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Sample records for cost management cost

  1. Managing Information On Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbee, Zoe A.

    1990-01-01

    Cost Management Model, CMM, software tool for planning, tracking, and reporting costs and information related to costs. Capable of estimating costs, comparing estimated to actual costs, performing "what-if" analyses on estimates of costs, and providing mechanism to maintain data on costs in format oriented to management. Number of supportive cost methods built in: escalation rates, production-learning curves, activity/event schedules, unit production schedules, set of spread distributions, tables of rates and factors defined by user, and full arithmetic capability. Import/export capability possible with 20/20 Spreadsheet available on Data General equipment. Program requires AOS/VS operating system available on Data General MV series computers. Written mainly in FORTRAN 77 but uses SGU (Screen Generation Utility).

  2. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  3. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  4. Managing Ongoing EVSE Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The costs associated with EVSE begin with picking the best location and unit for the job, but they continue with electricity and network charges through the life of your vehicle. This presentation tells how to balance electricity demand charges and network management costs through smart planning at your program's inception.

  5. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  6. The Ethos of Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ethos of cost management, distinguishing the definition, functions and principles governing cost management. I have emphasized the efforts made by the specialists in the field towards finding a much more complete definition of cost management. The description of cost management principles reveals the current interest of the specialists in this extremely important domain of company management.

  7. Information security cost management

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavan, Ioana V

    2006-01-01

    While information security is an ever-present challenge for all types of organizations today, most focus on providing security without addressing the necessities of staff, time, or budget in a practical manner.Information Security Cost Management offers a pragmatic approach to implementing information security, taking budgetary and real-world constraints into consideration. By providing frameworks, step-by-step processes, and project management breakdowns, this book demonstrates how to design the best security strategy with the resources you have available. Organized into five sections, the book-Focuses on setting the right road map so that you can be most effective in your information security implementationsDiscusses cost-effective staffing, the single biggest expense to the security organizationPresents practical ways to build and manage the documentation that details strategy, provides resources for operating annual audits, and illustrates how to advertise accomplishments to senior management effectivelyI...

  8. Beyond managed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, G T; Campbell, K S; Patman, T; Nunnelley, L L

    2000-01-01

    Managed care organizations (MCOs) face an uncertain future. While consolidation and price competition have expanded their market share, health care expenditures are expected to rise in the near future, and the cost containment premise--and promise--of MCOs is being threatened by mixed blessing and nonsupportive stakeholders. To shed light on MCOs' situation, we discuss four drivers for change in health management in the U.S.: technology, regulation, consumerism, and demographics. Using those four drivers, we then assess the various stakeholders in the industry through a competitive analysis and a stakeholder analysis. These analyses suggest that the munificence of the MCO business environment has significantly declined, especially among supplier and buyer stakeholders. Hence, MCOs cannot continue to manage health care costs alone as this will no longer generate sufficient support among buyer and supplier stakeholders. Instead, MCOs must tackle five critical health care issues by working closely with other stakeholders and also by learning what they can from innovative health care initiatives both inside and outside the United States.

  9. Managing Educational Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This study, based on research by UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning, deals with a prime contemporary problem, that of how to provide better education to more people in the face of tightening budgets, escalating costs, and educational conservatism. The authors contend that the imaginative use of cost analysis can be a…

  10. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  11. Strategic Aspects of Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika I. Petrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a summary of a research done on the area of Strategic Cost Management (SCM. This report includes a detailed discussion and application of Life Cycle Costing (LCC which a company can use to achieve its strategic objects in today's dynamic business environment. Hence, the main focus of this report is on LCC as mentioned

  12. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group.......This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  13. Managing Costs and Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with cancer may face major financial challenges and need help dealing with the high costs of care. Cancer treatment can be very expensive, even when you have insurance. Learn ways to manage medical information, paperwork, bills, and other records.

  14. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  15. Rapid and sustained cost management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D. [Accenture, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs.

  16. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  17. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  18. Laboratory reengineering facilitates cost management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J E; Moser, L H

    1998-08-01

    In 1993, The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in Charleston undertook a change management initiative to achieve a more cost-competitive position in its market and become a more attractive partner for a possible future affiliation with another provider organization. A key element of this change process was a reorganization of the medical center's laboratory department. Through consolidation of MUSC's separate laboratories and the introduction of a new, more efficient chemistry analyzer system, the medical center realized annual laboratory savings of approximately $1.3 million.

  19. Using business intelligence to manage supply costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Ernest

    2013-08-01

    Business intelligence tools can help materials managers and managers in the operating room and procedural areas track purchasing costs more precisely and determine the root causes of cost increases. Data can be shared with physicians to increase their awareness of the cost of physician preference items. Proper use of business intelligence goes beyond price benchmarking to manage price performance over time.

  20. On the weak project construction cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  1. Laboratory cost control and financial management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M

    1998-02-09

    Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of cost analysis, and exemplifies use of software to achieve optimized cost control. One commercially available cost analysis software, LabCost, is described in some detail. In addition to provision of cost information, LabCost also serves as a general management tool for resource handling, accounting, inventory management and billing. The application of LabCost in the selection process of a new high throughput analyzer for a large clinical chemistry service is taken as an example for decisions that can be assisted by cost evaluation. It is concluded that laboratory management that wisely utilizes cost analysis to support the decision-making process will undoubtedly have a clear advantage over those laboratories that fail to employ cost considerations to guide their actions.

  2. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  3. NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System and the Purdue University Cost Study: A Comparison of Narrowly Defined Direct Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, F. L.; Gleason, W. M.

    One critical aspect of costing system methodologies is examined: the effects of average costing by course level on program unit cost. The direct costing methodologies used in two costing systems are compared. One is the internally developed Purdue University Cost Study; the other, the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. The comparison…

  4. ABC model and the management of costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a company has multiple objectives at the same time, they all must be considered and balanced when making any business decisions. Linking the markets, capital and resources so as to thus ensure the highest yield is, In fact, the search for competitive advantage as a basic condition for survival in a market economy. In highly detailed systems based on the management of costs or ABC (activity based costing systems, the cost of activities often result in erroneous evaluation of aggregate costs of the action. Improvements in information technology and monitoring decrease of technology costs enabled the ABC system to become a feasible system calculating costs in many organizations.

  5. Avoidable costs of comprehensive case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L M; Anderson, R A

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive case management has become an industry standard and its pervasiveness raises questions about the ubiquitous need for this service. Analyzed from the perspective of transaction cost analysis and access, we argue that in some cases comprehensive case management is an avoidable cost incurred because of system problems that limit access to otherwise eligible clients. Implications are discussed.

  6. COST ACCOUNTING AND COSTING IN FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinichenko, O. V.; Kalinichenko, L. T.

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with approaches to the calculation of cost in financial and managerial accounting. The problem of computing the actual cost taken due account of financial reporting is researched here.

  7. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur.

  8. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios.

  9. Management costs: history of accounting category development

    OpenAIRE

    Сисюк, С. В.; Мельник, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    The article elucidates the historical development of approaches towards the definition of general overhead costs that meet modern interpretation of the term “management costs”.  Authors’ approaches to their classification and allocation have been researched

  10. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP)...

  11. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  12. Cost Information Requirements for Managing Aircraft Rework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    weekly or monthly trend and special information to middle managers about costs. Another issue is accuracy. Research indicates that some error is...useful cost information for NARF managers is trend and special information . The ability of DMDS to provide precisely these types of information will be...of specific trends and will provide some specific or special . information . The UNSCHEDULED REPAIR ACTIONS REPORT shows, by bureau number, the five

  13. [Cost analysis of patient blood management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerüschkamp, A G; Zacharowski, K; Ettwein, C; Müller, M M; Geisen, C; Weber, C F; Meybohm, P

    2016-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary approach focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of preoperative anaemia, the minimisation of blood loss, and the optimisation of the patient-specific anaemia reserve to improve clinical outcomes. Economic aspects of PBM have not yet been sufficiently analysed. The aim of this study is to analyse the costs associated with the clinical principles of PBM and the project costs associated with the implementation of a PBM program from an institutional perspective. Patient-related costs of materials and services were analysed at the University Hospital Frankfurt for 2013. Personnel costs of all major processes were quantified based on the time required to perform each step. Furthermore, general project costs of the implementation phase were determined. Direct costs of transfusing a single unit of red blood cells can be calculated to a minimum of €147.43. PBM-associated costs varied depending on individual patient requirements. The following costs per patient were calculated: diagnosis of preoperative anaemia €48.69-123.88; treatment of preoperative anaemia (including iron-deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia) €12.61-127.99; minimising perioperative blood loss (including point-of-care diagnostics, coagulation management and cell salvage) €3.39-1,901.81; and costs associated with the optimisation of the tolerance to anaemia (including patient monitoring and volume therapy) €28.62. General project costs associated with the implementation of PBM were €24,998.24. PBM combines various alternatives to the transfusion of red blood cells and improves clinical outcome. Costs of PBM vary from institution to institution and depend on the extent to which different aspects of PBM have been implemented. The quantification of costs associated with PBM is essential in order to assess the economic impact of PBM, and thereby, to efficiently re-allocate health care resources. Costs were determined at a single

  14. Management of Logistics Activities and Costing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker KIYMETLİ ŞEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, enterprises are required to reconsider the management of logistics activities as a result of developments such as increasing competition, rapid technological development, and the shortening of product life cycles. As a result of globalization, costs of logistics activities have also increased depending on changes in the quality and quantity of logistics activities. According to research on logistics activities, the physical distribution costs of enterprises may reach up to 30% of sales. For this reason, the management of logistics operations and control of costs caused by these activities is a necessity. The increase in costs negatively impact on the financial performance of enterprises, cash flows, profitability and so value of the shares. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of logistics costs and logistics activities to explain the methods used in costing. For this purpose, many studies in the literature were investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of logistics costs and logistics activities to explain the methods used in costing. For this purpose, many studies in the literature were investigated.

  15. Estimating management costs of protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Jonathan M.H.; Burgess, Neil David; Green, Rhys E.

    2012-01-01

    in actual spend and over 40% of variation in necessary spend. Population pressure is a variable that has not been used to model protected area management costs before, yet proved to be considerably better at predicting both actual and necessary spend than other measures of anthropogenic pressure. We use our...... results to estimate necessary spend at a 9 km2 resolution across the EAM and highlight those areas where the management costs of effective management are predicted to be high. This information can be used by conservation planners in the region and can be estimated for future scenarios of population growth......Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected...

  16. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  17. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  18. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanditmars, C. [BC Gas Utilities Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited`s integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment.

  19. Estimating management costs of protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Jonathan M.H.; Burgess, Neil David; Green, Rhys E.

    2012-01-01

    area managers in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs) of Tanzania to establish how much is currently spent on reserve management and how much is required to meet conservation objectives. We use an information theoretic approach to model spatial variation in these costs using a range of plausible, spatially......Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected...... explicit predictor variables, including a novel measure of anthropogenic pressure that measures the human pressure that accrues to any point in the landscape by taking into account all people in the landscape, inversely weighted by their distance to that point. Our models explain over 75% of variation...

  20. Lean Cost Management Analysis on Food Processing Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce Lean Cost Management (LCM that tries to create creating value for customers and performs whole cost management in enterprise’s entire life cycle under structure of target cost, cost sustaining and cost improvement guided by reverse thinking into food processing enterprise to construct LCM system from aspects of external value chain analysis as well as internal cost management. Dynamic pricing game model was used to provide cost improvement on food enterprise value chain so as to minimize whole cost. The target cost was divided into each part in design phase supported by cost programming, cost reduction and cost improving. Case study shows that such cost suppressing method can reduce cost of food processing enterprises and improve long-term competitiveness.

  1. [Costs and benefits of quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder-Printzen, I

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of quality management (QM) has been mandatory for health care providers of the national health insurance since 2004; however, certification is so far only compulsory for rehabilitation clinics. The costs have so far only been quantified in a few medical studies, while they are widely known in business administration with a basic distinction made between planning, steering, auditing, and declaration costs. Another business economics approach differentiates between prevention, appraisal, and non-conformance costs. The benefits of QM relates to customers, employees, external service providers, and health insurance providers. Also important in our consideration of the patient as a customer is that they should not be considered a customer in the usual business sense because the patient is in an emergency situation and can not freely decide. Improvements in treatment quality and in reducing the rate of adverse events make up the largest portion of the benefits of QM. Furthermore, QM can have a positive influence on motivation and employee recruitment. In addition, the cost savings that result despite costs for QM must not be forgotten.

  2. Total Cost of Ownership: Key Infrastructure Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.

    2001-01-01

    Many school districts have planned only for upfront software and hardware costs (one-quarter of "real" costs). This article examines major cost components of client-server computing, discusses TCO (total cost of ownership) as a tool for managing investment in technology, and considers how to leverage cost-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  3. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  4. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  5. Cost Management of Motor Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    Through the study on the way to reduce the cost of motor manufacturing industry, this paper ful y infiltrates the definition of cost into al aspects of enterprise production and operation. That is to say, only comprehensive, ful-staf and ful-proces cost control can greatly enhance enterprise competitivenes initiative at the time of enhancing the competitiveness of enterprise products in the market.

  6. Activity-based costing management in a private practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, M; Draper, V

    1997-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a method of calculating cost of a service, focusing on operations. It gives quick and tangible cost information to operations and financial managers. While this method has be used more in the manufacturing area, it is gaining acceptance in the medical practice. This article describes activity-based costing and illustrates how to start utilizing it in a practice.

  7. Cost management in the internal value chain of integrated application of activity-based costing, Kaizen concept and target costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić-Tomić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is an effort to view the possibilities of integrated use of target costing, activity based costing and Kaizen concept in the internal value chain as the central link of the entire chain. The idea is to stimulate the company management to think about the costs, position they take in the structure of price cost and their influence on forming the sales price since it is very important to produce right product for the consumer, of desired quality and functionality but along with as low production costs as possible. It is therefore needed to construct the right design of a product and provide its production at the shortest possible time along with as low costs as possible which will impact the efficiency of the entire value chain.

  8. New approaches for identification factors of cost management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholkin Anatolii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with determination and classification factors, that affect the costs and whose changes are result of management decisions. The modern condition of scientific researches in this field of economic science is analyzed. The classification of impact factors is made for machine building industry. Also is given new costs classification according to impact factors. New cost classification includes three classes and eighteen groups of cost. Every class and group is described. The need of this classification for purposes of cost management is defined. Also the practical significance from the use of new costs classification in management decisions and control is described

  9. A new costing model in hospital management: time-driven activity-based costing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öker, Figen; Özyapıcı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cost systems cause cost distortions because they cannot meet the requirements of today's businesses. Therefore, a new and more effective cost system is needed. Consequently, time-driven activity-based costing system has emerged. The unit cost of supplying capacity and the time needed to perform an activity are the only 2 factors considered by the system. Furthermore, this system determines unused capacity by considering practical capacity. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the efficiency of the time-driven activity-based costing system and to display how it can be applied in a health care institution. A case study was conducted in a private hospital in Cyprus. Interviews and direct observations were used to collect the data. The case study revealed that the cost of unused capacity is allocated to both open and laparoscopic (closed) surgeries. Thus, by using the time-driven activity-based costing system, managers should eliminate the cost of unused capacity so as to obtain better results. Based on the results of the study, hospital management is better able to understand the costs of different surgeries. In addition, managers can easily notice the cost of unused capacity and decide how many employees to be dismissed or directed to other productive areas.

  10. The contemporary art of cost management methods during product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wouters; S. Morales

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design. Methodology/approach The structured literature search cover

  11. The contemporary art of cost management methods during product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.; Morales, S.; Epstein, M.J.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design. Methodology/approach The structured literature search

  12. Regional cost information for private timberland conversion and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas S Bair; Ralph J. Alig

    2006-01-01

    Cost of private timber management practices in the United States are identified, and their relationship to timber production in general is highlighted. Costs across timber-producing regions and forest types are identified by forest type and timber management practices historically applied in each region. This includes cost estimates for activities such as forest...

  13. The contemporary art of cost management methods during product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.; Morales, S.; Epstein, M.J.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design. Methodology/approach The structured literature search cover

  14. Improving cost-effectiveness of hypertension management at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving cost-effectiveness of hypertension management at a community health centre. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... drugs on prescribing patterns, costs of drug treatment and blood pressure (BP) control. Design ...

  15. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  16. Tracking Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  17. Obesity, weight management, and health care costs: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Keith H

    2007-06-01

    Rational decision-making regarding health care spending for weight management requires an understanding of the cost of care provided to obese patients and the potential cost-effectiveness or cost savings of interventions. The purpose of this review is to assist health plans and disease management leaders in making informed decisions for weight management services. Among the review's findings, obesity and severe obesity are strongly and consistently associated with increased health care costs. The cost-effectiveness of obesity-related interventions is highly dependent on the risk status of the treated population, as well as the length, cost, and effectiveness of the intervention. Bariatric surgery offers high initial costs and uncertain long-term cost savings. From the perspective of a payor, obesity management services are as cost-effective as other commonly offered health services, though not likely to offer cost savings. Behavioral health promotion interventions in the worksite setting provide cost savings from the employer's perspective, if decreased rates of absenteeism are included in the analysis.

  18. Cost and Management Accounting Practices: A Survey of Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali UYAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore cost and management accounting practices utilized by manufacturing companies operating in Istanbul, Turkey. The sample of the study consists of 61 companies, containing both small and medium-sized enterprises, and large companies. The data collection methodology of the study is questionnaire survey. The content of the questionnaire survey is based on several previous studies. The major findings of the study are as follows: the most widely used product costing method is job costing; the complexity in production poses as the highest ranking difficulty in product costing; the most widely used three overhead allocation bases are prime costs, units produced, and direct labor cost; pricing decisions is the most important area where costing information is used; overall mean of the ratio of overhead to total cost is 34.48 percent for all industries; and the most important three management accounting practices are budgeting, planning and control, and cost-volume-profit analysis. Furthermore, decreasing profitability, increasing costs and competition, and economic crises are the factors, which increase the perceived importance of cost accounting. The findings indicate that companies perceive traditional management accounting tools still important. However, new management accounting practices such as strategic planning, and transfer pricing are perceived less important than traditional ones. Therefore, companies need to improve themselves in this aspect.

  19. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  20. Correlation Cost - Performance in Terms of Management Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Ene

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Management accounting system is a useful tool for enterprise  management,  which aims to achieve performance piloting enterprise by promoting efficiency and effectiveness. To be successful in today's economic environment requires  the use of a calculations   system and management costs. Purpose of calculating costs is to identify cases not only transfer the cost objects. This approach shows the ability of the system for calculating the cost of providing an analysis linking financial performance of business processes and activities cost sale .The firms use type information in various forms in making decisions. The manager expects the management accounting a permanent assistance before, during and after the action, to define objectives, to understand whether the objectives are relevant and to measure performance.

  1. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  2. Development of cost effective nutrient management strategies for a watershed with the DSS FyrisCOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D.; Johnsson, H.; Larsson, P.; Markensten, H.; Widén Nilsson, E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes an application of the FyrisCOST model to calculate the cost efficiency of alternative scenarios for nitrogen management in a small agricultural catchment in Southern Sweden. The scenarios include the spatial distribution by sub-catchment of a set of nitrogen abatement measures that have been identified as eligible for financial support under the Swedish Rural Development Program (wetlands, catch crops, spring plowing and a combination of these) with alternative crop distributions. The model FyrisCOST is a catchment scale DSS that has been developed for the evaluation of alternative nutrient mitigation strategies. This model is able to evaluate a range of mitigation approaches for phosphorous and nitrogen from several sources (point and diffuse). This allows cost efficiency to be estimated for a catchment based on a combination of measures. The model is currently being used to develop a data base for the Swedish Water Authorities on the cost efficiency of buffer zones for all small catchments in Sweden. Hydrological flows in the FyrisCOST model are built on the dynamic model FyrisNP and nutrient losses are derived from simulations from the Nutrient Leaching Coefficient Calculation System (NLeCCS) which includes the ICECREAMDB model for estimating phosphorus losses and the SOILNDB model for soil nitrogen leaching. FyrisCOST calculates nitrogen concentrations in effluent water for each sub-catchment. The concentration of nitrogen is dependent on the current land use and geographical conditions. In order to evaluate agricultural scenarios in FyrisCOST a method for calculating N leaching from agricultural land was constructed. The calculation includes crop rotations and tillage systems and differentiates between annual and perennial crops. The model is able to take into account the probability that a primary crop is followed by a specific crop/tillage system and the effect on nutrient losses estimated using a specially developed leaching

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management compared with standard management. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness analysis conducted from September 2015 to August 2016 used a Markov cohort model to estimate cost-effectiveness...... of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age....... Interventions: Treatment of hypertension to a systolic blood pressure goal of 120 mm Hg (intensive management) or 140 mm Hg (standard management). Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), discounted at 3% annually. Results: Standard management yielded 9.6 QALYs...

  5. Disease management. A global cost-containing initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, K; Maynard, A

    2000-06-01

    Disease management has been marketed by healthcare industry providers as a way of improving resource allocation in healthcare and containing costs. However, to achieve improved efficiency in healthcare requires the guidelines and protocols in the disease management process to be based on sound evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness. This has not always been the case. The approach itself has an inadequate evidence base in terms of randomised controlled trials, other rigorous methods of evaluation and the results of economic evaluation. Disease management can be viewed as an attempt by pharmaceutical companies to undertake forward vertical integration into other parts of the healthcare process. This could reduce uncertainty for purchasers and reduce transaction costs, thereby potentially facilitating both healthcare expenditure control and efficiency. However, such cost savings may be outweighed by a concentration of power in disease management (pharmaceutical) companies, and the exploitation of such power to inflate expenditure and misallocate resources. Disease management must be appraised with care.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analyses of training: a manager?s guide

    OpenAIRE

    O?Malley, Gabrielle; Marseille, Elliot; Weaver, Marcia R

    2013-01-01

    The evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of global training programs is sparse. This manager?s guide to cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is for professionals who want to recognize and support high quality CEA. It focuses on CEA of training in the context of program implementation or rapid program expansion. Cost analysis provides cost per output and CEA provides cost per outcome. The distinction between these two analyses is essential for making good decisions about value. A hypotheti...

  7. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  8. Process cost calculation - an alternative to cost management?; Prozesskostenrechnung - eine Alternative fuer das Kostenmanagement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-01-12

    Increasing competition and changing markets in the energy sector make new demands on cost management and at the same time on the quality to be provided by the costing systems. The process cost calculation used today in various branches of industry is able to contribute - by orientating itself to processes and chains of delivered value - to an assignment of costs doing more justice to the causes so that costing information with improved meaningfulness is available for entrepreneurial decisions. The authors introduce process cost calculation and illustrate its function using a practice-related example for its application. Potential fields of utilisation in the electricity supply enterprises are subsequently shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zunehmender Wettbewerb und sich wandelnde Maerkte im Energiesektor stellen neue Anforderungen an das Kostenmanagement und damit auch an die Qualitaet der von den Kostenrechnungssystemen bereitzustellenden Informationen. Die heute in verschiedenen Wirtschaftszweigen eingesetzte Prozesskostenrechnung kann - durch Orientierung an Prozessen und Wertschoepfungsketten - zu einer verursachungsgerechteren Kostenzuordnung beitragen, so dass fuer unternehmerische Entscheidungen Kostenrechnungsinformationen mit verbesserter Aussagekraft zur Verfuegung stehen. Die Verfasser stellen die Prozesskostenrechnung vor und veranschaulichen deren Funktionsweise anhand eines praxisbezogenen Anwendungsbeispiels. Im Anschluss werden moegliche Einsatzgebiete fuer Energieversorgungsunternehmen aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  9. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  10. Low-Cost Medical Office Data Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Divinski, Jane

    1980-01-01

    This project is developing and demonstrating a low-cost microcomputer-based medical office data management system. The system is aimed at the specific needs of small primary care medical practices, in particular, those located in rural areas.

  11. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management approaches under intensive farming systems. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Kamuliand Iganga districts with one hand-hoe weeding (1hh) as the control.

  12. A KBE genetic-causal cost modelling methodology for manufacturing cost contingency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Gilmour, M.; McAlleean, C.; Kelly, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides validated evidence of a robust methodology for the management of lean manufacturing cost contingency, with a particular focus on contingency regarding recurring work content. A truly concurrent engineering process is established by capturing a range of knowledge from the design, m

  13. A KBE genetic-causal cost modelling methodology for manufacturing cost contingency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Gilmour, M.; McAlleean, C.; Kelly, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides validated evidence of a robust methodology for the management of lean manufacturing cost contingency, with a particular focus on contingency regarding recurring work content. A truly concurrent engineering process is established by capturing a range of knowledge from the design,

  14. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  15. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  16. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING FOR PROJECTS COSTS MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂTRAŞCU AURELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Information Technologies in organizations represents an evident progress for company, money economy, time economy and generates value for the organization. In this paper the author proposes to model the business processes for an organization that manages projects costs, because modelling is an important part of any software development process. Using software for projects costs management is essential because it allows the management of all operations according to the established parameters, the management of the projects groups, as well as the management of the projects and subprojects, at different complexity levels.

