects; the electron velocity is perpendicular to the circuit energy flow, the device uses a fast-wave circuit, and the electron beam is deflection modulated

  4. SECONDARY POPULATION OF INTERSTELLAR NEUTRALS seems deflected to the side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H.; Bzowski, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Fukunishi, H.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Taguchi, M.

    Recently the neutral hydrogen flow in the inner heliosphere was found to be deflected relative to the helium flow by about 4 degrees Lallement et al 2005 The explanation of this delfection offered was a distortion of the heliosphere under the action of an ambient interstellar magnetic field In a separate study a number of data sets pertaining to interstellar neutral atoms obtained with various techniques were compiled and interpreted as due to an inflow of interstellar gas from an ecliptic longitude shifted by 10 - 40 degrees from the canonical upstream interstellar neutral flow direction at 254 degrees Collier et al 2004 The origin and properties of such a flow is still under debate We have performed a cross-experiment analysis of the heliospheric hydrogen and helium photometric observations performed simltaneously by the Nozomi spacecraft between the Earth and Mars orbit and explored possible deflection of hydrogen and helium flows with respect to the canonical upwind direction For the interpretation we used predictions of a state of the art 3D and fully time-dependent model of the neutral gas in the heliosphere with the boundary conditions ionization rates and radiation pressure taken from literature The model includes two populations of the thermal interstellar hydrogen predicted by the highly-reputed Moscow Monte Carlo model of the heliosphere The agreement between the data and simulations is not satifactory when one assumes that the upwind direction is the same for both populations and identical with the direction derived from inerstellar helium

  5. Exploration of Piezoelectric Bimorph Deflection in Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, Kevin; Amitay, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The design of piezoelectric bimorphs for synthetic jet actuators could be improved by greater understanding of the deflection of the bimorphs; both their mode shapes and the resulting volume change inside the actuator. The velocity performance of synthetic jet actuators is dependent on this volume change and the associated internal pressure changes. Knowledge of these could aid in refining the geometry of the cavity to improve efficiency. Phase-locked jet velocities and maps of displacement of the surface of the bimorph were compared between actuators of varying diameter. Results from a bimorph of alternate stiffness were also compared. Bimorphs with higher stiffness exhibited a more desirable (0,1) mode shape, which produced a high volume change inside of the actuator cavity. Those with lower stiffness allowed for greater displacement of the surface, initially increasing the volume change, but exhibited higher mode shapes at certain frequency ranges. These higher node shapes sharply reduced the volume change and negatively impacted the velocity of the jet at those frequencies. Adjustments to the distribution of stiffness along the radius of the bimorph could prevent this and allow for improved deflection without the risk of reaching higher modes.

  6. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  7. Effects of large bending deflections on blade flutter limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, Bjarne Skovmose; Hartvig Hansen, Morten

    2008-04-15

    The coupling of bending and torsion due to large blade bending are assumed to have some effects of the flutter limits of wind turbines. In the present report, the aeroelastic blade model suggested by Kallesoee, which is similar to a second order model, is used to investigate the aeroelastic stability limits of the RWT blade with and without the effects of the large blade deflection. The investigation shows no significant change of the flutter limit on the rotor speed due to the blade deflection,whereas the first edgewise bending mode becomes negatively damped due to the coupling with blade torsion which causes a change of the effective direction of blade vibration. These observations are confirmed by nonlinear aeroelastic simulations using HAWC2. This work is part of the UpWind project funded by the European Commission under the contract number SES6-CT-2005-019945 which is gratefully acknowledged. This report is the deliverable D2.3 of the UpWind project. (au)

  8. Distribution of flexural deflection in the worldwide outer rise area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Jun; Lin, Jing-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Chen, Yen-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The outer rise on the fringe of a subduction system is caused by an accreted load on the flexed oceanic lithosphere. The magnitude of the deflection is usually linked to the stress state beard by the oceanic plate. In a coupled subduction zone, the stress is abundantly accumulated across the plate boundary which should affect the flexural properties of the subducted plate. Thus, the variation of the outer rise in shape may reflect the seismogenic characteristics of the subduction system. In this study, we intent to find the correlation between the flexure deflection (Wb) of the outer rise and the subduction zone properties by comparing several slab parameters and the Wb distribution. The estimation of Wb is performed based on the available bathymetry data and the statistic analysis of earthquakes is from the global ISC earthquake catalog for the period of 1900-2015. Our result shows a progressive change of Wb in space, suggesting a robust calculation. The average Wb of worldwise subduction system spreads from 348 to 682 m. No visible distinction in the ranging of Wb was observed for different subduction zones. However, in a weak coupling subduction system, the standard variation of Wb has generally larger value. Relatively large Wb generally occurs in the center of the trench system, whereas small Wb for the two ends of trench. The comparison of Wb and several slab parameters shows that the Wb may be correlated with the maximal magnitude and the number of earthquakes. Otherwise, no clear relationship with other parameters can be obtained.

  9. Actual light deflections in regions of crack tips and their influence on measurements in photomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Friedrich W.; Pindera, Jerzy T.; Wen, Baicheng

    Crack-tip photomechanics procedures are based on certain simplifying assumptions that are seldom discussed. In a recent paper the theoretical bases of the shadow optical methods of caustics have been analysed and tested using the results obtained by three analytical-experimental procedures, namely classical strain gage techniques, isodynes, and strain-gradient index method. It has been concluded that the straing-radient index method appears to be a suitable tool for analysis of stress states near crack tips and notches and, in particular, for testing the predictive power of the pertinent singular solutions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics and the ranges of their applicability. In the present paper, a more detailed analysis of all results obtained in light deflection experiments allows to quantify the contribution of both involved effects and to determine the distortion of the faces of the investigated plates along their crack planes. The ability of the strain-gradient light bending method to analyse some features of the three-dimensional stress-state is reported. Finally, the presented experimental evidence allows to draw conclusions related to limits of applicability of certain photomechanical measurements near crack tips. An extensive summary of this paper is published in the Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Photomechanics and Speckle Metrology, Vol. 1554A, part of SPIE's 1991 International Symposium on Optical Applied Science and Engineering, 22-26 July 1991, San Diego, CA, USA. 1

  10. Synchronization and Timing in All-Optical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prucnal, Paul R

    1997-01-01

    .... Deflection routing is used as the contention resolution principle. Several issues on designing optical networks, such as the node configurations and finding the optimal routing algorithm for maximum throughput, are discussed...

  11. Use Deflected Trailing Edge to Improve the Aerodynamic Performance and Develop Low Solidity LPT Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li; Peigang, Yan; Xiangfeng, Wang; Wanjin, Han; Qingchao, Wang

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of low pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades and developing low solidity LPT blade cascades through deflected trailing edge. A deflected trailing edge improved aerodynamic performance of both LPT blade cascades and low solidity LPT blade cascades. For standard solidity LPT cascades, deflecting the trailing edge can decrease the energy loss coefficient by 20.61 % for a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 1 %. For a low solidity LPT cascade, aerodynamic performance was also improved by deflecting the trailing edge. Solidity of the LPT cascade can be reduced by 12.5 % for blades with a deflected trailing edge without a drop in efficiency. Here, the flow control mechanism surrounding a deflected trailing edge was also revealed.

  12. A low-cost personal dosemeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of common household salt (NaCl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Salt represents a radiation sensitive material that can be used for dosimetry. The objective of this experimental study was to test a low-cost salt dosemeter that was designed for personnel that are not radiation workers, but can operate in low probability events resulting in a serious external radiation exposure. The dosemeter is based on use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of a common household salt. Attention was concentrated on its energy and angular responses. The dosemeter was fixed to the ICRU slab phantom and irradiated by photons of reference radiation qualities (ISO 4037-1) with mean energies between 33 and 1250 keV. Angular response was investigated for angles of incidence from 0° to 80° for radiation qualities of N-150 (∼118 keV) and S-Cs (∼662 keV). Single-Aliquot Regenerative-dose analytical protocol was employed for dose reconstruction. The results were evaluated with respect to H_p(10) measurement. The salt dosemeter can provide reliable or reasonably conservative H_p(10) estimates in radiation fields where photon energies > 100 keV predominate, radiation incidence angles are from 0° to 80° and also for rotational geometry. Furthermore, a personal dose reconstruction trial was demonstrated. Relative deviation between the measured and reference H_p(10) values was 5.5%. A practical disadvantage of the method is the more demanding analytical protocol. - Highlights: • Common salt has a considerable potential for dosimetry based on use of OSL. • A simple salt personal dosemeter was designed and tested. • Photon energy and angular responses were satisfactory for purposes of accidental dosimetry. • Dose reconstruction trial proved the potential for reliable estimate of personal doses.

  13. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    ARL-CR-0822 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event prepared by Danielle Abell SURVICE...Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-16-D-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. Effective Moment Of Inertia And Deflections Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Long-Term Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Khalid M.; Ashour, Samir A.; Al-Noury, Soliman I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a method for estimating long-term deflections of reinforced concrete beams by considering creep and shrinkage effects separately. Based on equilibrium and compatibility conditions a method is developed for investigating the properties of a cracked transformed section under sustained load. The concept of effective moment of inertia is extended to predict initial-plus-creep deflections. Long-term deflections computed by the proposed method are compared with the experimental r...

  15. A High Gain-Bandwidth Product Distributed Transimpedance Amplifier IC for High-Speed Optical Transmission Using Low-Cost GaAs Technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, F.; Limiti, E.; Orengo, G.; Serino, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports a distributed baseband transimpedance amplifier for optical links up to 10 Gb/s. The amplifier operates as a baseband amplifier with a transimpedance gain of 48 dB Ω and a DC-to-9 GHz bandwidth. Some innovative design techniques to improve gain-bandwidth performance at low and high frequency with an available low-cost GaAs MESFET technology have been developed.

  16. Direct correlation of charge transfer absorption with molecular donor:acceptor interfacial area via photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Domingo, Ester

    2015-04-09

    We show that the Charge Transfer (CT) absorption signal in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell blends, measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), is directly proportional to the density of molecular donor/acceptor interfaces. Since the optical transitions from ground state to the interfacial CT state are weakly allowed at photon energies below the optical gap of both donor and acceptor, we can exploit the use of this sensitive linear absorption spectroscopy for such quantification. Moreover, we determine the absolute molar extinction coefficient of the CT transition for an archetypical polymer-fullerene interface. The latter is ~100 times lower than the extinction coefficient of the donor chromophore involved, allowing us to experimentally estimate the transition dipole moment (0.3 D) and the electronic coupling between ground state and CT state to be on the order of 30 meV.

  17. Micropipette Deflection Measurements of Agar-Glass Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parg, Richard; Shelton, Erin; Dutcher, John

    Micropipette deflection experiments were used to study the adhesive strength at an agar-glass interface. Agar is a hydrogel commonly used in biological research; however, many of the mechanical properties of this hydrogel are not well characterized. By measuring the peak force required to slide an agar puck supported by a Teflon ring across a clean glass slide, we are able to compare the adhesive strength of 1 % w/w and 1.5 % w/w agar. On average, the force required to break the agar-glass interface was approximately a factor of 2 larger for 1.5 % w/w agar than for 1 % w/w agar. We discuss this result within the context of a simple model of agar adhesion. Additional experiments were performed to measure the kinetic friction between agar and glass to obtain insight into its dependence on agar concentration.

  18. Modified method for registration of particle deflection by bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, S.V.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kuznetsov, V.N.; Romanov, S.V.; Sajfulin, Sh.Z.; Taratin, A.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Voevodin, M.A.; Bojko, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The modified method for registration of particle deflection by a bent crystal was proposed and studied at the external proton beam of the Nuclotron. The telescope of scintillation counters was placed at the angle that was smaller than a crystal bending angle. The count dependence of the telescope on the crystal orientation was formed by the particles, which passed in channeling states only some part of the crystal length. Two maximums were observed in the dependencies due to particles captured into the channeling states on the crystal surface and in the crystal volume. This allows one to obtain, using the telescope and high-intensity beams, useful data about the particle channeling and the crystal, which usually demands more complicated registration by means of the coordinate detectors

  19. Photothermal cantilever deflection spectroscopy of a photosensitive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Minhyuk; Lee, Dongkyu; Jung, Namchul; Jeon, Sangmin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seonghwan; Chae, Inseok; Thundat, Thomas [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2012-05-14

    The mechanical and chemical information of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film on a microcantilever were simultaneously acquired by photothermal cantilever deflection spectroscopy as a function of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation time. Nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectra from the PMMA-coated microcantilever agreed well with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of PMMA on gold-coated silicon wafer. The decreasing intensities of nanomechanical IR peaks represent chemical as well as mechanical information of UV radiation-induced photodegradation processes in the PMMA which cannot be obtained by a conventional FTIR technique. The observed decrease in the resonance frequency of the microcantilever is related to the change in the Young's modulus of the PMMA under UV exposure.

  20. Fabrication and Testing of Deflecting Cavities for APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammosser, John; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert; Jim, Henry; Katherine, Wilson; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ali, Nassiri; Jim, Kerby; Jeremiah, Holzbauer; Genfa, Wu; Joel, Fuerst; Yawei, Yang; Zenghai, Li

    2013-09-01

    Jefferson Lab (Newport News, Virginia) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has fabricated and tested four first article, 2.8 GHz, deflecting SRF cavities, for Argonne's Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) project. These cavities are unique in many ways including the fabrication techniques in which the cavity cell and waveguides were fabricated. These cavity subcomponents were milled from bulk large grain niobium ingot material directly from 3D CAD files. No forming of sub components was used with the exception of the beam-pipes. The challenging cavity and helium vessel design and fabrication results from the stringent RF performance requirements required by the project and operation in the APS ring. Production challenges and fabrication techniques as well as testing results will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Current deflection NDE for pipeline inspection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Rollo; Cawley, Peter; Nagy, Peter B.

    2016-02-01

    Failure of oil and gas pipelines can often be catastrophic, therefore routine inspection for time dependent degradation is essential. In-line inspection is the most common method used; however, this requires the insertion and retrieval of an inspection tool that is propelled by the fluid in the pipe and risks becoming stuck, so alternative methods must often be employed. This work investigates the applicability of a non-destructive evaluation technique for both the detection and growth monitoring of defects, particularly corrosion under insulation. This relies on injecting an electric current along the pipe and indirectly measuring the deflection of current around defects from perturbations in the orthogonal components of the induced magnetic flux density. An array of three orthogonally oriented anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors has been used to measure the magnetic flux density surrounding a 6'' schedule-40 steel pipe carrying 2 A quasi-DC axial current. A finite element model has been developed that predicts the perturbations in magnetic flux density caused by current deflection which has been validated by experimental results. Measurements of the magnetic flux density at 50 mm lift-off from the pipe surface are stable and repeatable to the order of 100 pT which suggests that defect detection or monitoring growth of corrosion-type defects may be possible with a feasible magnitude of injected current. Magnetic signals are additionally incurred by changes in the wall thickness of the pipe due to manufacturing tolerances, and material property variations. If a monitoring scheme using baseline subtraction is employed then the sensitivity to defects can be improved while avoiding false calls.

  2. Theory of using magnetic deflections to combine charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckbeck, Mackenzie K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Several radiation effects projects in the Ion Beam Lab (IBL) have recently required two disparate charged particle beams to simultaneously strike a single sample through a single port of the target chamber. Because these beams have vastly different mass–energy products (MEP), the low-MEP beam requires a large angle of deflection toward the sample by a bending electromagnet. A second electromagnet located further upstream provides a means to compensate for the small angle deflection experienced by the high-MEP beam during its path through the bending magnet. This paper derives the equations used to select the magnetic fields required by these two magnets to achieve uniting both beams at the target sample. A simple result was obtained when the separation of the two magnets was equivalent to the distance from the bending magnet to the sample, and the equation is given by: Bs= 1/2(rc/rs) Bc, where Bs and Bc are the magnetic fields in the steering and bending magnet and rc/rs is the ratio of the radii of the bending magnet to that of the steering magnet. This result is not dependent upon the parameters of the high MEP beam, i.e. energy, mass, charge state. Therefore, once the field of the bending magnet is set for the low-MEP beam, and the field in the steering magnet is set as indicted in the equation, the trajectory path of any high-MEP beam will be directed into the sample.

  3. Novel scheme for efficient and cost-effective forwarding of packets in optical networks without header modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Fjelde, Tina; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for addressing the outputs in optical packet switches and demonstrate its good scalability. The scheme requires neither header modification nor distribution of routing information to the packet switches, thus reducing optical component count while simplifying network...

  4. Planetary Defense From Space: Part 2 (Simple) Asteroid Deflection Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2006-06-01

    A system of two space bases housing missiles for an efficient Planetary Defense of the Earth from asteroids and comets was firstly proposed by this author in 2002. It was then shown that the five Lagrangian points of the Earth Moon system lead naturally to only two unmistakable locations of these two space bases within the sphere of influence of the Earth. These locations are the two Lagrangian points L1 (in between the Earth and the Moon) and L3 (in the direction opposite to the Moon from the Earth). In fact, placing missiles based at L1 and L3 would enable the missiles to deflect the trajectory of incoming asteroids by hitting them orthogonally to their impact trajectory toward the Earth, thus maximizing the deflection at best. It was also shown that confocal conics are the only class of missile trajectories fulfilling this “best orthogonal deflection” requirement. The mathematical theory developed by the author in the years 2002 2004 was just the beginning of a more expanded research program about the Planetary Defense. In fact, while those papers developed the formal Keplerian theory of the Optimal Planetary Defense achievable from the Earth Moon Lagrangian points L1 and L3, this paper is devoted to the proof of a simple “(small) asteroid deflection law” relating directly the following variables to each other:the speed of the arriving asteroid with respect to the Earth (known from the astrometric observations);the asteroid's size and density (also supposed to be known from astronomical observations of various types);the “security radius” of the Earth, that is, the minimal sphere around the Earth outside which we must force the asteroid to fly if we want to be safe on Earth. Typically, we assume the security radius to equal about 10,000 km from the Earth center, but this number might be changed by more refined analyses, especially in the case of “rubble pile” asteroids;the distance from the Earth of the two Lagrangian points L1 and L3 where the

  5. Crossed, Small-Deflection Energy Analyzer for Wind/Temperature Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A.; Finne, Theodore T.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of neutral winds and ion drifts in low-Earth-orbit missions requires measurements of the angular and energy distributions of the flux of neutrals and ions entering the satellite from the ram direction. The magnitude and direction of the neutral-wind (or ion-drift) determine the location of the maximum in the angular distribution of the flux. Knowledge of the angle of maximum flux with respect to satellite coordinates (pointing) is essential to determine the wind (or ion-drift) vector. The crossed Small-Deflection Energy Analyzer (SDEA) spectrometer (see Figure 1) occupies minimal volume and consumes minimal power. Designed for upper atmosphere/ionosphere investigations at Earth altitudes above 100 km, the spectrometer operates by detecting the angular and energy distributions of neutral atoms/molecules and ions in two mutually perpendicular planes. In this configuration, the two detection planes actually cross at the spectrometer center. It is possible to merge two SDEAs so they share a common optical axis and alternate measurements between two perpendicular planes, and reduce the number of ion sources from two to one. This minimizes the volume and footprint significantly and reduces the ion source power by a factor of two. The area of the entrance aperture affects the number of ions detected/second and also determines the energy resolution. Thermionic emitters require heater power of about 100 mW to produce 1 mA of electron beam current. Typically, electron energy is about 100 eV and requires a 100-V supply for electron acceleration to supply an additional 100 mW of power. Thus, ion source power is at most 200 mW. If two ion sources were to be used, the ion source power would be, at most, 400 mW. Detector power, deflection voltage power, and microcontroller and other functions require less than 150 mW. A WTS (wind/ temperature spectrometer) with two separate optical axes would consume about 650 mW, while the crossed SDEA described here consumes about

  6. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  7. Comparative study on structural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by three different low-cost techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)], E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.com; Philominathan, P. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Highly crystalline and transparent cadmium sulphide films were fabricated at relatively low temperature by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer (generally used for cosmetics). The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the films were studied and compared with that prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis using air as carrier gas and chemical bath deposition. The films deposited by the simplified spray have preferred orientation along (1 0 1) plane. The lattice parameters were calculated as a = 4.138 A and c = 6.718 A which are well agreed with that obtained from the other two techniques and also with the standard data. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap were found as 85% and 2.43 eV, respectively. The structural and optical properties of the films fabricated by the simplified spray are found to be desirable for opto-electronic applications.

  8. Low-cost monitoring of the wavelength difference of two transmitters for two-way time transfer over optical fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Slavík, Radan; Vojtěch, Josef; Smotlacha, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Accurate time transfer is routinely performed using GPS, however an order of magnitude better accuracy can be achieved when signal transfer over optical fibres is used (e.g., in [1], fibre transfer over 73 km with <100 ps precision was achieved as compared to <700 ps for the GPS-based system). Unfortunately, the propagation delay through an optical fibre changes due to temperature variation. This is commonly compensated for by transferring the time information bi-directionally over a si...

  9. Ion optics for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of ion-optic devices used in particle accelerators, including electrostatic lenses, magnetic quadrupoles, and deflecting magnets. Tube focusing in dc accelerators is also treated, and a novel scheme for shaping the electrodes to produce strong focusing is described. The concepts of emittance (phase space) and emittance conservation are briefly discussed. Chromatic and spatial aberrations are introduced, and it is shown how they can be calculated and sometimes substantially reduced. Some examples are given

  10. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.