  17. The costs of managing lower limb-threatening ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Evans, L; Datta, D; Gaines, P; Beard, J D

    1996-10-01

    One hundred and fifty consecutive patients presenting with limb-threatening ischaemia were studied prospectively to determine treatment and rehabilitation costs in the first year. Limb salvage was attempted in 104 (69%) patients but failed in 13%. Mortality at 1 year was 27%. The cost of treatment, inpatient stay, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, convalescence, disablement services, home adaptations, home care, district nursing, transportation and outpatient visits were determined for each patient. The patients were classified according to their presentation and initial treatment into five groups (number of patients) whose median management costs (interquartile range) for 12 months were: Gp 1 (23 - Revascularisation for acute ischaemia = 3970 pounds (2984-5511) Gp 2 (29) - Angioplasty for critical ischaemia = 6611 pounds (3630-10,200) Gp 3 (52) - Reconstruction for critical ischaemia = 6766 pounds (4337-9677) Gp 4 (34) - Primary amputation = 10,162 pounds (7894-13,026) Gp 5 (12) - Primary bilateral amputations = 13,848 pounds (11,440-18,056) At 1 year, there was no significant difference in the cost of managing a patient with a critically ischaemic limb by angioplasty or surgical reconstruction. The cost of revascularisation for acute ischaemia was comparatively low because these patients required minimal rehabilitation. The median cost of managing a patient following amputation was almost twice that of successful limb salvage justifying an aggressive revascularisation policy. However, justification of such a policy on economic grounds requires salvage failure episode to be minimised as they increase costs considerably.

  18. An Introduction to the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. Technical Report No. 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Mike; Martin, Ron

    The NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System is designed to assist institutions in the implementation of cost studies. There are at least two kinds of cost studies: historical cost studies which display cost-related data that reflect actual events over a specific prior time period, and predictive cost studies which forecast costs that will be…

  19. Optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2006-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity highlights the importance of watershed management. A sound watershed management should make all water users share the incurred cost. This study analyzes the optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users. As a consumable, water should be allocated to different users the amounts in which their marginal utilities (Mus) or marginal products (MPs) of water are equal. The value of Mus or MPs equals the water price that the watershed manager charges. When water is simultaneously used as consumable and non-consumable, the watershed manager produces the quantity of water in which the sum of Mus and/or MPs for the two types of uses equals the marginal cost of water production. Each water user should share the portion of watershed management cost in the percentage that his MU or MP accounts for the sum of Mus and/or MPs. Thus, the price of consumable water does not equal the marginal cost of water production even if there is no public good.

  20. Lifetime costs of colon and rectal cancer management in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Jean; Ng, Edward; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Le Petit, Christel; Dahrouge, Simone; Flanagan, William M; Walker, Hugh; Evans, William K

    2003-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among Canadians. We derived the direct health care costs associated with the lifetime management of an estimated 16,856 patients with a diagnosis of colon and rectal cancer in Canada in 2000. Information on diagnostic approaches, treatment algorithms, follow-up and care at disease progression was obtained from various databases and was integrated into Statistics Canada's Population Health Model (POHEM) to estimate lifetime costs. The average lifetime cost (in Canadian dollars) of managing patients with colorectal cancer ranged from $20,319 per case for TNM stage I colon cancer to $39,182 per case for stage III rectal cancer. The total lifetime treatment cost for the cohort of patients in 2000 was estimated to be over $333 million for colon and $187 million for rectal cancer. Hospitalization represented 65% and 61% of the lifetime costs of colon and rectal cancer respectively. Disease costing models can be important policy- relevant tools to assist in resource allocation. Our results highlight the importance of performing preoperative tests and staging in an ambulatory care setting, where possible, to achieve optimal cost efficiencies. Similarly, terminal care might be delivered more efficiently in the home environment or in palliative care units.

  1. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  2. Managing Citations with Cost-Free Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    As faculty members receive more access to more electronic collections, they are forced to deal with the issue of bibliographic management. Historically, dealing with print material has been relatively simple: The only way to manage something being cited from a print resource was to hold the physical object (or a copy of the original) and create a…

  3. Increasing fisheries management options with a flexible cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Horwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    This study proposes a dynamic control of fisheries by fishing effort, calculated so as to optimize a novel cost function, over a long period of management, based upon an example of the exploitation of the Celtic Sea cod. This cost function is a flexible weighed compromise between: (i) minimizing......) is zero, the optimization of the cost function usually results in a non- linear divergent control, which is an artefact related to the choice of the length of the management period. (C) 1998 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....... of fishing effort towards the agreed long-term target, a decrease in short-term yields, and an increase in long-term yields. When the weight attached to (iii) is non-zero, the optimization of the cost function provides a non-oscillatory, convergent, and near-linear control. When the weight attached to (iii...

  4. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  5. Economic Costs of Nitrogen Management in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Oenema, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is one of the measures of Annex IX of the revised Gothenburg Protocol and described in detail in the Guidance Document (Bittman et al., Options for ammonia mitigation: guidance from the UNECE task force on reactive nitrogen. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh,

  6. Transactions Cost From a Program Manager’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Angelis + 3, – “Applying Transaction Cost Economics to Improve DoD Cost Estimates” • 2008: Angelis + 5/3, – “Exploring the Implications of TCE on Joint...oversight – Programmatic and technical reviews • Within the context of two frameworks: – Principal-Agent Model (Agency Theory) – Transaction Cost Economics...and Information Costs + Bargaining, Decision and Contracting Costs + Policing and Enforcement Costs 12 Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) • Objective

  7. Environmetal aspects of cost management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Hojná

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industry is continuously developing and so environmental protection is becoming more and more important. An important role in environmental protection is played by the European Union, which is placing particularly emphasis on systematic approaches so as to prevent devastation of the environment. Within the framework of environmental protection, entrepreneurial entities (not only in the Czech Republic utilize statutory and voluntary environmental tools. Implementation of one of the voluntary environmental tools – environmental management accounting (EMA – has become an important part of internal cost management. EMA is a very important environmental policy tool. Its application leads to reducing the negative impacts of an enterprise’s activities on the environment, to increasing the efficiency in the utilization of production inputs and to improving the enterprise’s economic management. A great advantage of EMA lies in its versatility; it can be, therefore, used in large, medium-sized and small enterprises, in various industries as well as in the service sector. EMA makes it possible to accurately establish what part of the total costs is related to environmental issues. In management accounting, environmental costs are hidden as a part of overhead costs. Their correct identification is important for the purpose of costing with respect to individual products. Questionnaire responses were used to examine whether enterprises utilize internal accounting and whether they monitor environmental costs within the framework of their internal accounting. Acceptance environmental costs was analysed on the basis of a division of the enterprises from the following points of view: ownership of the enterprise, the number of employees and the field of business.

  8. Total Quality Management and Cost of Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicostas, Evsevios

    Before we start analysing the philosophy of Total Quality Management it is worthwhile going back to the early days of quality and the quality movement. In fact, the quality concept dates back to the creation of Adam and Eve: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good”. (Genesis A 31). It is remarkable that at the end of each day, looking at his creations God was saying, “This is good”. However, at the end of the sixth day, after he finished the creation of human beings, he said, “This is very good”. It is amazing that he did not say, “This is excellent”. This is because excellence is something that we gain after tireless effort. God left room for improvement in order to challenge us and make our life more attractive, which has really happened!

  9. Managing the financial cost of exception to contracting standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    In managing financial cost of exception to contracting standards, the first step is to put up an intelligent contract standards exception monitoring system The next step is to maintain tailor-made, fair and transparent contracting standards The third step is to eliminate unnecessary information...... and repetitiveness in contracting standards The fourth step is to enable your organization and the customers or suppliers to handle the necessary exceptions themselves Finally you should consider the use of independent contracting standards and elimination of your own standards as a tool in managing the cost...

  10. Managing the financial cost of exception to contracting standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    In managing financial cost of exception to contracting standards, the first step is to put up an intelligent contract standards exception monitoring system The next step is to maintain tailor-made, fair and transparent contracting standards The third step is to eliminate unnecessary information...... and repetitiveness in contracting standards The fourth step is to enable your organization and the customers or suppliers to handle the necessary exceptions themselves Finally you should consider the use of independent contracting standards and elimination of your own standards as a tool in managing the cost...

  11. Pharmaceutical services cost analysis using time-driven activity-based costing: A contribution to improve community pharmacies' management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, João; Russo, Giuliano; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2016-01-01

    The current financial crisis is pressing health systems to reduce costs while looking to improve service standards. In this context, the necessity to optimize health care systems management has become an imperative. However, little research has been conducted on health care and pharmaceutical services cost management. Pharmaceutical services optimization requires a comprehensive understanding of resources usage and its costs. This study explores the development of a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) model, with the objective of calculating the cost of pharmaceutical services to help inform policy-making. Pharmaceutical services supply patterns were studied in three pharmacies during a weekday through an observational study. Details of each activity's execution were recorded, including time spent per activity performed by pharmacists. Data on pharmacy costs was obtained through pharmacies' accounting records. The calculated cost of a dispensing service in these pharmacies ranged from €3.16 to €4.29. The cost of a counseling service when no medicine was supplied ranged from €1.24 to €1.46. The cost of health screening services ranged from €2.86 to €4.55. The presented TDABC model gives us new insights on management and costs of community pharmacies. This study shows the importance of cost analysis for health care services, specifically on pharmaceutical services, in order to better inform pharmacies' management and the elaboration of pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The future cost of cancer in South Africa: An interdisciplinary cost management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, K; Sartorius, B; Govender, P S; Sharma, V; Sherriff, A

    2016-09-06

    The exponential rise in cancer costs in South Africa (SA) was illustrated in a recent Sunday Times article entitled 'The cost of cancer can be a debt sentence'. Our Minister of Health talks of a 'war' against the high costs of cancer drugs, and epidemiologists project a sharply rising incidence. Eminent international medical journals, such as The Lancet, underline the fact that cancer cost is a growing international problem that confronts even the richest countries. If richer countries in the world are battling to cover the costs of cancer, what is the prognosis for SA?

  13. Product Cost Management Structures: a review and neural network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the growth of approaches in product costing and draws synergies with information management and resource planning systems, to investigate potential application of state of the art modelling techniques of neural networks. Increasing demands on costing systems to serve multiple decision-making objectives, have made it essential to use better techniques for analysis of available data. This need is highlighted in the paper. The approach of neural networks, which have several analogous facets to complement and aid the information demands of modern product costing, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP structures and the dominant-computing environment (for information management in the object oriented paradigm form the domain for investigation. Simulated data is used in neural network applications across activities that consume resources and deliver products, to generate information for monitoring and control decisions. The results in application for feature extraction and variation detection and their implications are presented in the paper.

  14. TRANSACTION COSTS AND MARKET IMPACT IN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kociński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the major sources of transaction costs in financial markets, in particular to find the amounts of such costs on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. Sources of transaction costs are considered: commissions, bid-ask spread and market impact. The commissions are only briefly described since they are explicitly stated and easily measured. More attention is paid to the bid-ask spread which is one of the main causes of trading costs. It is shown that the investor who wants to outperform the Polish market should usually expect a much higher bid-ask spread than it follows from the officially used calculations. Then it is demonstrated how historical spreads can be used in predicting their future values. This seems to be important from the practical point of view, since forecasting trading costs is a compelling task for financial managers. Next, market impact and market impact costs are considered. The practical method of measuring these is applied and discussed.

  15. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  16. A Low Computation Cost Key Management Solution to MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-man; TAO Ran; WANG Yue; XU Kai; WANG Zhan-lu

    2006-01-01

    After concisely analyzing the typical group key agreement protocols of centralized key distribution (CKD),Diffie-Hellman (DH) and group Diffie-Hellman (GDH), tree-based group Diffie-Hellman (TGDH), the paper gives out a new key management method by threshold cryptography and tree-based structure, which is proved to gain advantages in computation cost greatly and improves the MANET key management performance accordingly.

  17. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Todorut; L. Paliu-Popa; V. S. Tselentis; D. Cirnu

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM) tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main L...

  18. Cost Evaluation and Portfolio Management Optimization for Biopharmaceutical Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, W.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is suffering from declining R&D productivity and yet biopharmaceutical firms have been attracting increasing venture capital investment. Effective R&D portfolio management can deliver above average returns under increasing costs of drug development and the high risk of clinical trial failure. This points to the need for advanced decisional tools that facilitate decision-making in R&D portfolio management by efficiently identifying optimal solutions while accounting...

  19. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  20. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  1. LEAN HEALTHCARE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: MINIMIZING WASTE AND COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia M L Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the management models applied in the supply chain providing services in healthcare organizations, considering the lenses of lean. The aim of this is to develop a model of supply chain management focusing on the identification and minimization of waste, assisting in decision making and contributing to the quality of services and as a consequence the reduction of the costs involved in healthcare supply chain. The philosophies of continuous improvement and lean techniques have a role to play in helping healthcare to provide quality service and support to reduce costs in the current budget constraints. In the supply chain of hospitals the financial costs can be around 40% of its budget (MASOUMI et al. 2012; SOUZA et al., 2013. This article sheds light on the improvement in decision making and the effect of reducing costs in the healthcare supply chain. In this sense, the research intend to expand knowledge related to supply chain management in the area of ​​provision of healthcare services through the use of the philosophy of continuous improvement and lean principles, helping healthcare to provide quality service within their current budget constraints.

  2. Managing concrete bridges: Methods for reducing costs and user inconveniences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from modern bridge maintenance management, which has been forced to develop new and cost-efficient approaches in order to cope with the increase in overall deterioration of the aging bridge stock, the growing requirements to accessibility and the decreasing budgets....... These approaches are focused on cost reductions, but must as well lead to a reduction of the user inconveniences (traffic delays, noise, dust) and to a reduction of the environmental impact. These approaches can be based on an assessment of the structures safety, which incorporates the inaccuracies...... in the condition assessments, the models and the predictions in the strategies and the cost estimations. This may lead to increased inspection frequencies, detailed simulations, monitoring and testing to be used as alternatives to extensive repairs, rehabilitations or strengthening. The approaches will in other...

  3. THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUŞAN GABRIELA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

  4. Data Center Storage Cost-Effective Strategies, Implementation, and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Hubbert

    2011-01-01

    We overspend on data center storage ! yet, we fall short of business requirements. It's not about the technologies. It's about the proper application of technologies to deliver storage services efficiently and affordably. It's about meeting business requirements dependent on data center storage. Spend less, deliver more. Data Center Storage: Cost-Effective Strategies, Implementation, and Management provides an industry insider's insight on how to properly scope, plan, evaluate, and implement storage technologies to maximize performance, capacity, reliability, and power savings. It provides bus

  5. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  6. Identifying cost management strategies in dialysis clinics: sustainable savings with positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy D; Gupta, Mahendra; Balas, E Andrew; West, David A

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether cost management strategies are used in a revenue-constrained environment without compromising clinical effectiveness. Cross-sectional analysis of monthly cost and acuity-adjusted hospitalization data. This research included longitudinal regression analyses involving 10 years of data, 1990 through 1999, from each of 6 dialysis centers. Two sets of regression models were used: one set examined cost interactions and cost trends (P management strategies were examined: (1) selective reductions in targeted cost categories, (2) cost reductions through improved efficiencies, (3) cost avoidance by shifting responsibilities to external parties, and (4) uniform reductions across all cost categories. Managers appeared to have limited opportunity to selectively or uniformly reduce costs because of cost "stickiness" and minimal resource substitutability. Improvements in operational efficiencies and cost shifting to external parties occurred. Over time, however, realized efficiencies increased at a decreasing rate, whereas cost shifting actually declined. Contrary to prior hospital studies, these results indicate significant economies of scale. No statistical correlation was found to indicate that the physician/clinic management teams' use of cost reduction strategies affected acuity-adjusted hospitalizations of dialysis patients. Strategic models that include both financial and outcomes data can enable healthcare managers to predict both positive and negative results of cost management proposals. These models can help identify aspects of an organization's cost structure that affect sustainable cost savings: cost stickiness, cost substitutability, institutional experience, realized operational improvements, and economies of scale.

  7. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  8. [Case management. The nursing business of care or cost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, B K; Duquette, A; Kérouac, S; Rouillier, L

    1992-01-01

    Less money spent on health services, cost-effectiveness, better productivity and more efficiency are some of the driving forces of contemporary "neo-liberalism" and political trends. How can nursing services and the profession's human values adapt in this difficult context? The authors describe the newest modality of patient care delivery system: nursing case management. They examine the factors and assumptions that led up to its development and point out the validity of asking some serious questions before embarking on the euphoria of case management.

  9. A framework for assessing cost management system changes: the case of activity-based costing implementation at food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Faraji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity to investigate the technical and organizational effect of management accounting system changes has appeared with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ABC system for case study from food industry in Iran. From this case, the paper develops a framework for assessing ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The study detects five cost centers and for each cost center, it determines different cost drivers. The results of our survey has detected that implementation of ABC system not only helps precise allocation of overhead costs but also helps internal management companies for better planning and control of production, making better decisions for company's profits.

  10. Cost Quality Management Assessment for the Idaho Operations Office. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Office of Engineering and Cost Management (EM-24) conducted a Cost Quality Management Assessment of EM-30 and EM-40 activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on Feb. 3--19, 1992 (Round I). The CQMA team assessed the cost and cost-related management activities at INEL. The Round II CQMA, conducted at INEL Sept. 19--29, 1994, reviewed EM-30, EM-40, EM-50, and EM-60 cost and cost-related management practices against performance objectives and criteria. Round II did not address indirect cost analysis. INEL has made measurable progress since Round I.

  11. Assessing cost-effectiveness in the management of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri J Phillips

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceri J Phillips, Ioan HumphreysInstitute for Health Research, School of Health Science, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, UKAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults, with current prevalence rates estimated to be 30 per 100,000 populations. Women are approximately twice as susceptible as males, but males are more likely to have progressive disease. The onset of the disease normally occurs between 20 and 40 years of age, with a peak incidence during the late twenties and early thirties, resulting in many years of disability for a large proportion of patients, many of whom require wheelchairs and some nursing home or hospital care. The aim of this study is to update a previous review which considered the cost-effectiveness of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs, such as interferons and glatiramer acetate, with more up to date therapies, such as mitaxantrone hydrochloride and natalizumab in the treatment of MS. The development and availability of new agents has been accompanied byan increased optimism that treatment regimens for MS would be more effective; that the number, severity and duration of relapses would diminish; that disease progression would be delayed; and that disability accumulation would be reduced. However, doubts have been expressed about the effectiveness of these treatments, which has only served to compound the problems associated with endeavors to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, disease management, immunomodulatory drugs, cost-effectiveness, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis

  12. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  13. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Dominique; Metz, Sebastien; Bouillard, Jacques X; Brignon, Jean-Marc [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata BP2 - 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Bomfim, Joao A S, E-mail: dominique.fleury@ineris.fr [Centro Ricerche Plast-optica (CRP), Via Jacopo Linussio 1 - 33020 Amaro (Italy)

    2011-07-06

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  14. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Dominique; Bomfim, João A. S.; Metz, Sébastien; Bouillard, Jacques X.; Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  15. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... be arranged and lastly, a theoretical contribution to how disease preparedness costs could be shared. An exploration of literature on issues regarding animal disease prevention in the Danish livestock sector is used in paper 1, while an empirical approach is used in paper 2, 3 and 4. A theoretical approach...... to elaborate on the private and public incentives that influence Danish farmers to prevent animal diseases. The paper reveals that public incentives could be improved by clearly stating repercussions for not following certain regulations and the current compensation strategy could be adjusted in a way...

  16. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  17. Cost-effective management of type 2 diabetes: providing quality care in a cost-constrained environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, B

    2000-08-01

    John Deere Health Care provides health coverage to 20,000 diabetic members in 5 states. Medical costs for those members are approximately 3 times higher than costs for nondiabetic members. Last year, John Deere Health Care introduced an integrated diabetes disease management program that includes telephone and mail reminders (managed by a vendor) for asymptomatic diabetic individuals, case management (managed by the plan) for diabetic members with complications or risks, and quarterly patient-specific mailings that are sent to providers. After 1 year of operation, testing rates increased 19% for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 20% for lipids, and 78% for microalbumin. The actual mean HbA1c level decreased 0.5%, hospital admission rates decreased 22%, and hospital days were reduced 34%. Overall, the total medical costs per diabetic patient were reduced approximately 12%. Despite system cost increases for pharmacy costs, vendor contracting, case management administration, and patient and physician education, the potential for long-term quality improvement and considerable hospital cost reduction is high when such a plan is instituted. The program at John Deere Health Care is expanding and coverage has been enhanced.

  18. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  19. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  20. Methods for cost estimation in software project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.

  1. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Krull

    Full Text Available Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control, with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation

  2. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return.

  3. A STUDY ON THE ABC APPROACH IN COST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC, an alternative approach to traditional accounting, represents a costing methodology that identifies the main cost drivers, or the main activities in an organization, thus assigning the cost of the products and services according to the number of specific activities or transactions used in the development process of a product or service. This system is based on the measurement of all the activities performed within an organization and provides the companies with the opportunity to efficiently improve their activity or to reduce the costs with no quality loss for their customers. The primary aim of ABC method was to implement a logical system of additional allocation with a better information and improvement in the field of managerial policies, a real cost structure on the basis of which strategic managerial decisions could be further adopted. Under the terms of a continuous growth of fixed cost weighting, we will become more interested in the calculation system of process costing. This costs calculation method can bring on important benefits, especially for service provider companies, considering the high share of common- indirect costs (overhead, in their unit.

  4. Cost of managing complications resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Amanda R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision makers need to have Canadian-specific cost information in order to develop an accurate picture of diabetes management. The objective of this study is to estimate direct medical costs of managing complications of diabetes. Complication costs were estimated by applying unit costs to typical resource use profiles. For each complication, the event costs refer to those associated with the acute episode and subsequent care in the first year. State costs are the annual costs of continued management. Data were obtained from many Canadian sources, including the Ontario Case Cost Project, physician and laboratory fee schedules, formularies, reports, and literature. All costs are expressed in 2000 Canadian dollars. Results Major events (e.g., acute myocardial infarction: $18,635 event cost; $1,193 state cost, generate a greater financial burden than early stage complications (e.g., microalbuminuria: $62 event cost; $10 state cost. Yet, complications that are initially relatively low in cost (e.g., microalbuminuria can progress to more costly advanced stages (e.g., end-stage renal disease, $63,045 state cost. Conclusions Macrovascular and microvascular complication costs should be included in any economic analysis of diabetes. This paper provides Canadian-based cost information needed to inform critical decisions about spending limited health care dollars on emerging new therapies and public health initiatives.

  5. Control and costs of management; Mejora de la logistica inversa, control y costes de gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ramos, M.

    2002-07-01

    Companies are being forced to set up Reverse Supply Chains because of environmental regulations or consumer pressures. Reverse Supply Chain is the series of activities required to retrieve a used product from a customer and either dispose of it or reuse it. And for a growing number of manufacturers, in industries ranging from packaging to computer. Reverse Supply Chains are becoming an essential part of business. Pricewaterhouse Coopers ? Spain, as an organization with clients in multiple industries and governments we are acutely aware of the potential impact that Reverse Supply chain have, both in the results and in the competitive positioning of our clients. It can help to boost benefits, reducing purchasing costs and reducing inventory, cut cycle times along the value reverse chain, control and reduce risks of discontinuity in supply to recycled. Ultimately, the Reverse Supply Chain can be deployed to integrate, manufacturers, distributors, marketers, recycles and customers,and governments thanks to the latest developments in e-business. We understand the challenges and opportunities that are inherent in Reverse Supply Chain Management in our country both for global and local businesses. (Author)

  6. IDA 2004 Cost Research Symposium: Investments in, Use of, and Management of Cost Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Performer: Virginia Tech Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering System Performance Laboratory Dr. Kostas Triantis, Principal...21491 Great Mills Rd. Lexington Park, MD 20653 Performer: Galorath, Inc. 100 North Sepulveda Blvd Suite 1801 El Segundo , CA 90245 Technomics, Inc...107 The Aerospace Corporation Name: Cost and Requirements Department, The Aerospace Corporation Address: 2350 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo , CA

  7. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  8. Cost-effectiveness in the management of Dupuytren's contracture. A Canadian cost-utility analysis of current and future management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, H; Binhammer, P A

    2013-08-01

    In Canada, Dupuytren's contracture is managed with partial fasciectomy or percutaneous needle aponeurotomy (PNA). Injectable collagenase will soon be available. The optimal management of Dupuytren's contracture is controversial and trade-offs exist between the different methods. Using a cost-utility analysis approach, our aim was to identify the most cost-effective form of treatment for managing Dupuytren's contracture it and the threshold at which collagenase is cost-effective. We developed an expected-value decision analysis model for Dupuytren's contracture affecting a single finger, comparing the cost-effectiveness of fasciectomy, aponeurotomy and collagenase from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness, one-way sensitivity and variability analyses were performed using standard thresholds for cost effective treatment ($50 000 to $100 000/QALY gained). Percutaneous needle aponeurotomy was the preferred strategy for managing contractures affecting a single finger. The cost-effectiveness of primary aponeurotomy improved when repeated to treat recurrence. Fasciectomy was not cost-effective. Collagenase was cost-effective relative to and preferred over aponeurotomy at $875 and $470 per course of treatment, respectively. In summary, our model supports the trend towards non-surgical interventions for managing Dupuytren's contracture affecting a single finger. Injectable collagenase will only be feasible in our publicly funded healthcare system if it costs significantly less than current United States pricing.

  9. Health economics of weight management: evidence and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    is too much reliance on health workers to treat the problem, especially doctors, who have not been given additional resources to manage obesity outside a typical doctor's consultation. Gross has recommended that further changes should be made to Medicare, private health insurance, and workplace and tax legislation to give people financial incentives to change their behaviour because obesity should not just be treated by governments as a public health problem but also as a barrier to productivity and a drain on resources. A Special Report of the WMCACA (Weight Management Code Administration Council of Australia) (www.weightcouncil.org) on the "Health Economics of Weight Management" has been published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition in September 2006. This report explores the cost benefit analysis of weight management in greater detail.

  10. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  11. Home Energy Management System Using NILM, Low-Cost HAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qasim Khalid; Naveed Arshad; Nasir Khan; Taha Hassan; Fahad Javed; Jahangir Ikram

    2014-01-01

    Home energy management systems (HEMs) are used to provide comfortable life for consumers as well as to save energy. An essential component of HEMs is a home area network (HAN) that is used to remotely control the electric devices at homes and buildings. Although HAN prices have dropped in recent years but they are still expensive enough to prohibit a mass scale deployments. In this paper, a very low cost alternative to the expensive HANs is presented. We have applied a combination of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) and very low cost one-way HAN to develop a HEM. By using NILM and machine learning algorithms we find the status of devices and their energy consumption from a central meter and communicate with devices through the one-way HAN. The evaluations show that the proposed machine learning algorithm for NILM achieves up to 99%accuracy in certain cases. On the other hand our radio frequency (RF)-based one-way HAN achieves a range of 80 feet in all settings.

  12. Time planning and Cost Management in Strategic Alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Giurea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a mutual support example out of ten simulations regarding strategic alliances based on the hypothesis that every partner allocates its resources and budget in an equitable manner according to total expected time (PERT. In today’s strategic alliances, the partner plays an essential role regarding the support capacity of the firm, assuming the statement: “many hands make light work”. The equitable allocations of time and cost, that the firms are able to honor, will be an advantage within the strategic mutual support. If one of the partners fails to respond with the same resources that the other partner offers, within a certain phase of the process, he will have the possibility to prove his capacity of support in another phase, when the other partner cannot afford to allocate the same resources. Mutual support between partners, time planning and cost management represent the best ways for a complex mechanism, such as the strategic alliance, to work properly.

  13. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 4: Low cost management approach and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of low cost management approaches for the development of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The factors of the program which tend to increase costs are identified. The NASA/Industry interface is stressed to show how the interface can be improved to produce reduced program costs. Techniques and examples of cost reduction which can be applied to the EOS program are tabulated. Specific recommendations for actions to be taken to reduce costs in prescribed areas are submitted.

  14. Your hospital's strategy for managing total cost of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Gregory L; Tisdell, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Hospital and health system leadership should examine levels of risk retained within property and casualty insurance programs to ensure the right fit for the organization, rather than simply relying on past experience or basing decisions on a desire to reduce excess premiums. Leadership should determine the maximum cost of risk that can be absorbed by the organization without violating key financial performance targets. Also important is using predictive models to identify expected losses or claims costs, which factor into cost-benefit analysis of retaining risk at various levels.

  15. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  16. IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF COST ACCOUNTING IN COMPANY CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Todorović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Company crisis could be defined asa process in a period of time that unexpectedlythreatesn the realization of the mission and goals ofthe company. As such, it has been present forseveral years both in highly developed countries ofthe world and in our country. The causes of thecrisis can be numerous, and the current crisis inour business is in many ways specific, and requiresa large extent and greater involvement ofmanagement structures in the detection andelimination of consequences caused by the crisis. Inthis regard, the management structure must focusattention to high-quality accounting - informationsupport, which results from adequately establishedconcept of managing accounting. Appropriate,timely and relevant information on economicperformance are necessary for its success, which atthe same time assume the role of control and/ordispositive crisis management instruments in thecompany. The information derived from managingaccounting as a quality base for decision makingshould enable recognition of symptoms and causesof the crisis, as well as crisis prevention andassessment. The paper recalls the specific and mostcommon causes of the crisis in the company, as oneof the important issues, especially in the globaleconomic crisis. In addition, the paper will pointout the importance of setting realistic goals andpossibilities to prevent the crisis. Finally, wehighlight the importance of cost accounting inorder to overcome the effects of the crisis.

  17. 78 FR 49945 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... would enable an increase in fees to recover additional costs related to processing drilling-related...) for mining (broadly inclusive of metal mining, coal mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining...

  18. Cost management and cross-functional communication through product architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Ruud; Wouters, Marc; Hissel, Paul; Kerssens-van Drongelen, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Product architecture decisions regarding, for example, product modularity, component commonality, and design re-use, are important for balancing costs, responsiveness, quality, and other important business objectives. Firms are challenged with complex tradeoffs between competing design priorities, f

  19. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically using these devices to reduce the time average electric utility bill in a data center. Using the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop an online control algorithm that can optimally exploit these devices to minimize the time average cost. This algorithm operates without any knowledge of the statistics of the workload or electricity cost processes, making it attractive in the presence of workload and pricing uncertainties. An interesting feature of our algorithm is that its deviation from optimality reduces as the...

  20. Cost minimisation of product transhipment for physical distribution management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma R. Nwaogbe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal allocation of shipments (least cost of two manufactured products between depots and places of consumption. In this study, the least-cost method was used in solving the transportation algorithm using Tora 2.0 version software. The study was necessary because of the high operating costs associated with physical distribution when deliveries are not properly planned and considered with reference to alternative strategies. In contrast, significant savings can be achieved by using techniques available for determining the cheapest methods of transporting goods from several origins to several destinations. Cost minimisation is a very useful approach to the solution of transportation problems.

  1. BOUNDARIES OF COSTS AND THE OPORTUNITIES OF THEIR MANAGEMENT TO LIGNITE EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca CIUMAG

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest related to costs and their calculation is not limited to determining selling prices, it is particularly moving towards mastery and reduce costs without diminishing the attractiveness of the product. In the market economy frame is important to know how competitors manage to master their costs, but at the same time, and which is the way how the products sold by entity are added in chain costs to users, which causes its costs and performance by them. Action problem on the cost has a very wide scope. First must to be seen cost is determined at what level, in order to know how to act on it. Also, the computing manner can affect how you act on costs. From the technical point of view the managers can act upon costs relying on laws they follow, laws imposed on their behavior.

  2. Minimizing Costs Can Be Costly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A quite common practice, even in academic literature, is to simplify a decision problem and model it as a cost-minimizing problem. In fact, some type of models has been standardized to minimization problems, like Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs, where a maximization formulation would be treated as a “generalized” QAP and not solvable by many of the specially designed softwares for QAP. Ignoring revenues when modeling a decision problem works only if costs can be separated from the decisions influencing revenues. More often than we think this is not the case, and minimizing costs will not lead to maximized profit. This will be demonstrated using spreadsheets to solve a small example. The example is also used to demonstrate other pitfalls in network models: the inability to generally balance the problem or allocate costs in advance, and the tendency to anticipate a specific type of solution and thereby make constraints too limiting when formulating the problem.

  3. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Krajnc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-based accounting of logistics costs in a production company, and to test its efficiency in the disclosure of logistics costs compared with traditional cost accounting. The application of the model in a production company shows that an activity-based approach discloses as much as 108% more logistics costs at the level of a group of products than the traditional cost-accounting approach. Further, detailed information on logistics costs obtained in this way enables their more efficient management. Key words: logistics costs; activity-based costing; cost allocation; cost visibility; cost management

  4. [Conceptions of nurses from a public university hospital regarding the cost management report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, William Tiago; Rodrigues, Ana Vanessa Deffaccio; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Vannuch, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Taldivo, Meire Aparecida

    2012-10-01

    This exploratory-descriptive study was performed with a qualitative approach, on the theoretical construct in the field of phenomenology, with the objective to identify the understanding of nurses of a public university hospital regarding the cost management report. Data collection was performed from August of 2009 to March of 2010, with 59 nurses, and consisted of three guiding questions: What is the meaning of cost management? How do you use the cost management report? What is the contribution of cost management reports? Results showed that nurses do not use this report in their practice, because they focus on the care issues, and justify this by the fact that they did not receive academic training in relation to cost management and also because they do not understand the report. The report, however, though little explored, contributes with the practice of nurses who hold a management position, in terms of cost management and control.

  5. Discussion on the Cost Consciousness in the Cost Management%初探成本管理中的成本意识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽; 谢武

    2011-01-01

    The cost management is the fountainhead of the performance of enterprises, and the cost consciousness is the fertile soil to raise the costs management level. This article introduced the basic concept of cost consciousness and cost management, elaborated the present situation of costs management in China and the function of cost consciousness, and proposed the measures to construct costs consciousness emphatically.%成本管理是企业效益的源泉,而成本意识是提高企业成本管理水平的沃土.本文介绍了成本意识和成本管理的基本概念,论述了我国企业成本管理的现状和成本意识的作用,着重提出了构建企业成本意识的措施.

  6. Gestão de custos florestais: um estudo de caso utilizando o Activity-Based Costing Forest management costs: a case study utilizing Activity-Based Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Ribeiro Carneiro de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No atual cenário de industrialização globalizada, tornou-se fundamental a eficácia no gerenciamento dos custos considerados inevitavelmente necessários. Programas convencionais de redução dos custos não consideram o grau de agregação de valor das atividades de rotina pela distorção dos sistemas contábeis atuais. No presente estudo, apresentam-se os principais motivos da falta de relevância das informações de custo, comenta-se sobre o problema da redução de desperdícios florestais e suas conseqüências. A partir de um estudo de caso em uma empresa do setor florestal, demonstra-se uma simulação do Activity Based Costing (ABC em uma determinada área da empresa, concluindo-se que a adoção de sistemas de custeio mais aprimorados, tal como o ABC, devem fazer parte de programas que busquem o aumento da competitividade do setor florestal.In the current view of globalized industrialization, it has become fundamental to manage essential costs effectively. Conventional programs for reducing costs, do no consider the value agregation grade of routine activities because of the distortion of current accounting systems. This study, presents the main reasons for the lack of relevance of the cost information, commenting on the problem of the reduction of forest waste and its consequences. Using a case study in a company from the forest sector, a simulation of Activity Based Costing (ABC is demonstrated in a determined area of the company it is concluded that the adoption of a more refined cost system, such as the ABC, should be included in programs, that seek to increase the competitiveness of the forest sector.

  7. Managed care in workers' compensation: analysis of cost drivers and vendor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, B

    1995-08-01

    1. Managed care for employee benefits provides a model of cost containment for workers' compensation; however, significant differences must be understood. 2. Purchasers of managed care services must perform an internal assessment to determine the cost drivers for workers' compensation. Managed care does not address all cost drivers. 3. A model for evaluating managed care vendors places them on a continuum of risk, similar to insurance risk, where a variety of cost containment strategies may be used together. 4. By reviewing seven key aspects of a managed care vendor, a purchaser can rate the vendor's ability to meet their needs.

  8. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  9. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  10. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  11. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  12. Costing and Data Management. Development of a Simplified System for Smaller Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Michael D.

    1976-01-01

    A participatory process by which a useful costing and data management system was developed at Chapman College is described. The system summarizes information on instructional workloads, class sizes, and the costs per student credit hour for academic programs. Costs incurred in other areas to support each program are included. (Editor/LBH)

  13. Experiences related to the role of a cost centre manager in a public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiences related to the role of a cost centre manager in a public hospital in Limpopo Province, ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The purpose of a cost centre is to control clinical and administrative costs, as well as ...

  14. Global cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Louise K K; Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    and intervention approaches, and outcomes (e.g., inclusion or exclusion of long-term type 2 diabetes risk and associated costs). We concluded that incorporation of long-term benefits of GDM screening and treatment has huge impact on cost-effectiveness estimates. Based on the large methodological heterogeneity...... and varying results in the existing body of evidence, we find it unreasonable to outline any global recommendations. For future economic studies, we recommend inclusion of long-term outcomes and adaptation to local preferences, as well as examination of the impact of the diagnostic criteria recently proposed...

  15. Direct and Indirect Costs of Asthma Management in Greece: An Expert Panel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Kousoulakou, Hara; Hillas, Georgios; Bakakos, Petros; Toumbis, Michalis; Loukides, Stelios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant economic burden worldwide. The objectives of this study were to map current resource use associated with the disease management and to estimate the annual direct and indirect costs per adult patient with asthma. A Delphi panel with seven leading pulmonologists was conducted. A semistructured questionnaire was developed to elicit data on resource use and treatment patterns. Unit costs from official, published sources were subsequently assigned to resource use to estimate direct medical costs. Indirect costs were estimated as number of work loss days. Cost base year was 2015, and the perspective adopted was that of the National Organization of Health Care Services Provision, as well as the societal. Patients with asthma are mainly managed by pulmonologists (71.4%) and secondarily by general practitioners and internists (28.6%). The annual cost of managing exacerbations was estimated at €273.1, while maintenance costs were estimated at €1,100.2 per year. Total costs of managing asthma per patient per year were estimated at €2,281.8, 64.4% of which represented direct medical costs. Of the direct costs, pharmaceutical treatment was the key driver, accounting for 63.9 and 41.2% of direct and total costs, respectively. Direct non-medical costs (patient travel and waiting time) were estimated at €152.3. Indirect costs accounted for 28.9% of total costs. Asthma is a chronic condition, the management of which constrains the already limited Greek health care resources. The increasing prevalence of the disease raises concerns as it could translate per patient costs into a significant burden for the Greek health care system. Thus, the prevention, self-management, and improved quality of care for asthma should find a place in the health policy agenda in Greece.

  16. 25 CFR 122.8 - Administrative costs for management of the fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs for management of the fund. 122.8 Section 122.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES MANAGEMENT OF OSAGE JUDGMENT FUNDS FOR EDUCATION § 122.8 Administrative costs for management of the fund. Funds...

  17. Self-management of hybrid networks – hidden costs due to TCP performance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Pras, Aiko; Fioreze, Tiago; Boer, de Pieter-Tjerk; Bauschert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Self-management is one of the most popular research topics in network and systems management. Little is known, however, regarding the costs, in particular with respect to performance, of self-management solutions. The goal of this paper is therefore to analyze such hidden per- formance costs. Our an

  18. Current State and Issues of Logistics Cost Accounting and Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah, Sahidah; Pyeman, Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Logistics cost is an important factor affecting the competitiveness on both macro (national) and micro level (firms). Logistics cost indicates the performance of logistics industry, efficiency level and its competitiveness. Research Problem: Despite of its significance, current state of logistics cost accounting and management in Malaysia has not properly addressed and the issues surround logistics cost measurement remains incoherent. Aim of research: The purpose o...

  19. QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN COST MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING SUBJECTS: THE STUDENTS’ VIEWPOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Jucelia Appio Tibola; Amélia Silveira; Ilisangela Mais

    2012-01-01

    The aim in this research is to identify the quality attributes students perceive in cost management and accounting subjects. The subjects were 126 students who took the subjects Cost Applied to Administration, Cost Accounting and Cost Analysis, corresponding to all students in the semester during which the research was undertaken. Thus, a census study was adopted. The research institution is a public university that offers graduate (M.Sc. and Ph.D.) programs in Accountancy and Business Admini...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESON PLANNING AND COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Stjepanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient cost management is oneof the key tasks in modern management, primarilybecause of causal connection of costs, profitabilityand competitive advantage on the market. As amarket-based concept, Target Costing presentsmodern accounting philosophy of cost accountingand profit planning. In modern business, efficientcost planning and management is provided byaccounting information system as an integratedaccounting and information solution whichprovides enterprises with accounting dataprocessing neccessary for making businessdecisions related to efficient management inaccordance with declared mission and goals of anenterprise. Basic information support in the processof planning and cost management is realised bycost accounting module which is a very importantpart of accounting information system in everyenterprise. The cost accounting module as asegment of an integral information system, providescost monitoring by type, place and bearer.

  1. Cloud Computing and Information Technology Resource Cost Management for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Adanu, Kwame; Olesen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision-making problem confronting SMEs considering the adoption of cloud computing as an alternative to in-house computing services provision. The economics of choosing between in-house computing and a cloud alternative is analyzed by comparing the total economic costs o...

  2. Management, treatment outcome and cost of epilepsy in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Data analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS version ... There was a strong correlation between clinic attendance and cost of AEDs (r = 0.454, p = ..... Student. 18. 19.8. Housewife. 11. 12.1. Privately Employed. 11. 12.1.

  3. The Effect of Activity-Based Costing on Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    problems by reducing the volume of the allocation bases and increasing overhead costs. A study performed by Miller and Vollman [108] demonstrated how AMT...Miller, Jeffrey G. and Thomas E. Vollman , "The Hidden Factory," Harvard Business Review, September-October 1985, pp. 142-150. 109. Miller, John A

  4. Cloud Computing and Information Technology Resource Cost Management for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Adanu, Kwame; Olesen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    of the two options assuming the quality of service is identical across the options. The decision-making process was found to require substantial information gathering to identify explicit and implicit costs to inform the final decision. Careful considerations of decision time horizons also matter...

  5. Improving cost- effectiveness of hypertension management at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment using the cheapest drugs through low-cost outlets such as community health ... after subtraction of those that would have been written in the period prior to ... or captopril (in addition to the other drugs or in place of the vasodilator).

  6. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica, E-mail: vems@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kromann, Mikkel A. [COWI A/S, Parallelvej 2, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  7. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  8. COST ACCOUNTING AS THE KEY INFORMATION CORE OF THE COMPANY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Jablan STEFANOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The management is expected to lead the company towards the achievement of set objectives which, in the contemporary settings of marked external and internal complexity, inevitably requires sophisticated expert knowledge and skills, as well as quality information support. Cost accounting generates cost and performance information with the goal of qualitatively meeting information needs of, above all, internal users. It represents the essential part of the company’s accounting information system as a whole and it is often stressed as the key information core and a reliable information support for the company’s management in performing their managerial activities. The contemporary business environment inevitably requires the restructuring of cost accounting and new approaches to costing and cost management, in the attempt to improve the quality of cost information that has always been the object of particular interest. Moreover, only a flexibly designed cost accounting information system can qualitatively respond to the increasingly numerous and various information requirements. In this paper we discuss the role cost accounting has in offering adequate information support to managers at all managerial levels. We emphasize some of the new tools, techniques, concepts and approaches to costing and cost management

  9. Costing clinical biochemistry services as part of an operational management budgeting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbit, I F

    1986-08-01

    The process of costing clinical biochemistry tests as a component of the commissioning of a unit management budgeting system based on an International Computers Limited (ICL) minicomputer system was examined. Methods of apportioning consumable and labour costs under direct and indirect cost headings and as test and request charges were investigated, and in this currently operational system it was found that 38% of consumable costs and 57% of labour costs were not a direct component of the routine analysis function. Means of assigning test costs to a given request source and the incorporation of such charges into clinical budget statements were looked at. A reduction in laboratory workload did not produce a comparable reduction in laboratory costs. For a theoretical reduction in workload of 20% only a 3.8% laboratory saving in recoverable costs could be expected.

  10. Optimal Privacy-Cost Trade-off in Demand-Side Management with Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Onur; Gündüz, Deniz; Gómez-Vilardebó, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Demand-side energy storage management is studied from a joint privacy-energy cost optimization perspective. Assuming that the user's power demand profile as well as the electricity prices are known non-causally, the optimal energy management (EM) policy that jointly increases the privacy of the user and reduces his energy cost is characterized. The backward water-filling interpretation is provided for the optimal EM policy. While the energy cost is reduced by requesting more energy when the p...

  11. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  12. An Analysis of Cost Management Strategies Employed By Building Contractors on Projects in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benviolent Chigara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a major consumer of capital resources by virtue of the magnitude, complexity and nature of the works it executes. Yet improving cost performance still remains a chronic challenge facing the construction industry worldwide. Apart from advances made by contractors to devise mechanisms to manage project cost, studies across the world reveal that construction projects are hardly completed within budget. The Zimbabwean construction industry has not been spared either. However, this background is considered unhealthy for an industry whose capital consumption is heavy and concomitant cost overruns spell disastrous financial consequences on the investor. This study explored cost management strategies employed by contractors on building projects and also investigated the challenges that contractors encounter in managing project cost. Exploratory research design was employed making use of both questionnaires and interviews to collect data from selected contractors registered under category A, B and C of the Construction Industry Federation of Zimbabwe (CIFOZ. The study observed that in the majority of cases, contractors’ efforts to manage projects costs are centred on management of project resources. Additionally, monthly cost reports, variance management, project budgets and cash flow forecasting are among the other strategies. However,  in spite of the growing trend to automate cost control systems, there is evidence to suggest that the traditional paper based systems of storing and managing information is widely used in the industry. Contrary to having cost management systems in place, contractors admit experiencing cost overruns on their projects. These cost overruns are attributable to organizational related challenges, shortage of skilled personnel, and unavailability of some building materials on the local market, variations and deficiency in cost control systems

  13. Cost analysis and the practicing radiologist/manager: an introduction to managerial accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, H P; Yin, D

    1996-06-01

    Cost analysis is inherently one of the most tedious tasks falling on the shoulders of any manager. In today's world, whether in a service business such as radiology or medicine or in a product line such as car manufacturing, accurate cost analysis is critical to all aspects of management: marketing, competitive strategy, quality control, human resource management, accounting (financial), and operations management, to name but a few. This is a topic that we will explore with the intention of giving the radiologist/manager the understanding and the basic skills to use cost analysis efficiently, making sure that major financial decisions are being made with adequate cost information, and showing that cost accounting is really managerial accounting in that it pays little attention to the bottom line of financial statements but places much more emphasis on equipping managers with the information to determine budgets, prices, salaries, and incentives and influences capital budgeting decisions through an understanding of product profitability rather than firm profitability.

  14. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  15. Sequential antibiotic therapy: Effective cost management and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, L A; Bergeron, M G; Gribble, M J; Jewesson, P J; Low, D E; Marrie, T J; Nicolle, L E

    1995-11-01

    The escalating costs associated with antimicrobial chemotherapy have become of increasing concern to physicians, pharmacists and patients alike. A number of strategies have been developed to address this problem. This article focuses specifically on sequential antibiotic therapy (sat), which is the strategy of converting patients from intravenous to oral medication regardless of whether the same or a different class of drug is used. Advantages of sat include economic benefits, patient benefits and benefits to the health care provider. Potential disadvantages are cost to the consumer and the risk of therapeutic failure. A critical review of the published literature shows that evidence from randomized controlled trials supports the role of sat. However, it is also clear that further studies are necessary to determine the optimal time for intravenous to oral changeover and to identify the variables that may interfere with the use of oral drugs. Procedures necessary for the implementation of a sat program in the hospital setting are also discussed.

  16. Sequential Antibiotic Therapy: Effective Cost Management and Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating costs associated with antimicrobial chemotherapy have become of increasing concern to physicians, pharmacists and patients alike. A number of strategies have been developed to address this problem. This article focuses specifically on sequential antibiotic therapy (sat, which is the strategy of converting patients from intravenous to oral medication regardless of whether the same or a different class of drug is used. Advantages of sat include economic benefits, patient benefits and benefits to the health care provider. Potential disadvantages are cost to the consumer and the risk of therapeutic failure. A critical review of the published literature shows that evidence from randomized controlled trials supports the role of sat. However, it is also clear that further studies are necessary to determine the optimal time for intravenous to oral changeover and to identify the variables that may interfere with the use of oral drugs. Procedures necessary for the implementation of a sat program in the hospital setting are also discussed.

  17. The Budgetary Process with a Use of Modern Approaches in Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hammer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State organisational units still compile their budget as incremental and as such it therefore disregards causes of the origination of costs and does not put a sufficient pressure on increase in efficiency of economy. This article aims to propose a budgetary setup for operating costs using the methods of ABC/ABM (Activity Based Costing/Activity Based Management in state organisational units (SOU. Essence of the proposed procedure towards budgetary setup as well as cost management is specification of such cost drivers that reflect the causal link between activities of the given organisation and indirect operating costs. Through a system of linear equations there is in turn resolved parity between demands on budgetary funding of a specific activity and full costs of activities. Using a multiple regression analyses, for selected cost groups there was also tested their dependence upon criteria that may act as general cost drivers. Undertaken research has also uncovered that frequently used variable “number of workers” cannot explain the analysed cost groups. Benefit of proposed solutions is increase in efficiency of SOU economy. This way, the management receives a tool for budgeting and cost control not only within the process structure based on activities, but also within individual items of the budgetary classification.

  18. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  19. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC OBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data

  20. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  1. Costing Practices in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    The rising cost of healthcare is a globally pressing concern. This makes detailed attention to the way in which costing is carried out of central importance. This article offers a framework for considering the interdependencies between a dominant element of the contemporary healthcare context, i.......e., Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) systems, and costing practices. DRG-based payment systems strongly influence costing practices in multiple ways. In particular, setting DRG tariffs requires highly standardized costing practices linked with specific skill sets from management accountants and brings other...

  2. Cost implications in the management of induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S J; Armour, C L

    1997-11-01

    For many years the standard treatment of induction of labour has been amniotomy followed by intravenous oxytocin. More recently prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; dinoprostone), in various preparations, has been used to both ripen the cervix before amniotomy and administration of oxytocin, and to induce labour on its own. Since the acquisition cost of PGE2 is approximately 15 times that of oxytocin, it is important to justify the use of PGE2. In this paper, literature from 1970 to 1996 has been reviewed and outcomes following the use of PGE2, plus amniotomy and oxytocin if necessary, have been compared with outcomes following the use of amniotomy plus oxytocin alone. No significant differences in the mode of delivery and no serious adverse effects in mothers or babies were detected. Three economic analyses of these approaches to induction of labour have been reviewed. While under certain conditions there may be some cost savings associated with the use of PGE2, neither of the studies reviewed showed substantial, reliable cost savings. Further research is required to identify the patients who would gain most benefit from the use of PGE2.