    1994-01-01

    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  11. Determination of angle of light deflection in higher-derivative gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenmei; Yang, Yisong

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational light deflection is known as one of three classical tests of general relativity and the angle of deflection may be computed explicitly using approximate or exact solutions describing the gravitational force generated from a point mass. In various generalized gravity theories, however, such explicit determination is often impossible due to the difficulty in obtaining an exact expression for the deflection angle. In this work, we present some highly effective globally convergent iterative methods to determine the angle of semiclassical gravitational deflection in higher- and infinite-derivative formalisms of quantum gravity theories. We also establish the universal properties that the deflection angle always stays below the classical Einstein angle and is a strictly decreasing function of the incident photon energy, in these formalisms.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel under Four-point Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Fajrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of theoretical and experimental deflection of a hybrid sandwich panel under four-point bending load. The paper initially presents few basic equations developed under three-point load, followed by development of model under four-point bending load and a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental results. It was found that the proposed model for predicting the deflection of hybrid sandwich panels provided fair agreement with the experimental values. Most of the sandwich panels showed theoretical deflection values higher than the experimental values, which is desirable in the design. It was also noticed that the introduction of intermediate layer does not contribute much to reduce the deflection of sandwich panel as the main contributor for the total deflection was the shear deformation of the core that mostly determined by the geometric of the samples and the thickness of the core.

  13. A small-gap electrostatic micro-actuator for large deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Holger; Schenk, Harald; Kaiser, Bert; Langa, Sergiu; Gaudet, Matthieu; Schimmanz, Klaus; Stolz, Michael; Lenz, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Common quasi-static electrostatic micro actuators have significant limitations in deflection due to electrode separation and unstable drive regions. State-of-the-art electrostatic actuators achieve maximum deflections of approximately one third of the electrode separation. Large electrode separation and high driving voltages are normally required to achieve large actuator movements. Here we report on an electrostatic actuator class, fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process, which allows high deflections with small electrode separation. The concept presented makes the huge electrostatic forces within nanometre small electrode separation accessible for large deflections. Electrostatic actuations that are larger than the electrode separation were measured. An analytical theory is compared with measurement and simulation results and enables closer understanding of these actuators. The scaling behaviour discussed indicates significant future improvement on actuator deflection. The presented driving concept enables the investigation and development of novel micro systems with a high potential for improved device and system performance. PMID:26655557

  14. Study of the incident pion deflection in passing through atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Pawlak, T.; Pluta, J.

    1982-01-01

    Pion-xenon nucleus collision events at 3.5 GeV/c momentum are studied in which the incident pion is deflected only, without particle production; the deflection is accompanied by emission of nucleons. The multiplicity of the protons emitted is a measure of the nuclear matter layer thickness passed by the pion. It can be concluded that: a) a definite simple relation exists between the pion deflection angle and the thickness of the nuclear matter layer traversed by this pion; b) the deflection angle of the incident pion increases in a definite manner with increasing the thickness of the nuclear matter layer traversed by this pion; c) the average kinetic energy, average longitudinal momentum and average transverse momentum of the protons emitted do not depend on the pion deflection angle

  15. Measuring Starlight Deflection during the 2017 Eclipse: Repeating the Experiment that made Einstein Famous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald

    2016-05-01

    In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.

  16. A systematic analysis of the influence of the surrounding media in the photothermal beam deflection signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeren, A; Prior, P; Macedo, F

    2010-01-01

    The photothermal beam deflection (PDS) technique was tested for low thermal diffusivity materials. The effect of using different liquids as surrounding media was studied in a systematic way. The fundamental experimental parameters, like the pump beam power and the modulation frequency were also studied in order to find out the best combination that still allows us to get good signals. Due to the complexity of the optical alignment required, the usual mirage setup was adapted in order to allow the decoupling of the alignment of the cell containing the liquid and the sample holder. Simple, straightforward methods (like e.g. the phase method) were used for the thermal diffusivity determination of solids once the thermal diffusivity of the liquids used is always much lower than that of solids. The obtained values for the thermal diffusivity of test samples allow us to conclude that besides being possible to use any of the studied liquids as surrounding medium, ethanol is clearly the best choice, avoiding health problems related to CCl 4 , which is the standard choice for PDS and PDS spectroscopy experiments, and technical/physical problems related to water and acetone. Modulation frequencies around 8 Hz combined with a pump beam power below 15 mW were proved to be the ideal conditions for this kind of experiment. The very low pump beam power required is also an important issue when talking about non-destructive analysis.

  17. Investigation of the phase space distribution of electron bunches at the FLASH-linac using a transverse deflecting structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrs, M.

    2008-06-15

    The operation of a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) puts stringent demands on the peak current, transverse emittance and energy spread of the electron beam. At the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) has been installed to investigate these electron beam parameters. The radio-frequency electromagnetic field in the TDS is utilized to deflect the beam electrons vertically as a function of time so that the charge distribution in the longitudinal-horizontal plane can be imaged with optical transition radiation screens. Using this technique, the single-bunch current profile was measured with an unprecedented resolution of about 10 {mu}m (30 fs) under FEL operating conditions. A precise single-shot measurement of the energy distribution along a bunch was accomplished by using the TDS in combination with an energy spectrometer. Appropriate variations of the focal strengths of quadrupole magnets allowed for the measurement of the horizontal emittance as a function of the longitudinal position within a bunch (slice emittance) with a longitudinal resolution in the order of 10 {mu}m. While the slice emittance in the peak current region was measured to be significantly larger than deduced from properties of the FEL radiation, tomographic methods revealed a bunch region of small horizontal emittance and high current. The observed increase in slice emittance in the peak current region was found to be caused by coherent emission of synchrotron radiation within bending magnets. (orig.)

  18. Implementation of a beam deflection system for studies of liquid interfaces on beamline I07 at Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Nicklin, Chris; Rawle, Jonathan; Sutter, John; Bates, Trevor; Nutter, Brian; McIntyre, Gary; Burt, Martin

    2012-05-01

    X-ray optics, based on a double-crystal deflection scheme, that enable reflectivity measurements from liquid surfaces/interfaces have been designed, built and commissioned on beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source. This system is able to deflect the beam onto a fixed sample position located at the centre of a five-circle diffractometer. Thus the incident angle can be easily varied without moving the sample, and the reflected beam is tracked either by a moving Pilatus 100K detector mounted on the diffractometer arm or by a stationary Pilatus 2M detector positioned appropriately for small-angle scattering. Thus the system can easily combine measurements of the reflectivity from liquid interfaces (Q(z) > 1 Å(-1)) with off-specular data collection, both in the form of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) or wider-angle grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The device allows operation over the energy range 10-28 keV.

  19. Investigation of the phase space distribution of electron bunches at the FLASH-linac using a transverse deflecting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrs, M.

    2008-06-01

    The operation of a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) puts stringent demands on the peak current, transverse emittance and energy spread of the electron beam. At the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) has been installed to investigate these electron beam parameters. The radio-frequency electromagnetic field in the TDS is utilized to deflect the beam electrons vertically as a function of time so that the charge distribution in the longitudinal-horizontal plane can be imaged with optical transition radiation screens. Using this technique, the single-bunch current profile was measured with an unprecedented resolution of about 10 μm (30 fs) under FEL operating conditions. A precise single-shot measurement of the energy distribution along a bunch was accomplished by using the TDS in combination with an energy spectrometer. Appropriate variations of the focal strengths of quadrupole magnets allowed for the measurement of the horizontal emittance as a function of the longitudinal position within a bunch (slice emittance) with a longitudinal resolution in the order of 10 μm. While the slice emittance in the peak current region was measured to be significantly larger than deduced from properties of the FEL radiation, tomographic methods revealed a bunch region of small horizontal emittance and high current. The observed increase in slice emittance in the peak current region was found to be caused by coherent emission of synchrotron radiation within bending magnets. (orig.)

  20. Influence of bending deflection rate on properties of fibrous mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwally Abd Allah Abd el Aty

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of the construction materials is affected by many factors including their properties under the applied loads. Loading rate is considered as a very important parameter which influences the behavior of the materials. Fibrous concrete is commonly used in applications in which the loading rate exceeds quasi static conditions by a large margin. This paper investigates the influence of flexural loading rate on the performance of fibrous concrete prisms in flexure. Two hundred and fifty two prisms include fibrous concrete and control specimens were prepared and tested. Fiber type, fiber dosage and flexural loading rate were the main parameters considered in this study. Two types of fibers were investigated namely polypropylene fibers and glass fibers. Three dosages of fiber volume fractions were implemented as 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%. A total of 12 different rates of displacement (0.0039 up to 8 mm/s for load application were conducted. A computer controlled universal testing machine provided with data acquisition system capable of performing 1000 loop per second was used. Load–central deflection, flexural strength and toughness were the evaluated properties for the investigated specimens. The results indicated that the flexure strength values exhibited loading rate dependence not only for the control mix but also for the investigated fibrous mortar mixes. Also the performance in flexure varied substantially not only with loading rate but with fiber type and fiber volume fractions as well.

  1. Plasma Deflection Test Setup for E-Sail Propulsion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Allen; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Wright, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The Electronic Sail or E-Sail is a novel propulsion concept based on momentum exchange between fast solar wind protons and the plasma sheath of long positively charged conductors comprising the E-Sail. The effective sail area increases with decreasing plasma density allowing an E-Sail craft to continue to accelerate at predicted ranges well beyond the capabilities of existing electronic or chemical propulsion spacecraft. While negatively charged conductors in plasmas have been extensively studied and flown, the interaction between plasma and a positively charged conductor is not well studied. We present a plasma deflection test method using a differential ion flux probe (DIFP). The DIFP measures the angle and energy of incident ions. The plasma sheath around a charged body can measured by comparing the angular distribution of ions with and without a positively charged test body. These test results will be used to evaluate numerical calculations of expected thrust per unit length of conductor in the solar wind plasma. This work was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  2. Operating Deflection Shapes for the Space Shuttle Partial Stack Rollout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Kappus, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In November of 2003 a rollout test was performed to gain a better understanding of the dynamic environment for the Space Shuttle during transportation from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. This was part of a study evaluating the methodology for including the rollout dynamic loads in the Space Shuttle fatigue life predictions. The rollout test was conducted with a partial stack consisting of the Crawler Transporter, Mobile Launch Platform, and the Solid Rocket Boosters with an interconnecting crossbeam. Instrumentation included over 100 accelerometers. Data was recorded for steady state speeds, start-ups and stops, and ambient wind excitations with the vehicle at idle. This paper will describe the operating deflection shape analysis performed using the measured acceleration response data. The response data for the steady state speed runs were dominated by harmonics of the forcing frequencies, which were proportional to the vehicle speed. Assuming a broadband excitation for the wind, analyses of the data sets with the vehicle at idle were used to estimate the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Comparisons of the measured modal properties with numerical predictions are presented.

  3. Transverse instability excited by rf deflecting modes for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Yao, C.Y.

    1979-11-01

    We have looked at the possible transverse instability effects which are caused by the deflecting modes of the rf cavities in PEP. The results are obtained by applying the expression of the instability damping rate. We have assumed that there equal bunches equally spaced in PEP. We have worked out the equivalent for a single bunch beam. The effect of chromaticity ξ is included as a frequency shift in the bunch mode spectra. We rewrite this result in terms of the transverse wake field instead of the impedance. We include an application of the Sacherer formalism to the case of resistive wall. The resulting expression of the damping rate contains two terms. The first term corresponds to the effect of the short wake fields; it agrees with the result of the head-tail instability as derived by Sands. A numerical estimate of this resistive-wall head tail case for PEP is given. It re-confirms that the resistive wall instability is not a serious problem for PEP. The second term gives the effect of long wake fields and it agrees with the result of Courant and Sessler. 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  5. Load-deflection characteristics of small bore insulated pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    High temperature LMFBR piping is subject to rapid temperature changes during transient events. Typically, this pipe is supported by specially designed insulated pipe clamps to prevent excessive thermal stress from developing during these transients. The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  6. Effect of shear strain on the deflection of a clamped magnetostrictive film-substrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhenghui; Ming Li; Bo Zou; Xia Luo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of in-plane shear strain of a clamped bimorph on the deflection produced by magnetization of the film is investigated. The deflection is found by minimizing the Gibbs free energy with respect to four parameters, strains and curvatures along x and y directions at the interface, by assuming that the curvature in the y direction varies as a function of aspect ratio w/l along x. A set of standard linear equations of four parameters are obtained and the deflection is expressed in terms of the four parameters by solving the equations using Cramer rules. The inconsistencies pointed out by previous authors are also reviewed. For actuators made of thick and short clamped film-substrate system, the in-plane shear deformation should not be omitted. The present calculation model can give a relatively simple and accurate prediction of deflection for thick and short specimens of aspect ratio w/l<10, which supports the results obtained by finite element modeling. - Highlights: → We model the deflection of a thick magnetostrictive film-substrate cantilever plate. → Total stress along z from magnetic field is not zero without external force. → Effect of in-plane shear strain in calculating deflection examined. → Analytical solution of deflection obtained by assuming a curvature function. → Shear strain for short cantilever film-substrate plate considered.

  7. Compensation of aberrations of deflected electron probe by means of dynamical focusing with stigmator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Norio; Ebe, Toyoe; Ikehata, Koichi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Terada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Electron beam passing through a deflecting field is in general, subjected to aberrations such as distortion, astigmatism and coma in accordance with the deflecting angle. Accordingly the aberration defect of deflected beam is the most serious limiting factor in the performances of micromachining, microminiaturization and high resolution scanning electron microscopes. From many investigators' results, it is obvious that three important compensation methods to aberrations exist in principle, i.e., double deflection system, dynamical focusing, and the dynamical correction using a stigmator. In this paper, based on the aberration formula derived from the eikonal or the path method, the practical data of the aberration constants of deflected electron beam for the sequential deflection system with parallel plates are calculated, and using its result, the distorted spot patterns of an electron probe deflected in two-dimensional directions for various defocusings are graphically displayed by the aid of a computer. Further, by means of the dynamical focusing with a stigmator, the conditions to completely compensate the second order astigmatic aberration are derived, and spot patterns and the electron density distributions within the spots in the case when the compensating conditions are satisfied are also graphically displayed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Quantitative wound healing studies using a portable, low cost, handheld near-infrared optical scanner: preliminary sensitivity and specificity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiali; Rodriguez, Suset; Jayachandran, Maanasa; Solis, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Perez-Clavijo, Francesco; Wigley, Stephen; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers are devastating complications that are still un-recognized. To date, clinicians employ visual inspection of the wound site during its standard 4-week of healing process via monitoring of surface granulation. A novel ultra-portable near-infrared optical scanner (NIROS) has been developed at the Optical Imaging Laboratory that can perform non-contact 2D area imaging of the wound site. From preliminary studies it was observed that the nonhealing wounds had a greater absorption contrast with respect to the normal site, unlike in the healing wounds. Currently, non-contact near-infrared (NIR) imaging studies were carried out on 22 lower extremity wounds at two podiatric clinics, and the sensitivity and specificity of the scanner evaluated. A quantitative optical biometric was developed that differentiates healing from non-healing wounds, based on the threshold values obtained during ROC analysis. In addition, optical images of the wound obtained from weekly imaging studies are also assessed to determine the ability of the device to predict wound healing consistently on a periodic basis. This can potentially impact early intervention in the treatment of lower extremity ulcers when an objective and quantitative wound healing approach is developed. Lastly, the incorporation of MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) to automate the process of image acquisition, image processing and image analysis realizes the potential of NIROS to perform non-contact and real-time imaging on lower extremity wounds.

  9. Development and Flight Test of a Robust Optical-Inertial Navigation System Using Low-Cost Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    .... This algorithm provides an alternative to the Global Positioning System (GPS) as a precision navigation source, enabling navigation in GPS denied environments, using low-cost sensors and equipment...

  10. Deflection system of a high-speed streak camera in the form of a delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhenevich, I.M.; Fel'dman, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the operation of a meander deflection system, well-known in oscillography, when it is used to scan the image in a streak-camera tube. Effects that are specific to high-speed photography are considered. It is shown that such a deflection system imposes reduced requirements both on the steepness and on the duration of the linear leading edges of the pulses of the spark gaps that generate the sweep voltage. An example of the design of a meander deflection system whose sensitivity is a factor of two higher than for a conventional system is considered. 5 refs., 3 figs

  11. Multipath Suppression with an Absorber for UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2017-01-01

    The deflection of a wind turbine blade can be monitored with an ultra-wideband (UWB) deflection sensing system which consists of one transmitting antenna at the blade tip and two receiving antennas at the blade root. The blade deflection is calculated by two estimated tip-root antenna distances...... verifications of the proposed method are carried out with different full-blade measurements. From all the results, it is found that the proposed technique can efficiently suppress multipath for the in-blade tip antenna, and improve the pulse wave front fidelity, so that the UWB sensing system can also...

  12. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  13. Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Philominathan, P. [PG and Research Department of Physics, AVVM, Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Good quality CdS films were fabricated by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. CdS films have been deposited from aqueous solutions of sulphur and cadmium, keeping the molar concentrations of S:Cd = 0.01:0.01, 0.02:0.02, 0.04:0.04 and 0.06:0.06 in the starting solutions. The structural studies reveal that the S:Cd concentration has a strong influence on the microstructural characteristics of the sprayed CdS films. It was found that there is a transition in the preferred orientation from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane when S:Cd molar concentration increases. The SEM images depict that the films are uniform and homogeneous. All the films have high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.46-2.52 eV. CdS films fabricated by this simple and economic spray technique without using any carrier gas are found to be good in structural and optical properties which are desirable for photovoltaic applications. Hence, this simplified version of spray technique can be considered as an economic alternative to conventional spray pyrolysis (using carrier gas), for the mass production of low-cost, large area CdS coatings for solar cell applications. (author)

  14. A real-time deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades using a built-in laser displacement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Giri, Paritosh; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Korea Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and LANL-CBNU Engineering Inst.

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy is considered a good alternative to deal with the issues related to fossil fuel and environmental pollution. Wind energy as one of such renewable energy alternatives has seen a substantial growth. With commercially viable global wind power potential, wind energy penetration is further expected to rise, and so will the related problems. One of the issues is the collision of wind blade and tower during operation. To improve safety during operation, to minimize the risk of sudden failure or total breakdown, and to ensure reliable power generation and reduce wind turbine life cycle costs, a structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is required. This study proposes a single laser displacement sensor (LDS) system, where all of the rotating blades could be evaluated effectively. The system is cost-effective as well, as the system costs only a mere thousand dollars. If the blade bolt loosening occurs, it causes deflection in the affected blade. In a similar manner, nacelle tilt or mass loss damage in the blade will result in change of blade's position and the proposed system can identify such problems with ease. With increased demand of energy, the sizes of wind blades are getting bigger and bigger due to which people are installing wind turbines very high above the ground level or offshore. It is impractical to monitor the deflection through wired connection in these cases and hence can be replaced by a wireless solution. This wireless solution is achieved using Zigbee technology which operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands, typically 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz and 868 MHz. The output from the LDS is fed to the microcontroller which acts as an analog to digital converter which in turn is connected to the Zigbee transceiver module, which transmits the data. At the other end, the Zigbee reads the data and displays on the PC from where user can monitor the condition of wind blades. (orig.)

  15. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other advantages of optics include low manufacturing costs, immunity to ... It is now possible to control atoms by trapping single photons in small, .... cement, and optical spectrum analyzers. ... risk of noise is further reduced, as light is immune to electro- ..... mode of operation including management of large multimedia.

  16. Process for manufacturing shell membrane force and deflection sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  17. An oilspill trajectory analysis model with a variable wind deflection angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, W.B.; Huang, N.E.; Amstutz, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The oilspill trajectory movement algorithm consists of a vector sum of the surface drift component due to wind and the surface current component. In the U.S. Geological Survey oilspill trajectory analysis model, the surface drift component is assumed to be 3.5% of the wind speed and is rotated 20 degrees clockwise to account for Coriolis effects in the Northern Hemisphere. Field and laboratory data suggest, however, that the deflection angle of the surface drift current can be highly variable. An empirical formula, based on field observations and theoretical arguments relating wind speed to deflection angle, was used to calculate a new deflection angle at each time step in the model. Comparisons of oilspill contact probabilities to coastal areas calculated for constant and variable deflection angles showed that the model is insensitive to this changing angle at low wind speeds. At high wind speeds, some statistically significant differences in contact probabilities did appear. ?? 1982.

  18. Nonlinear load-deflection behavior of abutment backwalls with varying height and soil density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We address the scaling of abutment wall lateral response with wall height and compaction condition through testing and analytical work. The : analytical work was undertaken to develop hyperbolic curves representing the load-deflection response of bac...

  19. Effect of the cosmological constant on the deflection angle by a rotating cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali

    2018-03-01

    We report the effect of the cosmological constant and the internal energy density of a cosmic string on the deflection angle of light in the spacetime of a rotating cosmic string with internal structure. We first revisit the deflection angle by a rotating cosmic string and then provide a generalization using the geodesic equations and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. We show there is an agreement between the two methods when employing higher-order terms of the linear mass density of the cosmic string. By modifying the integration domain for the global conical topology, we resolve the inconsistency between these two methods previously reported in the literature. We show that the deflection angle is not affected by the rotation of the cosmic string; however, the cosmological constant Λ strongly affects the deflection angle, which generalizes the well-known result.

  20. Measuring Time-Dependent Pavement Deflection Profiles Under Drive-by Conditions with a Portable System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peekna, Andres

    2002-01-01

    .... The investigation showed that in order to credibly extrapolate from sensors away from the tires to deflection underneath the tires, a laterally separated pair of sensors at each longitudinal location would be necessary...

  1. A Limited Evaluation of Full Scale Control Surface Deflection Drag (Have FUN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinhardt, R. B; Celi, Sean A; Geraghty, Jeffrey T; Stahl, James W; Glover, Victor J; Bowman, Geoffrey G

    2007-01-01

    The Have FUN (FUll Scale Numbers) Test Management Project was conducted at the request of the USAF TPS as an investigation into the drag caused by control surface deflection during dynamic soaring techniques...

  2. Literature file on 'fast kickers and septa', componenets for deflection and separation of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A. van der.

    1988-11-01

    The File consists of classified and numbered articles from the literature on the following subjects: 1 - Kickers: fast switching (electro-)magnetic or electrostatic components for small deflection; 2 - Septum Magnets: both small and great deflecting components, with the purpose to create or bridge over space between the deflected beam and the other, unperturbed beam; 3 - Electrostatic Septa: low loss, beam splitting components which give small deflection for the extracted part of the beam and no perturbation for the rest of the beam. The articles have been classified per institute or laboratory, eventually with further classification per project. The classified articles are then numbered chronologically. Extension of the File is still possible. The contents of the articles are summarized by means of catchwords. Specifications of the described kickers, septum magnets and electrostatic septa are represented in a tabular form

  3. The importance of being elastic: deflection of a badminton racket during a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Maxine; Rasmussen, John

    2010-03-01

    The deflection profiles of a badminton racket during strokes performed by elite and world-class badminton players were recorded by strain gauges and subsequently analysed to determine the role of shaft stiffness in racket performance. Deflection behaviour was consistent in all strokes across all players, suggesting a controlled use of racket elasticity. In addition, all impacts occurred within 100 ms of each other, a duration in which deflection velocity provides an increase in racket velocity, indicating that the players were able to use racket elasticity to their advantage. Since deflection behaviour is a product of the racket-player interaction, further work is required to determine the effects of different racket properties and player techniques on the elastic response of rackets during strokes.

  4. Dynamic Correction of Higher-Order Deflection Aberrations in the Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 194-199 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : environmental SEM * ESEM * shifted deflection pivot point * Higher order deflection aberrations * vignetting * dynamic focusing * dynamic stigmator * dynamic correction Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  5. A Modified Model for Deflection Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Deformed GFRP Rebar

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Minkwan; Oh, Hongseob; Lim, Junhyun; Sim, Jongsung

    2016-01-01

    The authors carried out experimental and analytical research to evaluate the flexural capacity and the moment-deflection relationship of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars. The proposed model to predict the effective moment of inertia for R/C beam with GFRP bars was developed empirically, based on Branson’s equation to have better accuracy and a familiar approach to a structural engineer. For better prediction of the moment-deflection relationship until the ultimate strength is reached,...

  6. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  7. Calculation of the residual bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams by the rigidity (deflection) criterion

    OpenAIRE

    V.S. Utkin; S.A. Solovyov

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the method of calculating the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams at the operational stage by the rigidity (deflection) criterion. The methods, which were used in the article, are integral test and probabilistic methods for describing random variables. The author offers a new technique of calculating a deflection limit by a criterion of residual deformations. The article exemplifies the usage of the evidence theory for statistical information processing in the f...

  8. Low-Cost, Fiber-Optic Hydrogen Gas Detector Using Guided-Wave, Surface-Plasmon Resonance in Chemochromic Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Haberman, D.P.; Hishmeh, G.A.; Ciszek, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Low-cost, hydrogen-gas-leak detectors are needed for many hydrogen applications, such as hydrogen-fueled vehicles where several detectors may be required in different locations on each vehicle. A fiber-optic leak detector could be inherently safer than conventional detectors, because it would remove all detector electronics from the vicinity of potential leaks. It would also provide freedom from electromagnetic interference, a serious problem in fuel-cell-powered electric vehicles. This paper describes the design of a fiber-optic, surface-plasmon-resonance hydrogen detector, and efforts to make it more sensitive, selective, and durable. Chemochromic materials, such as tungsten oxide and certain Lanthanide hydrides, can reversibly react with hydrogen in air while exhibiting significant changes in their optical properties. Thin films of these materials applied to a sensor at the end of an optical fiber have been used to detect low concentrations of hydrogen gas in air. The coatings include a thin silver layer in which the surface plasmon is generated, a thin film of the chemochromic material, and a catalytic layer of palladium that facilitates the reaction with hydrogen. The film thickness is chosen to produce a guided-surface plasmon wave along the interface between the silver and the chemochromic material. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the reflected spectrum into a portion near the resonance and a portion away from the resonance, and directs these two portions to two separate photodiodes. The electronic ratio of these two signals cancels most of the fiber transmission noise and provides a stable hydrogen signal

  9. Development and Flight Test of a Robust Optical-Inertial Navigation System Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    for this test. Though, marketed as a GPS/INS, it was in fact used simply as an IMU for this test. The raw inertial measurement data (from the...Performance Evaluation of Low Cost MEMS-Based IMU Integrated With GPS for Land Vehicle Navigation Application. MS Thesis, UCGE Reports Number

  10. A low-cost alternative to the optical experiment commercially known as “Magic Hologram – 3D Mirage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique Moura Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a low-cost alternative to the commercialized experiment called “Magic Hologram – Mirage 3D”, which reproduces the real image of an object that is seen three-dimensionally in the air. An analysis of this alternative is carried out, indicating educational aspects of its use in the classroom in quantitative terms.

  11. Comparison of Theory and Experiment on Aeroacoustic Loads and Deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.; Bourgine, A.; Bonomi, B.

    1999-01-01

    The correlation of acoustic pressure loads induced by a turbulent wake on a nearby structural panel is considered: this problem is relevant to the acoustic fatigue of aircraft, rocket and satellite structures. Both the correlation of acoustic pressure loads and the panel deflections, were measured in an 8-m diameter transonic wind tunnel. Using the measured correlation of acoustic pressures, as an input to a finite-element aeroelastic code, the panel response was reproduced. The latter was also satisfactorily reproduced, using again the aeroelastic code, with input given by a theoretical formula for the correlation of acoustic pressures; the derivation of this formula, and the semi-empirical parameters which appear in it, are included in this paper. The comparison of acoustic responses in aeroacoustic wind tunnels (AWT) and progressive wave tubes (PWT) shows that much work needs to be done to bridge that gap; this is important since the PWT is the standard test means, whereas the AWT is more representative of real flight conditions but also more demanding in resources. Since this may be the first instance of successful modelling of acoustic fatigue, it may be appropriate to list briefly the essential ``positive'' features and associated physical phenomena: (i) a standard aeroelastic structural code can predict acoustic fatigue, provided that the correlation of pressure loads be adequately specified; (ii) the correlation of pressure loads is determined by the interference of acoustic waves, which depends on the exact evaluation of multiple scattering integrals, involving the statistics of random phase shifts; (iii) for the relatively low frequencies (one to a few hundred Hz) of aeroacoustic fatigue, the main cause of random phase effects is scattering by irregular wakes, which are thin on wavelength scale, and appear as partially reflecting rough interfaces. It may also be appropriate to mention some of the ``negative'' features, to which may be attached illusory

  12. Predicting camber, deflection, and prestress losses in prestressed concrete members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Accurate predictions of camber and prestress losses for prestressed concrete bridge girders are essential to minimizing the frequency and cost of construction problems. The time-dependent nature of prestress losses, variable concrete properties, and ...

  13. USING ForeCAT DEFLECTIONS AND ROTATIONS TO CONSTRAIN THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF CMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Vourlidas, A.

    2016-01-01

    To accurately predict the space weather effects of the impacts of coronal mass ejection (CME) at Earth one must know if and when a CME will impact Earth and the CME parameters upon impact. In 2015 Kay et al. presented Forecasting a CME’s Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), a model for CME deflections based on the magnetic forces from the background solar magnetic field. Knowing the deflection and rotation of a CME enables prediction of Earth impacts and the orientation of the CME upon impact. We first reconstruct the positions of the 2010 April 8 and the 2012 July 12 CMEs from the observations. The first of these CMEs exhibits significant deflection and rotation (34° deflection and 58° rotation), while the second shows almost no deflection or rotation (<3° each). Using ForeCAT, we explore a range of initial parameters, such as the CME’s location and size, and find parameters that can successfully reproduce the behavior for each CME. Additionally, since the deflection depends strongly on the behavior of a CME in the low corona, we are able to constrain the expansion and propagation of these CMEs in the low corona.

  14. Estimating the wake deflection downstream of a wind turbine in different atmospheric stabilities: an LES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vollmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An intentional yaw misalignment of wind turbines is currently discussed as one possibility to increase the overall energy yield of wind farms. The idea behind this control is to decrease wake losses of downstream turbines by altering the wake trajectory of the controlled upwind turbines. For an application of such an operational control, precise knowledge about the inflow wind conditions, the magnitude of wake deflection by a yawed turbine and the propagation of the wake is crucial. The dependency of the wake deflection on the ambient wind conditions as well as the uncertainty of its trajectory are not sufficiently covered in current wind farm control models. In this study we analyze multiple sources that contribute to the uncertainty of the estimation of the wake deflection downstream of yawed wind turbines in different ambient wind conditions. We find that the wake shapes and the magnitude of deflection differ in the three evaluated atmospheric boundary layers of neutral, stable and unstable thermal stability. Uncertainty in the wake deflection estimation increases for smaller temporal averaging intervals. We also consider the choice of the method to define the wake center as a source of uncertainty as it modifies the result. The variance of the wake deflection estimation increases with decreasing atmospheric stability. Control of the wake position in a highly convective environment is therefore not recommended.

  15. The effect of ligation on the load deflection characteristics of nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Shugo; Nagasaka, Satoshi; Hanyuda, Ai; Ishimura, Sadao; Hirashita, Ayao

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of ligation on the load-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modified three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three different ligation methods, stainless steel ligature (SSL), slot lid (SL), and elastomeric ligature (EL), were employed, as well as a control with neither bracket nor ligation (NBL). The tests were repeated five times under each condition. Comparisons were made of load-deflection curve, load at maximum deflection of 2,000 microm, and load at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's test were conducted to determine method difference (alpha = 0.05). The interaction between deflection and ligation was tested, using repeated-measures ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The load values of the ligation groups were two to three times greater than the NBL group at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading: 4.37 N for EL, 3.90 N for SSL, 3.02 N for SL, and 1.49 N for NBL (P wire may make NiTi wire exhibit a significantly heavier load than that traditionally expected. NiTi wire exhibited the majority of its true superelasticity with SL, whereas EL may act as a restraint on its superelasticity.

  16. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of a magnetically deflected dc transferred arc in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blais, A; Proulx, P; Boulos, M I

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model for the deflection of dc transferred arcs using an external magnetic field as a first step into the modelling of industrial arc furnaces. The arc is deflected by the use of a conductor aligned parallel to the arc axis through which flows an electric current. The model is validated by comparing the results of axisymmetric calculations to modelling results from the scientific literature. The present model is found to be a good representation of the electric dc arc as differences with the literature are easily explained by model parameters such as the critical boundary conditions at the electrodes. Transferred arc cases exhibit the expected behaviour as the temperature T, the velocity v-vector and the electrical potential drop Δφ all increase with the arc current I and the argon flow rate Q. Three-dimensional geometry is implemented, enabling one to numerically deflect the arc. For the deflected arc cases, the deflection increases with the arc current I and conductor current I conductor and decreases with the flow rate Q and x 0 , the arc-conductor distance. These deflection behaviours are explained using physical arguments

  17. An embeddable optical strain gauge based on a buckled beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Chen, Yizheng; Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Yiyang; Huang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    We report, for the first time, a low cost, compact, and novel mechanically designed extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI)-based optical fiber sensor with a strain amplification mechanism for strain measurement. The fundamental design principle includes a buckled beam with a coated gold layer, mounted on two grips. A Fabry-Perot cavity is produced between the buckled beam and the endface of a single mode fiber (SMF). A ceramic ferrule is applied for supporting and orienting the SMF. The principal sensor elements are packaged and protected by two designed metal shells. The midpoint of the buckled beam will experience a deflection vertically when the beam is subjected to a horizontally/axially compressive displacement. It has been found that the vertical deflection of the beam at midpoint can be 6-17 times larger than the horizontal/axial displacement, which forms the basis of a strain amplification mechanism. The user-configurable buckling beam geometry-based strain amplification mechanism enables the strain sensor to achieve a wide range of strain measurement sensitivities. The designed EFPI was used to monitor shrinkage of a square brick of mortar. The strain was measured during the drying/curing stage. We envision that it could be a good strain sensor to be embedded in civil materials/structures under a harsh environment for a prolonged period of time.

  18. An embeddable optical strain gauge based on a buckled beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Chen, Yizheng; Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Yiyang; Huang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    We report, for the first time, a low cost, compact, and novel mechanically designed extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI)-based optical fiber sensor with a strain amplification mechanism for strain measurement. The fundamental design principle includes a buckled beam with a coated gold layer, mounted on two grips. A Fabry-Perot cavity is produced between the buckled beam and the endface of a single mode fiber (SMF). A ceramic ferrule is applied for supporting and orienting the SMF. The principal sensor elements are packaged and protected by two designed metal shells. The midpoint of the buckled beam will experience a deflection vertically when the beam is subjected to a horizontally/axially compressive displacement. It has been found that the vertical deflection of the beam at midpoint can be 6-17 times larger than the horizontal/axial displacement, which forms the basis of a strain amplification mechanism. The user-configurable buckling beam geometry-based strain amplification mechanism enables the strain sensor to achieve a wide range of strain measurement sensitivities. The designed EFPI was used to monitor shrinkage of a square brick of mortar. The strain was measured during the drying/curing stage. We envision that it could be a good strain sensor to be embedded in civil materials/structures under a harsh environment for a prolonged period of time.

  19. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  20. Photothermal deflection mapping of variations in the optical absorption in IR windows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Nesládek, M.; Meykens, K.; Pickles, C. S. J.; Sussman, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 181, - (2000), s. 115-119 ISSN 0031-8965 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2000

  1. A packaged, low-cost, robust optical fiber strain sensor based on small cladding fiber sandwiched within periodic polymer grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Chin; Li, Chein-Hsing

    2014-06-02

    In the present study, a novel packaged long-period fiber grating (PLPFG) strain sensor is first presented. The MEMS process was utilized to fabricate the packaged optical fiber strain sensor. The sensor structure consisted of etched optical fiber sandwiched between two layers of thick photoresist SU-8 3050 and then packaged with poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer material to construct the PLPFG strain sensor. The PDMS packaging material was used to prevent the glue effect, wherein glue flows into the LPFG structure and reduces coupling strength, in the surface bonding process. Because the fiber grating was packaged with PDMS material, it was effectively protected and made robust. The resonance attenuation dip of PLPFG grows when it is loading. This study explored the size effect of the grating period and fiber diameter of PLPFG via tensile testing. The experimental results found that the best strain sensitivity of the PLPFG strain sensor was -0.0342 dB/με, and that an R2 value of 0.963 was reached.

  2. Refractive index gradient diagnostics: analysis of different optical systems and application to COBRA ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, B A; Greenly, J B; Hammer, D A; Krastelev, E G [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies; Cuneo, M E [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Different optical system variations for refractive index gradient diagnostics with a laser beam probe have been analyzed. A `three-telescope` optical system which permits simultaneous measurement of both the laser beam centroid deflection by a bi-cell photodiode and the spatial Fourier spectrum of the deflected beam by a streak camera has been implemented on the COBRA ion diode. The dynamics of the anode plasma layer was studied with these techniques. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs.

  3. Note: A resonating reflector-based optical system for motion measurement in micro-cantilever arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathishkumar, P.; Punyabrahma, P.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    A robust, compact optical measurement unit for motion measurement in micro-cantilever arrays enables development of portable micro-cantilever sensors. This paper reports on an optical beam deflection-based system to measure the deflection of micro-cantilevers in an array that employs a single laser source, a single detector, and a resonating reflector to scan the measurement laser across the array. A strategy is also proposed to extract the deflection of individual cantilevers from the acquired data. The proposed system and measurement strategy are experimentally evaluated and demonstrated to measure motion of multiple cantilevers in an array

  4. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  5. Design and development of a chopping and deflecting system for the high current injector at IUAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sanjay Kumar; Mehta, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section of the High Current Injector (HCI) incorporates a Chopping cum Deflecting System (CDS). The CDS comprises of a deflecting system and a pair of slits that will remove dark current and produce time bunched beam of 60 ns at different repetition rates of 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 MHz. The distinguishing feature of the design is the use of a multi-plate deflecting structure with low capacitance to optimize the electric field, which in turn results in higher efficiency in terms of achievable ion current. To maximize the effective electric field and its uniformity, the gap between the deflecting plates has been varied and a semi-circular contour has been incorporated on the deflecting plates. Due to this the electric field variation is less than ±0.5% within the plate length. The length of deflecting plates was chosen to maximize the transmission efficiency. Since the velocity of the charged particles in the LEBT section is constant, therefore the separation between two successive sets of deflecting plates has been kept constant to match the ions transient time within the gap which is nearly 32 ns. A square pulse has been chosen, instead of a sinusoidal one, to increase the transmission efficiency and to decrease the tailing effect. The loaded capacitance of the structure was kept 90% transmission efficiency with in the bunch length. Various simulation codes like Solid Works, TRACE 3D, CST MWS and homebrew Python codes were used to validate the design.

  6. Measurement of wire deflection on loading may indicate union in Ilizarov constructs, an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineham, Beth; Stewart, Todd; Harwood, Paul

    2018-02-02

    No entirely reliable method exists for assessing union during Ilizarov treatment. Premature removal results in potential treatment failure; hence, alternative methods warrant investigation. Wire deflection might provide an indication of fracture site deformation on weight bearing, indicating progress towards union. This study aimed to test a method for assessing wire deflection within an Ilizarov frame. (1) To assess the repeatability of our novel measurement method in measuring wire deflection within an Ilizarov frame in vitro. (2) To compare the amount of wire deflection in an unstable model with that in an intact bone model. (3) To assess accuracy of this method by comparing wire deflection measured with overall machine extension. Tests were performed on clinical grade-tensioned fine wire 4-ring Ilizarov constructs stabilising a simulated fracture, with and without an unstable defect. Models were sequentially loaded to 700 N using an Instron testing machine. A digital depth gauge attached to the superior ring measured relative wire displacement at the ring closest to the fracture. Tests were repeated 3 times. (1) Both unstable and stable bone models produced highly repeatable load deformation curves (R 2  = 0.98 and 0.99). (2) In the unstable model, wires tensioned at 882 and 1274 N produced mean maximum deflections of 2.41 and 2.69 mm compared with 0.05 and 0.04 mm in the intact bone model (significant p measurable difference in wire deflection between stable and unstable situations exists using this method which appears accurate and repeatable, with clear correlation between displacement and load and displacement and machine extension. This approach might be clinically applicable, and further clinical testing is required.

  7. Simulation, Experimental and Analitical Study of Deflection at End Curved Beam Affected by Single Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deflection has an important role in order to design structure or machine component, beside consideration of stresscalculation. This is due to although stress is still smaller then stress allowed by material strength, but probably happen thatdeflection exceeds limit allowed. That condition affects serious hazard on machine elements or structure due to it can affectof component deviate from its main function. One of element which is often experience of deflection is beam. Beams playsignificant roles in many engineering applications, including buildings, bridges, automobiles, and airplane structures. In thisresearch, material to be used was Steel ASTM 1060, with specimen in the form of curved beam. Physical condition of beamwas modeled use of BEAM3 2D. Variation of loads to be applied were W = 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and550 gr in vertical direction. The result of simulation was verificated by analytical and experimental data. Evaluation wascarried out by statistical test (t-test. The result of simulation is categorized to be good if the result of simulation is samewith analytical and experimental data. The result of research shows that loading has a significant effect on the deflection.The higher load affect the higher of deflection Modeling use of BEAM3 2D gave good result of deflection. This is showedfrom t-test have done, where the result of simulation was same with analytical and experimental data. Other advantage ofsimulation was deflection result obtained was not limited only at the end of beam, but it can predict of deflection at eachnode or point desired

  8. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... applicable only to automation flats, for all commercial flat-size mail except saturation and high-density...[supreg] pricing. If automation prices are denied, pieces that are prepared to be part of full-service IMb... compliance, but at additional cost; and quarter-folding would not work well with any inserts. Also, there was...

  9. Low-cost optical fabrication of flexible copper electrode via laser-induced reductive sintering and adhesive transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul

    2018-02-01

    Fabricating copper electrodes on heat-sensitive polymer films in air is highly challenging owing to the need of expensive copper nanoparticles, rapid oxidation of precursor during sintering, and limitation of sintering temperature to prevent the thermal damage of the polymer film. A laser-induced hybrid process of reductive sintering and adhesive transfer is demonstrated to cost-effectively fabricate copper electrode on a polyethylene film with a thermal resistance below 100 °C. A laser-induced reductive sintering process directly fabricates a high-conductive copper electrode onto a glass donor from copper oxide nanoparticle solution via photo-thermochemical reduction and agglomeration of copper oxide nanoparticles. The sintered copper patterns were transferred in parallel to a heat-sensitive polyethylene film through self-selective surface adhesion of the film, which was generated by the selective laser absorption of the copper pattern. The method reported here could become one of the most important manufacturing technologies for fabricating low-cost wearable and disposable electronics.