  3. Cost Analysis of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programmes Being Delivered in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of chronic disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the cost of delivering the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in order to…

  4. Sticker Shock: Management Professors' Perspectives on the Rising Costs of College Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Stan; Stevens, Robert E.; Silver, Lawrence S.; Clow, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Internet survey methodology to target management instructors' views on the cost of textbooks and the strategies that might be exercised by universities, publishers, and legislatures to control cost increases. From a random sample of 2,893 management professors selected, using university websites, from universities throughout the…

  5. Costs and efficacy of management measures to improve udder health on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Hogeveen, H.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many different management measures are available to control mastitis, a very costly disease in the dairy sector. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the costs and efficacies of 18 of these management measures, for contagious and environmental pathogens, and their effect on bulk tank somatic

  6. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  7. Practice Management Analysis Of Costs And Price Formation In Clothing Cluster - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gonçalves de Araujo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the level of use of practices related to the management of costs and price formation by the managers of the Local Productive Arrangement (APL Clothing of Pernambuco. The sample consisted of 52 companies, and the results point to a still unsatisfactory trend of cost management procedures, whereas the minority use of all the tools and adopting do informally. The significant associations found between the analysis variables were related to non-trading price of those respondents who said they adopt differentiation strategy (higher quality, and the use of costing methods by those respondents who do not adopt the low-cost strategy. It was found that those who use any funding arrangements tend not to adopt the low-cost strategy, preferring not to give up the product quality for lower costs.

  8. Formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs associated with systematic formulary management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmons, Pieter J.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Daniels, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The impact of a comprehensive hospital formulary management system on formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs was evaluated. Methods. The formulary management system consisted of monitoring nonformulary medication use, reviewing formulary medication use annually, and providing periodi

  9. The chronic care model versus disease management programs: a transaction cost analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Mark, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The present article applies transaction cost analysis as a framework for better understanding health plans' decisions to improve chronic illness management by using disease management programs versus redesigning care within physician practices.

  10. Formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs associated with systematic formulary management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmons, Pieter J.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Daniels, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The impact of a comprehensive hospital formulary management system on formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs was evaluated. Methods. The formulary management system consisted of monitoring nonformulary medication use, reviewing formulary medication use annually, and providing

  11. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding...

  12. Cost-effective wound management: a survey of 1717 nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Heather

    2017-06-22

    Delivering high-quality wound care requires a mix of knowledge and skills, which nurses aim to update by attending educational events such as conferences and study days. This article describes the data obtained from 30 educational study days, which took place across England, Scotland and Wales. It will explore nurses' knowledge in relation to the cost-effectiveness and clinical efficacy of current wound care practices, based on the answers of 1717 delegates that attended the events. It will also outline the results in relation to reducing expenditure on wound dressings and the importance of performing an accurate wound assessment.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AT OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mykhalska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementing of models of production costs management accounting in response to responsibility centers into Ukrainian oil and fat enterprises is the aim of their full optimization in terms of current competitive market. Setting production costs as an object of every single responsibility center will enable to update the whole range of accounting operations on costs paperwork, used raw and other materials assessment, cost recovery from labour costs with benefits-related deduction, depreciation recovery due to season production variability, services distribution of auxiliary and service departments and general production costs. In this regard, referring to the current costs accounting at oil and fat enterprises of Ukraine it should be admitted that the main purpose of the article is to explore the above-mentioned issues.

  14. Does recyclable separation reduce the cost of municipal waste management in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifari, Rosaria; Lo Piano, Samuele; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Tasaki, Tomohiro

    2017-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a system involving multiple sub-systems that typically require demanding inputs, materials and resources to properly process generated waste throughput. For this reason, MSW management is generally one of the most expensive services provided by municipalities. In this paper, we analyze the Japanese MSW management system and estimate the cost elasticity with respect to the waste volumes at three treatment stages: collection, processing, and disposal. Although we observe economies of scale at all three stages, the collection cost is less elastic than the disposal cost. We also examine whether source separation at home affects the cost of MSW management. The empirical results show that the separate collection of the recyclable fraction leads to reduced processing costs at intermediate treatment facilities, but does not change the overall waste management cost. Our analysis also reveals that the cost of waste management systems decreases when the service is provided by private companies through a public tender. The cost decreases even more when the service is performed under the coordination of adjacent municipalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forming the corporate strategy of cost management of an industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Vladimirovich Kramin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop and substantiate one of the mechanisms of corporate strategy formation of an industrial enterprise cost management. Methods institutional cost and systemic approaches. Results in the article the classification of corporate strategies is elaborated in the framework of the cost management system. In accordance with the structure of the cost management system the classification of corporate strategy is used which is universal from the point of view of cost management integration at the level of managerial decisionmaking integration at the level of key competencies integration at the level of cost factors integration at integrativecost level. Each of these types of integration involves vertical and horizontal integration. Scientific novelty in the article the corporate strategies classification is elaborated in the framework of the cost management system. Practical value a holistic systemic approach to the corporate strategy classification facilitates the search selection and forming of optimal corporate strategy for each specific business. The main tool of this choice is the concept of cost management. nbsp

  16. Job Satisfaction, Cost Management Knowledge, Budgetary Participation, and Their Impact on Performance (P.15-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Farahmita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the influence of the manager’s level of cost management knowledge and job satisfaction on the relation-ship between budget participation and managerial performance. This research uses theoretical framework of individual performance who claims that individual performance is affected by three dimensions of performance which interact each other, i.e. dimensions of opportunity (participatory budget, dimensions of capacity (cost management knowledge and the dimensions of willingness (job satisfaction. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate regression models that included interaction of three variables (3-way interaction between budgetary participation, cost management knowledge and job satisfaction to test their effects on managerial performance. Research shows that budget participation which is given to managers with higher cost management knowledge and higher job satisfaction, had no impact to their managerial performance. Managerial performance variation can be explained by two dimensions. Based on our tests, the findings is consistent that budget participation has positive effect to managerial performance. Further test shows that managerial performance will increase when budget participation combined with high level of cost management knowledge or when budget participation combined with high job satisfaction (2 way interaction. The research also found that the combination of cost management knowledge with high job satis-faction without the opportunity to participate in the budgeting process will actually degrade the managerial performance. Keywords: budget participation, cost management knowledge job satisfaction, managerial performance

  17. Cost management of IT beyond cost of ownership models : a state of the art overview of the Dutch financial services industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E; van Maanen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Controlling costs is an essential part of a value driven information technology (IT) management. This paper gives a state of the art overview of IT cost management practice. Both theoretical and an empirical approach are taken. The theoretical approach is based on both general accounting literature

  18. Cost management of IT beyond cost of ownership models : a state of the art overview of the Dutch financial services industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E; van Maanen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Controlling costs is an essential part of a value driven information technology (IT) management. This paper gives a state of the art overview of IT cost management practice. Both theoretical and an empirical approach are taken. The theoretical approach is based on both general accounting literature

  19. Cost analysis of periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Dom, Tuti; Ayob, Rasidah; Mohd-Nur, Amrizal; Abdul-Manaf, Mohd R; Ishak, Noorlin; Abdul-Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed M; Ahmad-Yaziz, Yuhaniz; Abdul-Aziz, Hanizah; Kasan, Noordin; Mohd-Asari, Ahmad S

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P economic burden of periodontitis management and performing economic evaluation of the specialist periodontal programme.

  20. Improving product cost and schedule management in a garment product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Lotta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the beginning stages of a garment product development process at Marimekko Oyj, a Finnish design company, by finding better ways to manage the product cost and schedule. The main objective is to bring the final cost of garments closer to the original target cost in order to keep margins at required levels. Action research and case study were used as research methods. During the action research cycles, two collections were started and observed. Th...

  1. Cost management development trend%成本管理发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章绵生

    2011-01-01

    Cost management is a special product which occurs when the productive force has developed to a certain stage. With the economic development, Cost Management has come through three main stages and gets more and more promotion. Domestic situation and the three main evolution stages characteristic of Cost Management will be introduced in this paper. According to the compare analysis between the Traditional Costing Management and the Activity-Based Costing Management, the current main Cost Management mode will be described in this paper, and the future leading Cost Management mode will be determined by the information development.%成本管理是生产力发展的产物,随着经济的发展而逐渐深化。文章从成本管理发展的三个历史阶段分别阐述成本管理的发展特点和规律,以及我国的成本管理发展现状。通过传统成本管理与作业成本管理的对比分析,指出当前成本管理的主要形式和未来成本管理将随着信息化的发展可能形成的主流模式。

  2. On costs management of engineering programs%谈工程项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俊芝

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the contents for the costs of the construction programs and the aims for the costs management of programs,from the steps of construction program costs management,the paper indicates the costs forecasting of the construction programs,the costs plans,the costs control,the costs settlement and the cost analysis,so as to improve the management methods for the program costs and to make enterprises be invincible.%结合施工项目成本包含的内容及项目成本管理的目标,从施工项目成本管理的环节入手,对施工项目成本预测、成本计划、成本控制、成本核算及成本分析等作了论述,以期完善项目成本管理方法,使企业在竞争中立于不败之地。

  3. Logistic Cost Management in Enterprises: The Example of Karaman, Aksaray and Kayseri Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Özpeynirci; Haluk Duman; Talip Arsu

    2012-01-01

    Logistics management is the customer, market and distributional channel based planning of logistic activities and determining the execution of these activities through outsourcing or within the enterprise and conducting the process. And logistic cost management is the preparation of product-based cost and income analysis of the planned logistic activities. Logistics management has two dimensions for the market (external environment) in one aspect and for the enterprise (internal environment) ...

  4. The cost-effectiveness of managed care regarding chronic medicine prescriptions in a selected medical scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Day

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of managed care interventions with respect to prescriptions for chronic illness sufferers enrolled with a specific medical scheme. The illnesses included, were epilepsy, hypertension, diabetes and asthma. The managed care interventions applied were a primary discount; the use of preferred provider pharmacies, and drug utilization review. It was concluded that the managed care interventions resulted in some real cost savings.

  5. Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    ER D C/ EL S R- 17 -3 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management En vi...EL SR-17-3 June 2017 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management David L. Smith...describes levee setbacks as alternatives to traditional levees for flood risk management and environmental benefits. It is organized into five sections

  6. Squaring the Project Management Circle: Updating the Cost, Schedule, and Performance Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    measure execution. This paper suggests that the cost, schedule, and performance paradigm, while still effective as a measure of managing programs, needs...acquisition and its relationship to the measures of cost, schedule, and performance—the project management circle (see Figure 1). Rather than use the... management circle. The circle recognizes the interrelationships, necessary equilibrium, and the influencing and balancing effects that these three

  7. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission constr

  8. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission

  9. Costs of patient management of visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meheus, F.; Boelaert, M.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Sundar, S.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify the direct and indirect economic cost of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with conventional Amphotericin B deoxycholate, currently the first-line treatment in Muzaffarpur. METHODS: Costs of patient management for VL were estimated from a societal and

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community-Based Exercise Programme in COPD Self-Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Marlies; Effing, Tanja; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Valk, Paul; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Information regarding cost-effectiveness of community-based exercise programmes in COPD is scarce. Therefore, we have investigated whether a community-based exercise programme is a cost-effective component of self-management for patients with COPD after 2 years of follow-up. Methods: A

  11. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  12. FORMATION OF EXPENSES AND CALCULATION OF COST PRICE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azieva Z. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively manage the organization senior managers need information on the performance of the centers of responsibility and profitability of major products. Therefore, the leadership task is to select a cost accounting system, which would provide the information needed to assess economic performance and management of the various departments. In the article, we consider the concept of methods of calculation of the cost price of livestock products by a direct-costing system, its feature, rationality and also shortcomings and dignity in current economic conditions. Based on the theoretical literature of national scientists on the overhead allocation methods, the authors developed the stages of distribution of indirect expenses between the objects of calculation. Based on the data of "Nezamaevskoe" we specify the composition and structure of costs in dairy farming that improve analytic accounting, and on this basis the validity of management decisions; a classification of costs underlying the modeling of accounting management. The authors proposed a method of accounting of variable and fixed costs in accounting and reflected in the accounting system of marginal income, as well as recommendations to improve the organization of management accounting costs

  13. Length of Stay and Inpatient Costs Under Medicaid Managed Care in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Park PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the patterns of length of stay (LOS and inpatient costs for both Medicaid managed care and nonmanaged care patients using data from Medicaid patients aged 18 to 64 years who were discharged from hospitals in Florida between 2006 and 2012. This study used pooled cross-sectional multilevel modeling. The results show that the type of Medicaid program in which patients were enrolled was significantly related to the hospital LOS and inpatient costs. Medicaid managed care patients had 7% shorter LOSs and a 1.9% lower inpatient cost than did Medicaid fee-for-service (FFS patients. Medicaid managed care patients had shorter LOSs in the Medicaid managed care market with high competition. High managed care penetration generates a cost-decreasing spillover to Medicaid FFS patients.

  14. Patient level cost of diabetes self-management education programmes: an international evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Gerardine; O'Donnell, Shane; Quigley, Etáin; Cullen, Kate; Gibney, Sarah; Levin-Zamir, Diane; Ganahl, Kristin; Müller, Gabriele; Muller, Ingrid; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Chang, Wushou Peter; Van Den Broucke, Stephan

    2017-06-04

    The objective of this study was to examine the value of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in understanding the process and costs of delivering diabetes self-management education (DSME) programmes in a multicountry comparative study. Outpatient settings in five European countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, UK) and two countries outside Europe, Taiwan and Israel. Providers of DSME programmes across participating countries (N=16) including healthcare professionals, administrators and patients taking part in DSME programmes. Primary measure: time spent by providers in the delivery of DSME and resources consumed in order to compute programme costs. Secondary measures: self-report measures of behavioural self-management and diabetes disease/health-related outcomes. We found significant variation in costs and the processes of how DSME programmes are provided across and within countries. Variations in costs were driven by a combination of price variances, mix of personnel skill and efficiency variances. Higher cost programmes were not found to have achieved better relative outcomes. The findings highlight the value of TDABC in calculating a patient level cost and potential of the methodology to identify process improvements in guiding the optimal allocation of scarce resources in diabetes care, in particular for DSME that is often underfunded. This study is the first to measure programme costs using estimates of the actual resources used to educate patients about managing their medical condition and is the first study to map such costs to self-reported behavioural and disease outcomes. The results of this study will inform clinicians, managers and policy makers seeking to enhance the delivery of DSME programmes. The findings highlight the benefits of adopting a TDABC approach to understanding the drivers of the cost of DSME programmes in a multicountry study to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for DSME. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  15. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization.

  16. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  17. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions--precedents, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthan, Shantha R; Milke, Mark W; Wilson, David C; Cocks, John H

    2012-03-01

    The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  18. IMPLICATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES REGARDING THE ORGANIZATION OF QUALITY COST MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION IONESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into considerations the obvious importance of the concept of quality, the inevitable question arises "What is the cost of quality?", clearly reaching the notion of "cost". It would seem absolutely logical and natural, that when we are referring to the total quality cost, from the professional point of view, to have an accountant that should take care of recording and supply of all the necessary data in terms of the inventory of this cost. The practical reality, however, shows that the accounting side of an economic entity does not provide comprehensive information regarding a complete definition of the quality cost. From this perspective, the present paper aims to consider a relevant discussion on the necessity and importance of the existence of the management accounting regarding the cost of quality

  19. Performance indicators, practices and maintenance costs in tires management of a transport company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three operational costs that are more expressive for PSL: vehicle maintenance, tires and fuel. In studies of maintenance has been little researched the concept of tire management, technical maintenance and performance together. In this context, this study aims at identifying the practices and performance indicators in the area of maintenance and tire management also analyze the influence of costs applied to the tires on the total cost of maintenance. We conducted a case study of exploratory and descriptive. The main instruments of data collection were on-site observation, unstructured interviews, document analysis and reports results indicators. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression. It was revealed that among the performance indicators in the management of tire maintenance costs applied to the tires have a higher correlation with the total cost of maintenance. The ANOVA indicated that tire maintenance costs influence in 54% of the variations in the total cost of maintenance. We clarified the concepts of maintenance techniques specific tire management, and identify performance indicators in the area of tire managent.

  20. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  1. Strategic cost management as instrument for improving competitiveness of agribusiness complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost accounting as a segment of an integrated accounting information system by generation of the relevant information provides significant support for both financial and managerial accounting. The above information represents the information base for decision making of internal and external users (management, investors, creditors and other stakeholders. In this paper a special attention is paid to contemporary systems of cost accounting, the application of which can be seen as an integral part of the effort undertaken in order to measure and control costs, since cost management is one of the indispensable elements to achieve, maintain and improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Having in mind the significant potential the Republic of Serbia has in the field of agricultural production, the aim of this paper is to highlight the challenges and specifics of cost management in the agribusiness complex enterprises. Hence, this paper discusses the modern systems of cost accounting as well as the cost management methods suited to the specific agricultural management activities, which could help to the local companies in efforts for share in the global agri-food products' market.

  2. Discussing the Cost Accounting and Cost Management of Hospital%探讨医院成本核算与成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋颖

    2014-01-01

    Objectiveto discuss the hospital cost accounting and cost management.Methods to analyze the hospital cost accounting method and the present situation and the classification of hospital cost management, strengthen management measures are put forward.Results strengthen the hospital cost accounting and management, is to improve the utilization efficiency of hospital costs, reducing waste of money.Conclusion hospital cost accounting and cost management can promote the hospital economic benefit.%目的:对医院成本核算和成本管理进行探讨。方法分析医院成本核算方法与现状及医院成本管理的分类,提出强化管理措施。结果加强医院的成本核算和管理,是提高医院成本利用效率,减少资金浪费的重要手段。结论医院成本核算与成本管理能够促进医院经济效益。

  3. Macroeconomic control,political costs and earnings management:Evidence from Chinese listed real estate companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Jieying; Li; Shangkun; Liang; Guojun; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Firms in China have faced high political costs during China’s economic transition,because they are affected by macroeconomic policies.However,research to date has offered no consistent conclusions on the relationship between political costs and earnings management in China.This study tests whether real estate firms attempt to decrease earnings during periods of macroeconomic control,using variables related to the national real estate market as proxies for political costs.We find that political costs are negatively related to earnings management in listed real estate firms.In addition,we find that non-state-owned enterprises utilized more income-decreasing accruals during this period.Our results are consistent with the political costs hypothesis.

  4. A vendor`s cost management; Kostenmanagement bei einem Hersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomer, E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energieerzeugung (KWU)

    1997-12-01

    The cost base of a company, its ability to innovate, and its customer orientedness are important, distinctive competencies and capabilities in the competition for tomorrow`s markets and contracts. The `top` program implemented throughout the Siemens company serves to strengthen competitiveness and generate a considerable increase in profits. In order to achieve these objectives, the program addresses productivity, innovation, and growth as strategic elements. A thorough, multifaceted change in corporate culture is considered a precondition. This concept encompasses both purely technical and scientific improvements and the increasingly more important non-technical regeneration of business processes. Only a quantum leap in productivity will allow the company to continue to exist in the future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Wettbewerb um die Maerkte und Geschaefte von morgen sind die Kostenbasis des Unternehmens, seine Innovationsfaehigkeit und Kundenorientierung wesentliche differenzierende Kompetenzen und Faehigkeiten. Ziele des im gesamten Hause Siemens laufenden Programmes unter dem Titel `top` sind die Staerkung der Wettbewerbskraft sowie eine nachhaltige Ertragssteigerung. Um diese zu erreichen, setzt das Programm bei den strategischen Elementen Produktivitaet, Innovation und Wachstum an, wobei eine umfassende und vielfaeltige Veraenderung der Unternehmenskultur Voraussetzung ist. Dabei werden unter diesem Begriff sowie die rein technisch-wissenschaftlichen Verbesserungen als auch die immer wichtiger gewordenen nicht-technischen Erneuerungen in den Geschaeftsprozessen verstanden. Nur durch einen Quantensprung in der Produktivitaet kann das Unternehmen in der Zukunft bestehen. (orig.)

  5. The value of daily money management: an analysis of outcomes and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Debra; Das, Dhiman; Romanick, Raquel; Caron, Matt; Morano, Carmen; Fahs, Marianne C

    2012-01-01

    For vulnerable and frail older adults, management of daily financial obligations can become an overwhelming burden spiraling into at-risk situations. Social service agencies have developed community-based Daily Money Management programs to assist these adults in protecting their financial security. Through this study the authors present the first economic estimates of the costs of Daily Money Management programs which, along with case management programs, save $60,000 per individual when compared with the cost of nursing home placement, making them highly cost effective. Most importantly, individuals are able to remain in their homes. The authors address the current gap between cost-effective community-based practice and public policy support.

  6. Management of lifecycle costs and benefits : Lessons from information systems practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E.W.; Nijland, M.; Powell, P.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the economic feasibility of information systems (IS) projects and operations remains a challenge for most organizations. This research investigates lifecycle cost and benefit management practices and demonstrates that, overall, although organizations intend to improve their information tec

  7. A simulation model of hospital management based on cost accounting analysis according to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Since a little before 2000, hospital cost accounting has been increasingly performed at Japanese national university hospitals. At Kumamoto University Hospital, for instance, departmental costs have been analyzed since 2000. And, since 2003, the cost balance has been obtained according to certain diseases for the preparation of Diagnosis-Related Groups and Prospective Payment System. On the basis of these experiences, we have constructed a simulation model of hospital management. This program has worked correctly at repeated trials and with satisfactory speed. Although there has been room for improvement of detailed accounts and cost accounting engine, the basic model has proved satisfactory. We have constructed a hospital management model based on the financial data of an existing hospital. We will later improve this program from the viewpoint of construction and using more various data of hospital management. A prospective outlook may be obtained for the practical application of this hospital management model.

  8. Guide to Documenting and Managing Cost and Performance Information for Remediation Projects - Revised Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide to Documenting and Managing Cost and Performance Information for Remediation Projects provides the recommended procedures for documenting the results of completed and on-going full-scale and demonstration-scale remediation projects.

  9. 78 FR 52131 - Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funds... Application (Application for Federal Assistance Standard Form 424) to the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  10. Management of IT Costs and Performance in Business Groups: Analysis of Unaddressed Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Florian; Herz, Thomas Philipp; Uebernickel, Falk; Brenner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) management is a multifaceted and sophisticated mission, particularly inthe context of multinational corporations. Loosely coupled heterogeneous IT systems and almostindependent IT departments within business groups around the globe do not facilitate transparency ofIT costs and performance. The management of costs and performance of IT, also known as ITcontrolling, describes the discipline of ensuring the effective and efficient usage of IT resources. Thebasis of th...

  11. Cost model for biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

  12. ICONS: Managing Care and Costs: The Sustained Cost Impact of Reduced Hospitalizations in a Partnership-Measurement Model of Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Pierre Emmanuel; Nemis-White, Joanna; Meilleur, Marie-Claude; Ginn, Marissa; Cox, Jafna; Montague, Terrence

    2010-01-01

    Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) was a multidisciplinary-partnership, measurement-driven disease management project designed to improve the care and outcomes of patients with acute and chronic heart diseases in Nova Scotia. Previous analyses demonstrated beneficial clinical and macroeconomic end points at the population and system levels, including heightened awareness of the value of team care, increased use of proven therapies, decreased re-hospitalizations and a positive dollar return on investment for the economies of Nova Scotia and Canada. This article analyzes the additional cost-reduction benefits resulting from the reduced re-hospitalizations that occurred among patient populations with heart attacks and heart failure. Over the five-year course of ICONS, one-year readmissions and readmission rates fell continuously for both index disease states. Despite a general inflationary rise in real hospital costs, the per-event cost of readmissions expressed in constant 2002 dollars also decreased: from $10,377 in 1997 to $9,022 in 2002 for the heart attack patient population; and from $9,020 to $8,697 for patients with heart failure. Total real yearly costs for heart attack readmissions fell from $7.4 million in 1997 to $6.4 million in 2002, a 14% decrease; for heart failure, yearly costs decreased by 26%, from $9.2 million to $6.8 million. These microeconomic data supplement the previously reported improvements in patient care and the positive macroeconomic impact of ICONS. Overall, ICONS demonstrated that quality and cost of healthcare could be simultaneously and successfully managed over a sustained period of time for whole patient populations in a real-world setting. ICONS offers strong evidence of the value of the partnership-measurement model of disease management and prevention as a reproducible and desirable template for next-generation healthcare in Canada.

  13. Analysis of the management costs of municipal wastes; Analyse des couts de gestion des dechets municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnot, J.F.; Monier, V.; Hugues, N.

    1998-10-01

    This document presents the results of the study carried out from March 1997 to September 1998 and relative to the costs generated by the management of domestic wastes. The study comprises 3 parts: the elaboration of a method of evaluation of management costs, the analysis of management costs in todays situation and in the regulatory context of the year 2002, and the elaboration of tools for the application of the method. The following aspects are presented successively: 1 - the objectives, methodology and limitations of the analysis; 2 - the costs of the municipal wastes management in the regulatory context of 2002: presentation of the configurations studied, costs, comparison with the 1997 situation as observed on sites; 3 - factors that influence the success of a good management of municipal wastes: selective collecting, dimensioning of equipments with respect to capacities, local or centralized management, energy and materials valorization of products from incineration plants, materials recycling; 4 - impact of local conditions of programs application: costs, influence of the type of accommodation in the selective collecting, public information. (J.S.)

  14. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  15. UPMC MyHealth: managing the health and costs of U.S. healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael D; Peele, Pamela B; Keyser, Donna J; Liu, Yushu; Doyle, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Workplace wellness programs hold promise for managing the health and costs of the U.S. workforce. These programs have not been rigorously tested in healthcare worksites. To evaluate the impact of MyHealth on the health and costs of UPMC healthcare workers. Five-year observational study conducted in 2013 with subgroup analyses and propensity-matched pair comparisons to more accurately interpret program effects. UPMC, an integrated health care delivery and financing system headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants included 13,627 UPMC employees who were continuously enrolled in UPMC-sponsored health insurance during the study period and demonstrated participation in MyHealth by completing a Health Risk Assessment in both 2007 and 2011, as well as 4,448 other healthcare workers employed outside of UPMC who did not participate in the program. A comprehensive wellness, prevention, and chronic disease management program that ties achievement of health and wellness requirements to receipt of an annual credit on participants' health insurance deductible. Health-risk levels, medical, pharmacy, and total healthcare costs, and Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set performance rates for prevention and chronic disease management. Significant improvements in health-risk status and increases in use of preventive and chronic disease management services were observed in the intervention group. Although total healthcare costs increased significantly, reductions in costs were significant for those who moved from higher- to the lowest-risk levels. The contrast differences in costs between reduced- and maintained-risk groups was also significant. Matched pair comparisons provided further evidence of program effects on observed reductions in costs and improvements in prevention, but not improvements in chronic disease management. Incorporating incentivized health management strategies in employer-sponsored health insurance benefit designs can serve as a useful

  16. Integrated optimization of management cost of hierarchical mobile IPv6 and its performance simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Zhang, Hong-ke; Zhang, Si-dong

    2004-04-01

    Mobile IPv6 was designed to enable an IPv6 terminal to continue communications seamlessly while changing its access to network. Decreasing communication and management cost is a key issue of the research of the Internet mobility management. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 was proposed to reduce the number of management messages in backbone network. However, the resources consumptions inside a hierarchical domain are increased as expense according to our cost models. Based on the idea of integrated optimization, adaptive mobility management scheme (AMMS) is proposed in this paper, which decreases the total cost of delivering management messages and data payload on the viewpoint of entire network resources by selecting a suitable mobility management scheme adaptively for a mobile node. The results of simulation show that AMMS has better performance than unmixed Mobile IPv6 and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6.

  17. On analysis of costs management in projects%工程造价管理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红凤

    2012-01-01

    叙述了工程造价管理的含义,总结了目前工程造价管理存在的问题,针对这些问题提出了加强造价管理的有效措施和建议,以达到降低工程造价,提高经济效益的目的。%The paper indicates the concept of the engineering costs management,sums up the problems in the current costs management of projects,and points out the effective measures and suggestions for improving the costs management,so as to lower the engineering costs and improve the economic benefits.

  18. Misinterpretation of the strategic significance of cost driver analysis: evidence from management accounting theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Palowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the development of cost driver theory in the Strategy literature and reflects on misinterpretations of the strategic significance of the theory in related academic disciplines, notably Management Accounting. Management Accounting has largely been responsible for informing costing practice in a wide range of organizational settings. The paper considers one such application- i.e. the case of the Higher Education Funding Council’s (HEFC costing and pricing initiative for UK universities. The project was completed just under five years ago, although details of implementation are still ongoing, to a degree. The systems in place incorporate most of the theoretical flaws outlined in this paper. Rather than providing cost driver analysis to aid the strategic management process in universities, the system appears to represent little more than a compliance and reporting framework between university central administrations and the funding provider, HEFC.

  19. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  20. The Business Change Initiative: A Novel Approach to Improved Cost and Schedule Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Bryson, Jonathan; Klein, Gerald; Lunz-Ruark, Val; Majerowicz, Walt; McKeever, J.; Nair, Param

    2016-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's Flight Projects Directorate employed a Business Change Initiative (BCI) to infuse a series of activities coordinated to drive improved cost and schedule performance across Goddard's missions. This sustaining change framework provides a platform to manage and implement cost and schedule control techniques throughout the project portfolio. The BCI concluded in December 2014, deploying over 100 cost and schedule management changes including best practices, tools, methods, training, and knowledge sharing. The new business approach has driven the portfolio to improved programmatic performance. The last eight launched GSFC missions have optimized cost, schedule, and technical performance on a sustained basis to deliver on time and within budget, returning funds in many cases. While not every future mission will boast such strong performance, improved cost and schedule tools, management practices, and ongoing comprehensive evaluations of program planning and control methods to refine and implement best practices will continue to provide a framework for sustained performance. This paper will describe the tools, techniques, and processes developed during the BCI and the utilization of collaborative content management tools to disseminate project planning and control techniques to ensure continuous collaboration and optimization of cost and schedule management in the future.

  1. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  2. A cost management model for hospital food and nutrition in a public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neriz, Liliana; Núñez, Alicia; Ramis, Francisco

    2014-11-13

    In Chile, the use of costing systems in the public sector is limited. The Ministry of Health requires hospitals to manage themselves with the aim of decentralizing health care services and increasing their quality. However, self-management with a lack of accounting information is almost impossible. On the other hand, nutrition department costs have barely been studied before, and there are no studies specifically for activity based costing (ABC) systems. ABC focuses on the process and traces health care activities to gain a more accurate measurement of the object costs and the financial performance of an organization. This paper uses ABC in a nutrition unit of a public hospital of high complexity to determine costs associated with the different meals for inpatients. The paper also provides an activity based management (ABM) analysis for this unit. The results show positive effects on the reduction of costs for the nutrition department after implementing ABC/ABM. Therefore, there are opportunities to improve the profitability of the area and the results could also be replicated to other areas in the hospital. ABC shed light on the amount of nutritionist time devoted to completing paperwork, and as a result, system changes were introduced to reduce this burden and allow them to focus on more relevant activities. Additional efficiencies were achieved through the elimination of non-value adding activities and automation of reports. ABC reduced the cost of the nutrition department and could produce similar results in other areas of the hospital. This is a practical application of a financial management tool, ABC, which would be useful for hospital managers to reduce costs and improve the management of the unit. This paper takes ABC and examines its use in an area, which has had little exposure to the benefits of this tool.

  3. The Relationship between Cost Leadership Strategy, Total Quality Management Applications and Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali KURT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Firms need to implement some competition strategies and total quality management applications to overcome the fierce competition among others. The purpose of this study is to show the relationship between cost leadership strategy, total quality management applications and firms’ financial performance with literature review and empirical analysis. 449 questionnaires were conducted to the managers of 142 big firms. The data gathered was assessed with AMOS. As a result, the relationship between cost leadership strategy, total quality management applications and firms’ financial performance has been gathered. In addition, the relationship between TQM applications and financial performance has also been gathered.

  4. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  5. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2

  6. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  7. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  8. Inventory-driven costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  9. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McCreless

    Full Text Available The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  10. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  11. The Yale Cost Model and cost centres: servant or master?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, E

    1993-01-01

    Cost accounting describes that aspect of accounting which collects, allocates and controls the cost of producing a service. Costing information is primarily reported to management to enable control of costs and to ensure the financial viability of units, departments and divisions. As costing studies continue to produce estimates of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) costs in New South Wales hospitals, as well as in other states, costs for different hospitals are being externally compared, using a tool which is usually related to internal management and reporting. Comparability of costs is assumed even though accounting systems differ. This paper examines the cost centre structures at five major teaching hospitals in Sydney. It describes the similarities and differences in how the cost centres were constituted, and then details the line items of expenditure that are charged to each cost centre. The results of a comparative study of a medical specialty are included as evidence of different costing methodologies in the hospitals. The picture that emerged from the study is that the hospitals are constituting their cost centres to meet their internal management needs, that is, to know the cost of running a ward or nursing unit, a medical specialty, department and so on. The rationale for the particular cost centre construction was that cost centre managers could manage and control costs and assign responsibility. There are variations in procedures for assigning costs to cost centres, and the question is asked 'Do these variations in procedures make a material difference to our ability to compare costs per Diagnosis Related Group at the various hospitals?' It is contended that the accounting information, which is produced as a result of different practices, is primarily for internal management, not external comparison. It would be better for hospitals to compare their estimated costs per Diagnosis Related Group to an internal standard cost rather than the costs from other

  12. Costs and cost-effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs and cost-effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis management strategies in South ... important national implications, supporting the goals of the new tuberculosis control programme. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  13. The use of activity-based cost estimation as a management tool for cultural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt; Bilby, Curt

    1991-01-01

    It will be shown that the greatest barrier to American exploration of the planet Mars is not the development of the technology needed to deliver humans and return them safely to earth. Neither is it the cost of such an undertaking, as has been previously suggested, although certainly, such a venture may not be inexpensive by some measures. The predicted costs of exploration have discouraged serious political dialog on the subject. And, in fact, even optimistic projections of the NASA budget do not contain the resources required, under the existing development and management paradigm, for human space exploration programs. It will be demonstrated that the perception of the costs of such a venture, and the cultural responses to the perceptions are factors inhibiting American exploration of the moon and the planet Mars. Cost models employed in the aerospace industry today correctly mirror the history of past space programs, and as such, are representative of the existing management and development paradigms. However, if, under this current paradigm no major exploration programs are feasible, then cost analysis methods based in the past may not have great utility in exploring the needed cultural changes. This paper explores the use of a new type of model, the activity based cost model, which will treat management style as an input variable, in a sense providing a tool whereby a complete, affordable program might be designed, including both the technological and management aspects.

  14. New indicators based on personnel cost for management efficiency in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-08-01

    A simple and fair benchmarking system or financial indicators for use on the clinical department level have been lacking to evaluate the management efficiency and activity of each clinical department or division of a hospital. New financial indicators have therefore been developed based on personnel costs. Indicator 1: The ratio of marginal profit after personnel cost per personnel cost (RMP). Indicator 2: The ratio of investment (=indirect cost) per personnel cost (RIP). The difference between RMP and RIP demonstrates the operation profit in US Dollars for personnel cost (OPP). A turning point in profitability similar to the break-even point (BEP) and break-even ratio (BER) could be also defined by the combination of the RMP and RIP. The merits of these two indicators are not only the ability to indicate the relationship between the medical profit and the investments in the hospital, but also the capability to demonstrate such indicators as BEP, BER and OPP on a single graph. The two indicators were applied to the hospitals in the National Hospital Organization and to the clinical department in one hospital. Using these two indicators, it was possible to evaluate the management efficiency and medical activity not only in the whole hospital but also in each department and DPC/DRG group. This will be of use to a manager of a hospital in checking the management efficiency of his/her hospital despite the variations among hospitals, departments and divisions.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Surveillance for Bloodstream Infections for Sepsis Management in Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, Erin C; Baird, Sarah J; Crump, John A

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial sepsis is a leading cause of mortality among febrile patients in low- and middle-income countries, but blood culture services are not widely available. Consequently, empiric antimicrobial management of suspected bloodstream infection is based on generic guidelines that are rarely informed by local data on etiology and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections to inform empiric management of suspected sepsis in low-resource areas, we compared costs and outcomes of generic antimicrobial management with management informed by local data on etiology and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. We applied a decision tree model to a hypothetical population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in Africa. We found that the evidence-based regimen saved 534 more lives per 100,000 patients at an additional cost of $25.35 per patient, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $4,739. This ratio compares favorably to standard cost-effectiveness thresholds, but should ultimately be compared with other policy-relevant alternatives to determine whether routine surveillance for bloodstream infections is a cost-effective strategy in the African context.

  16. The use of activity-based cost estimation as a management tool for cultural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt; Bilby, Curt

    1991-01-01

    It will be shown that the greatest barrier to American exploration of the planet Mars is not the development of the technology needed to deliver humans and return them safely to earth. Neither is it the cost of such an undertaking, as has been previously suggested, although certainly, such a venture may not be inexpensive by some measures. The predicted costs of exploration have discouraged serious political dialog on the subject. And, in fact, even optimistic projections of the NASA budget do not contain the resources required, under the existing development and management paradigm, for human space exploration programs. It will be demonstrated that the perception of the costs of such a venture, and the cultural responses to the perceptions are factors inhibiting American exploration of the moon and the planet Mars. Cost models employed in the aerospace industry today correctly mirror the history of past space programs, and as such, are representative of the existing management and development paradigms. However, if, under this current paradigm no major exploration programs are feasible, then cost analysis methods based in the past may not have great utility in exploring the needed cultural changes. This paper explores the use of a new type of model, the activity based cost model, which will treat management style as an input variable, in a sense providing a tool whereby a complete, affordable program might be designed, including both the technological and management aspects.

  17. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC. Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view. Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO. Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  19. Designing a Portable and Low Cost Home Energy Management Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Al Mahmud, A.; De Hoogh, M.; Luxen, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of a home energy and comfort management system. The system has three components such as a smart plug with a wireless module, a residential gateway and a mobile app. The combined system is called a home energy management and comfort toolkit. The design is inspired

  20. Cost analysis of adverse events associated with non-small cell lung cancer management in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaid C

    2017-07-01

    , anemia (€5,752 per event, dehydration (€5,207 per event and anorexia (€4,349 per event. Costs were mostly driven by hospitalization costs.Conclusion: Among the AEs identified, a majority appeared to have an important economic impact, with a management cost of at least €2,000 per event mainly driven by hospitalization costs. This study may be of interest for economic evaluations of new interventions in NSCLC. Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, adverse events, cost analysis, chemotherapy, immunotherapy

  1. Assessing the costs and benefits of improved land management practices in three watershed areas in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abonesh Tesfaye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable land use management and the resulting soil erosion are among the most pervasive problems in rural Ethiopia, where most of the country’s people live, jeopardizing food security. Despite various efforts to introduce soil conservation measures and assess their costs and benefits, it is unclear how efficient these measures are from an economic point of view in securing food production. This paper examines the costs and benefits of three soil conservation measures applied in the country in three different rural districts facing different degrees of soil erosion problems using survey data collected from 750 farm households. A production function is estimated to quantify the costs and benefits of more sustainable land use management practices. We show that the soil conservation measures significantly increase productivity and hence food security. Comparing the costs and benefits, the results indicate that implementing soil conservation measures would benefit farm communities in the case study areas through increased grain productivity and food security.

  2. Developing an Activity-Based Costing Approach to Maximize the Efficiency of Customer Relationship Management Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shafiee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive environment, profitability analysis is not just about looking at the profit and loss statement. It is more about knowing which of your customers are making you money and which are losing you money. This paper considers how activity-based costing approach may complement a customer relationship management effort. The model presented in this paper combines the principles of activity-based costing with performance measurement. Applying this model helps managers understand the true costs of providing products and services, and the factors that drive these costs, while addressing other concerns such as customer satisfaction. This approach has the potential to integrate all business processes around the requirements of significant profitable customers, a fact that most of the previous researches fail to acknowledge.

  3. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  4. Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness Criteria in Supply Chain Management: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rostamzadeh; Mahdi Sabaghi; Ahmad Esmaili

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the proposed cost-effectiveness criteria in supply chain management using fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) approach. Over the past few years, the determination of suitable cost-effectiveness criteria in the supply chain has become a key strategic issue. However, the nature of these kinds of decisions is usually complex and unstructured. Many quantitative and qualitative factors must be considered to determine the suitable crit...

  5. Systems Engineering and Program Management. Trends and Costs for Aircraft and Guided Weapons Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Project AIR FORCE PCA Physical Configuration Audit P&D Production and Deployment PDR Preliminary Design Review P3I Preplanned Product Improvement PIN ...Program Management SEPM LOT Lot Cost of SE/PM (in production) SEPM UC Unit Cost of SE/PM (in production) SFR System Functional Review ii SE/PM...perform as intended, without a mission critical failure , for a specified period of time. Maintainability engineers are concerned with the resource re

  6. The integrated supplier: key to cost management and multi-franchise capitation contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C

    1996-05-01

    Capitation...most healthcare providers do not work under it, comprehend it, or even want it, yet supply capitation contracting seminars are popping up everywhere creating the feeling that the bandwagon is leaving, and it might be time to get on board. Not true. Supply capitation is not for all organizations. Capitation contracting is not easy and there are not many successful models to help the uninitiated. If a panacea is sought for reducing supply costs, capitation is only one component of a systematic strategy to reduce materiel costs. This article suggests a direction using the Group Health Materiel Management (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, WA) experience as a point of reference. It advocates a systematic approach that focuses on expense reduction in: cost of goods, holding cost of inventory, labor cost associated with all materiel processes, distribution cost (transportation and par stock pick, pack, and replenishment), product utilization, variation in product standards, and waste stream byproducts. At Group Health (GH) these issues are primarily addressed through the use of: information systems, supplier certification/selection processes, group purchasing compliance, supply channel management, supply capitation contracting programs, standardization, and utilization management. Because of managed care organizational structure, Group Health Cooperative supply capitation contracting, as performed at GH, is discussed not as a quick fix solution but in the spirit of sharing our experience with others who may be considering it as a cost savings tactic in the context of a broad-based materiel management strategy. This article highlights the experiences of GH beginning with materiel management's business process assumptions toward multiple-franchise supply capitation.

  7. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEMP

    2016-07-01

    Fact sheet offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  8. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Todorut; L. Paliu-Popa; V. S. Tselentis; D. Cirnu

    2016-01-01

    .... The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S...

  9. Reducing IT costs and ensuring safe operation with application of the portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Alice Mozsar Kovacsne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large companies need to give focus on their cost components related to their information technology. Business growths is supported by their IT and hundreds or thousands of applications worldwide. Top level management needs to focus more on their information strategy and the applications they need to manage. A structured and transparent application landscape supports not only the current business but it also enables faster business growth for the future as well. Structuring and organizing the applications related to the various risks supports secure business and information operations within a company. Capturing the applications gives the companies an overview of their information costs and provides the possibility of measurement and control of their IT costs elements. Application portfolio management and information security management are important elements of the corporate strategies.

  10. The Quality Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenie Constantin PAULICĂ

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality has a cost and this fact cannot be denied. In the same time, it is true that non-quality is more expensive. Quality is considered asbeing expensive because no one tries to calculate non-quality costs. Out of the final cost of a product, non-quality stands for 20% up to 35%.According to this idea all the economic sectors contain error costs caused by the mistakes made during the production process. To have a realconsummation situation, it is necessary to know the cost quantum. The final quality cost is the result of the following costs: prevention costs,necessary to preclude errors; evaluation costs, as results of a final product evaluation, and failure costs, generated by the non – attainment ofproduct’s purpose. The gross of these costs stand for the total quality costs. Nowadays, the problem inheres in how much this quality cost representsout of the final cost.

  11. Investigation of joint costs management practices of dairy industry: a contingency approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Costa da Silva Zonatto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has investigated the adoption of administration practices in the set of costs in dairy product industries in the Southwest Region in Parana State, as well as, the contingency factors which has influenced the system in the management control at these companies. The explore research was developed through a study on data in quantitative approach in forty- three dairies. From these, just twenty-three produce milk and the other twenty cheese and its derivatives. According to the study these companies are concerned on how to check their costs on production. However, just the dairies which produce cheese and its derivatives are managing costs based on data in a planning and control process. The way used to determine the costs is based on the method of market value. These organizations stand out by the development of control systems of computerized costs where the aims are related to right identification of the costs and the prices for sale, as well. The main outside elements which have affected the organizations are the market needs and the goods availability. In relation to the model  of the manage control in these organizations, it was  checked that these are different from the others in the strategies structure, complexity in the production process, level of computerization and the aims of the use. It was concluded that the administration practices in those researched dairies are influenced by contingency factors.

  12. The impact of an online disease management program on medical costs among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven M; Day, Brian; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Silberman, Anna; Wang, Chun; Silberman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of an online disease management program within a broader population health management strategy. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, cohort design evaluated program participants and a matched cohort of nonparticipants on 2003-2007 claims data in a mixed model. The study was conducted through Highmark Inc, Blue Cross Blue Shield, covering 4.8 million members in five regions of Pennsylvania. Overall, 413 online self-management program participants were compared with a matched cohort of 360 nonparticipants. The costs and claims data were measured per person per calendar year. Total payments were aggregated from inpatient, outpatient, professional services, and pharmacy payments. The costs of the online program were estimated on a per-participant basis. All dollars were adjusted to 2008 values. The online intervention, implemented in 2006, was a commercially available, tailored program for chronic condition self management, nested within the Blues on Call(SM) condition management strategy. General linear modeling (with covariate adjustment) was used. Data trends were also explored using second-order polynomial regressions. Health care costs per person per year were $757 less than predicted for participants relative to matched nonparticipants, yielding a return on investment of $9.89 for every dollar spent on the program. This online intervention showed a favorable and cost-effective impact on health care cost.

  13. An Insight Into the Two Costing Technique: Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper will investigate the controversy that is innate between the two costing techniques; Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing and would throw light on which costing technique better serves its purpose in helping management for decision making process and if Marginal Costing technique is concluded as better technique then why it should not be used for external reporting purpose. This paper will only crystallize and highlight the issues descriptively and will not resolve the issues tha...

  14. Factors affecting fire suppression costs as identified by incident management teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janie Canton-Thompson; Brooke Thompson; Krista Gebert; David Calkin; Geoff Donovan; Greg Jones

    2006-01-01

    This study uses qualitative sociological methodology to discover information and insights about the role of Incident Management Teams in wildland fire suppression costs. We interviewed 48 command and general staff members of Incident Management Teams throughout the United States. Interviewees were asked about team structure, functioning, and decision making as a...

  15. Cost-Effective Location Management for Mobile Agents on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mobile agent system-related services and applications require interacting with a mobile agent by passing messages. However, an agent’s mobility raises several challenges in delivering messages to a mobile agent accurately. Consisting of tracking and message delivery phases, most mobile agent location management schemes create or receive many update messages and interaction messages to ensure the effectiveness of the schemes. In addition to downgrading the overall performance of a mobile agent location management scheme, excessive transmission of messages increases the network load. The migration locality of a mobile agent and the interaction rate between mobile agents significantly affect the performance of a mobile agent location management scheme with respect to location management cost. This work presents a novel Dual Home based Scheme (DHS that can lower the location management costs in terms of migration locality and interaction rate. While the DHS scheme uniquely adopts dual home location management architecture, a selective update strategy based on that architecture is also designed for cost-effective location management of mobile agents. Moreover, DHS is compared with available schemes based on formulations and simulation experiments from the perspective of location management costs. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DHS scheme performs satisfactorily in terms of migration locality and interaction rate.