  10. Deflection hardening behaviour of short fibre reinforced fly ash based geopolymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.U.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Deflection hardening behaviour is achieved in the DFRGC similar to that observed in DFRCC. • The first crack load or in other word the limit of proportionality (LOP) of DFRGC is similar to that of DFRCC. • The DFRGC also exhibited higher deflection at peak load than DFRCC. • The toughness at peak load of DFRGC is also high than that of DFRCC. • The ductility of DFRGC is also higher than that of DFRCC. - Abstract: This paper reports the newly developed ductile fibre reinforced geopolymer composite (DFRGC) exhibiting deflection hardening and multiple cracking behaviour. The binder of the above composite is different from that used in conventional cement based system. The class F fly ash is used instead of Portland cement in DFRGC and is activated by alkaline liquids (sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate). In this study, two types of fibres namely steel (ST) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres are used in mono as well as in ST–PVA hybrid form, with a total volume fraction of 2%. The deflection hardening behaviour of newly developed DFRGC is also compared with that of conventional ductile fibre reinforced cementitious composites (DFRCC). The effects of two different sizes of sand (1.18 mm, and 0.6 mm) and sand/binder ratios of 0.5 and 0.75 on the deflection hardening and multiple cracking behaviour of both DFRGC and DFRCC are also evaluated. Results revel that the deflection hardening and multiple cracking behaviour is achieved in geopolymer based DFRGC similar to that of cement based system. For a given sand size and sand content, comparable deflection hardening behaviour, ultimate flexural strength and the deflection at peak load are observed in both cement and geopolymer based composites irrespective of fibre types and combination. The deflection hardening behaviour of DFRGC is also confirmed by the calculated toughness index values of I 20 > 20. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) study shows no degradation of PVA and steel fibres in the

  11. Characterization of the protective capacity of flooring systems using force-deflection profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinka, Michal N; Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P; Laing, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    'Safety floors' aim to decrease the risk of fall-related injuries by absorbing impact energy during falls. Ironically, excessive floor deflection during walking or standing may increase fall risk. In this study we used a materials testing system to characterize the ability of a range of floors to absorb energy during simulated head and hip impacts while resisting deflection during simulated single-leg stance. We found that energy absorption for all safety floors (mean (SD)=14.8 (4.9)J) and bedside mats (25.1 (9.3)J) was 3.2- to 5.4-fold greater than the control condition (commercial carpet). While footfall deflections were not significantly different between safety floors (1.8 (0.7)mm) and the control carpet (3.7 (0.6)mm), they were significantly higher for two bedside mats. Finally, all of the safety floors, and two bedside mats, displayed 3-10 times the energy-absorption-to-deflection ratios observed for the baseline carpet. Overall, these results suggest that the safety floors we tested effectively addressed two competing demands required to reduce fall-related injury risk; namely the ability to absorb substantial impact energy without increasing footfall deflections. This study contributes to the literature suggesting that safety floors are a promising intervention for reducing fall-related injury risk in older adults. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling and simulations of new electrostatically driven, bimorph actuator for high beam steering micromirror deflection angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, John P.; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2015-02-01

    There are numerous applications for micromirror arrays seen in our everyday lives. From flat screen televisions and computer monitors, found in nearly every home and office, to advanced military weapon systems and space vehicles, each application bringing with it a unique set of requirements. The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industry has researched many ways micromirror actuation can be accomplished and the different constraints on performance each design brings with it. This paper investigates a new "zipper" approach to electrostatically driven micromirrors with the intent of improving duel plane beam steering by coupling large deflection angles, over 30°, and a fast switching speed. To accomplish this, an extreme initial deflection is needed which can be reached using high stress bimorph beams. Currently this requires long beams and high voltage for the electrostatic pull in or slower electrothermal switching. The idea for this "zipper" approach is to stack multiple beams of a much shorter length and allow for the deflection of each beam to be added together in order to reach the required initial deflection height. This design requires much less pull-in voltage because the pull-in of one short beam will in turn reduce the height of the all subsequent beams, making it much easier to actuate. Using modeling and simulation software to characterize operations characteristics, different bimorph cantilever beam configurations are explored in order to optimize the design. These simulations show that this new "zipper" approach increases initial deflection as additional beams are added to the assembly without increasing the actuation voltage.

  13. Measurement and production of electron deflection using a sweeping magnetic device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damrongkijudom, N.; Oborn, B.; Rosenfeld, A.; Butson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deflection and removal of high energy electrons produced by a medical linear accelerator has been attained by a Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) permanent magnetic deflector device. This work was performed in an attempt to confirm the theoretical amount of electron deflection which could be produced by a magnetic field for removal of electrons from a clinical x-ray beam. This was performed by monitoring the paths of mostly monoenergetic clinical electron beams (6MeV to 20MeV) swept by the magnetic fields using radiographic film and comparing to first order deflection models. Results show that the measured deflection distance for 6 MeV electrons was 18 ± 6 cm and the calculated deflection distance was 21.3 cm. For 20 MeV electrons, this value was 5 ± 2 cm for measurement and 5.1 cm for calculation. The magnetic fields produced can thus reduce surface dose in treatment regions of a patient under irradiation by photon beams and we can predict the removal of all electron contaminations up to 6 MeV from a 6 MV photon beam with the radiation field size up to 10 x 10 cm 2 . The model can also estimate electron contamination still present in the treatment beam at larger field sizes

  14. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of a magnetically deflected dc transferred arc in argon

    CERN Document Server

    Blais, A; Boulos, M I

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model for the deflection of dc transferred arcs using an external magnetic field as a first step into the modelling of industrial arc furnaces. The arc is deflected by the use of a conductor aligned parallel to the arc axis through which flows an electric current. The model is validated by comparing the results of axisymmetric calculations to modelling results from the scientific literature. The present model is found to be a good representation of the electric dc arc as differences with the literature are easily explained by model parameters such as the critical boundary conditions at the electrodes. Transferred arc cases exhibit the expected behaviour as the temperature T, the velocity v-vector and the electrical potential drop DELTA phi all increase with the arc current I and the argon flow rate Q. Three-dimensional geometry is implemented, enabling one to numerically deflect the arc. For the deflected arc cases, the deflection increases with the arc current I...

  15. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. Methods: A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi wire segments (Morelli OrtodontiaTM - Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4. 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare differences between group means. Results: When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm, during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. Conclusion: There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  16. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Murilo Gaby; Lima, Fabrício Viana Pereira; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Rezende, Fernanda Soares; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire segments (Morelli Ortodontia™--Sorocaba, SP, Brazil), 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4). 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends) of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare differences between group means. When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm), during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  17. The Deflector Selector: A machine learning framework for prioritizing hazardous object deflection technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, E. R.; Greenberg, A.; Erasmus, N.; van Heerden, E.; Galache, J. L.; Dahlstrom, E.; Marchis, F.

    2018-05-01

    Several technologies have been proposed for deflecting a hazardous Solar System object on a trajectory that would otherwise impact the Earth. The effectiveness of each technology depends on several characteristics of the given object, including its orbit and size. The distribution of these parameters in the likely population of Earth-impacting objects can thus determine which of the technologies are most likely to be useful in preventing a collision with the Earth. None of the proposed deflection technologies has been developed and fully tested in space. Developing every proposed technology is currently prohibitively expensive, so determining now which technologies are most likely to be effective would allow us to prioritize a subset of proposed deflection technologies for funding and development. We present a new model, the Deflector Selector, that takes as its input the characteristics of a hazardous object or population of such objects and predicts which technology would be able to perform a successful deflection. The model consists of a machine-learning algorithm trained on data produced by N-body integrations simulating the deflections. We describe the model and present the results of tests of the effectiveness of nuclear explosives, kinetic impactors, and gravity tractors on three simulated populations of hazardous objects.

  18. A new approach to control a deflection of an electroplated microstructure: dual current electroplating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun-Ho; Seo, Min-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and novel method to control the deflection in a suspended microstructure by using a dual current electroplating (DuCE) method. The key concept of this method is to divide the structure into two layers—a bottom layer and a top layer—and then apply respective current densities in electroplating to those two layers while all other conditions are kept the same. In addition to a flat structure, the direction of structure bending is freely controlled by virtue of the DuCE method. Cantilever Ni beams with a length of 400 µm, which were electroplated by the conventional single current electroplating method, bent downward with a deflection of 3.4 µm. On the contrary, by the DuCE method, cantilever beams with a length of 400 µm showed an almost flat structure as desired. (The current densities of the bottom layer, the top layer, and the ratio of the two current densities, are 0.15, 1.24 A dm −2 , and 8.3, respectively.) Consequently, a nickel electroplated spiral structure with a length of 8600 µm was suspended flat with an end deflection of less than 0.7 µm (the ratio between the deflection and length is 0.007%). This work therefore represents the unprecedented ultra-long suspended microstructure with submicrometer deflection. (paper)

  19. The Deflector Selector: A Machine Learning Framework for Prioritizing Hazardous Object Deflection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Erika; Greenberg, Adam; Erasmus, Nicolas; Van Heerden, Elmarie; Galache, J. L.; Dahlstrom, Eric; Marchis, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed for deflecting a hazardous Solar System object on a trajectory that would otherwise impact the Earth. The effectiveness of each technology depends on several characteristics of the given object, including its orbit and size. The distribution of these parameters in the likely population of Earth-impacting objects can thus determine which of the technologies are most likely to be useful in preventing a collision with the Earth. None of the proposed deflection technologies has been developed and fully tested in space. Developing every proposed technology is currently prohibitively expensive, so determining now which technologies are most likely to be effective would allow us to prioritize a subset of proposed deflection technologies for funding and development. We will present a new model, the Deflector Selector, that takes as its input the characteristics of a hazardous object or population of such objects and predicts which technology would be able to perform a successful deflection. The model consists of a machine-learning algorithm trained on data produced by N-body integrations simulating the deflections. We will describe the model and present the results of tests of the effectiveness of nuclear explosives, kinetic impactors, and gravity tractors on three simulated populations of hazardous objects.

  20. Progress of optical sensor system for health monitoring of bridges at Chongqing University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Fu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, S.

    2005-02-01

    With decades of research experience on optical sensors, Optoelectronic Technology Lab of Chongqing University (OTLCU) has studied on a variety of sensors system designed for practical use in health monitoring. In OTLCU, embedded and surface mounted fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor has been developed for monitoring the local strain of both concrete and steel truss bridge. Optoelectronic deflect meter, with a group of optical level sensor in a series connected pipe, was developed for deflection monitoring and line shape monitoring of the bridges. Laser deflect meter, with a laser pointer and a sensors array, has been also developed for a dynamic deflection monitoring of the bridges. To monitoring the 2-Dimentional displacement of the bridge, a self-calibrating imaging system was developed. All these sensor systems have been applied in different bridges successfully. This paper briefly describes principle of these optical sensing systems, and also gives some representative results of the system in practical application of bridges.

  1. Cantilever biosensor reader using a common-path, holographic optical interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical reader principle aimed at monitoring biologically induced deflections of microcantilevers often used in biosensor systems. The principle is based on a so-called common-path optical interferometer in which the two interfering optical beams are copropagating,which makes...

  2. Accurate measurement of Atomic Force Microscope cantilever deflection excluding tip-surface contact with application to force calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Ashley D.; Blanch, Adam J.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Gibson, Christopher T., E-mail: christopher.gibson@flinders.edu.au

    2013-08-15

    Considerable attention has been given to the calibration of AFM cantilever spring constants in the last 20 years. Techniques that do not require tip-sample contact are considered advantageous since the imaging tip is not at risk of being damaged. Far less attention has been directed toward measuring the cantilever deflection or sensitivity, despite the fact that the primary means of determining this factor relies on the AFM tip being pressed against a hard surface, such as silicon or sapphire; which has the potential to significantly damage the tip. A recent method developed by Tourek et al. in 2010 involves deflecting the AFM cantilever a known distance from the imaging tip by pressing the cantilever against a sharpened tungsten wire. In this work a similar yet more precise method is described, whereby the deflection of the cantilever is achieved using an AFM probe with a spring constant much larger than the test cantilever, essentially a rigid cantilever. The exact position of loading on the test cantilever was determined by reverse AFM imaging small spatial markers that are milled into the test cantilever using a focussed ion beam. For V shaped cantilevers it is possible to reverse image the arm intersection in order to determine the exact loading point without necessarily requiring FIB milled spatial markers, albeit at the potential cost of additional uncertainty. The technique is applied to tip-less, beam shaped and V shaped cantilevers and compared to the hard surface contact technique with very good agreement (on average less than 5% difference). While the agreement with the hard surface contact technique was very good the error on the technique is dependent upon the assumptions inherent in the method, such as cantilever shape, loading point distance and ratio of test to rigid cantilever spring constants. The average error ranged between 2 to 5% for the majority of test cantilevers studied. The sensitivity derived with this technique can then be used to

  3. Viscoelastic Modelling of Road Deflections for use with the Traffic Speed Deflectometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louis

    This Ph.D. study is at its core about how asphalt and road structures responds to dynamic loads. Existing models for the deflections under a moving load using beam equations are revisited and it is concluded they leave room for improvement for the particular setup and problem at hand. Then a diff......This Ph.D. study is at its core about how asphalt and road structures responds to dynamic loads. Existing models for the deflections under a moving load using beam equations are revisited and it is concluded they leave room for improvement for the particular setup and problem at hand...... an approach for a computationally simpler synthetic model capturing essential behaviour of deflection bassins under a moving wheel. Additionally the setup allows for simulated comparisons of the cases of loadings emulating the use of a Falling Weight Deflectometer with loadings emulating a moving wheel...

  4. Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a Free-Standing ZnO Microbelt

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan

    2009-07-08

    We demonstrate the first electric field induced transverse deflection of a single-crystal, free-standing ZnO microbelt as a result of converse piezoelectric effect. For a microbelt growing along the c-axis, a shear stress in the a-c plane can be induced when an electric field E is applied along the a-axis of the wurtzite structure. As amplified by the large aspect ratio of the microbelt that grows along the c-axis, the strain localized near the root can be detected via the transverse deflection perpendicular to the ZnO microbelt. After an experimental approach was carefully designed and possible artifacts were ruled out, the experimentally observed degree of deflection of the microbelt agrees well with the theoretically expected result. The device demonstrated has potential applications as transverse actuators/sensors/switches and electric field induced mechanical deflectors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Scaling relations for a beam-deflecting TM110 mode in an asymmetric cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1989-01-01

    A deflecting mode in an rf cavity caused by an aperture of the coupling hole from a waveguide is studied. If the coupling hole was a finite size, the rf modes in the cavity can be distorted. We consider the distorted mode as a sum of the accelerating mode, and the deflecting mode. The finite-size coupling hole can be considered as radiating dipole sources in a closed cavity. Following the prescription given by H. Bethe, the relative strength of the deflecting mode TM 110 to the accelerating TM 010 mode is calculated by decomposing the dipole source field into cavity eigenmodes. Scaling relations are obtained as a function of the coupling hole radius. 2 refs., 6 figs

  6. Relativistic deflection of background starlight measures the mass of a nearby white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash C; Anderson, Jay; Casertano, Stefano; Bond, Howard E; Bergeron, Pierre; Nelan, Edmund P; Pueyo, Laurent; Brown, Thomas M; Bellini, Andrea; Levay, Zoltan G; Sokol, Joshua; Dominik, Martin; Calamida, Annalisa; Kains, Noé; Livio, Mario

    2017-06-09

    Gravitational deflection of starlight around the Sun during the 1919 total solar eclipse provided measurements that confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the analogous process of astrometric microlensing caused by a nearby star, the white dwarf Stein 2051 B. As Stein 2051 B passed closely in front of a background star, the background star's position was deflected. Measurement of this deflection at multiple epochs allowed us to determine the mass of Stein 2051 B-the sixth-nearest white dwarf to the Sun-as 0.675 ± 0.051 solar masses. This mass determination provides confirmation of the physics of degenerate matter and lends support to white dwarf evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Deflection of GeV particle beams by channeling in bent crystal planes of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.S.; Hatton, H.; Toone, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The deflection of charged particle beams moving within the (110) planes of a 43 mm long silicon crystal has been observed for momenta from 60 to 200 GeV/c. The crystal was bent by a 10.8 μm thick coating of ZnO along the central 26 mm of the crystal. Measurements were made with the crystal at room temperature, where a total deflection of 32.5 mrad was observed, and with the crystal cooled to -145 o C, where a 30.9 mrad deflection was observed. The ratio of the number of particles that dechannel upon entering the bend to the number of initially channeled particles compares well with calculations based on the continuum model. (author)

  8. Solar Wind Deflection by Mass Loading in the Martian Magnetosheath Based on MAVEN Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Pätzold, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Mcfadden, J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Vaisberg, O.; Zelenyi, L.

    2018-03-01

    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN observations at Mars show clear signatures of the shocked solar wind interaction with the extended oxygen atmosphere and hot corona displayed in a lateral deflection of the magnetosheath flow in the direction opposite to the direction of the solar wind motional electric field. The value of the velocity deflection reaches ˜50 km/s. The occurrence of such deflection is caused by the "Lorentz-type" force due to a differential streaming of the solar wind protons and oxygen ions originating from the extended oxygen corona. The value of the total deceleration of the magnetosheath flow due to mass loading is estimated as ˜40 km/s.

  9. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). Wire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (p<0.05). The flexural strength of groups FSE and NS (PTFE and uncoated) was higher compared with that of the other groups (p<0.05). We concluded that the roughness and flexural strength of the orthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  10. Features of the galactic magnetic field regarding deflections of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Marcus; Erdmann, Martin; Mueller, Gero; Urban, Martin [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Most recent models of the galactic magnetic field have been derived from Faraday rotation measurements and imply strong deflections even for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We investigate the characteristics of the different field parametrizations and point out similarities and interesting features. Among them are extragalactic regions which are invisible for an Earth bound observation and the transition from diffuse to ballistic behaviour in the 1 EeV energy regime. Applying this knowledge to a directional analysis, there are indications for deflection patterns by the galactic magnetic field in cosmic ray arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. A novel optical investigation technique for railroad track inspection and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Alessandro; Beale, Christopher H.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Track failures due to cross tie degradation or loss in ballast support may result in a number of problems ranging from simple service interruptions to derailments. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of railway track is important for safety reasons and to reduce downtime and maintenance costs. For this reason, novel and cost-effective track inspection technologies for assessing tracks' health are currently insufficient and needed. Advancements achieved in recent years in cameras technology, optical sensors, and image-processing algorithms have made machine vision, Structure from Motion (SfM), and three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) systems extremely appealing techniques for extracting structural deformations and geometry profiles. Therefore, optically based, non-contact measurement techniques may be used for assessing surface defects, rail and tie deflection profiles, and ballast condition. In this study, the design of two camera-based measurement systems is proposed for crossties-ballast condition assessment and track examination purposes. The first one consists of four pairs of cameras installed on the underside of a rail car to detect the induced deformation and displacement on the whole length of the track's cross tie using 3D DIC measurement techniques. The second consists of another set of cameras using SfM techniques for obtaining a 3D rendering of the infrastructure from a series of two-dimensional (2D) images to evaluate the state of the track qualitatively. The feasibility of the proposed optical systems is evaluated through extensive laboratory tests, demonstrating their ability to measure parameters of interest (e.g. crosstie's full-field displacement, vertical deflection, shape, etc.) for assessment and SHM of railroad track.

  12. Noncontacting device to indicate deflection of turbopump internal rotating parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Ensminger, D.; Saccacio, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Phase 2 (development) which was concluded for the ultrasonic Doppler device and the light-pipe-reflectance device is reported. An ultrasonic Doppler breadboard system was assembled which accurately measured runout in the J-2 LOX pump impeller during operation. The transducer was mounted on the outside of the pump volute using a C-clamp. Vibration was measured by conducting the ultrasonic wave through the volute housing and through the fluid in the volute to the impeller surface. The impeller vibration was also measured accurately using the light-pipe probe mounted in an elastomeric-gland fitting in the pump case. A special epoxy resin developed for cryogenic applications was forced into the end of the fiber-optic probe to retain the fibers. Subsequently, the probe suffered no damage after simultaneous exposure to 2150 psi and 77 F. Preliminary flash X-radiographs were taken of the turbine wheel and the shaft-bearing-seal assembly, using a 2-megavolt X-ray unit. Reasonable resolution and contrast was obtained. A fast-neutron detector was fabricated and sensitivity was measured. The results demonstrated that the technique is feasible for integrated-time measurements requiring, perhaps, 240 revolutions to obtain sufficient exposure at 35,000 rpm. The experimental verification plans are included.

  13. Optical sensor for heat conduction measurement in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Aleman-Garcia, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a heat flux sensor using an optical fiber system to measure heat conduction in biological tissues. This optoelectronic device is based on the photothermal beam deflection of a laser beam travelling in an acrylic slab this deflection is measured with a fiber optic angle sensor. We measure heat conduction in biological samples with high repeatability and sensitivity enough to detect differences in tissues from three chicken organs. This technique could provide important information of vital organ function as well as the detect modifications due to degenerative diseases or physical damage caused by medications or therapies.

  14. Deflection modeling of permanent magnet spherical chains in the presence of external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donoghue, Kilian, E-mail: kilianod@rennes.ucc.ie; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig, E-mail: padraig@alum.mit.edu

    2013-10-15

    This work examines the interaction of permanently magnetised spheres in the presence of external magnetic fields at the millimetre scale. Static chain formation and deflection models are described for N spheres in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical models are presented for the two sphere case by neglecting the effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy while details of a numerical approach to solve a chain of N spheres are shown. The model is experimentally validated using chain deflections in 4.5 mm diameter spheres in groups of 2, 3 and 4 magnets in the presence of uniform magnetic fields, neglecting gravitational effects, with good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental results. This spherical chain structure could be used as an end effector for catheters as a deflection mechanism for magnetic guidance. The spherical point contacts result in large deflections for navigation around tight corners in endoluminal minimally invasive clinical applications. - Highlights: • We model the interaction of magnetic spheres with uniform external fields. • Analytical models are presented for two spheres interacting with an external field. • Numerical methods are used to model the interaction of N spheres in chain formations. • These models are tested experimentally. • We report good agreement between experiment and theory.

  15. The influence of tensile forces on the deflection of circular diaphragms in pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1984-01-01

    It is known that the deflection of a diaphragm is determined by two mechanisms, bending moments or bending stress and tensile forces or membrane stress. Usually the influence of tensile forces is not taken into account when calculating the mechanical properties of thin diaphragms. Hence the

  16. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of fluid flow in porous media. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  17. Deflection-based method for seismic response analysis of concrete walls: Benchmarking of CAMUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Prabir C.; Roshan, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    A number of shake table tests had been conducted on the scaled down model of a concrete wall as part of CAMUS experiment. The experiments were conducted between 1996 and 1998 in the CEA facilities in Saclay, France. Benchmarking of CAMUS experiments was undertaken as a part of the coordinated research program on 'Safety Significance of Near-Field Earthquakes' organised by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Technique of deflection-based method was adopted for benchmarking exercise. Non-linear static procedure of deflection-based method has two basic steps: pushover analysis, and determination of target displacement or performance point. Pushover analysis is an analytical procedure to assess the capacity to withstand seismic loading effect that a structural system can offer considering the redundancies and inelastic deformation. Outcome of a pushover analysis is the plot of force-displacement (base shear-top/roof displacement) curve of the structure. This is obtained by step-by-step non-linear static analysis of the structure with increasing value of load. The second step is to determine target displacement, which is also known as performance point. The target displacement is the likely maximum displacement of the structure due to a specified seismic input motion. Established procedures, FEMA-273 and ATC-40, are available to determine this maximum deflection. The responses of CAMUS test specimen are determined by deflection-based method and analytically calculated values compare well with the test results

  18. Exploring of PST-TBPM in Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Deflection in Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojian; Liu, Shengzhen; Zhao, Tonglong; Yu, Chengxin

    2018-01-01

    This study adopts digital photography to monitor bridge dynamic deflection in vibration. Digital photography used in this study is based on PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method). Firstly, a digital camera is used to monitor the bridge in static as a zero image. Then, the digital camera is used to monitor the bridge in vibration every three seconds as the successive images. Based on the reference system, PST-TBPM is used to calculate the images to obtain the bridge dynamic deflection in vibration. Results show that the average measurement accuracies are 0.615 pixels and 0.79 pixels in X and Z direction. The maximal deflection of the bridge is 7.14 pixels. PST-TBPM is valid in solving the problem-the photographing direction not perpendicular to the bridge. Digital photography used in this study can assess the bridge health through monitoring the bridge dynamic deflection in vibration. The deformation trend curves depicted over time also can warn the possible dangers.