  16. Integrated emission management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  17. Cost effectiveness of epidural steroid injections to manage chronic lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K; McCahon, Robert A; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Hardman, Jonathan

    2012-09-27

    The efficacy of epidural steroid injections in the management of chronic low back pain is disputed, yet the technique remains popular amongst physicians and patients alike. This study assesses the cost effectiveness of injections administered in a routine outpatient setting in England. Patients attending the Nottingham University Hospitals' Pain Clinic received two injections of methylprednisolone plus levobupivacaine at different dosages, separated by at least 12 weeks. Prior to each injection, and every week thereafter for 12 weeks, participants completed the EQ-5D health-related quality of life instrument. For each patient for each injection, total health state utility gain relative to baseline was calculated. The cost of the procedure was modelled from observed clinical practice. Cost effectiveness was calculated as procedure cost relative to utility gain. 39 patients provided records. Over a 13-week period commencing with injection, mean quality adjusted life year (QALY) gains per patient for the two dosages were 0.028 (SD 0.063) and 0.021 (SD 0.057). The difference in QALYs gained by dosage was insignificant (paired t-test, CIs -0.019 - 0.033). Based on modelled resource use and data from other studies, the mean cost of an injection was estimated at £219 (SD 83). The cost utility ratio of the two injections amounted to £8,975 per QALY gained (CIs 5,480 - 22,915). However, at costs equivalent to the tariff price typically paid to providers by health care purchasers, the ratio increased to £27,459 (CIs 16,779 - 70,091). When provided in an outpatient setting, epidural steroid injections are a short term, but nevertheless cost effective, means of managing chronic low back pain. However, designation of the procedure as a day case requires the National Health Service to reimburse providers at a price which pushes the procedure to the margin of cost effectiveness. ISRCTN 43299460.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of a hypertension management programme in an elderly population: a Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figar Silvana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence shows that multi-intervention programmes for hypertension treatment are more effective than an isolated pharmacological strategy. Full economic evaluations of hypertension management programmes are scarce and contain methodological limitations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a hypertension management programme for elderly patients is cost-effective compared to usual care from the perspective of a third-party payer. Methods We built a cost-effectiveness model using published evidence of effectiveness of a comprehensive hypertension programme vs. usual care for patients 65 years or older at a community hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We explored incremental cost-effectiveness between groups. The model used a life-time framework adopting a third-party payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated in International Dollars per life-year gained. We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA to explore variable uncertainty. Results The ICER for the base-case of the "Hypertension Programme" versus the "Usual care" approach was 1,124 International Dollars per life-year gained. PSA did not significantly influence results. The programme had a probability of 43% of being dominant (more effective and less costly and, overall, 95% chance of being cost-effective. Discussion Results showed that "Hypertension Programme" had high probabilities of being cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios. This is the first sound cost-effectiveness study to assess a comprehensive hypertension programme versus usual care. This study measures hard outcomes and explores robustness through a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusions The comprehensive hypertension programme had high probabilities of being cost-effective versus usual care. This study supports the idea that similar programmes could be the preferred strategy in countries and within health care systems where

  19. Update on the management of cirrhosis – focus on cost-effective preventative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neff GW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Guy W Neff,1 Nyingi Kemmer,1 Christopher Duncan,2 Angel Alsina1 1Tampa General Medical Group, Tampa, FL, 2Highline Gastroenterology, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease stage that encompasses a variety of etiologies resulting in liver damage. This damage may induce secondary complications such as portal hypertension, esophageal variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatic encephalopathy. Screening for and management of these complications incurs substantial health care costs; thus, determining the most economical and beneficial treatment strategies is essential. This article reviews the economic impact of a variety of prophylactic and treatment regimens employed for cirrhosis-related complications. Prophylactic use of ß-adrenergic blockers for portal hypertension and variceal bleeding appears to be cost-effective, but the most economical regimen for treatment of initial bleeding is unclear given that cost comparisons of pharmacologic and surgical regimens are lacking. In contrast, prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis cannot be recommended. Standard therapy for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis includes antibiotics, and the overall economic impact of these medications depends largely on their direct cost. However, the potential development of bacterial antibiotic resistance and resulting clinical failure should also be considered. Nonabsorbable disaccharides are standard therapies for hepatic encephalopathy; however, given their questionable efficacy, the nonsystemic antibiotic rifaximin may be a more cost-effective, long-term treatment for hepatic encephalopathy, despite its increased direct cost, because of its demonstrated efficacy and prevention of hospitalization. Further studies evaluating the cost burden of cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including screening costs, the cost of treatment and maintenance therapy, conveyance to liver transplantation, liver

  20. Cost analysis for efficient management: diabetes treatment at a public district hospital in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chatterjee, Susmita; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE  The study estimated cost of illness from the provider's perspective for diabetic patients who received treatment during the fiscal year 2008 at Waritchaphum Hospital, a 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand. METHODS  This retrospective, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study looked at 475 randomly selected diabetic patients, identified by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes E10-E14. Data were collected from the hospital financial records and medical records of each participant and were analysed with a stepwise multiple regression. KEY FINDINGS  The study found that the average public treatment cost per patient per year was US$94.71 at 2008 prices. Drug cost was the highest cost component (25% of total cost), followed by inpatient cost (24%) and outpatient visit cost (17%). A cost forecasting model showed that length of stay, hospitalization, visits to the provincial hospital, duration of disease and presence of diabetic complications (e.g. diabetic foot complications and nephropathy) were the significant predictor variables (adjusted R(2) = 0.689). CONCLUSIONS  According to the fitted model, avoiding nephropathy and foot complications would save US$19 386 and US$39 134 respectively per year. However, these savings are missed savings for the study year and the study hospital only and not projected savings, as that would depend on the number of diabetic patients managed in the year, the ratio of complicated to non-complicated cases and effectiveness of the prevention programmes. Nonetheless, given the high avoidable cost associated with complications of diabetes, healthcare providers in Thailand should focus on initiatives that delay the progression of complications in diabetic patients.

  1. COST MANAGEMENT TOOLS AS BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE BASE AND CONTINUES IMPROVEMENTS ASSUMPTION "BIG THINGS ARE PACKED IN SMALL BOXES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Grahovac

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate cost management is a key prerequisite for successful management, a process of guiding the enterprise from the existing to the particular, desired performance. Traditional cost management systems, based on the use of financial indicators, do not satisfy the needs of modern enterprises. Conventional cost management system is based on standard cost accounting systems information support. It provides cost reduction program, accordingly labor costs reduction methods realized as short term positive effects. Nowadays, a great number of different models have been developed. They have a more complex approach to performance analysis, using both financial and non financial indicators, grouped in a certain number of performance perspectives. The disadvantages of these modern systems can be diminished through their integration, which leads to creating new, integrated cost management systems. That we can see trough integrated software packages who covering almost all aspect of corporate business management.

  2. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    management (IWM) approach in maize in eastern Uganda. ... Returns on investment (ROI) were highest under pre-Atz+1hh and 2hh ... followed by one hand-hoe weeding (28 days after planting) is the most .... Mean effects of different IWM approaches on growth and yield of maize at Ikulwe S .... Efficiency of plant population.

  3. Cost-Utility Analysis: Sartorius Flap versus Negative Pressure Therapy for Infected Vascular Groin Graft Managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Macarios, David; Griffin, Leah; Kosowski, Tomasz; Pyfer, Bryan J; Offodile, Anaeze C; Driscoll, Daniel; Maddali, Sirish; Attwood, John

    2015-11-01

    Sartorius flap coverage and adjunctive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) have been described in managing infected vascular groin grafts with varying cost and clinical success. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing sartorius flap with NPWT in managing an infected vascular groin graft. A literature review compiling outcomes for sartorius flap and NPWT interventions was conducted from peer-reviewed journals in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE. Utility scores were derived from expert opinion and used to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Medicare current procedure terminology and diagnosis-related groups codes were used to assess the costs for successful graft salvage with the associated complications. Incremental cost-effectiveness was assessed at $50,000/QALY, and both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess robustness of the conclusions. Thirty-two studies were used pooling 384 patients (234 sartorius flaps and 150 NPWT). NPWT had better clinical outcomes (86.7% success rate, 0.9% minor complication rate, and 13.3% major complication rate) than sartorius flap (81.6% success rate, 8.0% minor complication rate, and 18.4% major complication rate). NPWT was less costly ($12,366 versus $23,516) and slightly more effective (12.06 QALY versus 12.05 QALY) compared with sartorius flap. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the base case findings; NPWT was either cost-effective at $50,000/QALY or dominated sartorius flap in 81.6% of all probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In our cost-utility analysis, use of adjunctive NPWT, along with debridement and antibiotic treatment, for managing infected vascular groin graft wounds was found to be a more cost-effective option when compared with sartorius flaps.

  4. Portfolio management : minimizing energy costs in an open access market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, P. [U.S. Generating Company (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of evolving market structures for electric utilities, discussed portfolio management in an open access market and enumerated critical abilities that will be required for success in the new marketplace. Viewgraphs provided information regarding the current retail restructuring landscape and merchant plant activity by region. Bar graphs were included to represent the growth of power marketing and the results of utility divestiture auctions. Critical capabilities to successfully optimize a competitive energy portfolio, including functional integration, teamwork and goals alignment, the aggressive use of information technology, liquidity, and risk management, were discussed at length. As an example of the new approach, the structure and operating plans of PG and E, one of the largest unregulated energy trading company in the U.S., were reviewed. In brief, the company plans to be aggressive in all competitive energy markets, to focus on asset development and acquisition, and to gain liquidity through trading and marketing. 16 figs.

  5. Employing Risk Management to Control Military Construction Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition University (DAU),Defense Acquisition Research Journal ,9820 Belvoir Road, Suite 3,Fort Belvoir,VA,22060-5565...Team ( ELT ), co-chaired by the PMO’s Deputy Program Director—Site and Baltimore District’s program manager for the NCE effort. ELT membership is...the ELT , membership consists of executives (both government and contractor) of each executing element (Figure 3). PLTs meet on a weekly basis (or

  6. Freight tracking cost analysis to improve logistics management operations

    OpenAIRE

    De Coning, A.; Hoffman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-border freight industry suffers from inefficiencies that can be addressed by implementing technology based systems. Inefficiencies cause time delays at amongst others border posts and weigh stations that in turn increase turnaround times. Higher turnaround times affect the business bottom line as it reduces the turnover generated on capital assets and therefore decrease profit levels. Efficient logistics management will also ensure increased trade in Sub Saharan...

  7. Should Cost: A Strategy for Managing Military Systems Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    telecoms and network discussions of what has been done and what will come down as future system and policy changes. Iterative results included... telecom . Of the numerous SCIs available, the chief financial officer for the portfolio chose the QF-16 Engine Management (see photo). The program...be contacted at Jennifer.A.Miller212.civ@mail.mil. DAU Alumni Association Join The SucceSS neTwork The DAU Alumni Association opens the door to a

  8. Scientific and methodological tools of cost management of enterprises: the main approaches and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Dikunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the economic nature of expenses for the industrial and defense enterprises occurs through the definition of a conceptual framework, harmonization of definitions of such things as cost, costs and expenses. In the study, these concepts are used as equivalent terms. In theory, there are different classifications of production cost and sales of products’ cost, a part of which is not used in practice. While analyzing the legislative division into elements it was proposed to complement the legal classification of an element of the costs of supply and distribution. The need for categorization is obvious, which is possible after considering the existing classifications of expenditures in the completely manufacturing process. This study shows that they do not solve all the tasks by the cost control. This problem can be solved if you set the relationship of costs and revenues with the actions of the persons, responsible for the use of resources and introduce so-called responsibility centers.The most promising methods include: cost-benefit analysis, planning on a zero basis, strategic cost management in the organization. The comparative analysis allowed to create the fundamental basis for their combined use in the creation of a mechanism to control costs, because this method is widely used in recent times by progressive enterprises. However, there are problems of its implementation with regard to the current economic situation in the state.The law regulates supply and marketing policy of the companies. The analysis of the used classifications in the supply and marketing systems of the enterprises allowed offering group costs. Their elements are described in detail and delimitation of the production costs is carried out. There is no such a division in practical activities of enterprises.To confirm this fact and clarify further research directions, we have considered the real status of the expenses for manufacture and realization of production

  9. QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN COST MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING SUBJECTS: THE STUDENTS’ VIEWPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelia Appio Tibola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this research is to identify the quality attributes students perceive in cost management and accounting subjects. The subjects were 126 students who took the subjects Cost Applied to Administration, Cost Accounting and Cost Analysis, corresponding to all students in the semester during which the research was undertaken. Thus, a census study was adopted. The research institution is a public university that offers graduate (M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs in Accountancy and Business Administration, particularly in the South of Brazil. An exploratory and qualitative research design was used in the first part and a descriptive and quantitative design in the second. Data were collected with the help of a structured questionnaire with open questions, applying the Critical Incident Technique. Content Analysis was used to classify and categorize the respondents’ answers into units of meaning. In the second phase, these categories were transformed into categorical variables and analyzed through statistical procedures. The results evidenced that the quality attributes constituted an Axis. In the Cost Analysis subjects, they privileged the lecturer’s quality. In Cost Accounting, the students evidenced the teacher’s commitment and the application of practical examples as a relevant attribute. In Cost Applied to Administration, the results indicated that understanding about the subject, clarification of doubts and the lecturer’s didactics served as quality attributes.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF THE PERSONNEL WITH THE USE OF FUNCTIONAL-COST AND SYSTEMIC-COGNITIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the essence of management, stating the goals and structure of the system of personnel management. It considers the essence of the method of functional-cost analysis (FCA and, as a major gap, we have noted a low level of formalization, which requires the involvement of experts in applying the FSA. It also specifies the difference between the cost and the cost price. We consider the decision of questions of creation of the personnel management system on the FCA basis using the method of automated system-cognitive analysis (ASA-analysis, in particular: the measurement of the severity of socio-economic and psychological properties, metric scales, build intellectual measuring system, the development and application of models, providing both building occupation graphs and their application to measure the degree of compliance of the Respondent with the requirements of professional positions and to the positions including the cost of employment of personnel and resources allocated for staff on posts. The proposed approach can be applied not only at the decision of tasks of human resource management with DAF method, but when you apply the FSA in a variety of subject areas, in particular - the method of direct-Costing

  11. Virtual learning environment for managing costs of dressings for pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristiane Alves Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive and applied study aimed at describing the construction and assessment of a virtual learning environment on the topic of cost management of pressure ulcer dressings, using WebQuest methodology. For the planning and development phases, we used simple and accessible technological resources, focused on educational aspects. During the assessment phase, four computer science specialists, four nursing professors and four nursing professionals who worked with cost management evaluated technical aspects (Response Time and Interface Quality as well as educational ones (Content, Activity, Interaction. These aspects received positive evaluations (over 86% of criteria were fulfilled, except for Response Time (62% were totally fulfilled and 30% partially fulfilled. The results demonstrated that it is possible to make use of virtual learning environments with undergraduate nursing students in order to impact education regarding material cost management in nursing. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.22161.

  12. A General Approach of Quality Cost Management Suitable for Effective Implementation in Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian BRAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investments in quality are best quantified by implementing and managing quality cost systems. A review of various opinions coming from practitioners and researchers about the existent quality cost models reveals a set of drawbacks (e.g. too theoretical and too close to ideal cases; too academic, with less practical impact; too much personalized to particular business processes, with difficulties in extrapolating to other cases; not comprising all dimensions of a business system. Using concepts and tools in quality management theory and practice and algorithms of innovative problem solving, this paper formulates a novel approach to improve practical usability, comprehensiveness, flexibility and customizability of a quality cost management system (QCMS when implementing it in a specific software application. Conclusions arising from the implementation in real industrial cases are also highlighted.

  13. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  14. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management--costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar's SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value

  15. Cost of Quality (CoQ) metrics for telescope operations and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwill, Nicole M.

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the goals, foundational work, and early returns associated with establishing a pilot quality cost program at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Quality costs provide a means to communicate the results of process improvement efforts in the universal language of project management: money. This scheme stratifies prevention, appraisal, internal failure and external failure costs, and seeks to quantify and compare the up-front investment in planning and risk management versus the cost of rework. An activity-based Cost of Quality (CoQ) model was blended with the Cost of Software Quality (CoSQ) model that has been successfully deployed at Raytheon Electronic Systems (RES) for this pilot program, analyzing the efforts of the GBT Software Development Division. Using this model, questions that can now be answered include: What is an appropriate length for our development cycle? Are some observing modes more reliable than others? Are we testing too much, or not enough? How good is our software quality, not in terms of defects reported and fixed, but in terms of its impact on the user? The ultimate goal is to provide a higher quality of service to customers of the telescope.

  16. Costs associated with common dual-controller therapies for treating asthma in several managed care populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, Antonio P

    2002-01-01

    To present results of 2 studies assessing the impact of 3 commonly prescribed dual-controller regimens on the cost of treating asthma in several managed care populations. Two previously published cross-sectional and longitudinal retrospective studies of patients aged 12-65 years with asthma, in selected managed care plans, who were taking an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and were prescribed an index prescription for salmeterol or a leukotriene modifier. The cross-sectional study showed that different drug regimens were associated with measurable differences in outcome when both drug costs and use of medical services are taken into account. This stimulated a more rigorous follow-up study controlling for asthma severity by using preindex cost and use measures. The 12-month risk-adjusted total cost for the fluticasone propionate and salmeterol group was the lowest at 975 dollars, followed by 1,089 dollars and 1,268 dollars for the ICS and salmeterol and the ICS and leukotriene modifier groups, respectively. Overall cost per patient of dual-controller therapy consisting of fluticasone propionate and the inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol was lower than a regimen consisting of either another inhaled corticosteroid with salmeterol or an inhaled corticosteroid with a leukotriene modifier. The cost of asthma treatment failure (i.e., inpatient and emergency department) was similar between groups.

  17. Cost recovery of municipal solid waste management in small cities of inland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Hu, Shunong

    2014-04-01

    Financial performance of waste management, the key for efficiency and sustainability, has rarely been studied in China, especially for small cities. Through questionnaires and interviews, we conducted such a case study in several cities aiming to fill the gap and improve waste service. We found that labour accounts for more than half to three-quarters of the operation cost, followed by fuel and vehicle maintenance. The waste service heavily relies on budget transfer of the municipality. User fees collected recover less than half of total operation cost at best, even if the collection rate is relatively high. The low cost recovery is mainly due to low fee rates, unchanged for years owing to public pressure. Public complaint seems to be justified by the finding that the service only accounts for 5-10% of municipal revenue annually and even lower in government spending. Contrary to general perception, per capita waste generation in small cities is not less than big ones. Waste composition is dominated by kitchen wastes, with fractions of recyclables and combustibles much lower than big cities. These findings have implications on the waste management strategy: commercial incineration or recycling may not be economically viable for small cities. The article concludes that user fees might better serve, and be designed for, behaviour change than for cost recovery. Municipalities need to first improve cost efficiency and transparency of waste services to gain public trust and support in order to tackle the biggest challenge facing developing countries, cost recovery.

  18. Dynamic Cost-Contingency Management: A Method for Reducing Project Costs While Increasing the Probability of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    with Goldratt’s observation that negative human behavior is a major cause of the project-scheduling problem. Goldratt (1997) developed the Critical...2002). Assessment of cost uncertainties for large technology projects: A methodology and an application. Interfaces 32(4), 52-66. Goldratt , E.M

  19.   A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Two Management Strategies for Dyspepsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans Chr; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the cost-effectiveness of endoscopy and empirical proton pump inhibition (PPI) therapy for management of dyspepsia in primary care. Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) including prospective collection of economic resource data was conducted in general practice from...... June 2000 to August 2002, Aarhus County, Denmark. We randomly assigned 368 dyspeptic patients from 32 general practices to treatment with omeprazol 40 mg for two weeks (n: 184) or endoscopy (n: 184). The study adopted a societal perspective, and the year of costing was 2006. Outcome measures: days free...... of dyspeptic symptoms and proportion of patients with dyspepsia after one year based on patients' and general practitioners' (GPs') assessment. Costs were estimated from patient and GP questionnaires and from medical records. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness (CE) ratio for one day free of dyspeptic...

  20. Cost-Minimizing Scheduling of Workflows on a Cloud of Memory Managed Multicore Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounds, Nicolas G.; Antonio, John K.; Muehring, Jeff

    Workflows are modeled as hierarchically structured directed acyclic graphs in which vertices represent computational tasks, referred to as requests, and edges represent precedent constraints among requests. Associated with each workflow is a deadline that defines the time by which all computations of a workflow should be complete. Workflows are submitted by numerous clients to a scheduler that assigns workflow requests to a cloud of memory managed multicore machines for execution. A cost function is assumed to be associated with each workflow, which maps values of relative workflow tardiness to corresponding cost function values. A novel cost-minimizing scheduling framework is introduced to schedule requests of workflows so as to minimize the sum of cost function values for all workflows. The utility of the proposed scheduler is compared to another previously known scheduling policy.

  1. Costs and efficacy of management measures to improve udder health on Dutch dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijps, K; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2010-01-01

    Many different management measures are available to control mastitis, a very costly disease in the dairy sector. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the costs and efficacies of 18 of these management measures, for contagious and environmental pathogens, and their effect on bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) and incidence of clinical mastitis (CM). To determine the efficacies for these management measures, literature data and expertise were combined using Monte Carlo expert evaluation analysis. The effect of management measures varied with the incidence of CM and BTSCC, as well as for environmental and contagious problems. On average, postmilking teat disinfection was found to be the most effective measure in all situations. All management measures had large uncertainty around the most likely value. Results of a data envelopment analysis showed that 4 of the management measures included formed the best-practice frontier (the most cost-efficient measures): keeping cows standing after milking, rinsing clusters after milking a clinical case, using a separate cloth for all cows, and wearing milkers' gloves. Of the top 25 management measures (the 18 base management measures including levels of compliance), 8 were measures with 100% compliance; the others were sublevels of these measures with compliance varying between 25 and 100%. A lower hourly rate of the farmer did not influence management measures from the best-practice frontier, but had some effect on the efficiency scores of the other management measures.

  2. Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production: Systematization of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MCFA) into Corporate Management System

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAJIMA, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the structure of a management system which supports countermeasures for the environment in the manufacturing process by Environmental Management Accounting and particularly by Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) and the features of its management system.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of allopurinol and febuxostat for the management of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Choi, Hyon K; Pizzi, Laura T; Kuntz, Karen M

    2014-11-04

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in the United States. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urate-lowering treatment strategies for the management of gout. Markov model. Published literature and expert opinion. Patients for whom allopurinol or febuxostat is a suitable initial urate-lowering treatment. Lifetime. Health care payer. 5 urate-lowering treatment strategies were evaluated: no treatment; allopurinol- or febuxostat-only therapy; allopurinol-febuxostat sequential therapy; and febuxostat-allopurinol sequential therapy. Two dosing scenarios were investigated: fixed dose (80 mg of febuxostat daily, 0.80 success rate; 300 mg of allopurinol daily, 0.39 success rate) and dose escalation (≤120 mg of febuxostat daily, 0.82 success rate; ≤800 mg of allopurinol daily, 0.78 success rate). Discounted costs, discounted quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. In both dosing scenarios, allopurinol-only therapy was cost-saving. Dose-escalation allopurinol-febuxostat sequential therapy was more costly but more effective than dose-escalation allopurinol therapy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $39 400 per quality-adjusted life-year. The relative rankings of treatments did not change. Our results were relatively sensitive to several potential variations of model assumptions; however, the cost-effectiveness ratios of dose escalation with allopurinol-febuxostat sequential therapy remained lower than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $109 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Long-term outcome data for patients with gout, including medication adherence, are limited. Allopurinol single therapy is cost-saving compared with no treatment. Dose-escalation allopurinol-febuxostat sequential therapy is cost-effective compared with accepted willingness-to-pay thresholds. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  4. Reducing six-month inpatient psychiatric recidivism and costs through case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasovsky, Andrew; Reich, Leonard; Meyerkopf, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the reduction in inpatient psychiatric recidivism and costs associated with an intensive case management (ICM) program among high-risk adults with chronic mental health conditions. An intent-to-treat, historical control design was used to examine utilization differences between 306 intervention group (IG) members eligible to receive ICM services and a cohort of 290 baseline group (BG) members over a six-month outcome period. Members were identified retrospectively using identical criteria during one year prior to implementation of the program. The six-month recidivism rate for BG members was 49.67% compared to 22.07% among IG members. Forward stepwise regression results indicated a significant main effect for the ICM intervention on inpatient psychiatric costs. Inpatient psychiatric costs for the six-month outcome period were $4,982.90 lower per member in the IG group. Additional models demonstrated that the ICM intervention was associated with significantly lower inpatient substance abuse costs and psychiatric emergency department costs. There were no statistically significant increases in utilization associated with the ICM intervention. After factoring in program costs, it is estimated that the ICM services contributed to almost $1,500,000 in cost savings over the six-month outcome period. The ICM intervention was associated with significant reductions in inpatient, psychiatric six-month readmission rates and associated costs among adult members who are at elevated risk of inpatient, psychiatric recidivism. The intervention, enrollment process, and measurement strategies can be adapted for use by health plans looking to reduce psychiatric costs.

  5. Reducing the company weighted cost-of-capital by use of Management Commentary transparency in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    the cost of financing through credit institutions or improve the supplier accepted creditworthiness. This paper demonstrates empirically that there is a strong relationship between corporate transparency through use of an extensive management commentary and partly the financial costs, partly creditor......In a stakeholder perspective, this paper deals with information transparency through use of the management commentary as a means to improve the relation to other stakeholders than shareholders in (smaller) non-listed companies (SME’s). Some of the main incentives for doing this could be to reduce...

  6. Reducing the company weighted cost-of-capital by use of Management Commentary transparency in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    In a stakeholder perspective, this paper deals with information transparency through use of the management commentary as a means to improve the relation to other stakeholders than shareholders in (smaller) non-listed companies (SME’s). Some of the main incentives for doing this could be to reduce...... the cost of financing through credit institutions or improve the supplier accepted creditworthiness. This paper demonstrates empirically that there is a strong relationship between corporate transparency through use of an extensive management commentary and partly the financial costs, partly creditor...

  7. [Multi-national clinical therapy studies. Design, management and costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demol, P; Weihrauch, T R

    1997-02-15

    The development of new drugs requires increasingly the performance of large multinational clinical trials (MCT) with a common protocol. They must be planned when the demonstration of a hypothesis, which requires specific conditions (for example availability of patients with rare diseases, a particular infrastructure or expert knowledge in trial centers) has to be proven in an acceptable time. Our own experience has shown that such multinational trials are more time-consuming in their preparation and their analysis than multicenter trials which are run in one country. MCTs are associated with complex problems due to many differences in medical culture, treatment strategies, administrative guidelines, etc., between countries. When possible MCTs should be realized in countries and centers with relatively similar medical practices. A global coordination is necessary to control the progress of the trial in the different countries. The major requirements for the successful realisation of an MCT, from the writing of the first draft of the protocol until the publication of the results, are a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team and an effective project management.

  8. Starling flock networks manage uncertainty in consensus at low cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F Young

    Full Text Available Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors. We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks.

  9. The Relationship between Cost Leadership Strategy, Total Quality Management Applications and Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Ali; Cemal ZEHİR

    2016-01-01

    Firms need to implement some competition strategies and total quality management applications to overcome the fierce competition among others. The purpose of this study is to show the relationship between cost leadership strategy, total quality management applications and firms’ financial performance with literature review and empirical analysis. 449 questionnaires were conducted to the managers of 142 big firms. The data gathered was assessed with AMOS. As a result, the relationship between ...