  19. New method for the detection of light deflection by solar gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I I

    1967-08-18

    The prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity that light will be deflected by the sun may be tested by sending radio waves from the earth to Venus or Mercury when either passes behind the sun and detecting the echoes with a radar interferometer.

  20. Electromagnetic and structural coupled analysis with the effect of large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Niho, Tomoya

    1997-01-01

    In the designs of future fusion reactors and magnetic levitated vehicles, thin shell conducting structures are located in a high electromagnetic field. The transient magnetic field induces the eddy current on the conductive structure. While the Lorentz force by the eddy current and the magnetic field is loaded to the thin shell structure, the electromotive force by the deflection velocity and magnetic field reduces the eddy current. Therefore, the electromagnetic and structural coupled analysis is required for the design of these components. This paper describes a coupled finite element analysis for the eddy current and the structure. A formulation is presented considering the effect of the large deflection of shell structures by the total Lagrangian formulation. Both matrix equations for the eddy current and the structure are solved simultaneously using coupling sub-matrices. A coupled problem of a cantilever bending plate is analyzed. Based on the analysis results, the influence of the large deflection on the coupling effect is discussed. The condition that the large deflection analysis is required is examined through some parametric analyses

  1. Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huashun; Jiang, Jiasheng

    2017-02-21

    Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode in a two grid electron gun is presented theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theoretical equations. The influences upon performance and design of electron gun with linear filament cathode, which is used broadly in electrocurtain accelerators, are discussed in detail.

  2. Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a Free-Standing ZnO Microbelt

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan; Gao, Yifan; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the first electric field induced transverse deflection of a single-crystal, free-standing ZnO microbelt as a result of converse piezoelectric effect. For a microbelt growing along the c-axis, a shear stress in the a-c plane can

  3. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  4. Evaluation of deflection forces of orthodontic wires with different ligation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Castanha HENRIQUES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL, a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL and a metal ligature (ML were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. For the testing procedure, the block representing the maxillary right central incisor was moved 0.5 and 1 mm bucco-lingually at a constant speed of 2 mm/min, and the forces released by the wires were recorded, in accordance with the ISO 15841 guidelines. In general, the RSEL showed lighter forces, while 8SEL and ML showed higher values. At the 0.5 mm deflection, the 8SEL presented the greatest force, but at the 1.0 mm deflection the ML had a statistically similar force. Based on our evaluations, to obtain lighter forces, the thermally activated nickel-titanium wire with the RSEL are recommended, while the steel wire with the 8SEL or the ML are recommended when larger forces are desired. The ML exhibited the highest force increase with increased deflections, compared with the elastomeric ligatures.

  5. Large-deflection statics analysis of active cardiac catheters through co-rotational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Qi; Chen Qiu; Mehndiratta, Aadarsh; I-Ming Chen; Haoyong Yu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a co-rotational concept for large-deflection formulation of cardiac catheters. Using this approach, the catheter is first discretized with a number of equal length beam elements and nodes, and the rigid body motions of an individual beam element are separated from its deformations. Therefore, it is adequate for modelling arbitrarily large deflections of a catheter with linear elastic analysis at the local element level. A novel design of active cardiac catheter of 9 Fr in diameter at the beginning of the paper is proposed, which is based on the contra-rotating double helix patterns and is improved from the previous prototypes. The modelling section is followed by MATLAB simulations of various deflections when the catheter is exerted different types of loads. This proves the feasibility of the presented modelling approach. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the first to utilize this methodology for large-deflection static analysis of the catheter, which will enable more accurate control of robot-assisted cardiac catheterization procedures. Future work would include further experimental validations.

  6. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function.Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head.In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  7. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Martin; Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2010-05-24

    Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  8. Hydroelastic analysis of a very large floating plate with large deflections in stochastic seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The hydroelasticity of a very large floating plate with large deflections in multidirectional irregular waves is discussed. After a brief introduction on wave loads on a flexible structure, the paper derives the generalised fluid force acting on a floating structure in multidirectional irregular ...

  9. Deflection modeling of permanent magnet spherical chains in the presence of external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, Kilian; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the interaction of permanently magnetised spheres in the presence of external magnetic fields at the millimetre scale. Static chain formation and deflection models are described for N spheres in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical models are presented for the two sphere case by neglecting the effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy while details of a numerical approach to solve a chain of N spheres are shown. The model is experimentally validated using chain deflections in 4.5 mm diameter spheres in groups of 2, 3 and 4 magnets in the presence of uniform magnetic fields, neglecting gravitational effects, with good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental results. This spherical chain structure could be used as an end effector for catheters as a deflection mechanism for magnetic guidance. The spherical point contacts result in large deflections for navigation around tight corners in endoluminal minimally invasive clinical applications. - Highlights: • We model the interaction of magnetic spheres with uniform external fields. • Analytical models are presented for two spheres interacting with an external field. • Numerical methods are used to model the interaction of N spheres in chain formations. • These models are tested experimentally. • We report good agreement between experiment and theory

  10. Crack deflection in brittle media with heterogeneous interfaces and its application in shale fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaguang; Wei, Yujie

    Driven by the rapid progress in exploiting unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, there is growing interest in hydraulic fracture of brittle yet heterogeneous shales. In particular, how hydraulic cracks interact with natural weak zones in sedimentary rocks to form permeable cracking networks is of significance in engineering practice. Such a process is typically influenced by crack deflection, material anisotropy, crack-surface friction, crustal stresses, and so on. In this work, we extend the He-Hutchinson theory (He and Hutchinson, 1989) to give the closed-form formulae of the strain energy release rate of a hydraulic crack with arbitrary angles with respect to the crustal stress. The critical conditions in which the hydraulic crack deflects into weak interfaces and exhibits a dependence on crack-surface friction and crustal stress anisotropy are given in explicit formulae. We reveal analytically that, with increasing pressure, hydraulic fracture in shales may sequentially undergo friction locking, mode II fracture, and mixed mode fracture. Mode II fracture dominates the hydraulic fracturing process and the impinging angle between the hydraulic crack and the weak interface is the determining factor that accounts for crack deflection; the lower friction coefficient between cracked planes and the greater crustal stress difference favor hydraulic fracturing. In addition to shale fracking, the analytical solution of crack deflection could be used in failure analysis of other brittle media.

  11. Cuspal Deflection of Premolars Restored with Bulk-Fill Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behery, Haytham; El-Mowafy, Omar; El-Badrawy, Wafa; Saleh, Belal; Nabih, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study compared cuspal deflection of premolars restored with three bulk-fill composite resins to that of incrementally-restored ones with a low-shrinkage silorane-based restorative material. Forty freshly-extracted intact human upper premolars were used. Reference points at buccal and palatal cusp tips were acid-etched and composite rods were horizontally bonded to them (TPH-Spectra-HV, Dentsply). Two acrylic resin guiding paths were made for each premolar to guide beaks of a digital micrometer used for cuspal deflection measurements. Standardized MOD cavities, 3 mm wide bucco-lingually and 3.5 mm deep, were prepared on each premolar. Prepared teeth were then equally divided into four groups (n = 10) and each group was assigned to one of four composite resin (QuiXX, Dentsply; X-tra fil, Voco; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent; low-shrinkage Filtek LS, 3M/ESPE). Adper Single Bond-Plus, 3M/ESPE was used with all bulk-fill restoratives. LS-System Adhesive, 3M/ESPE was used with Filtek LS. For each prepared premolar, cuspal deflection was measured in microns as the difference between two readings between reference points before and after restoration completion. Means and SDs were calculated and data statistically-analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Filtek LS showed the lowest mean cuspal deflection value 6.4(0.84)μm followed by Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill 10.1(1.2) μm and X-tra fil 12.4(1.35)μm, while QuiXX showed the highest mean 13(1.05)μm. ANOVA indicated significant difference among mean values of groups (p composite resins tested. Filtek LS had the lowest significant mean cuspal deflection in comparison to all tested bulk-fill restoratives. The use of Tetric EvoCeram Bulk fill composite resin restorative for class II MOD cavities resulted in reduced cuspal deflection in comparison to the two other bulk-fill composite resins tested. The silorane-based Filtek LS restorative resulted in the least cuspal deflection in

  12. Cost- and reliability-oriented aggregation point association in long-term evolution and passive optical network hybrid access infrastructure for smart grid neighborhood area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Fanqin; Wei, Lei; Yu, Peng; Li, Wenjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of the smart grid, the data aggregation point (AP) in the neighborhood area network (NAN) is becoming increasingly important for forwarding the information between the home area network and wide area network. Due to limited budget, it is unable to use one-single access technology to meet the ongoing requirements on AP coverage. This paper first introduces the wired and wireless hybrid access network with the integration of long-term evolution (LTE) and passive optical network (PON) system for NAN, which allows a good trade-off among cost, flexibility, and reliability. Then, based on the already existing wireless LTE network, an AP association optimization model is proposed to make the PON serve as many APs as possible, considering both the economic efficiency and network reliability. Moreover, since the features of the constraints and variables of this NP-hard problem, a hybrid intelligent optimization algorithm is proposed, which is achieved by the mixture of the genetic, ant colony and dynamic greedy algorithm. By comparing with other published methods, simulation results verify the performance of the proposed method in improving the AP coverage and the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence.

  13. Transverse deflections of an elastic spherical shell as a function of transverse and tangential loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian F.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    of the transverse deflection is modified by in-plane tectonic forces originating e.g. at plate boundaries. However, geoscience applications of the coupling between transverse deflections and boundary conditions have been restricted to the one-dimensional thin-plate model. In this paper we extend the model...

  14. Cuspal deflection and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with bulk-fill flowable resin-based composite base materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moorthy, A; Hogg, C H; Dowling, A H

    2012-01-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases.......To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases....

  15. Comparison of the Load Deflection Characteristics of Esthetic and Metal Orthodontic Wires on Ceramic Brackets using Three Point Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal Hiralal Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Steel wires showed highest strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load/deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced more deflection at low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  16. TV Trouble-Shooting Manual. Volumes 7-8. Part 3: Synchronisation and Deflection Circuits. Student and Instructor's Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Ryozo

    These volumes are, respectively, the self-instructional student manual and the teacher manual that cover the third set of training topics in this course for television repair technicians. Both contain identical information on synchronization and deflection circuits, including sections on the principle of synchronized deflection, synchronization…

  17. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  18. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm"−"2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  19. On lateral deflection of the SOL plasma in tokamaks during giant ELMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, I.S.; Wuerz, H.

    2000-06-01

    In recent H-mode experiments at JET with giant ELMs a lateral deflection of hot tokamak plasma leaving the scrape-off layer and striking the divertor plate has been observed. This deflection can effect the divertor erosion caused by the hot plasma irradiation, because of enlarging the irradiated area. A simplified MHD model of the vapor shield plasma and of the hot plasma initially formed at time t → -∞ is analyzed. At t = -∞ both plasmas are assumed to stay on rest and to be separated by a boundary, which is parallel to the plate surface. The interaction between plasmas is assumed to develop gradually ('adiabatically') as exp(t/t 0 ) with t 0 ∝ 10 2 μs the ELM duration time. Electrical insulation of the core tokamak plasma is assumed everywhere except for the contact with the divertor. Electric currents are flowing only in the toroidal direction. These currents developing in the interaction zone of the hot plasma and the rather cold target plasma are calculated for inclined impact of the magnetized hot plasma. At such conditions the J x B force in the lateral direction accelerates the interacting plasmas. The motion of the cold plasma and the gradual increase of the plasma interaction intensity are shown to be important for the appropriate deflection magnitude. Adiabatically responding against the increase of the interaction intensity the cold plasma motion compensates significantly the currents thus decreasing the deflection compared to motionless approach. The calculated magnitude of the hot plasma deflection is comparable to the observed one. The results of the modeling are discussed in relation to the experiments. It is shown that sudden switching on of the interaction produces Alfven oscillations of large amplitudes causing much larger amplitudes of the magnetic field induced by the currents than in the adiabatic case. (orig.)

  20. Experimental Study of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Aeroshell with Axisymmetric Surface Deflection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was conducted to obtain aeroheating environment data on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator aeroshells with flexible thermal protection systems. Data were obtained on a set of rigid wind tunnel models with surface deflection patterns of various heights that simulated a range of potential in-flight aeroshell deformations. Wind tunnel testing was conducted at Mach 6 at unit Reynolds numbers from 2.1 × 10(exp 6)/ft to 8.3 × 10(exp 6)/ft and angles of attack from 0 deg to 18 deg. Boundary-layer transition onset and global surface heating distribution measurements were performed using phosphor thermography and flow field images were obtained through schlieren photography. Surface deflections were found to both promote early transition of the boundary layer and to augment heating levels for both laminar and turbulent flows. A complimentary computational flow field study was also performed to provide heating predictions for comparison with the measurements as well as boundary layer flow field properties for use in correlating the data. Correlations of the wind tunnel data were developed to predict deflection effects on boundary layer transition and surface heating and were applied to both the wind tunnel test conditions and to the trajectory of NASA's successful IRVE-3 flight test. In general, the correlations produced at least qualitative agreement with the wind tunnel data, although the heating levels were underpredicted for some of the larger surface deflections. For the flight conditions, the correlations suggested that peak heating levels on the leeward side conical flank of the IRVE-3 vehicle may have exceeded those at nose for times late in the trajectory after the peak heating time point. However, the flight estimates were based on a conservative assumption of surface deflection magnitude (i.e., larger) than likely was produced in flight.

  1. A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.

  2. Nonlinear Coupled Dynamics of a Rod Fastening Rotor under Rub-Impact and Initial Permanent Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.

  3. All-Optical Stern-Gerlach Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli, Aviv; Arie, Ady

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism in which the paraxial coupled wave equations of the nonlinear optical sum-frequency generation process are shown to be equivalent to the Pauli equation describing the dynamics of a spin-1 /2 particle in a spatially varying magnetic field. This interpretation gives rise to a new classical state of paraxial light, described by a mutual beam comprising of two frequencies. As a straightforward application, we propose the existence of an all-optical Stern-Gerlach effect, where an idler beam is deflected by a gradient in the nonlinear coupling, into two mutual beams of the idler and signal waves (equivalent to oppositely oriented spinors), propagating in two discrete directions. The Stern-Gerlach deflection angle and the intensity pattern in the far field are then obtained analytically, in terms of the parameters of the original optical system, laying the grounds for future experimental realizations.

  4. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342), using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (pbrackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  5. Safety and performance of a novel embolic deflection device in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: results from the DEFLECT I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Andreas; Mullen, Michael; Brickman, Adam M; Aggarwal, Suneil K; Pietras, Cody G; Forrest, John K; Hildick-Smith, David; Meller, Stephanie M; Gambone, Louise; den Heijer, Peter; Margolis, Pauliina; Voros, Szilard; Lansky, Alexandra J

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of the TriGuard™ Embolic Deflection Device (EDD), a nitinol mesh filter positioned in the aortic arch across all three major cerebral artery take-offs to deflect emboli away from the cerebral circulation, in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The prospective, multicentre DEFLECT I study (NCT01448421) enrolled 37 consecutive subjects undergoing TAVR with the TriGuard EDD. Subjects underwent clinical and cognitive follow-up to 30 days; cerebral diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) was performed pre-procedure and at 4±2 days post procedure. The device performed as intended with successful cerebral coverage in 80% (28/35) of cases. The primary safety endpoint (in-hospital EDD device- or EDD procedure-related cardiovascular mortality, major stroke disability, life-threatening bleeding, distal embolisation, major vascular complications, or need for acute cardiac surgery) occurred in 8.1% of subjects (VARC-defined two life-threatening bleeds and one vascular complication). The presence of new cerebral ischaemic lesions on post-procedure DW-MRI (n=28) was similar to historical controls (82% vs. 76%, p=NS). However, an exploratory analysis found that per-patient total lesion volume was 34% lower than reported historical data (0.2 vs. 0.3 cm3), and 89% lower in patients with complete (n=17) versus incomplete (n=10) cerebral vessel coverage (0.05 vs. 0.45 cm3, p=0.016). Use of the first-generation TriGuard EDD during TAVR is safe, and device performance was successful in 80% of cases during the highest embolic-risk portions of the TAVR procedure. The potential of the TriGuard EDD to reduce total cerebral ischaemic burden merits further randomised investigation.

  6. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  7. Real-time deflection and friction force imaging by bimorph-based resonance-type high-speed scanning force microscopy in the contact mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Fan, Haiyun; Zhao, Jianyong; Shang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    We report herein an alternative high-speed scanning force microscopy method in the contact mode based on a resonance-type piezoelectric bimorph scanner. The experimental setup, the modified optical beam deflection scheme suitable for smaller cantilevers, and a high-speed control program for simultaneous data capture are described in detail. The feature of the method is that the deflection and friction force images of the sample surface can be obtained simultaneously in real time. Images of various samples (e.g., a test grating, a thin gold film, and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass slides) are acquired successfully. The imaging rate is 25 frames per second, and the average scan speed reaches a value of approximately 2.5 cm/s. The method combines the advantages of both observing the dynamic processes of the sample surface and monitoring the frictional properties on the nanometer scale. 07.79.Lh; 07.79.Sp; 68.37.Ps.

  8. Guided asteroid deflection by kinetic impact: Mapping keyholes to an asteroid's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, S.; Farnocchia, D.

    2014-07-01

    The kinetic impactor deflection approach is likely to be the optimal deflection strategy in most real-world cases, given the likelihood of decades of warning time provided by asteroid search programs and the probable small size of the next confirmed asteroid impact that would require deflection. However, despite its straightforward implementation, the kinetic impactor approach can have its effectiveness limited by the astrodynamics that govern the impactor spacecraft trajectory. First, the deflection from an impact is maximized when the asteroid is at perihelion, while an impact near perihelion can in some cases be energetically difficult to implement. Additionally, the asteroid change in velocity Δ V should aligned with the target's heliocentric velocity vector in order to maximize the deflection at a potential impact some years in the future. Thus the relative velocity should be aligned with or against the heliocentric velocity, which implies that the impactor and asteroid orbits should be tangent at the point of impact. However, for natural bodies such as meteorites colliding with the Earth, the relative velocity vectors tend to cluster near the sunward or anti- sunward directions, far from the desired direction. This is because there is generally a significant crossing angle between the orbits of the impactor and target and an impact at tangency is unusual. The point is that hitting the asteroid is not enough, but rather we desire to hit the asteroid at a point when the asteroid and spacecraft orbits are nearly tangent and when the asteroid is near perihelion. However, complicating the analysis is the fact that the impact of a spacecraft on an asteroid would create an ejecta plume that is roughly normal to the surface at the point of impact. This escaping ejecta provides additional momentum transfer that generally adds to the effectiveness of a kinetic deflection. The ratio β between the ejecta momentum and the total momentum (ejecta plus spacecraft) can

  9. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  10. Long-Term Deflection Prediction from Computer Vision-Measured Data History for High-Speed Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebeom Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of the vertical long-term deflection of a high-speed railway bridge is a crucial factor to guarantee traffic safety and passenger comfort. Therefore, there have been efforts to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on physics-based models representing various influential factors to vertical deflection such as concrete creep and shrinkage. However, it is not an easy task because the vertical deflection of a railway bridge generally involves several sources of uncertainty. This paper proposes a probabilistic method that employs a Gaussian process to construct a model to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on actual vision-based measurement and temperature. To deal with the sources of uncertainty which may cause prediction errors, a Gaussian process is modeled with multiple kernels and hyperparameters. Once the hyperparameters are identified through the Gaussian process regression using training data, the proposed method provides a 95% prediction interval as well as a predictive mean about the vertical deflection of the bridge. The proposed method is applied to an arch bridge under operation for high-speed trains in South Korea. The analysis results obtained from the proposed method show good agreement with the actual measurement data on the vertical deflection of the example bridge, and the prediction results can be utilized for decision-making on railway bridge maintenance.

  11. Long-Term Deflection Prediction from Computer Vision-Measured Data History for High-Speed Railway Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaebeom; Lee, Kyoung-Chan; Lee, Young-Joo

    2018-05-09

    Management of the vertical long-term deflection of a high-speed railway bridge is a crucial factor to guarantee traffic safety and passenger comfort. Therefore, there have been efforts to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on physics-based models representing various influential factors to vertical deflection such as concrete creep and shrinkage. However, it is not an easy task because the vertical deflection of a railway bridge generally involves several sources of uncertainty. This paper proposes a probabilistic method that employs a Gaussian process to construct a model to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on actual vision-based measurement and temperature. To deal with the sources of uncertainty which may cause prediction errors, a Gaussian process is modeled with multiple kernels and hyperparameters. Once the hyperparameters are identified through the Gaussian process regression using training data, the proposed method provides a 95% prediction interval as well as a predictive mean about the vertical deflection of the bridge. The proposed method is applied to an arch bridge under operation for high-speed trains in South Korea. The analysis results obtained from the proposed method show good agreement with the actual measurement data on the vertical deflection of the example bridge, and the prediction results can be utilized for decision-making on railway bridge maintenance.

  12. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Will; Roberts, Tony; Switzer, Gregg; Terwilliger, Chelle

    2011-01-01

    Current fiber switch technologies use mechanical means to redirect light beams, resulting in slow switch time, as well as poor reliability due to moving parts wearing out quickly at high speeds. A non-mechanical ability to switch laser output into one of multiple fibers within a fiber array can provide significant power, weight, and costs savings to an all-fiber system. This invention uses an array of crystals that act as miniature prisms to redirect light as an electric voltage changes the prism s properties. At the heart of the electro-optic fiber-optic switch is an electro- optic crystal patterned with tiny prisms that can deflect the beam from the input fiber into any one of the receiving fibers arranged in a linear array when a voltage is applied across the crystal. Prism boundaries are defined by a net dipole moment in the crystal lattice that has been poled opposite to the surrounding lattice fabricated using patterned, removable microelectrodes. When a voltage is applied across the crystal, the resulting electric field changes the index of refraction within the prism boundaries relative to the surrounding substrate, causing light to deflect slightly according to Snell s Law. There are several materials that can host the necessary monolithic poled pattern (including, but not limited to, SLT, KTP, LiNbO3, and Mg:LiNbO3). Be cause this is a solid-state system without moving parts, it is very fast, and does not wear down easily. This invention is applicable to all fiber networks, as well as industries that use such networks. The unit comes in a compact package, can handle both low and high voltages, and has a high reliability (100,000 hours without maintenance).

  13. Deflection of jets discharged into a reservoir with a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Keizo; Mizushima, Jiro; Akinaga, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Deflections of jets discharged into a reservoir with a free surface are investigated numerically. The jets are known to deflect towards either side of the free surface or the bottom, whose direction is not determined uniquely in some experimental conditions, i.e. there are multiple stable states realizable in the same condition. The origin of the multiple stable states is explored by utilizing homotopy transformations in which the top boundary of the reservoir is transformed from a rigid to a free boundary and also the location of the outlet throat is continuously moved from mid-height to the top. We depicted bifurcation diagrams of the flow compiling the data of numerical simulations, from which we identified the origin as an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation, and obtained an insight into the mechanism for the direction to be determined. The parameter region where such multiple stable states are possible is also delimited.

  14. Theory, simulation and experiments for precise deflection control of radiotherapy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.; Leiva, J.; Moncada, R.; Rojas, L.; Santibanez, M.; Valente, M.; Young, H. [Universidad de la Frontera, Centro de Fisica e Ingenieria en Medicina, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Velasquez, J. [Universidad de la Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Zelada, G. [Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Av. Vitacura 5951, 13132 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Astudillo, R., E-mail: rodolfo.figueroa@ufrontera.cl [Hospital Base de Valdivia, C. Simpson 850, XIV Region de los Rios, Valdivia (Chile)

    2017-10-15

    Conventional radiotherapy is mainly applied by linear accelerators. Although linear accelerators provide dual (electron/photon) radiation beam modalities, both of them are intrinsically produced by a megavoltage electron current. Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques are based on suitable devices inserted or attached to conventional linear accelerators. Thus, precise control of delivered beam becomes a main key issue. This work presents an integral description of electron beam deflection control as required for novel radiotherapy technique based on convergent photon beam production. Theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches were initially used for designing and optimizing devices components. Then, dedicated instrumentation was developed for experimental verification of electron beam deflection due to the designed magnets. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results support the reliability of electrodynamics models used for predict megavoltage electron beam control. (Author)

  15. Calibration and compensation of deflections and compliances in remote handling equipment configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelae, Tuomo; Saarinen, H.; Mattila, J.; Haemaelaeinen, V.; Siuko, M.; Semeraro, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a generic method of calibrating and compensating remote handling system configurations subject to manufacturing and assembly tolerances, deflections and compliances. A method consists of kinematic part and non-kinematic part. A kinematic calibration algorithm is presented for finding the values of kinematic model errors by measuring the end-effector Cartesian position. This is a conventional way to calibrate industrial robots. However, in this case the kinematic calibration is not able to compensate flaws fully due to large deflections and compliances caused by a massive Cassette payload (approx. 9 ton). Positioning error at the furthest point of the cassette before any compensation was 80 mm. Therefore, extra compensation must be introduced in addition to a kinematic calibration. A kinematic calibration together with an extra compensation is a demanding task to carry out. The resulting complex compensation function has to be such that it can be implemented in real-time Cassette Multifunctional Mover (CMM) control system software.

  16. Clustering mechanism of ethanol-water mixtures investigated with photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraishi, M. S.; Hawk, J. E.; Phani, Arindam; Khan, M. F.; Thundat, T.

    2016-04-01

    The infrared-active (IR) vibrational mode of ethanol (EtOH) associated with the asymmetrical stretching of the C-C-O bond in pico-liter volumes of EtOH-water binary mixtures is calorimetrically measured using photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy (PMCDS). IR absorption by the confined liquid results in wavelength dependent cantilever deflections, thus providing a complementary response to IR absorption revealing a complex dipole moment dependence on mixture concentration. Solvent-induced blue shifts of the C-C-O asymmetric vibrational stretch for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH were precisely monitored for EtOH concentrations ranging from 20-100% w/w. Variations in IR absorption peak maxima show an inverse dependence on induced EtOH dipole moment (μ) and is attributed to the complex clustering mechanism of EtOH-water mixtures.

  17. Radiative natural SUSY spectrum from deflected AMSB scenario with messenger-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei [School of Physics, Zhengzhou University,Zhengzhou 450000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China); Yang, Jin Min [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Zhang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China)

    2016-04-29

    A radiative natural SUSY spectrum are proposed in the deflected anomaly mediation scenario with general messenger-matter interactions. Due to the contributions from the new interactions, positive slepton masses as well as a large |A{sub t}| term can naturally be obtained with either sign of deflection parameter and few messenger species (thus avoid the possible Landau pole problem). In this scenario, in contrast to the ordinary (radiative) natural SUSY scenario with under-abundance of dark matter (DM), the DM can be the mixed bino-higgsino and have the right relic density. The 125 GeV Higgs mass can also be easily obtained in our scenario. The majority of low EW fine tuning points can be covered by the XENON-1T direct detection experiments.

  18. Mixed-mode crack tip loading and crack deflection in 1D quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Scheel, Johannes; Ricoeur, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Quasicrystals (QC) are a new class of materials besides crystals and amorphous solids and have aroused much attention of researchers since they were discovered. This paper presents a generalized fracture theory including the J-integral and crack closure integrals, relations between J1, J2 and the stress intensity factors as well as the implementation of the near-tip stress and displacement solutions of 1D QC. Different crack deflection criteria, i.e. the J-integral and maximum circumferential stress criteria, are investigated for mixed-mode loading conditions accounting for phonon-phason coupling. One focus is on the influence of phason stress intensity factors on crack deflection angles.

  19. The deflection angle of a gravitational source with a global monopole in the strong field limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hongbo; Man Jingyun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in the strong field background around the Schwarzschild black hole with extremely small mass and solid deficit angle subject to the global monopole by means of the strong field limit issue. We obtain the angular position and magnification of the relativistic images and show that they relate to the global monopole parameter η. We discuss that with the increase of the parameter η, the minimum impact parameter u m and angular separation s increase and the relative magnification r decreases. We also find that s grows extremely as the increasing parameter η becomes large enough. The deflection angle will become larger when the parameter η grows. The effect from the solid deficit angle is the dependence of angular position, angular separation, relative magnification and deflection angle on the parameter η, which may offer a way to characterize some possible distinct signatures of the Schwarzschild black hole with a solid deficit angle associated with the global monopole.

  20. Direct measurement of the beam deflection angle using the axial B-dot field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhong He

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam position monitors are an important diagnostics tool for particle accelerator operation and related beam dynamics research. The measurement of the beam deflection angle, or moving direction of a charged particle beam with respect to the beam pipe axis, can provide useful additional information. Beam monitors sensitive to the beam’s azimuthal B-dot field (sometimes referred as B dots are used to measure the displacement (position of the beam centroid, as the beam generates a dipole term of the azimuthal magnetic field. Similarly, a dipole term of the axial magnetic field will be generated by the beam moving in a direction not parallel to the axis of the beam pipe. In this paper, a new method using the axial B-dot field is presented to measure the beam deflection angle directly, including the theoretical background. Simulations using the MAFIA numerical code have been performed, demonstrating a good agreement to the new established analytical model.

  1. Non-intrusive, fast and sensitive ammonia detection by laser photothermal deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, H.S.M. de; Harren, F.J.M.; Wyers, G.P.; Otjes, R.P.; Slanina, J.; Reuss, J.

    1995-01-01

    A recently developed non-intrusive photothermal deflection (PTD) instrument allows sensitive, rapid and quantitative detection of local ammonia concentrations in the air. Ammonia is vibrationally excited by an infrared CO 2 laser in an intracavity configuration. A HeNe beam passing over the CO 2 laser beam (multipass arrangement) is deflected by the induced refractive index gradient. The detection limit for ammonia in ambient air is 0.5 ppbv with a spatial resolution of a few mm 3 . The time resolution is 0.1 s (single line) or 15 s (multi line). The system is fully automated and suited for non-stop measuring periods of at least one week. Results were compared to those obtained with a continuous-flow denuder (CFD). (author)

  2. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  3. Deflected Pathways: Becoming Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, or Prosocial with Peers During the Transition to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2014-01-01

    Although research has suggested strong continuity in children's adaptive or maladaptive behavior with peers across the transition to adolescence, less is known about deflected developmental pathways of peer social competence across this transition. This study investigates how mother-child and best friend relationship quality predict the deflection of youth from adaptive to maladaptive behavior with peers or the reverse. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=1055), high-quality friendships were associated with changes in peer social competence from 3rd to 6th grade. More positive and fewer negative interactions with a friend were linked with becoming more prosocial with peers, whereas less positive interactions with a friend were linked to becoming aggressive or withdrawn. PMID:27231420

  4. Theory, simulation and experiments for precise deflection control of radiotherapy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, R.; Leiva, J.; Moncada, R.; Rojas, L.; Santibanez, M.; Valente, M.; Young, H.; Velasquez, J.; Zelada, G.; Astudillo, R.

    2017-10-01

    Conventional radiotherapy is mainly applied by linear accelerators. Although linear accelerators provide dual (electron/photon) radiation beam modalities, both of them are intrinsically produced by a megavoltage electron current. Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques are based on suitable devices inserted or attached to conventional linear accelerators. Thus, precise control of delivered beam becomes a main key issue. This work presents an integral description of electron beam deflection control as required for novel radiotherapy technique based on convergent photon beam production. Theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches were initially used for designing and optimizing devices components. Then, dedicated instrumentation was developed for experimental verification of electron beam deflection due to the designed magnets. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results support the reliability of electrodynamics models used for predict megavoltage electron beam control. (Author)

  5. Prediction of multipactor in the iris region of rf deflecting mode cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Burt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipactor is a major cause of field limitation in many superconducting rf cavities. Multipacting is a particular issue for deflecting mode cavities as the typical behavior is not well studied, understood, or parametrized. In this paper an approximate analytical model for the prediction of multipactor in the iris region of deflecting mode cavities is developed. This new but simple model yields a clear explanation on the broad range of rf field levels over which the multipactor can occur. The principle multipactors under investigation here are two-point multipactors associated with cyclotron motion in the cavity’s rf magnetic field. The predictions from the model are compared to numerical simulations and good agreement is obtained. The results are also compared to experimental results previously reported by KEK and are also found in good agreement.

  6. Relationship between strain and central deflection in small punch creep specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Wang Zhiwen

    2003-01-01

    Acquiring information about creep strain directly from small punch creep tests is difficult because the deformation behaviour of the small punch specimen is complicated. A routine is suggested in the present paper to treat this problem indirectly. Based on a finite element analysis, it is proposed that the relationship of central deflection δ to central creep strain ε c of a specimen subjected to creep can be represented approximately by the relationship of central deflection δ to central (elastic-plastic) strain ε of a specimen not subjected to creep. With this hypothesis, the δ∼ε c relation of the small punch creep specimen is obtained by resorting to a rigid-plastic membrane stretch forming model. Finally, small punch creep test results are used to evaluate creep strain and creep strain rate by taking advantage of this δ∼ε c relation

  7. Beam-beam deflections as an interaction point diagnostic for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.; Erickson, R.

    1986-05-01

    A technique is described for non-destructive measurement and monitoring of the steering offset of the electron and positron beams at the interaction point of the SLC, based on using stripline beam-position monitors to measure the centroid of one beam as it is deflected by the opposing beam. This technique is also expected to provide diagnostic information related to the spot size of the micron-size beams

  8. Deflection Control in Composite Building by Using Belt Truss and Outriggers Systems

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fawzia; T. Fatima

    2010-01-01

    The design of high-rise building is more often dictated by its serviceability rather than strength. Structural Engineers are always striving to overcome challenge of controlling lateral deflection and storey drifts as well as self weight of structure imposed on foundation. One of the most effective techniques is the use of outrigger and belt truss system in Composite structures that can astutely solve the above two issues in High-rise constructions. This paper investig...

  9. Beam emittance growth caused by transverse deflecting fields in a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A W; Richter, B; Yao, C Y [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1980-12-01

    The effect of the beam-generated transverse deflecting fields on the emittance of an intense bunch of particles in a high-energy linear accelerator is analyzed in this paper. The equation of motion is solved by a perturbation method for cases of a coasting beam and a uniformly accelerated beam. The results are applied to obtain some design tolerance specifications for the recently proposed SLAC Single Pass Collider.

  10. Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian; Tian, Zhen; Yue, Weisheng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    A broadband terahertz wave deflector based on metasurface induced phase discontinuities is reported. Various frequency components ranging from 0.43 to 1.0 THz with polarization orthogonal to the incidence are deflected into a broad range of angles from 25° to 84°. A Fresnel zone plate consequently developed from the beam deflector is capable of focusing a broadband terahertz radiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Subnanosecond pulsing of an 1 MeV ELIT electron accelerator by beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasserman, S.B.; Kuzenko, V.; Mehnert, R.; Hermann, R.

    1984-01-01

    Operation principle and performance of a beam deflection system developed for subnanosecond pulsing of an 1 MeV ELIT resonance transformer accelerator are described. Using this system a minimum pulse duration of 0.5 ns (FWHM) and a dose per pulse of about 20 Gy were obtained. As an example the fluorescence of cyclohexane excited by the subnanosecond electron pulse was measured. (author)

  12. Properties of the transfer matrices of deflecting magnet systems for free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    The oscillation of the free electron laser (FEL) requires the high current and low emittance electron beam. The beam transport system should be achromatic and isochronous to preserve the brightness and the emittance of the electron beam. In this paper we clarify the algebraic properties of the transfer matrices of the magnetic deflection system, which is a key component in the beam transport line. (author)

  13. Photothermal beam deflection calorimetry in solution photochemistry: recent progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, D E

    1997-01-01

    Photothermal beam deflection (PBD) calorimetry is a technique that measures changes in the solvent's refractive index that accompanies photothermal heating. This method is capable of extracting both kinetic and thermodynamic information from photochemical reactions. A qualitative description of physical basis of time-resolved PBD is presented. Several recent examples of its application to photochemical and photobiological problems are discussed. Finally, the advantages and limitations of PBD are described.

  14. Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2013-06-21

    A broadband terahertz wave deflector based on metasurface induced phase discontinuities is reported. Various frequency components ranging from 0.43 to 1.0 THz with polarization orthogonal to the incidence are deflected into a broad range of angles from 25° to 84°. A Fresnel zone plate consequently developed from the beam deflector is capable of focusing a broadband terahertz radiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  16. Toward Identifying Needed Investments in Modeling and Simulation Tools for NEO Deflection Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Its time: a) To bring planetary scientists, deflection system investigators and vehicle designers together on the characterization/mitigation problem. b) To develop a comprehensive trade space of options. c) To trade options under a common set of assumptions and see what comparisons on effectiveness can be made. d) To explore the synergy that can be had with proposed scientific and exploration architectures while interest in NEO's are at an all time high.

  17. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  18. Effect of Ni doping on structural and optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowder synthesized via low cost sono-chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Budhendra, E-mail: bksingh@ua.pt [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Kaushal, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.kaushal@ua.pt [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bdikin, Igor [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Venkata Saravanan, K. [Department of Physics, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610101 (India); Ferreira, J.M.F. [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Ni doped ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by low cost sonochemical method. • The optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders can be tuned by varying Ni content. • The results reveal the solubility limit of Ni into ZnO matrix as below 8%. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders with different Ni contents of x = 0.0, 0.04 and 0.08 were synthesized via cost effective sonochemical reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals pure wurtzite phase of prepared nanostructures with no additional impurity peaks. The morphology and dimensions of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). A sharp and strong peak for first order optical mode for wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) structure was observed at ∼438 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectra. The calculated optical band gap (E{sub g}) from UV–vis transmission data was found to decrease with increase in Ni content. The observed red shift in E{sub g} with increasing Ni content in ZnO nanopowders were in agreement with band gap behaviours found in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The synthesised ZnO nanopowders with controlled band gap on Ni doping reveals their potential for use in various electronic and optical device applications. The results were discussed in detail.

  19. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E ∼ 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20° of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  20. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Akiyama, S. [Institute for Astrophyics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: AFRL.RVB.PA@kirtland.af.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  1. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  2. Long-term deflection and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with recycled aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term deformation of recycled aggregate concrete beams was examined. • Three beams were monitored for over 380 days. • Influence of recycled aggregate on the long-term performance. • Comparison of that between normal and recycled aggregate concrete beams. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the long-term deformations of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams for over 1 year (380 days) and flexural behavior of RAC beams after exposure to sustained loading. Three reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens were fabricated with replacement percentage of aggregate (100% natural aggregate, 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and 50% recycled fine aggregate) and subjected to sustained loading that is 50% of the nominal flexural capacity. During the sustained loading period (380 days), the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage was recorded and compared with predicted behavior that was determined based on current specifications (ACI 318 Code). After measuring the long-term deflection for 380 days, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of RC beams after exposure to sustained loading and determine any reduction in flexural capacity. A modified equation to predict the long-term deflection values for RC beams with recycled aggregate is proposed, and the experimental results are compared with the predictions calculated using the ACI 318 Code provisions

  3. A Modified Model for Deflection Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Deformed GFRP Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experimental and analytical research to evaluate the flexural capacity and the moment-deflection relationship of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars. The proposed model to predict the effective moment of inertia for R/C beam with GFRP bars was developed empirically, based on Branson’s equation to have better accuracy and a familiar approach to a structural engineer. For better prediction of the moment-deflection relationship until the ultimate strength is reached, a nonlinear parameter (k was also considered. This parameter was introduced to reduce the effect of the cracked moment of inertia for the reinforced concrete member, including a lower reinforcement ratio and modulus of elasticity of the GFRP bar. In a comparative study using six equations suggested by others, the proposed model showed better agreement with the experimental test results. It was confirmed that the empirical modification based on Branson’s equation was valid for predicting the effective moment of inertia of R/C beams with GFRP bar in this study. To evaluate the generality of the proposed model, a comparative study using previous test results from the literature and the results from this study was carried out. It was found that the proposed model had better accuracy and was a familiar approach to structural engineers to predict and evaluate the deflection behavior.

  4. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  5. Laser beam deflection-based perimeter scanning of integrated circuits for local overheating location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpina, X; Jorda, X; Vellvehi, M; Altet, J; Mestres, N

    2009-01-01

    In integrated circuits, local overheating (hot spots) can be detected by monitoring the temperature gradients present in the silicon substrate at a given depth, laterally accessing the die with an infra-red laser beam probe. The sensed magnitude is the laser beam deflection, which is proportional to the temperature gradients found along the beam trajectory (mirage effect). Biasing the devices with periodic electrical functions allows employing lock-in detection strategies (noise immunity) and thermally isolating the analysed chip substrate thermal behaviour from the external boundary conditions by setting the excitation frequency (control of the thermal energy penetration depth). Measuring the first harmonic of the deflection signal components (vertical and horizontal) allows performing a fast and accurate location of devices, interconnects or circuits dissipating relatively high power levels without any calibration procedure. It has been concluded that the horizontal component of the beam deflection provides a higher spatial resolution than the vertical one when measurements are performed beyond the thermal energy penetration depth. (fast track communication)

  6. Coupling between angular deflection and eddy currents in the FELIX plate experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    For a conducting body experiencing superimposed changing and steady magnetic field, for example a limiter in a tokamak during plasma quench, the induced eddy currents and the deflections resulting from those eddy currents are coupled. Experimental study of these coupled deflections and currents can be performed with the FELIX (Fusion Electromagnetic Induction Experiment) facility nearing completion at ANL. Predictions of the coupling are described, as computed with the code EDDYNET, which has been modified for this purpose. Effects of the coupling will be readily observable experimentally. In the FELIX plate experiment, the coupling between deflection and eddy currents was readily calculated because the rigid-body rotation of the plate is equivalent to a contrarotation of the applied magnetic fields. For a geometry such as a plasma limiter, in which the eddy currents would cause a deformation of the conducting body, an analysis of the coupling between eddy currents and deformation would require a structural-analysis code and an eddy current code to be simultaneously computing from the same mesh

  7. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  8. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  9. INTRA- AND INTER-OBSERVER RELIABILITY IN SELECTION OF THE HEART RATE DEFLECTION POINT DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE: COMPARISON TO A COMPUTER-GENERATED DEFLECTION POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget A. Duoos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to 1 determine the relative frequency of occurrence of a heart rate deflection point (HRDP, when compared to a linear relationship, during progressive exercise, 2 measure the reproducibility of a visual assessment of a heart rate deflection point (HRDP, both within and between observers 3 compare visual and computer-assessed deflection points. Subjects consisted of 73 competitive male cyclists with mean age of 31.4 ± 6.3 years, mean height 178.3 ± 4.8 cm. and weight 74.0 ± 4.4 kg. Tests were conducted on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer beginning at 25 watts and progressing 25 watts per minute to fatigue. Heart Rates were recorded the last 10 seconds of each stage and at fatigue. Scatter plots of heart rate versus watts were computer-generated and given to 3 observers on two different occasions. A computer program was developed to assess if data points were best represented by a single line or two lines. The HRDP represented the intersection of the two lines. Results of this study showed that 1 computer-assessed HRDP showed that 44 of 73 subjects (60.3% had scatter plots best represented by a straight line with no HRDP 2in those subjects having HRDP, all 3 observers showed significant differences(p = 0.048, p = 0.007, p = 0.001 in reproducibility of their HRDP selection. Differences in HRDP selection were significant for two of the three comparisons between observers (p = 0.002, p = 0.305, p = 0.0003 Computer-generated HRDP was significantly different than visual HRDP for 2 of 3 observers (p = 0.0016, p = 0.513, p = 0.0001. It is concluded that 1 HRDP occurs in a minority of subjects 2 significant differences exist, both within and between observers, in selection of HRDP and 3 differences in agreement between visual and computer-generated HRDP would indicate that, when HRDP exists, it should be computer-assessed

  10. Failure analysis of natural gas buried X65 steel pipeline under deflection load using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.F.; Zheng, J.Y.; Zhang, B.J.; Shi, P.