  10. [Costs of hand emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbeau, G

    2003-10-01

    In France at the present time, there is no comprehensive registry of hand injuries. Three types of occurrences; motor vehicle accidents, work accidents, and accidents incident to activities of daily living, are covered by different types of insurance. It is the individual insurance companies, payers of the indemnification, who maintain registries of these accidents. Statistics on work accidents are very detailed and consistent, but they are oriented toward risk management. The aggregate cost of traumatic injuries to the hand is not known. Only large financial institutions are equipped to determine appropriate preventive measures and to establish premium rates based on loss experience. In 2001, hand injuries accounted for 27% of work accidents causing loss of work of at least 1 day. About 29.8% of these work accidents caused permanent partial impairment. About 17.7% of total days lost and 18.2% of the total costs of permanent impairment were due to hand injuries. In the system of compensation for work accidents, there is a major difference in the cost according to the severity of the impairment. If the permanent impairment is equal to or less than 9%, a lump sum payment is made, but if the permanent impairment is over 9%, the worker receives regular payments for the rest of his life. In 2000, the average cost of a work injury with partial permanent impairment of over 9% was [symbol: see text] 85,405, while the average cost of a lump sum settlement was only [symbol: see text] 1479, a ratio of 57 to 1. The compensation costs represent 80% of the cost of work accidents, while the cost of treatment, including all providers and institutions, makes up only 20% of the cost. Compensation for sequelae of accidents in the course of daily life is new for the insurance companies, although these accidents are frequent and often cause significant repercussions in the professional lives of victims because of the loss of hand function. Provision of optimal treatment for these

  11. Collar Option Model for Managing the Cost Overrun Caused by Change Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyo Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective change order management is very important in maintaining the financial sustainability of various stakeholders related to construction projects by minimizing cost overruns. In this study, we propose a zero-cost risk management approach based on the collar option model in order to control for the loss caused by change orders, the main cause of cost overruns in construction projects. We apply this model to actual projects for empirical analysis. The analysis, based on 237 projects, indicates that insurance buyers benefit from the collar option model in 46% of the cases, while insurance sellers do so in 53% of the cases. In most cases, the insurance buyer is the owner. According to the model, the owner experiences a loss when the cost overrun caused by change orders is lower than what was expected. In such cases, it is appropriate to conclude that the loss is not caused by the collar option model, but by the absence of additional revenue. However, the insurance seller suffers a loss if the cost overrun is higher than the strike price of the call option. Thus, the insurance seller needs to have expertise in construction management.

  12. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    . We use three axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well as all...... connection costs; and, (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on estimated connection costs and allocates true connection costs of the selected network....

  13. 谈项目管理中的成本管理%Discussion on the cost management of project management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯

    2014-01-01

    介绍了成本预测的含义,主要从人工、材料、机械、工期等费用的控制着手,对成本控制的措施进行了阐述,并对成本核算与竣工结算的注意事项作了研究,以采取有效的措施进行成本管理,为企业赢得经济效益。%This paper introduced the meaning of cost prediction, mainly from the control of artificial, material, machinery, construction period and other cost, elaborated the cost control measures, and researched the matters needing attention of cost accounting and completion settlement, so as to take effective measures for cost management, win economic benefits for the enterprises.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE PURPOSE OF DIRECT COSTING METHOD IN A COMPANY`S MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Ion

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study pertains to the scope of managerial accounting and is based on the establishment and control of costs and performances within the entities in the industry of chemical fertilizers. The scientific approach has been initiated as a result of some personal researches in the field of accounting and management control, since in the current conditions, in which management accounting does not come up to the standards of managerial accounting, it is necessary to apply some models or techniques that would support the taking of management decisions. The main aim of the research is to present a modality of organizing the managerial accounting so that it would enable to calculate a pertinent cost on each type of manufactured product and, finally, to establish the result obtained by each item and by the whole entity, by using the direct costing method, which due to the established specific indicators gives the possibility to perform an efficient management. The main research methods used to accomplish the scientific approach were the comparative analysis, the synthesis and the qualitative research. The major implications of the presented method for the examined field has been to establish a pertinent cost, oriented towards the entity’s management, as well as to maximize the result obtained, by continuously correlating the variable and fixed expenses with the volume of the activity and the selling price.

  15. Phase 2 cost quality management assessment report for the Office of Technology Development (EM-50)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Head quarters (HQ) Cost Quality Management Assessment (CQMA) evaluated the practices of the Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The CQMA reviewed EM-50 management documents and reported results in the HQ CQMA Phase 1 report (March 1993). In this Assessment Phase, EM-50 practices were determined through interviews with staff members. The interviews were conducted from the end of September through early December 1993. EM-50 management documents (Phase 1) and practices (Phase 2) were compared to the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POCs) contained in the DOE/HQ Cost Quality Management Assessment Handbook. More detail on the CQMA process is provided in section 2. Interviewees are listed in appendix A. Documents reviewed during Phase 2 are listed in appendix B. Section 3 contains detailed observations, discussions, and recommendations. A summary of observations and recommendations is presented.

  16. Cost Analysis: Methods and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Martin M.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that librarians need to be concerned with cost analysis of library functions and services because, in the allocation of resources, decision makers will favor library managers who demonstrate understanding of the relationships between costs and productive outputs. Factors that should be included in a reliable scheme for cost accounting are…

  17. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial...... assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household...... expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from...

  18. Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Devesh; Engel, Stefanie; Kosfeld, Michael

    2010-11-12

    Recent evidence suggests that prosocial behaviors like conditional cooperation and costly norm enforcement can stabilize large-scale cooperation for commons management. However, field evidence on the extent to which variation in these behaviors among actual commons users accounts for natural commons outcomes is altogether missing. Here, we combine experimental measures of conditional cooperation and survey measures on costly monitoring among 49 forest user groups in Ethiopia with measures of natural forest commons outcomes to show that (i) groups vary in conditional cooperator share, (ii) groups with larger conditional cooperator share are more successful in forest commons management, and (iii) costly monitoring is a key instrument with which conditional cooperators enforce cooperation. Our findings are consistent with models of gene-culture coevolution on human cooperation and provide external validity to laboratory experiments on social dilemmas.

  19. Road crash costs.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  20. Activity-based Costing and Road Construction Project Cost Management%作业成本法与公路施工项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石超云; 赵克剑

    2012-01-01

    公路施工企业的间接费用、管理费用等在总成本中的比重日益提高,传统的成本控制方法面临挑战,公路施工企业不得不考虑将作业成本法引入公路施工项目管理,论文从分析公路施工项目成本和管理的特征出发,阐述公路施工项目应用作业成本法可行性,分析公路施工项目运营作业成本法的条件,以及运用作业成本法潜在效果.%The proportion of indirect costs, administrative expenses of highway construction enterprises in the total cost are increasing and traditional method of cost control face challenges. Highway construction companies have to consider the activity-based costing into a highway construction project management, the paper described the feasibility of the highway construction project application activity-based costing, analysis of the operational conditions of the operating cost method of highway construction projects, as well as the potential effect of using activity-based costing.

  1. OPINIONSCONCERNINGTHE ORGANIZATIONOF STANDARD COSTS ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to present a way for organizing the accountancy under the conditions of applying the method of standard costs, such that to allow both the registration of standard and effective costs and the separate registration of the deviations from standard costs. Making some pertinent and performance decisions is mainly influenced by the quality of the information provided to managers and by the promptitude they are sent. This desiderate is not possible if using classical methods for calculating costs, reason for which it is mandatory to organize and implement a managerial accountancy, based on using a modern method, namely the method of standard costs. The main implications of this method consist of establishing a pertinent cost, orientated towards the entity management, regardless the activity domain where it is implemented. The carried out study concerns only one of the phases performed for applying the method of standard cost, respectively the organization of the standard costs accountancy.

  2. Using Six Sigma Tools to Improve Strategic Cost Management: Management Accounting Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Shonhadji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The company's commitment to implement Six Sigma has been said to fail, as a quality management strategies, as expected to lead to continuous improvement. This study has its objective to identify the use of Six Sigma as a tool to improve cost management strategies in the production of LED (light emitting diode on PT TMJ. It uses a case study approach to non-mainstream. The unit of analysis done on the application of six sigma strategies to evaluate quality management performance on the cleaning process of the LED light top-ring used in this study. The result of the evaluation measure phase, generally, informs that the company has increased sigma capability of the base performance so that the company's efforts to reduce the level of disability in circumference above the cleaning process should be defect-free LED light wrinkle, wave and widened in accordance with the target. All these can be said to be successful. The result also informed that at the stage of evaluating the attributes of data processing capability, informed that the company is in the process conditions. The fairly stable production, production process capability are quite capable to meet the specifications of the desired target customers.

  3. Pharmacotherapy in the management of early Parkinson’s disease: cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cubo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esther CuboNeurology Department, Hospital General Yagüe, Burgos, SpainAbstract: In the absence of a cure, the primary goals in managing Parkinson’s disease (PD are to preserve functionality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Current therapeutic strategies for PD include symptomatic treatment and are primarily focused on replacing dopamine in the brain. Dopamine agonists can be used as an alternative initial levodopa therapy, to delay the onset of motor complications, but at the expense of more dopaminergic adverse effects; poorer control of motor symptoms; and increased cost. In PD, treatment effects and costs accumulate over time; hence the choice of time horizon in cost-effectiveness analysis can be particularly important. Pharmaceutical expenditures have grown rapidly in recent decades and now total nearly 10% of all health care costs. The main approach to treat PD at the present time is to advance knowledge of the efficacy, to reduce long-term complications associated with treatment, and to improve patient HRQoL and society burden. The implementation of cost-effectiveness studies, including the societal perspective, should be considered as an outcome of new therapy strategies, which would be helpful to health care decision makers.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, costs, health-related quality of life

  4. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  5. A Costly Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pursuit of happiness isn’t down the money trail, one former executive shows Jeremy Su’s resume glows: President, Hypercom Corporation Asia-Pacific; General Manager, Sun Microsystems China; President, Bull Information Systems Greater China Operation, et cetera, et cetera. But thanks to being laid off from Hypercom because of cost cutting, his heart, formerly crippled by his juggernaut career,

  6. 应用作业成本法管理医院成本的实践%Application of Activity-based Costing in Hospital Cost Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琳莎; 王少清; 秦花; 郭云雷; 杨琴; 李兰

    2011-01-01

    目的:将作业成本法应用于医院成本管理实践.方法:以某医院血液透析中心为研究对象,结合医院及医疗服务流程特点,划分医院作业及血液透析中心作业,确定作业成本动因.结果:根据作业成本法原理,测算科室及医疗服务项目成本.结论:应用作业成本法于医院内部管理是一个新的发展方向.%Objective: To practice the activity-based costing in hospital cost management. Method: Selecting the hemodialysis center in a hospital as research objects, through investigating characteristics of hospitals and medical services process, dividing the activity of hospital and dialysis centre, and selecting cost factors. Results: According to the principle of the activity-based costing, the cost of department and medical services is measured. Conclusion: It is of a new direction to practice the activity-based costing in hospital interior management.

  7. The Costs and Valuation of Health Impacts of Measles and Rubella Risk Management Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    National and global health policymakers require good information about the costs and benefits of their investments in measles and rubella immunization programs. Building on our review of the existing measles and rubella health economics literature, we develop inputs for use in regional and global models of the expected future benefits and costs of vaccination, treatment, surveillance, and other global coordination activities. Given diversity in the world and limited data, we characterize the costs for countries according to the 2013 World Bank income levels using 2013 U.S. dollars (2013$US). We estimate that routine immunization and supplemental immunization activities will cost governments and donors over 2013$US 2.3 billion per year for the foreseeable future, with high-income countries accounting for 55% of the costs, to vaccinate global birth cohorts of approximately 134 million surviving infants and to protect the global population of over 7 billion people. We find significantly higher costs and health consequences of measles or rubella disease than with vaccine use, with the expected disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss for case of disease generally at least 100 times the loss per vaccine dose. To support estimates of the economic benefits of investments in measles and/or rubella elimination or control, we characterize the probabilities of various sequelae of measles and rubella infections and vaccine adverse events, the DALY inputs for health outcomes, and the associated treatment costs. Managing measles and rubella to achieve the existing and future regional measles and rubella goals and the objectives of the Global Vaccine Action Plan will require an ongoing commitment of financial resources that will prevent adverse health outcomes and save the associated treatment costs.

  8. Talking about how to strengthen cost management and reduce project cost%谈如何加强成本管理降低项目成本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元英

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes many building construction project cost management experience, describes cost influences and controlling from aspects of organization setting, cost check, technological progress, quality and security etc, and proposes several measures on how to reduce project cost, with a view to improve enterprise economic benefits.%总结了众多建筑施工项目成本管理的经验,从机构设置、成本核算、技术进步、质量和安全等方面对成本的影响和控制进行了阐述,提出了如何降低项目成本的几个措施,以提高企业经济效益。

  9. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; Pmonetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of management strategies for obscure GI bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Lauren; Kamal, Ahmad

    2008-11-01

    Of patients who are seen with GI hemorrhage, approximately 5% will have a small-bowel source. Management of these patients entails considerable expense. We performed a decision analysis to explore the optimal management strategy for obscure GI hemorrhage. We used a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare no therapy (reference arm) to 5 competing modalities for a 50-year-old patient with obscure overt bleeding: (1) push enteroscopy, (2) intraoperative enteroscopy, (3) angiography, (4) initial anterograde double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) followed by retrograde DBE if the patient had ongoing bleeding, and (5) small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) followed by DBE guided by the CE findings. The model included prevalence rates for small-bowel lesions, sensitivity for each intervention, and the probability of spontaneous bleeding cessation. We examined total costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) over a 1-year time period. An initial DBE was the most cost-effective approach. The no-therapy arm cost $532 and was associated with 0.870 QALYs compared with $2407 and 0.956 QALYs for the DBE approach, which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $20,833 per QALY gained. Compared to the DBE approach, an initial CE was more costly and less effective. The initial DBE arm resulted in an 86% bleeding cessation rate compared to 76% for the CE arm and 59% for the no-therapy arm. The model results were robust to a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The short time horizon of the model, because of the lack of long-term data about the natural history of rebleeding from small-intestinal lesions. An initial DBE is a cost-effective approach for patients with obscure bleeding. However, capsule-directed DBE may be associated with better long-term outcomes because of the potential for fewer complications and decreased utilization of endoscopic resources.

  11. Traditional Commerce Versus Electronic Commerce: A Case Study Under The Logistics Costs Management View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to see how a large Brazilian company of the retail sector makes the measurement and analysis of logistics costs of both its physical operations (traditional trade as their virtual transactions (e-commerce. The research has been conducted in the contributions of strategic cost management for business sustainability. This is an unique descriptive case study, with a qualitative approach, performed in the 2nd half of 2013. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis and in situ observations. Data analyzes occurred by comparative interpretations. The main results showed no significant differences in the analysis and measurement of logistics costs between the two forms of trading. This can be explained partly by the fact that the company does not deal with electronic commerce differently in relation to the management of logistics costs. That is, both the operations of the virtual store as physical stores share the same logistics structure. Additional logistics costs in e-commerce are offset by higher margin practiced in this business model.

  12. Organisation and management of research and development facilities - from cost to profit focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Pearson, Alan; Nixon, Bill

    2003-01-01

    In this publication, we present the main findings of a research project into differences in organisation, management and activities between R&D cost centres, semi-profit centres, profit centres, and independent R&D businesses. First, a theoretical framework is presented and then the empirical

  13. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funds Availability. Inviting... Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, as amended (7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.). This program is in addition...

  14. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting... Organic Regulations (7 CFR part 205), which were authorized under the Organic Foods Production Act of...

  15. Costs of quality management systems in long-term care organizations: an exploration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Merode, G.G. van; Oort, M. van

    2003-01-01

    The article describes a method for measuring and reporting the costs of quality management in 11 long-term care organizations (nursing homes, home health care organizations, and homes for the elderly) and a national survey in 489 organizations providing long-term care. Site visits and a questionnair

  16. Cost of management of severe pneumonia in young children: systematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhang 1,2

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia is a major cause of childhood illness and the second leading cause of child death globally. Understanding the costs associated with the management of childhood pneumonia is essential for resource allocation and priority setting for child health.

  17. Factors Affecting Construction Cost in Mara Large Construction Project: Perspective of Project Management Consultant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Project cost is one of the most important criteria of success of project and is of high concern to those who are involved in the construction industry. However, studies show that rarely projects are complete within stipulated budget. This study is focusing on identification of significant causes affecting construction cost in MARA large projects. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted among the personnel of Project Management Consultant (PMC. Data was analyzed with statistical tools to determine the rank of factors affecting construction cost. It is concluded that cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor's poor site management and supervision, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers, incorrect planning and scheduling by contractors are most severe factors while changes in scope of project and frequent design changes are least affecting factors on construction cost. Spearman correlation analysis showed that incorrect planning and scheduling by contractor has strong positive relationship with contractor’s poor site management and supervision, inadequate experience of contractors has strong positive relationship with incorrect planning and scheduling; and contractor’s poor site management and supervision, changes in scope of project has strong positive relationship with frequent design changes; and vice versa.

  18. Managing Classroom Behavior of Head Start Children Using Response Cost and Token Economy Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Jennifer D.; Fortson, Beverly L.; McNeil, Cheryl B.; Humphreys, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of three behavior management techniques used in a Head Start classroom was examined. The three techniques included: (a) techniques currently used by the teacher, (b) response cost, and (c) the Level System (token economy). The current study used an ABACA single subject withdrawal design with follow-up where all conditions were…

  19. Performance, Process, and Costs: Managing Service Quality with the Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Roswitha

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project among three German libraries that used the Balanced Scorecard as a concept for an integrated quality management system. Considers performance indicators across four perspectives that will help academic libraries establish an integrated controlling system and to collect and evaluate performance as well as cost data…

  20. Direct costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among managed care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2010-09-01

    .Keywords: health care cost, health expenditure, lung diseases, managed care

  1. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 2. Supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    This report presents the detailed results and assumptions for the January 1986 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) analysis. The report is composed of three sections: Section A lists the costing assumptions which have been made about the principal waste management system parameters; Section B presents the yearly flows of waste material between system facilities for the 8 logistics cases which were studied; and Section C presents the annual total system costs for each of the 32 TSLCC cases by major cost category.

  2. Municipal solid wastes management. cost evaluation of selective collecting; Gestion integral de residuos urbanos. Evaluacion de rendimientos y costes de la recogida selectiva (Parte I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Ginestar, X.; Perez, C.; Gasso, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (PNRU 2000-2006) includes and integrated waste management model that arranges the management options of waste in order of priority: minimization, re-use, recycling (including composting and biomethanisation), energy recovery and final disposal. This paper makes an evaluation of the cost increase of the MSW separate collection for recycling compared to the traditional collection system. This first part includes a description of the different possibilities to carry out the separate collection in terms of materials (containers and collectors), human resources and performances, as well as a comparison between its unitary costs. (Author)

  3. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste managementCosts and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident

  4. COPD management costs according to the frequency of COPD exacerbations in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punekar YS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yogesh Suresh Punekar,1 Amit Shukla,2 Hana Müllerova31Global Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Uxbridge, UK; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Upper Providence, PA, USA; 3Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Uxbridge, UKBackground: The economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations is significant, but the impact of other sources on the overall cost of COPD management is largely unknown. We aimed to estimate overall costs for patients experiencing none, one, or two or more exacerbations per year in the UK.Methods: A retrospective cohort of prevalent COPD patients was identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink UK database. Patients with information recorded for at least 12 months before and after cohort entry date were included (first prevalent COPD diagnosis confirmed by spirometry on/after April 1, 2009. Patients were categorized as having none, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations in the 12 months after cohort entry and further classified by the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD category of airflow obstruction and the Medical Research Council dyspnea scale. Study outcomes included counts of general practitioner interactions, moderate-severe COPD exacerbations, and non-COPD hospitalizations. Estimated resource use costs were calculated using National Health Service reference costs for 2010–2011.Results: The cohort comprised 58,589 patients (mean age 69.5 years, mean dyspnea grade 2.5, females 46.6%, current smokers 33.1%. The average total annual per patient cost of COPD management, excluding medications, was £2,108 for all patients and £1,523, £2,405, and £3,396 for patients experiencing no, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations, respectively. General practitioner interactions contributed most to these annual costs, accounting for £1,062 (69.7%, £1,313 (54.6%, and £1,592 (46.9% in patients with no, one, or

  5. Institutions for Managing Resilient Salmon (Oncorhynchus Spp. Ecosystems: the Role of Incentives and Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. Hanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions are the mechanisms that integrate the human and ecological spheres. This paper discusses the institutional challenge of integrating salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. ecosystems and human systems in ways that effectively promote resilience. Salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin demonstrates the challenge. Despite the comprehensive scope of Basin salmon management, it has a number of problems that illustrate the difficulties of designing institutions for ecosystem and human system resilience. The critical elements of salmon ecosystem management are incentives and transaction costs, and these comprise a large piece of missing institutional infrastructure. Once the focus is placed on incentives and costs, a number of different management strategies emerge as options for salmon ecosystems, including refugia, property rights to ecosystem goods and services, co-management, and markets in ecosystem services.

  6. Systematic review of model-based analyses reporting the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cardiovascular disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Shoko; Byrnes, Joshua; Whitty, Jennifer A; Carrington, Melinda J; Stewart, Simon; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    The reported cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease management programs (CVD-MPs) is highly variable, potentially leading to different funding decisions. This systematic review evaluates published modeled analyses to compare study methods and quality. Articles were included if an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) or cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was reported, it is a multi-component intervention designed to manage or prevent a cardiovascular disease condition, and it addressed all domains specified in the American Heart Association Taxonomy for Disease Management. Nine articles (reporting 10 clinical outcomes) were included. Eight cost-utility and two cost-effectiveness analyses targeted hypertension (n=4), coronary heart disease (n=2), coronary heart disease plus stoke (n=1), heart failure (n=2) and hyperlipidemia (n=1). Study perspectives included the healthcare system (n=5), societal and fund holders (n=1), a third party payer (n=3), or was not explicitly stated (n=1). All analyses were modeled based on interventions of one to two years' duration. Time horizon ranged from two years (n=1), 10 years (n=1) and lifetime (n=8). Model structures included Markov model (n=8), 'decision analytic models' (n=1), or was not explicitly stated (n=1). Considerable variation was observed in clinical and economic assumptions and reporting practices. Of all ICERs/ICURs reported, including those of subgroups (n=16), four were above a US$50,000 acceptability threshold, six were below and six were dominant. The majority of CVD-MPs was reported to have favorable economic outcomes, but 25% were at unacceptably high cost for the outcomes. Use of standardized reporting tools should increase transparency and inform what drives the cost-effectiveness of CVD-MPs. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  7. A new method of material resources management based on material flow cost accounting for industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldin, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the article a new method of material resources management for industrial enterprises is introduced. The method is based on the concepts of sustainable development and the elements of environmental management theory, such as life cycle assessment and material flow cost accounting. Steps that have to be completed in order to improve material resources efficiency are outlined and discussed in detail. Two possible optimization routines are also introduced and reviewed, namely: search for a bet...

  8. Tapping Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    management , survival analysis  lead image by Diane Fleischer 58 Controlling cost growth for a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) has been...directing and controlling a totally integrated engineering effort of a system or program.” Program management is defined as “the business and...56 Defense ARJ, January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 56–76 TAPPING Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition COST BREACHES Laura E. Armey and Diana I

  9. Cost-Based Decision in Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cretu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Management decision must be based on relevant costs (costs that allow for the best measures for business management, recognized by their forecasting characteristics which records hidden or opportunity costs, social costs and outsourced costs. Correctly predicted a profit is to build costs for possible revenue. The cost is a sacrifice, resource consumption. Because decisions aimed at future activities, the management calls in this respect, detailed information on future costs, some of which are not included in accounting data collection system. The power of decision maker on costs is therefore limited.d

  10. Management Information System (MIS: Tool for Monitoring the Waste Management Health Service (RSS and Cost of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of solid waste management has been improve and deploy systems that perform monitoring and control of management processes of health service’s waste (HSW. This study aims to evaluate the total cost per category of HSW/day and active bed/day with the handling of HSW in a teaching hospital in northeastern area of Brazil`s Rio Grande do Sul state and identify contributions of a management information system (MIS in the management process, especially considering the generation and segregation of waste. Utilized methodology was developed in two stages: data collection about the management of the HSW and proposition, implementation and feed of a MIS for recording and processing of data related to waste characterization. Results show that whether the management system of the hospital in this study were 100% right, the monthly savings for the treatment of infectious waste would be 18.4% of the costs and 5.83% of costs of chemical waste. The implementation of MIS becomes an essential tool in the evaluation of the management process of HSW since it makes possible to raise issues of fundamental importance to the implementation and evaluation of strategies contained in the HSW management plan. The MIS also represents a tool of easy reference and of great importance to evaluate generation of HSW as it helps to promote the surveillance, identification of sectors that have the biggest problems with segregation, as well as ways to minimize costs and impacts.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    if language is not an obvious distinctive competence, i.e. a strategic element to be incorporated into products so as to increase the penetration into the desired markets. For communicators it is clear that terminology work is useful and necessary - in this relation both quality and price would be clear...... distinctive competences. However, management in private and public organizations (most often) requires concrete figures and numbers to document the arguments before allocating resources. Cost/benefit-analysis supports the arguments through a comparison between benefits and costs of a given new initiative...

  12. A Project Management Approach to Using Simulation for Cost Estimation on Large, Complex Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    It is very difficult for project managers to develop accurate cost and schedule estimates for large, complex software development projects. None of the approaches or tools available today can estimate the true cost of software with any high degree of accuracy early in a project. This paper provides an approach that utilizes a software development process simulation model that considers and conveys the level of uncertainty that exists when developing an initial estimate. A NASA project will be analyzed using simulation and data from the Software Engineering Laboratory to show the benefits of such an approach.

  13. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time.