    2010-01-01

    A 3D parametric finite element model of the pipeline and soil is established using finite element method to perform the failure analysis of natural gas buried X65 steel pipeline under deflection load. The pipeline is assumed to be loaded in a parabolic deflection displacement along the axial direction. Based on the true stress-strain constitutive relationship of X65 steel, the elastic-plastic finite element analysis employs the arc-length algorithm and non-linear stabilization algorithm respectively to simulate the strain softening properties of pipeline after plastic collapse. Besides, effects of the soil types and model sizes on the maximum deflection displacement of pipeline are investigated. The proposed finite element method serves as a base available for the safety design and evaluation as well as engineering acceptance criterion for the failure of pipeline due to deflection.

  11. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is ...

  12. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  13. Deflection-voltage curve modelling in atomic force microscopy and its use in DC electrostatic manipulation of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toset, J; Casuso, I; Samitier, J; Gomila, G [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-CREBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-10

    A model of deflection-voltage curves in atomic force microscopy and its use in DC electrostatic nanomanipulation experiments are presented. The proposed model predicts the deflection of the atomic force microscope probe as a function of the applied probe-substrate voltage, as well as the distance and voltage at which the tip collapses irreversibly onto the substrate due to electrostatic forces. The model is verified experimentally and its use in DC electrostatic manipulation of 25 nm radius gold nanoparticles is demonstrated.

  14. MODELING SUPERSONIC-JET DEFLECTION IN THE HERBIG–HARO 110-270 SYSTEM WITH HIGH-POWER LASERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Dawei; Li, Yutong; Lu, Xin; Yin, Chuanlei; Su, Luning; Liao, Guoqian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Junfeng; Wang, Lifeng; He, Xiantu; Zhong, Jiayong; Wei, Huigang; Zhang, Kai; Han, Bo; Zhao, Gang; Jiang, Shaoen; Du, Kai; Ding, Yongkun; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Herbig–Haro (HH) objects associated with newly born stars are typically characterized by two high Mach number jets ejected in opposite directions. However, HH 110 appears to only have a single jet instead of two. Recently, Kajdi et al. measured the proper motions of knots in the whole system and noted that HH 110 is a continuation of the nearby HH 270. It has been proved that the HH 270 collides with the surrounding mediums and is deflected by 58°, reshaping itself as HH 110. Although the scales of the astrophysical objects are very different from the plasmas created in the laboratory, similarity criteria of physical processes allow us to simulate the jet deflection in the HH 110/270 system in the laboratory with high power lasers. A controllable and repeatable laboratory experiment could give us insight into the deflection behavior. Here we show a well downscaled experiment in which a laser-produced supersonic-jet is deflected by 55° when colliding with a nearby orthogonal side-flow. We also present a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation with the Euler program, LARED-S, to reproduce the deflection. Both are in good agreement. Our results show that the large deflection angle formed in the HH 110/270 system is probably due to the ram pressure from a flow–flow collision model

  15. Automated optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, John L.

    1995-08-01

    Automation and polymer science represent fundamental new technologies which can be directed toward realizing the goal of establishing a domestic, world-class, commercial optics business. Use of innovative optical designs using precision polymer optics will enable the US to play a vital role in the next generation of commercial optical products. The increased cost savings inherent in the utilization of optical-grade polymers outweighs almost every advantage of using glass for high volume situations. Optical designers must gain experience with combined refractive/diffractive designs and broaden their knowledge base regarding polymer technology beyond a cursory intellectual exercise. Implementation of a fully automated assembly system, combined with utilization of polymer optics, constitutes the type of integrated manufacturing process which will enable the US to successfully compete with the low-cost labor employed in the Far East, as well as to produce an equivalent product.

  16. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Martínez-Jiménez, Marina; Lloro, Ivan [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Meteorites, Minor Bodies and Planetary Sciences Group, Campus UAB Bellaterra, c/Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona) (Spain); Pellicer, Eva [Departament de Física, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Williams, Iwan P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, 317 Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); Blum, Jürgen [Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Michel, Patrick [Lagrange Laboratory, University of Nice, CNRS, Côte d’Azur Observatory (France); Küppers, Michael [European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada E-28691 (Spain); Sort, Jordi, E-mail: moyano@ice.csic.es, E-mail: trigo@ice.csic.es [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veins of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.

  17. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Martínez-Jiménez, Marina; Lloro, Ivan; Pellicer, Eva; Williams, Iwan P.; Blum, Jürgen; Michel, Patrick; Küppers, Michael; Sort, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veins of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.

  18. All-optical pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical pressure sensor comprising a waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector. Pressure sensing can then be provided by utilizing effective index modulation of the waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of light reflected from the Bragg...... reflector. Sound sensing may also be provided thereby having an all-optical microphone. One embodiment of the invention relates to an optical pressure sensor comprising at least one outer membrane and a waveguide, the waveguide comprising at least one core for confining and guiding light,at least one...... distributed Bragg reflector located in said at least one core, and at least one inner deflecting element forming at least a part of the core,wherein the pressure sensor is configured such that the geometry and/or dimension of the at least one core is changed when the at least one outer membrane is submitted...

  19. Study of deflection and crack interrelation that use deck slab's automatic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Woo; Park, Yung Suk; Joo, Kwon Yong

    2004-01-01

    Reinforce concrete slab executes finish work if 6 - 8 hours pass since concrete placing. Specially, because minimize process composition slab occasion early space-time that use structure deck plate, concrete strength revelation is very important. The reason is that when strength revelation is not made, fine shock and deflection can provoke concrete crack. Executed radio automatic measure to prevent these crack initiation cause in the advance. Apply radio automatic measure is il-san culture center building and pasta measure period 03/09/06 - 03/10/08.

  20. Gyrocons and magnicons: Microwave generators with circular deflection of the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhevenko, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new class of microwave power amplifiers is presented in this paper. In these amplifiers, the beam is modulated by varying its spatial position by means of circular deflection. Today, this class consists of two devices: the gyrocon and its advanced version--the magnicon. This paper outlines the theory and the results of experimental research for both the gyrocon and the magnicon. The possibility of obtaining high power and high efficiency in both the decimeter and centimeter-wave ranges shows that these devices (the magnicon especially) may turn into one of the main microwave energy sources for future particle accelerators

  1. Deflections and Strains in Cracked Shafts due to Rotating Loads: A Numerical and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the deflections of a circular cross-section beam presenting a transverse crack of different depths, due to different loads (bending, torsion, shear, and axial loads, are analyzed with the aid of a rather refined 3-D model, which takes into account the nonlinear contact forces in the cracked area. The bending and shear loads are applied in several different angular positions, in order to simulate a rotating load on a fixed beam, or, by changing the reference system, a fixed load on a rotating beam. Torsion and axial loads are instead fixed with respect to the beam.

  2. Deflections and Strains in Cracked Shafts Due to Rotating Loads: A Numerical and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Bachschmid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the deflections of a circular cross-section beam presenting a transverse crack of varying depths caused by various loads (bending, torsion, shear, and axial loads are analyzed with the aid of a rather refined three-dimensional model that takes into account the nonlinear contact forces in the cracked area. The bending and shear loads are applied in several different angular positions in order to simulate a rotating load on a fixed beam or, by changing the reference system, a fixed load on a rotating beam. Torsion and axial loads are fixed with respect to the beam.

  3. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA, 01854 (United States); Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman, E-mail: vikas_kaushal@student.uml.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics{sup TM} (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  4. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin; Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics TM (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  5. Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of the 'dilemma effect' in fifth-order deflection aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Yin Hanchun; Lei Wei; Xue Kunxing; Tong Linsu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the coma of the fifth-order aberration at a large deflection angle has been analyzed by using multipole field theory. The dilemma effect exists in the comas of fifth-order aberration. The dilemma effect, whose value D r is constant and independent of the 10-pole field, is the linear combination of coma aberrations. The coma of the fifth-order aberration is corrected by adjusting the 10-pole field distribution when D r is zero or small. The factors that influence the dilemma effect have been calculated and analyzed

  7. Improvements in or relating to the deflection of ion beams by electrostatic mirror apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    An electrostatic mirror apparatus is described for the deflection of positive ion beams. It is claimed that with this apparatus, ion beams of intensity greater than 100 microamps in an electromagnetic separator have been turned through 90 0 and it has been observed that high beam currents can cause the ion beam to 'blow up' (i.e. expand) as it enters the mirror space and then be focused down on exit to a beam narrower than that incident upon the mirror apparatus. (U.K.)

  8. Application of engineering models to predict wake deflection due to a tilted wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac

    2012-01-01

    such a mechanism introduces control complications due to changing wind directions. Deflecting the wake in the vertical direction using tilt, on the other hand, overcomes this challenge. In this paper, the feasibility of steering wake is explored in a simple uniform inflow case. This is done by trying to model......It is a known fact that the power produced by wind turbines operating inside an array decreases due to the wake effects of the upstream turbines. It has been proposed previously to use the yaw mechanism as a potential means to steer the upstream wake away from downstream turbines, however...

  9. Effect of Saliva on Load-Deflection Characteristics of Superelastic Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T.; Ghadirian, H.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Shahhoseini, T.; Haj-Fathalian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Most published results about the features of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests in a dry environment.Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared; five of them were tested in their as-received condition to provide bas...

  10. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  11. Artificial intelligence applications of fast optical memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, P. D.; Todtenkopf, A. B.

    The operating principles and performance of rapid laser beam-steering (LBS) techniques are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams; their applicability to fast optical-memory (disk) access is evaluated; and the implications of fast access for the design of expert systems are discussed. LBS methods examined include analog deflection (source motion, wavefront tilt, and phased arrays), digital deflection (polarization modulation, reflectivity modulation, interferometric switching, and waveguide deflection), and photorefractive LBS. The disk-access problem is considered, and typical LBS requirements are listed as 38,000 beam positions, rotational latency 25 ms, one-sector rotation time 1.5 ms, and intersector space 87 microsec. The value of rapid access for increasing the power of expert systems (by permitting better organization of blocks of information) is illustrated by summarizing the learning process of the MVP-FORTH system (Park, 1983).

  12. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  13. BOW. A computer code to predict lateral deflections of composite beams. A computer code to predict lateral deflections of composite beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, M.

    1987-08-15

    Arrays of tubes are used in many engineered structures, such as in nuclear fuel bundles and in steam generators. The tubes can bend (bow) due to in-service temperatures and loads. Assessments of bowing of nuclear fuel elements can help demonstrate the integrity of fuel and of surrounding components, as a function of operating conditions such as channel power. The BOW code calculates the bending of composite beams such as fuel elements, due to gradients of temperature and due to hydraulic forces. The deflections and rotations are calculated in both lateral directions, for given conditions of temperatures. Wet and dry operation of the sheath can be simulated. Bow accounts for the following physical phenomena: circumferential and axial variations in the temperatures of the sheath and of the pellet; cracking of pellets; grip and slip between the pellets and the sheath; hydraulic drag; restraints from endplates, from neighbouring elements, and from the pressure-tube; gravity; concentric or eccentric welds between endcap and endplate; neutron flux gradients; and variations of material properties with temperature. The code is based on fundamental principles of mechanics. The governing equations are solved numerically using the finite element method. Several comparisons with closed-form equations show that the solutions of BOW are accurate. BOW`s predictions for initial in-reactor bow are also consistent with two post-irradiation measurements.

  14. Predicting the Deflections of Micromachined Electrostatic Actuators Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Wah LEE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a general purpose Artificial Neural Network (ANN model based on the feed-forward back-propagation (FFBP algorithm has been used to predict the deflections of a micromachined structures actuated electrostatically under different loadings and geometrical parameters. A limited range of simulation results obtained via CoventorWare™ numerical software will be used initially to train the neural network via back-propagation algorithm. The micromachined structures considered in the analyses are diaphragm, fixed-fixed beams and cantilevers. ANN simulation results are compared with results obtained via CoventorWare™ simulations and existing analytical work for validation purpose. The proposed ANN model accurately predicts the deflections of the micromachined structures with great reduction of simulation efforts, establishing the method superiority. This method can be extended for applications in other sensors particularly for modeling sensors applying electrostatic actuation which are difficult in nature due to the inherent non-linearity of the electro-mechanical coupling response.

  15. Discourses of Deflection: The Politics of Framing China’s South-North Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Crow-Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant financial, ecological and social trade-offs, China has moved forward with constructing and operationalising the world’s largest interbasin water transfer project to date, the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP. While it is fundamentally linked to broader political-economic goals within the context of China’s post-Mao development agenda, the SNWTP is frequently discussed in apolitical terms. Based on extensive discourse analysis and interviews with government officials across North China, I argue that the Chinese government is using "discourses of deflection" to present the project as politically neutral in order to serve its ultimate goal of maintaining the high economic growth rates that underpin its continued legitimacy. These discourses, which replace concerns with human-exacerbated water stress with naturalised narratives about water scarcity and the ecological benefits of water transfer, serve to deflect attention away from anthropogenic sources of water stress in the North China Plain and serve as apolitical justifications for pursuing a short-term supply-side approach rather than the more politically challenging and longer-term course of dealing with the underlying drivers of water stress in the region.

  16. Application of digital image correlation for long-distance bridge deflection measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Long; Pan, Bing; Cai, Youfa; Liang, Hui; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Due to its advantages of non-contact, full-field and high-resolution measurement, digital image correlation (DIC) method has gained wide acceptance and found numerous applications in the field of experimental mechanics. In this paper, the application of DIC for real-time long-distance bridge deflection detection in outdoor environments is studied. Bridge deflection measurement using DIC in outdoor environments is more challenging than regular DIC measurements performed under laboratory conditions. First, much more image noise due to variations in ambient light will be presented in the images recorded in outdoor environments. Second, how to select the target area becomes a key factor because long-distance imaging results in a large field of view of the test object. Finally, the image acquisition speed of the camera must be high enough (larger than 100 fps) to capture the real-time dynamic motion of a bridge. In this work, the above challenging issues are addressed and several improvements were made to DIC method. The applicability was demonstrated by real experiments. Experimental results indicate that the DIC method has great potentials in motion measurement in various large building structures.

  17. Remarks on manipulator classification and reversibility - deflection - backlash - inertia - balance and friction trade off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    In a previous work the author proposed a time efficiency quotient based on time to perform a task for a man controlling a manipulator (RO MAN SY 73). This quotient is also a global evaluation of a man-manipulator system, and can be extended to teaching programmed manipulators. Classification based on this quotient emphasizes the importance of force feed-back to the operator, and enables to project the same concept to computer control. This paper concentrates on characteristics reflecting directly to the mechanics of the arm, to the actuators and to the control. They need delicate trade off: reversibility is key to force feed-back, deflection reflects on arm dynamics (oscillation) and precision, backlash allows lower friction but limits servo performances, inertia is high when limited deflection is required, friction is limiting the man in the loop performances, force transducers can compensate irreversibility and/or friction but lead to control sophistication. These trade offs are developed, and some proposed constants are given for force feed-back manipulators

  18. Use of photothermal deflection spectrometry (PDS) for studies of analytes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, B.; Faubel, W.; Ache, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    A crossed-beam photothermal deflection spectrophotometer (PSD) instrument was built, evaluated and applied to the determination of lanthanide neodymium. A dye laser filled with rhodamine 6 G and pumped by an argon ion laser at 514 nm was operated with outputs between 4 and 500 mW at the cuvette position and chopped at 2 Hz. The deflection of a He-Ne probe laser beam, crossing the exciting dye laser, was measured by a two-dimensional position sensitive device and two lock-in amplifiers. The setup was evaluated with a solid carbon sample and the liquids toluene and Nd 3+ /HClO 4 . A calibration curve for Nd 3+ in HClO 4 was obtained and the limit of detection (LOD) for Nd 3+ was determined to be 2x10 -6 mol/l. This LOD is, on the one hand, by 2 orders of magnitudes lower than the value obtained with the Cary 2400 spectrophotometer and, on the other hand, this transverse PDS technique is highly competitive to collinear thermal lensing and laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy. (orig.)

  19. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  20. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Faria da; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p wire. Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  1. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Faria da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40, while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40. Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Conclusions: Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  2. A Novel Laser and Video-Based Displacement Transducer to Monitor Bridge Deflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Miguel A; Gonzalez, Dorys C; Minguez, Jesus; Schumacher, Thomas

    2018-03-25

    The measurement of static vertical deflections on bridges continues to be a first-level technological challenge. These data are of great interest, especially for the case of long-term bridge monitoring; in fact, they are perhaps more valuable than any other measurable parameter. This is because material degradation processes and changes of the mechanical properties of the structure due to aging (for example creep and shrinkage in concrete bridges) have a direct impact on the exhibited static vertical deflections. This paper introduces and evaluates an approach to monitor displacements and rotations of structures using a novel laser and video-based displacement transducer (LVBDT). The proposed system combines the use of laser beams, LED lights, and a digital video camera, and was especially designed to capture static and slow-varying displacements. Contrary to other video-based approaches, the camera is located on the bridge, hence allowing to capture displacements at one location. Subsequently, the sensing approach and the procedure to estimate displacements and the rotations are described. Additionally, laboratory and in-service field testing carried out to validate the system are presented and discussed. The results demonstrate that the proposed sensing approach is robust, accurate, and reliable, and also inexpensive, which are essential for field implementation.

  3. The hybrid model for sampling multiple elastic scattering angular deflections based on Goudsmit-Saunderson theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasaye Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of electron multiple elastic scattering based on the framework of SuperMC (Super Monte Carlo simulation program for nuclear and radiation process is presented. This paper describes efficient and accurate methods by which the multiple scattering angular deflections are sampled. The Goudsmit-Saunderson theory of multiple scattering has been used for sampling angular deflections. Differential cross-sections of electrons and positrons by neutral atoms have been calculated by using Dirac partial wave program ELSEPA. The Legendre coefficients are accurately computed by using the Gauss-Legendre integration method. Finally, a novel hybrid method for sampling angular distribution has been developed. The model uses efficient rejection sampling method for low energy electrons (500 mean free paths. For small path lengths, a simple, efficient and accurate analytical distribution function has been proposed. The later uses adjustable parameters determined from the fitting of Goudsmith-Saunderson angular distribution. A discussion of the sampling efficiency and accuracy of this newly developed algorithm is given. The efficiency of rejection sampling algorithm is at least 50 % for electron kinetic energies less than 500 keV and longer path lengths (>500 mean free paths. Monte Carlo Simulation results are then compared with measured angular distributions of Ross et al. The comparison shows that our results are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Effects of varying the through silicon via liners thickness on their hoop stresses and deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Mary Atieno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through silicon via (TSV interconnect reliability is a problem in electronic packaging. The authors address the insertion losses, deflections which can result to separation of TSV layers and hoop stresses. These problems are due to different coefficient of thermal expansion between materials. The authors propose a robust methodology for (TSV liners in this paper which in turn solves the reliability problem in (TSV. Silicon dioxide material is used in their paper as a TSV liner. First, they modelled the equivalent TSV circuit in advanced design systems (ADS. The authors then simulated it to obtain the TSV characterisation from which they obtained the S-parameter S21 which represents the insertion losses. Insertion losses have been described with changes in frequencies from 0 to 20 GHz with changes in TSV thickness from 7 to 8 µm. Later two different shapes of the TSV liner; the disc- and rod-shaped are modelled in analysis system 14 software. The two shapes with a radius of 5 µm each and a fixed pressure of 100 µPa developed changes in hoop stresses and deflections when the liners thicknesses are varied from 2 to 3 µm. The disc shape experienced least reliability problems so the authors propose its use in via structures.

  5. Utilization of an H-reversal trajectory of a solar sail for asteroid deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shengping; Li Junfeng; Zeng Xiangyuan

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Asteroids have a possibility of impacting the Earth and always represent a threat. This paper proposes a way of changing the orbit of the asteroid to avoid an impact. A solar sail evolving in an H-reversal trajectory is utilized for asteroid deflection. Firstly, the dynamics of the solar sail and the characteristics of the H-reversal trajectory are analyzed. Then, the attitude of the solar sail is optimized to guide the sail to impact the target asteroid along an H-reversal trajectory. The impact velocity depends on two important parameters: the minimum solar distance along the trajectory and lightness number of the solar sail. A larger lightness number and a smaller solar distance lead to a higher impact velocity. Finally, the deflection capability of a solar sail impacting the asteroid along the H-reversal trajectory is discussed. The results show that a 10 kg solar sail with a lead-time of one year can move Apophis out of a 600-m keyhole area in 2029 to eliminate the possibility of its resonant return in 2036. (editor's recommendation)

  6. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  7. Deflecting Rayleigh surface acoustic waves by a meta-ridge with a gradient phase shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanlong; Yang, Zhichun; Cao, Liyun

    2018-05-01

    We propose a non-resonant meta-ridge to deflect Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (RSAWs) according to the generalized Snell’s law with a gradient phase shift. The gradient phase shift is predicted by an analytical formula, which is related to the path length of the traveling wave. The non-resonant meta-ridge is designed based on the characteristics of the RSAW: it only propagates along the interface with a penetration depth, and it is dispersion-free with a constant phase velocity. To guarantee that the characteristics are still valid when RSAWs propagate in a three-dimensional (3D) structure, grooves are employed to construct the supercell of the meta-ridge. The horizontal length, inclined angle, and thickness of the ridge, along with the filling ratio of the groove, are parametrically examined step by step to investigate their influences on the propagation of RSAWs. The final 3D meta-ridges are designed theoretically and their capability of deflecting the incident RSAWs are validated numerically. The study presents a new method to control the trajectory of RSAWs, which will be conducive to developing innovative devices for surface acoustic waves.

  8. PIV study of flow around unsteady airfoil with dynamic trailing-edge flap deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerontakos, P.; Lee, T. [McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    The flow around an oscillating NACA 0015 airfoil with prescheduled trailing-edge flap motion control was investigated by using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Aerodynamic load coefficients, obtained via surface pressure measurements, were also acquired to supplement the PIV results. The results demonstrate that upward flap deflections led to an improved negative peak pitching moment coefficient C{sub m,peak}, mainly as a consequence of the increased suction pressure on the lower surface of the flap. The behavior of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) was largely unaffected. Its strength was, however, reduced slightly compared to that of the uncontrolled airfoil. No trailing-edge vortex was observed. For downward flap deflection, the strength of the LEV was found to be slightly increased. A favorable increase in C{sub l,max}, as a consequence of downward flap-induced positive camber effects, accompanied by a detrimental increase in the nose-down C{sub m,peak}, due to the large pressure increase on the lower surface of the flap, was also observed. (orig.)

  9. Micromanipulation and microfabrication for optical microrobotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton

    2012-01-01

    Robotics can use optics feedback in vision-based control of intelligent robotic guidance systems. With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robots down to the microscale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and torques in microrobotic actuation and control. Indeed...... of the trapped microstructure that can be achieved when using static traps in the BWS. This can be generalized, in the future, towards a structural shaping optimization strategy for optimally controlling microstructures to complement approaches based on lightshaping. We also show that light channeled...... to microfabricated, free-standing waveguides can be used not only to redirect light for targeted delivery of optical energy but can also for targeted delivery of optical force, which can serve to further extend the manipulation arms in optical robotics. Moreover, light deflection with waveguide also creates a recoil...

  10. OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Lenzmann, Frank O.; Ryley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic modules have been evaluated for their integration in mobile electronic applications such as a laser pointer. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells has been carried out from different perspectives: life cycle assessment, cost analysis...... and layer quality evaluation using inline optical and functional inspection tools. The polymer solar cells were fabricated in credit card sized modules by three routes, and several encapsulation alternatives have been explored, with the aim to provide the simplest but functional protection against moisture...... a low carbon footprint. From the economic perspective there is a huge reduction in the cost of the ITO- and silver-free options, reaching as low as 0.25 V for the OPV module. We used inspection tools such as a roll-to-roll inspection system to evaluate all processing steps during the fabrication...

  11. Analytical and Numerical Deflection Study on the Structure of 10 kW Low Speed Permanent Magnet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Syaeful Alam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical studies of the deflection in the structure of 10 kW low speed permanent magnet generator (PMG have been discussed in this paper. This study is intended to prevent failure of the structure when the prototype is made. Numerical analysis was performed with the finite-element method (FEM. Flux density, weight and temperature of the components are the required input parameters. Deflection observed were the movements of the two main rotor components, namely the rim and shaft, where the maximum deflection allowed at the air gap between rotor and stator should be between 10% to 20% of the air gap clearance or 0.1000 mm to 0.2000 mm. Base on the analysis, total deflection of the analytic calculation was 0.0553 mm, and numerical simulation was 0.0314 mm. Both values were in the acceptable level because it was still below the maximum allowed deflection. These results indicate that the structure of a permanent magnet generator (rim and shaft can be used safely.

  12. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Fávaro Francisconi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Material and Methods: Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342, using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (p<0.05. Results: Self-ligating brackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Conclusions: Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  13. Observation of laser-induced elastic waves in agar skin phantoms using a high-speed camera and a laser-beam-deflection probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloš, Jernej; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2018-04-01

    We present an optical study of elastic wave propagation inside skin phantoms consisting of agar gel as induced by an Er:YAG (wavelength of 2.94 μm) laser pulse. A laser-beam-deflection probe is used to measure ultrasonic propagation and a high-speed camera is used to record displacements in ablation-induced elastic transients. These measurements are further analyzed with a custom developed image recognition algorithm utilizing the methods of particle image velocimetry and spline interpolation to determine point trajectories, material displacement and strain during the passing of the transients. The results indicate that the ablation-induced elastic waves propagate with a velocity of 1 m/s and amplitudes of 0.1 mm. Compared to them, the measured velocities of ultrasonic waves are much higher, within the range of 1.42-1.51 km/s, while their amplitudes are three orders of magnitude smaller. This proves that the agar gel may be used as a rudimental skin and soft tissue substitute in biomedical research, since its polymeric structure reproduces adequate soft-solid properties and its transparency for visible light makes it convenient to study with optical instruments. The results presented provide an insight into the distribution of laser-induced elastic transients in soft tissue phantoms, while the experimental approach serves as a foundation for further research of laser-induced mechanical effects deeper in the tissue.

  14. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  15. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  16. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  17. Effects of Adaptation on Discrimination of Whisker Deflection Velocity and Angular Direction in a Model of the Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainak J. Patel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Two important stimulus features represented within the rodent barrel cortex are velocity and angular direction of whisker deflection. Each cortical barrel receives information from thalamocortical (TC cells that relay information from a single whisker, and TC input is decoded by barrel regular-spiking (RS cells through a feedforward inhibitory architecture (with inhibition delivered by cortical fast-spiking or FS cells. TC cells encode deflection velocity through population synchrony, while deflection direction is encoded through the distribution of spike counts across the TC population. Barrel RS cells encode both deflection direction and velocity with spike rate, and are divided into functional domains by direction preference. Following repetitive whisker stimulation, system adaptation causes a weakening of synaptic inputs to RS cells and diminishes RS cell spike responses, though evidence suggests that stimulus discrimination may improve following adaptation. In this work, I construct a model of the TC, FS, and RS cells comprising a single barrel system—the model incorporates realistic synaptic connectivity and dynamics and simulates both angular direction (through the spatial pattern of TC activation and velocity (through synchrony of the TC population spikes of a deflection of the primary whisker, and I use the model to examine direction and velocity selectivity of barrel RS cells before and after adaptation. I find that velocity and direction selectivity of individual RS cells (measured over multiple trials sharpens following adaptation, but stimulus discrimination using a simple linear classifier by the RS population response during a single trial (a more biologically meaningful measure than single cell discrimination over multiple trials exhibits strikingly different behavior—velocity discrimination is similar both before and after adaptation, while direction classification improves substantially following adaptation. This is the

  18. Cuspal deflection and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with bulk-fill flowable resin-based composite base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, A; Hogg, C H; Dowling, A H; Grufferty, B F; Benetti, A R; Fleming, G J P

    2012-06-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases. Twenty-four sound upper premolar teeth with Class II cavities were allocated to three groups (n=8). Restoration of the teeth involved the placement of an RBC (GrandioSO) in eight oblique increments (Group A) or Groups B and C were restored to within 2 mm of the palatal cusp in a single increment with bulk-fill flowable RBC bases (SDR and x-tra base) before the two occlusal cavity increments were placed with GrandioSO. Buccal and palatal cusp deflections were recorded postirradiation using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, immersed in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage. The mean total cuspal deflection for the oblique incremental restoration technique was 11.26 (2.56) μm (Group A) and 4.63 (1.19) μm (Group B) and 4.73 (0.99) μm (Group C) for the bulk-fill flowable RBC bases. A significant increase in the mean total cuspal deflection for the incrementally filled GrandioSO compared with the SDR (P=0.007) and x-tra base (P=0.005) restored teeth was evident. No significant difference in the cervical microleakage scores was recorded between groups AC (P>0.05). The bulk-fill flowable RBC bases significantly reduced cuspal deflection compared with a conventional RBC restored in an oblique incremental filling technique with no associated change in cervical microleakage recorded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Micromanipulation and microfabrication for optical microrobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Kelemen, Lóránd; Aabo, Thomas; Ormos, Pál.; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Robotics can use optics feedback in vision-based control of intelligent robotic guidance systems. With light's miniscule momentum, shrinking robots down to the microscale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and torques in microrobotic actuation and control. Indeed, the literature on optical trapping and micromanipulation attests to the possibilities for optical microrobotics. This work presents an optical microrobotics perspective on the optical microfabrication and micromanipulation work that we performed. We designed different three-dimensional microstructures and fabricated them by two-photon polymerization. These microstructures were then handled using our biophotonics workstation (BWS) for proof-of-principle demonstrations of optical actuation, akin to 6DOF actuation of robotic micromanipulators. Furthermore, we also show an example of dynamic behavior of the trapped microstructure that can be achieved when using static traps in the BWS. This can be generalized, in the future, towards a structural shaping optimization strategy for optimally controlling microstructures to complement approaches based on lightshaping. We also show that light channeled to microfabricated, free-standing waveguides can be used not only to redirect light for targeted delivery of optical energy but can also for targeted delivery of optical force, which can serve to further extend the manipulation arms in optical robotics. Moreover, light deflection with waveguide also creates a recoil force on the waveguide, which can be exploited for controlling the optical force.

  20. Design and characterization of a low cost CubeSat multi-band optical receiver to map water ice on the lunar surface for the Lunar Flashlight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Quentin; Crabtree, Karlton; Paine, Christopher G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Sellar, Glenn R.

    2017-08-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an innovative NASA CubeSat mission dedicated to mapping water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, which may act as cold traps for volatiles. To this end, a multi-band reflectometer will be sent to orbit the Moon. This instrument consists of an optical receiver aligned with four lasers, each of which emits sequentially at a different wavelength in the near-infrared between 1 μm and 2 μm. The receiver measures the laser light reflected from the lunar surface; continuum/absorption band ratios are then analyzed to quantify water ice in the illuminated spot. Here, we present the current state of the optical receiver design. To optimize the optical signal-to-noise ratio, we have designed the receiver so as to maximize the laser signal collected, while minimizing the stray light reaching the detector from solarilluminated areas of the lunar surface outside the field-of-view, taking into account the complex lunar topography. Characterization plans are also discussed. This highly mass- and volume-constrained mission will demonstrate several firsts, including being one of the first CubeSats performing science measurements beyond low Earth orbit.

  1. Position sensitive detection coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Imaging for molecular beam deflection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Arnaud, L.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Clavier, Ch.; Compagnon, I.; Dugourd, Ph.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed and tested a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a position sensitive detector for molecular beam deflection experiments. The major achievement of this new spectrometer is to provide a three-dimensional imaging (X and Y positions and time-of-flight) of the ion packet on the detector, with a high acquisition rate and a high resolution on both the mass and the position. The calibration of the experimental setup and its application to molecular beam deflection experiments are discussed

  2. Aerodynamic response of an airfoil section undergoing pitch motion and trailing edge flap deflection: a comparison of simulation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Riziotis, Vasilis A.; Gaunaa, Mac

    2015-01-01

    The study presents and compares aerodynamic simulations for an airfoil section with an adaptive trailing edge flap, which deflects following a smooth deformation shape. The simulations are carried out with three substantially different methods: a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solver, a viscous–inviscid...... to separated conditions and accounting for the effects of flap deflection; the steady results from the Navier–Stokes solver and the viscous–inviscid interaction method are used as input data for the simpler dynamic stall model. The paper characterizes then the dynamics of the unsteady forces and moments...

  3. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  4. Force-Sensor-Based Estimation of Needle Tip Deflection in Brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    in real time during needle insertion is the main contribution of this paper. The proposed approach solely relies on the measured forces and torques without a need for any other invasive/noninvasive sensing devices. A few mechanical models have been introduced previously regarding the way the forces are composed along the needle during insertion; we will compare our model to those approaches in terms of accuracy. In order to conduct experiments to verify the deflection model, a custom-built, 2-DOF robotic system for needle insertion is developed and discussed. This system is a prototype of an intelligent, hand-held surgical assistant tool that incorporates the virtual sensor proposed in this paper.

  5. A Study on Millimetre-Wave Tunable Bandpass Filter Based on Polymer Cap Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Alain Rolland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new tuning mechanism for millimetre-wave BPF based on deflection of the BCB membrane of BCB packaging cap. A 3-pole parallel-coupled microstrip filter operating at 60 GHz is first implemented on 30 µm-thick BCB polymer substrate and then BCB-capped through our new anti-adhesion layer assisted wafer-level transfer technique. Gold electrodes are fabricated on top of the BCB cap for DC actuation. The implemented BCB capped BPF showed the tuning range of 1.49 GHz from 63.36 GHz to 64.85 GHz with the associated insertion losses of −9.7 dB and −9.4 dB and the return losses better than −11 dB over the tuning range.

  6. Load-deflection characteristics of small-bore insulated-pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1981-12-01

    The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  7. Deflection Prediction of No-Fines Lightweight Concrete Wall Using Neural Network Caused Dynamic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Bayuaji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available No-fines lightweight concrete wall with horizontal reinforcement refers to an alternative material for wall construction with an aim of improving the wall quality towards horizontal loads. This study is focused on artificial neural network (ANN application to predicting the deflection deformation caused by dynamic loads. The ANN method is able to capture the complex interactions among input/output variables in a system without any knowledge of interaction nature and without any explicit assumption to model form. This paper explains the existing data research, data selection and process of ANN modelling training process and validation. The results of this research show that the deformation can be predicted more accurately, simply and quickly due to the alternating horizontal loads.

  8. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of fixed deflection stressed slotted rings of Zircaloy fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Wood, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy fuel cladding by fission products is thought to be an important mechanism influencing power ramping defects of water-reactor fuels. We have used the fixed-deflection stressed slotted-ring technique to demonstrate cracking. The results show both the sensitivity and limitations of the stressed slotted-ring method in determining the responses of tubing to stress corrosion cracking. They are interpreted in terms of stress relaxation behavior, both on a microscopic scale for hydrogen-induced stress-relief and on a macroscopic scale for stress-time characteristics. Analysis also takes account of nonuniform plastic deformation during loading and residual stress buildup on unloading. 27 refs

  9. A Passive Flow-rate Regulator Using Pressure-dependent Autonomous Deflection of Parallel Membrane Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il, Doh; Cho, Young-Ho

    2009-01-01

    We present a passive flow-rate regulator, capable to compensate inlet pressure variation and to maintain a constant flow-rate for precise liquid control. Deflection of the parallel membrane valves in the passive flowrate regulator adjusts fluidic resistance according to inlet fluid pressure without any external energy. Compared to previous passive flow-rate regulators, the present device achieves precision flow regulation functions at the lower threshold compensation pressure of 20kPa with the simpler structure. In the experimental study, the fabricated device achieves the constant flow-rate of 6.09±0.32 μl/s over the inlet pressure range of 20∼50 kPa. The present flow-rate regulator having simple structure and lower compensation pressure level demonstrates potentials for use in integrated micropump systems

  10. Numerical simulation of early-age shrinkage effects on RC member deflections and cracking development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage effects on short-term behavior of reinforced concrete elements are often neglected both in design code provisions and in numerical simulations. However, it is known that their influence on serviceability performance can be significant, especially in case of lightly-reinforced beams. As a matter of fact, the restraint provided by the reinforcement on concrete determines a reduction of the cracking load of the structural element, as well as an increase of its deflection. This paper deals with the modeling of early-age shrinkage effects in the field of smeared crack approaches. To this aim, an existing non-linear constitutive relation for cracked reinforced concrete elements is extended herein to include early-age concrete shrinkage. Careful verifications of the model are carried out by comparing numerical results with significant experimental data reported in technical literature, providing a good agreement both in terms of global and local behavior.

  11. Fuel assembly stress and deflection analysis for loss-of-coolant accident and seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMars, R.V.; Steinke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has evaluated the capability of the fuel assemblies to withstand the effects of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) blowdown, the operational basis earthquake (OBE) and design basis earthquake (DBE), and the simultaneous occurrence of the DBE and LOCA. This method of analysis is applicable to all of B and W's nuclear steam system contracts that specify the skirt-supported pressure vessel. Loads during the saturated and subcooled phases of blowdown following a loss-of-coolant accident were calculated. The maximum loads on the fuel assemblies were found to be below allowable limits, and the maximum deflections of the fuel assemblies were found to be less than those that could prevent the insertion of control rods or the flow of coolant through the core. (U.S.)

  12. Shifting social identities as a strategy for deflecting threatening social comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, T; Gabriel, S; Bodenhausen, G V

    2000-09-01

    Results of three studies suggest that the multifaceted nature of identity provides a strategic basis for reducing the threat involved in upward social comparisons. After performing worse than a comparison standard, people may strategically emphasize aspects of their identity that differentiate them from the standard, thereby making the standard less relevant for self-evaluation. On the basis of previous research showing that persons low in self-esteem are less likely to make effective use of self-protection strategies, we hypothesized that this strategy of deflecting the threat involved in upward comparison (i.e., decreasing perceived comparability by emphasizing an unshared social identity) would be used primarily by persons who are characteristically high in self-esteem. This pattern was confirmed in three studies. Moreover, use of the strategy was associated with relatively more positive affect following threatening upward comparisons.

  13. Stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs based on a load-modifying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiushan; Liu Yinghua; Wang Jianbin; Cen Zhangzhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a load-modifying method for the stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs used in cylindrical oil storage tanks. The formulations of loads and deformations are derived according to the equilibrium analysis of floating roofs. Based on these formulations, the load-modifying method is developed to conduct a geometrically nonlinear analysis of floating roofs with the finite element (FE) simulation. In the procedure with the load-modifying method, the analysis is carried out through a series of iterative computations until a convergence is achieved within the error tolerance. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed method, which provides an effective and practical numerical solution to the design and analysis of floating roofs

  14. Seismic interpretation of the Rocky Mountain thrust front near the Crowsnest deflection, southern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begin, N.J.; Lawton, D.C.; Spratt, D.A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-03-01

    Interpretation of reflection seismic data from the southwestern Alberta Foothills near the Crowsnest Deflection provided insight into the structural relationship between the triangle zone and the foreland basin. Six seismic lines were interpreted which show autochtonous Paleozoic rocks overlain by thrust sheets of upper Mesozoic and Tertiary strata. The overall structural geometry consists of an allochtonous wedge with east-verging shingles that are sandwiched between undeformed Paleozoic strata and the Alberta Syncline. The Big Coulee Fault, which rides within the Bearpaw Formation, represents the boundary between the east and west-verging structures and is the main upper detachment of the triangle zone. A lateral ramp occurs in the lower detachment which is evidence for southward thickening of the allochtonous wedge. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Approximations for Large Deflection of a Cantilever Beam under a Terminal Follower Force and Nonlinear Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vázquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In theoretical mechanics field, solution methods for nonlinear differential equations are very important because many problems are modelled using such equations. In particular, large deflection of a cantilever beam under a terminal follower force and nonlinear pendulum problem can be described by the same nonlinear differential equation. Therefore, in this work, we propose some approximate solutions for both problems using nonlinearities distribution homotopy perturbation method, homotopy perturbation method, and combinations with Laplace-Padé posttreatment. We will show the high accuracy of the proposed cantilever solutions, which are in good agreement with other reported solutions. Finally, for the pendulum case, the proposed approximation was useful to predict, accurately, the period for an angle up to 179.99999999∘ yielding a relative error of 0.01222747.

  16. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering For Optical Fiber Gyrocopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; We, Albert C.; Keur, M.; Lukas, Greg; Ott, Daniel M...; Sriram, S.

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes are of interest for low-cost, high performance rotation sensors. Integrated optical implementations of the processing optics offer the hope of mass-production, and associated cost reductions. The development of a suitable integrated optical system has been reported by other authors at a wavelength of 850nm [1]. Despite strong technical advantages at 1.3μm wavelength [2], no results have yet appeared. This wavelength is preferred for telecommunications applications applications, thus significantly reduced fiber costs may be realized. Lithium niobate is relatively immune from the photorefractive effect at this wavelength, whereas it is not at at 850nm [3].

  17. Collider Scaling and Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with collider cost and scaling. The main points of the discussion are the following ones: 1) scaling laws and cost estimation: accelerating gradient requirements, total stored RF energy considerations, peak power consideration, average power consumption; 2) cost optimization; 3) Bremsstrahlung considerations; 4) Focusing optics: conventional, laser focusing or super disruption. 13 refs

  18. Structure of the Mina Deflection in Mono Lake, CA: Inferences from Paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangani, Radhika Chandrakant

    Walker Lane, a zone of transcurrent faulting along the Sierran range front, is dominated by NNW trending normal faults. Within the Walker Lane, the Mina Deflection is a region of structural anomaly, where a significant component of regional displacement and seismicity is transferred from NNW-trending faults to ENE-trending faults of the Excelsior-Coledale domain. Geographically, the western boundary of the Mina Deflection lies along the western margin of Mono Basin. This is kinematically implied by the distributed tensional and shear stress in the NNW- and ENE- trending faults of the region. Transfer of strain from the NNW-trending, right-lateral oblique slip faults to the ENE-trending, primarily left-lateral faults is poorly understood. The nature of this transfer is complicated by the presence of the young volcanics of Mono Lake at the stepover bend. I undertook detailed study of the sub-km scale geometry and kinematics of the stepover bend, and its relation to nearby recent magmatic fluid flow within the Mono Lake. Fault orientations, slip rates and ages of most recent events allow for understanding strain transfer between faulting and volcanism. The results suggest that strain is transferred from the outer arc to the inner arc of the stepover bend. Within the inner arc, the magmatism on Paoha Island seems to have arisen from a sill-like intrusion. Furthermore, strain transfer is accomplished through sets of faults and fissures that variously act as large-scale Reidel shears and tension gashes allowing the migration of magmatic fluids from depth.

  19. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2014-01-01

    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  20. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also