  14. Estimation of risk management effects on revenue and purchased feed costs on US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Joleen C; Johnson, Kamina K

    2015-09-01

    Variations in milk and feed prices directly affect dairy farm risk management decisions. This research used data from the 2010 US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Resource Management Surveys phase III dairy survey to examine how risk management tools affected revenues and expenses across US dairy farms. The survey was sent to 26 states and collected information on costs and returns to individual dairy farms. This research used the information from milk sales, crops sales, feed expenses, and farm and operator characteristics, as well as the use of risk management tools. Matching methodology was used to evaluate the effect of 5 independent risk management tools on revenues and expenses: selling milk to a cooperative, using a commodity contract to sell grain, feeding homegrown forage at a basic and intensive level, and use of a nutritionist. Results showed that dairy farms located in the Midwest and East benefit from selling milk to a cooperative and using commodity contracts to sell grain. Across the United States, using a nutritionist increased total feed costs, whereas a feeding program that included more than 65% homegrown forages decreased total feed costs. Results point to benefits from educational programming on risk management tools that are region specific rather than a broad generalization to all US dairy farmers.

  15. Sources of Operating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    Historically, road vehicle operating costs have tended to dominate highway economic appraisals in developing countries, due to the poor road surfaces that can occur there. The operating costs of railways and ports are also substantial, and form key components of cost benefit analyses of their associated infrastructure. The definition of operating costs for Bank projects is therefore important ...

  16. Integral municipal wastes management. Cost evaluation; Gestion integral de residuos urbanos. Evaluacion de rendimientos y costes de la recogida selectiva (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Ginestar, X.; Perez, C.; Gasso, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish National Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (PNRU 2002-2006) includes an integrated waste management model that arranges the waste management options in order of priority: minimization, reuse, recycling (including composting and biomethanisation), energy recovery and final disposal. This paper makes an evaluation of the cost increases of the MSW separate collection for recycling compared to the traditional collection system. The first part of this paper include a description of the different possibilities to carry out the separate collection in terms of materials (containers and collectors), human resources and performances, as well as a comparison between its unitary costs. This second part contains a total cost evaluation and specially focuses on the organic matter and refuse separate collection comparing the lateral load system and the back load system in three temporal scenarios from 2001 to 2006. (Author)

  17. Product costing and activity-based costing/management in Bacalhôa Vinhos de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Carlota Tomaz da Costa

    2016-01-01

    The present Work Project introduces a case study addressing the adoption of an ABC/M system in a winemaking company. The system was implemented in only one area of the company, and its adoption allows the company to perform ABM analysis resorting to the ABC information. A mixed approach is used to cost the products: both traditional and ABC systems are used although in different areas of the company. ABC/M implementation was perceived as ‘successful’ despite not following recommendations pres...

  18. What can the postanesthesia care unit manager do to decrease costs in the postanesthesia care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, A; Glenn, D; Dexter, F

    1999-10-01

    The economic structure of the PACU dictates whether a cost-reducing intervention (e.g., reducing the length of time patients stay in the PACU) is likely to decrease hospital costs. Cost-reducing interventions, such as changes in medical practice patterns (e.g., to reduce PACU length of stay), only impact variable costs. How PACU nurses are paid (e.g., salaried v hourly) affects which strategies to decrease PACU staffing costs will actually save money. For example, decreases in PACU labor costs resulting from increases in the number of patients that bypass the PACU vary depending on how the staff is compensated. The choice of anesthetic drugs and the elimination of low morbidity side effects of anesthesia, such as postoperative nausea, are likely to have little effect on the peak numbers of patients in a PACU and PACU staffing costs. Because the major determinant of labor productivity in the PACU is hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability in the timing of admissions from the operating room, a more even inflow of patients into the PACU could be attained by appropriate sequencing of cases in the operating room suite (e.g., have long cases scheduled at the beginning of the day). However, this mathematically proven solution may not be desirable. Surgeons, for example, may not want to lose control over the order of their cases. Guidelines for analysis of past daily peak numbers of patients are provided that will provide data to predict the minimum adequate number of nurses needed. Though many managers already do this manually on an ad hoc basis statistical methods summarized in this article may increase the accuracy.

  19. Improving Library Management by Using Cost Analysis Tools: A Case Study for Cataloguing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Siguenza-Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available TTDABC is a relatively new costing management technique, initially developed for manufacturing processes, which is gaining attention in libraries. This is because TDABC is a fast and simple method that only requires two parameters, an estimation of time required to perform an activity and the unit cost per time of supplying capacity. A few case studies have been documented with regard to TDABC in libraries; all of them being oriented to analyse specific library activities such as inter-library loan, acquisition and circulation processes. The primary focus of this paper is to describe TDABC implementation in one of the most important library processes, namely cataloguing. In particular, original and copy cataloguing are analysed through a case study to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of TDABC to perform cost analysis of cataloguing processes.

  20. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of disaster risk management in a development context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Daniel; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Limited studies have shown that disaster risk management (DRM) can be cost-efficient in a development context. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an evaluation tool to analyse economic efficiency. This research introduces quantitative, stochastic CBA frameworks and applies them in case studies of flood and drought risk reduction in India and Pakistan, while also incorporating projected climate change impacts. DRM interventions are shown to be economically efficient, with integrated approaches more cost-effective and robust than singular interventions. The paper highlights that CBA can be a useful tool if certain issues are considered properly, including: complexities in estimating risk; data dependency of results; negative effects of interventions; and distributional aspects. The design and process of CBA must take into account specific objectives, available information, resources, and the perceptions and needs of stakeholders as transparently as possible. Intervention design and uncertainties should be qualified through dialogue, indicating that process is as important as numerical results.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of transcatheter versus surgical management of structural heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanari, Zaher, E-mail: zfanari@gmail.com [Division of Cardiology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS (United States); Weintraub, William S. [Section of Cardiology, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE (United States); Value institute, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Transcatheter management of valvular and structural heart disease is the most growing aspect of interventional cardiology. While the early experience was limited to patients who were not candidate for surgery, the continuous improvement in the efficacy and safety expanded its use to different degree depending on the procedure and the disease involved. The cost of these procedures is a major concern for health care in developed world. Cost-effectiveness of these transcatheter structural procedures varies depending on the procedure itself, the burden of the underlying disease, the feasibility and cost of both the Transcatheter and surgical procedures. In this review, we turn now to a specific discussion of the medical economics of percutaneous valvular and structural interventions.

  2. Software Cost Estimation Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Alphonce

    2013-01-01

    Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort, the time and the cost re-quired to complete software project successfully. It involves size measurement of the soft-ware project to be produced, estimating and allocating the effort, drawing the project schedules, and finally, estimating overall cost of the project. Accurate estimation of software project cost is an important factor for business and the welfare of software organization in general. If cost and effort estimat...

  3. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  4. Local, national, and service component cost variations in the management of low back pain: Considerations for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ashwin N; McCormick, Zachary; Kennedy, David J; Press, Joel

    2016-11-21

    In the past two decades, the cost associated with managing low back pain has increased significantly. Improved consciousness of how clinicians utilize resources when managing low back pain is necessary in the current economic climate. The goal of this review is to examine the component costs associated with managing low back pain and provide practical solutions for reducing healthcare costs. This is accomplished by utilizing examples from a major metropolitan area with several major academic institutions and private health care centers. It is clear that there is considerable local and national variation in the component costs of managing low back pain, including physician visits, imaging studies, medications, and therapy services. By being well informed about these variations in one's environment, clinicians and patients alike can make strides towards reducing the financial impact of low back pain. Investigation of the cost discrepancies for services within one's community of practice is important. Improved public access to both cost and outcomes data is needed.

  5. Perceptions of managers regarding supply chain cost reduction in the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many industries, including the mobile phone industry, experience a surge in supply chain (SC costs in the provision of products and services to their customers. Despite this, only a few studies have been conducted on SC cost reduction in South Africa and globally.Objective: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of managers regarding cost reduction in the South African mobile phone SC.Method: A qualitative case study was conducted, involving eight willing managers and using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents. Interviews transcripts were analysed thematically with the help of Atlas.ti and a threefold process was followed, comprising data reduction, data display and data interpretation and conclusion drawing.Results: The findings suggest that mobile phone companies should consolidate their strategic relationships and be efficient, in order to effectively reduce costs in the South African mobile phone SC. To achieve this, whilst South African mobile network operators have to share more and more infrastructure and outsource their operations, other mobile phone companies should re-engineer their operational processes and their reduce costs across the SC.Conclusion: The knowledge generated from this study should assist South African mobile phone companies to reduce their SC costs and address high-priced mobile services. On the other hand, this study should assist regulating authorities (the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa to gain insights into the challenges faced by the mobile phone industry in South Africa and, therefore, to make appropriate and adequate mobile telecommunication policies.

  6. Management of Energy Costs for Sme’s, Evidence From Kosova Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valon Kastrati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of strategic management, particularly strategic planning of energy costs and their effect on the overall performance of businesses. It is based on empirical results of the original research survey Enterprise Surveys data for Republic of Kosova,. performed via questionnaire surveys by the World Bank in three rounds during years 2005, 2009 and 2013. The analyses presented in the paper were conducted on the third round sample of  organizations operating mostly in the SME sector in the Republic of Kosova.Among typical obstacles to the economic environment we found also the energy problem, specifically the power outages that increase further the costs of power supply for SME’s.  These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations are forced to adapt costly solutions, like generators or other tools to guarantee  the customer satisfaction.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take in consideration the current economic environment.The interdependence between the level of energy costs and enterprise performance criteria is examined with the use of some hypotheses. The results are commented and discussed.Keywords: energy costs, business strategy, performance criteria, questionnaire research,   

  7. COST OF TAX COMPLIANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS: THE CASE STUDY OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzini Cianfanelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a risk management perspective to analyze compliance costs arising from overlapping service tax (ST jurisdictions. We study the case of an engineering company providing services to the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo [São Paulo State Sanitation Company] – SABESP, a public entity. The engineering company was contracted under public law 8.666/93, to provide engineering service in several townships in São Paulo’s metropolitan area. Because the laws governing bidding do not permit later modification in price or provider, subsequent double taxation by one municipality cut into the firm’s margins, and should other local governments follow suit, multiple taxation would render the contract untenable for the provider. Our paper models the impact of conflicting jurisdictions on administrative burden, psychological costs and profit constriction and discusses project management techniques for decision making and management in similar situations.

  8. Are telehealth technologies for hypertension care and self-management effective or simply risky and costly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, June; Fitzner, Karen; Margetts, Miranda; Heckinger, Elizabeth; Specker, James; Roth, Laura; Izenberg, Maxwell; Siegel, Molly; McKinney, Shannon; Moss, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease that requires ongoing management and self-care. The disease affects 31% of American adults and contributed to or caused the deaths of 348,000 Americans in 2008, fewer than 50% of whom effectively self-managed the disease. However, self-management is complex, with patients requiring ongoing support and easy access to care. Telehealth may help foster the knowledge and skills necessary for those with hypertension to engage in successful self-management. This paper considers the applicability, efficacy, associated risks, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for individuals and populations with hypertension. Telehealth is a broad term, encompassing telemedicine and mobile health that is used for physician-patient interactions, diagnostics, care delivery, education, information sharing, monitoring, and reminders. Telemedicine may have considerable utility for people diagnosed with hypertension who have poor access or social barriers that constrain access, but potential risks exist. Telehealth technology is evolving rapidly, even in the absence of fully proven cost-effectiveness and efficacy. Considering the cost of inpatient and emergency department care for patients with hypertension, telehealth is a highly attractive alternative, but there are risks to consider. Incorporating telehealth, which is increasingly characterized by mobile health, can increase both the capacity of health care providers and the reach of patient support, clinical management, and self-care. Telehealth studies need improvement; long-term outcome data on cardiovascular events must be obtained, and robust risk analyses and economic studies are needed to prospectively evaluate the safety and cost savings for hypertension self-management.

  9. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  10. Evaluation of the Cost Estimation Models: Case Study of Task Manager Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mugahed Al Qmase

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to accurately estimate time and cost for effective planning of software projects is becoming crucial driven by the escalating demands of the software market. Several models proposed in the history of Software Engineering discipline to estimate time, costs associated with planning and managing software projects as Line of Code (LOC, Function Point (FP and Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO. This paper focuses upon the COCOMO Model. It is further consisted of its two sub models called COCOMO I and COCOMO II. The primary objective of this research is to use an appropriate case study to evaluate the accuracy of the sub models COCOMO I and II and ascertain the variation of the realistic resource effort, staff and time. The findings to date show that the Application Composition Model of COCOMO II is more accurate in determining time and cost for the successful conclusion of a software project than the other two COCOMO I and II Models for a similar application for example Task Manager.

  11. A Multi-Objective Demand Side Management Considering ENS Cost in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Ghassemzadeh, Saeid; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new method is presented to achieve economic exploitation and proper usage of network capacity by exerting controlling actions over flexible loads and energy storage (ES) equipment. Multi-objective planning for demand response programs (DRP) and battery management policies is carri...... company (DisCo) modifies energy cost as a signal for DGO in order to coordinate with each other. So, behavior of DGO is based on modified energy price applied by upstream system considering ENS price....... out by considering energy not supplied (ENS). In order to achieve an optimal scheduling, charge/discharge control for batteries, demand response programs and dispatch of controllable distributed generations (DGs) are also considered. Then, the balanced cost and benefits of participants are evaluated....... As a whole, the main objective of this paper is to manage the load and energy storage options in a smart grid to reduce ENS, to minimize overall operation cost and to maximize DG operators’ (DGOs) profit. These goals are obtained by considering ENS cost in a multi-objective optimization problem. Distribution...

  12. Retrospective Analysis of Medication Adherence and Cost Following Medication Therapy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Branham, PharmD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM improves medication adherence in Medicare patients. A secondary objective is to compare the total monthly cost of a patient’s prescription medication regimen 6 months before and 6 months following a comprehensive medication review (CMR. Design: Retrospective analysis of medication adherence, pre-post comparison. Setting: Three independent pharmacies in North Carolina. Patients: 97 Medicare Part D beneficiaries with one or more chronic disease states who participated in a comprehensive medication review (CMR. Intervention: MTM services provided by community pharmacists. Main outcome measure: Change in adherence as measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC and change in medication costs for patients and third party payers. Results: Patients were adherent to chronic disease-state medications before and after MTM (PDC≥ 0.8. Overall, change in mean adherence before and after MTM did not change significantly (0.87 and 0.88, respectively; p = 0.43. However, patients taking medications for cholesterol management, GERD, thyroid and BPH demonstrated improved adherence following a CMR. No change in adherence was noted for patients using antihypertensives and antidiabetic agents. Average total chronic disease-state medication costs for participants were reduced from $210.74 to $193.63 (p=0.08 following the comprehensive medication review. Total costs for patient and third party payers decreased from patients prescribed antilipemics, antihypertensives, GERD and thyroid disorders following a CMR. Conclusions: Pharmacist-provided MTM services were effective at improving medication adherence for some patients managed with chronic medications. Pharmacist-provided MTM services also were effective in decreasing total medication costs.

  13. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e......Statistical analysis of cost data is often difficult because of highly skewed data resulting from a few patients who incur high costs relative to the majority of patients. When the objective is to predict the cost for an individual patient, the literature suggests that one should choose...... a regression model based on the quality of its predictions. In exploring the econometric issues, the objective of this study was to estimate a cost function in order to estimate the annual health care cost of dementia. Using different models, health care costs were regressed on the degree of dementia, sex, age...

  14. A case study of the Mexican avocado industry based on transaction costs and supply chain management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is based on transaction cost economics and supply chain management to analyze how the adoption of supply chain management practices in the Mexican avocado industry reduces the transaction costs between producers and packers. Two sources of information are used: interviews from diff

  15. How to solve the problem and control measures inconstruction project cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑展鸿; 孙世新

    2013-01-01

    the construction project cost management is the soul of the construction market, the management processis complicated, the relationship between the investors and the contractors economic interests, related to theconstruction market competition is the norm, in relation towhether can gradual y improve the construction industrylabor produc-tivity and social science and technology level,a series of questions. But at present our country architectural engineering management stil exist manyproblems in deep level, its development is far behind the pace of development in the construction industry, seriously restricted the development of China's construction industry.

  16. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  17. Project Cost Management Analysis%工程造价管理探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟德龙

    2013-01-01

      目前,工程项目建设中要着重解决的一大难题是如何合理确定及有效控制工程投资,这是工程造价管理成为工程建设管理工作中重要组成部分的原因。文章介绍了工程造价管理的现状和存在的问题,提出工程造价管理应对的措施及对策,以实现预期投资目标,充分发挥投资效益。%In current project construction is a big problem to solve, how is how reasonable and effective control of project investment, this is why the project cost management become an important part in engineering construction management work. In this paper, through the introduction of the present situation of engineering cost management and the existing disadvantages, and puts forward the project cost management measures and countermeasures to deal with, to achieve investment objectives, give full play to the investment benefit at the same time.

  18. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  19. 874 CONSTRUCTION COST MODELS FOR HIGHRISE OFFICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 2): 874 – 880, 2015. ... Key Words: Cost, Highrise, Models, Nigeria, Office, Construction. Introduction .... the modern trend in cost analysis and cost planning ...

  20. Analysis of the Possibility to Organize the Management Accounting through the Target Costing (TC Method in the Romanian Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a way of organizing the management accounting and cost calculation through the Target Costing method. There are treated the development stages of Target Costing method, and the role of the management accountant in the development and implementation of this method. The causes behind the choice to adapt the principles of Target Costing method to the Romanian General Accounting Plan and the operation of accounts used in highlighting economic and financial operations at the entity leve have been analyzedl. There are treated theoretical and applied the methodological steps taken in the management accounting and cost calculation. The article ends with the conclusions of the authors about the possibility of adapting the principles of Target Costing method to the Romanian General Accounting Plan and the advantages offered by this method.

  1. Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Most evidence on the effect of collaborative care for depression is derived in the selective environment of randomised controlled trials. In collaborative care, practice nurses may act as case managers. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in a real world Australian setting. Previous analyses have demonstrated the value of high level practice nurse involvement in the management of diabetes and obesity. This paper reports on their value in the management of depression. Methods General practices were assigned to a low or high model of care based on observed levels of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of depression (i.e. percentage of depression patients seen, percentage of consultation time spent on clinical-based activities). Linked, routinely collected data was used to determine patient level depression outcomes (proportion of depression-free days) and health service usage costs. Standardised depression assessment tools were not routinely used, therefore a classification framework to determine the patient’s depressive state was developed using proxy measures (e.g. symptoms, medications, referrals, hospitalisations and suicide attempts). Regression analyses of costs and depression outcomes were conducted, using propensity weighting to control for potential confounders. Results Capacity to determine depressive state using the classification framework was dependent upon the level of detail provided in medical records. While antidepressant medication prescriptions were a strong indicator of depressive state, they could not be relied upon as the sole measure. Propensity score weighted analyses of total depression-related costs and depression outcomes, found that the high level model of care cost more (95% CI: -$314.76 to $584) and resulted in 5% less depression-free days (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05), compared to the

  2. Costing blood products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E L

    1991-05-01

    At present, blood centers and transfusion services have limited alternatives for offsetting the ever-rising costs of health care inputs. In the face of current revenue constraints, cost reduction or cost containment through efficiency improvements or service reduction is the principal available means. Such methods ought to be pursued vigorously by blood bankers with the aid of well-designed costing and other physical measurements systems. Experience indicates, however, that blood bankers, in their attempts to reduce or contain costs, are likely to place undue reliance on cost accounting systems as the means of capturing sought-for benefits. Management must learn enough about methods of costing to judge directly the uses and limitations of the information produced. Such understanding begins with recognition that all costs and cost comparisons should be specific to the purpose for which they are developed. No costing procedure is capable of producing measures generally applicable to all management decisions. A measure relevant to a planning decision is unlikely to be appropriate for performance evaluation. Useful comparisons among sets of organizations of costs, or of measures of physical inputs and outputs, require assurance that the methods of measurement employed are the same and that the sets of organizations from which the measures are drawn are reasonably comparable.

  3. On cost management of programs in construction enterprises%谈施工企业项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄毅平

    2015-01-01

    从施工企业成本管理的意识、内容、体制、手段等方面分析了施工企业项目成本管理的现状,针对成本管理中存在的各种问题,研究了加强施工企业成本管理的对策,以运用现代化的管理手段,优化资源配置,降低成本。%From ideas, contents, systems and measures of the cost management in construction enterprises, the paper analyzes the status of the cost management in programs of construction enterprises, and researches the strategies to enhance the cost management in the enterprises accord-ing to various problems in the cost management, so as to adopt the modern management measures, optimize resource allocation, and lower cost.

  4. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  5. Exploration cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  6. 基于经济成本控制的工程造价管理研究%Study of engineering cost management based on economic cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽凤; 禚新伦

    2015-01-01

    本文首先对工程造价管理进行概述,其次全面分析介绍了影响工程造价的直接因素和间接因素(人工费、材料费、机械设备费用、环保安全费用等).施工前需要对工程造价进行整体性经济评估,将其中的潜在风险因素充分考虑进去.施工过程中,需采取措施对影响造价成本的因素进行有效控制(如员工的日常安全环保教育培训,领导及员工时刻树立节能降耗的观念).通过上述措施,以期为经济成本控制工程造价管理研究的实施起到推广作用.%This article first overview of the construction cost, secondly introduces the direct and indirect factors affected the project cost (labor charges, materials expenses, machinery and equipment cost, environmental safety cost, etc.). Before the construction, economic evaluation of project cost is needed. During the construction process, we should take measures to control the influencing factors of construction cost,such as daily safety environmental education, keep the idea of saving energy and reducing consumption. With these measures, it will promote the project of cost management research of engineering project.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    In the course of time many arguments for the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System have been presented: information about concepts, terms and their equivalents are readily accessible terminology makes a subject field accessible and understandable terminology can...... be reused from one project to another, consistency in the terminology is secured in different texts knowledge is maintained in the organization when there are personnel changes  (Grinsted (1991:38-39)). Serious terminology work requires resources, but it is not always easy to have the resources allocated...... distinctive competences. However, management in private and public organizations (most often) requires concrete figures and numbers to document the arguments before allocating resources. Cost/benefit-analysis supports the arguments through a comparison between benefits and costs of a given new initiative...

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  9. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Circular 74-4; and costs of projects eligible under § 266.7 of this part. All allowable costs shall be authorized by a fully executed grant agreement. A State may incur costs prior to the execution... need to incur costs prior to the execution of a grant agreement, has authorized the costs in writing...

  10. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  11. A cost-benefit analysis of document management strategies used at a financial institution in Zimbabwe: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodreck David; Patrick Ngulube; Adock Dube

    2013-01-01

    Background: Choosing a cost-effective document management approach has become a priority to many organisations, especially in view of the rapidly changing technological environment in which information is being created and managed. A literature survey indicated that document management strategies have the potential to provide some substantial cost-saving benefits if they are used judiciously.Objectives: This study investigated a commercial bank’s document management approaches in a bid to asc...

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a system-based approach for managing neonatal jaundice and preventing kernicterus in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; da Silva, Orlando; Zaric, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of a system-based approach for the management of neonatal jaundice and the prevention of kernicterus in term and late-preterm (≥35 weeks) infants, compared with the traditional practice based on visual inspection and selected bilirubin testing. Two hypothetical cohorts of 150,000 term and late-preterm neonates were used to compare the costs and outcomes associated with the use of a system-based or traditional practice approach. Data for the evaluation were obtained from the case costing centre at a large teaching hospital in Ontario, supplemented by data from the literature. The per child cost for the system-based approach cohort was $176, compared with $173 in the traditional practice cohort. The higher cost associated with the system-based cohort reflects increased costs for predischarge screening and treatment and increased postdischarge follow-up visits. These costs are partially offset by reduced costs from fewer emergency room visits, hospital readmissions and kernicterus cases. Compared with the traditional approach, the cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach was $570,496, the cost per life year gained was $26,279, and the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was $65,698. The cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach is much lower than previously reported in the literature.

  13. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and black acara (Cichlasoma bimaculatum) from tropical America. A large predator of the same family, the...plant management. IMPLICATION FOR CORPS CIVIL WORKS: Recent analyses by Rockwell (2003) and Lovell and Stone (2005) emphasize the shortage of...of the Army (2004)). In 2003, the Corps Civil Works program reported about $5 million in aquatic plant control costs (USACE 2004). Over 77 percent of

  14. MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION PROCESSES IN AN ORGANIZATION ON THE BASIS OF COST APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Dokukina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The process of innovation management within the intensive economic development includes a number in a sequence of scientific, technological, industrial, institutional and commercial work, leading to an increase in its profits by increasing the productivity of labor and equipment, reducing production costs and improving product quality. In turn, technological innovation is an innovation in technology, improvements in technology, the use of fundamentally new technologies in the production of ma...

  15. Specifics of the Activity-Based Costing applications in Hospital Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popesko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper analyses the specifics of the application of Activity-Based Costing method in hospital management. Primary objective of the paper is to outline the methodology of the ABC application in hospitals. First part of the paper analyzes the ways of ABC implementation in published foreign studies. Second part describes the individual steps in ABC application and discusses the differences in the application procedures between the manufacturing and hospital organization.

  16. Management of trismus following radiation therapy by cost-effective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kamleshwar; Rashmikant, Upadhyay Snehal; Alvi, Habib Ahmed; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy when used in head and neck cancer treatment can produce side effects in patients such as the trismus. If allowed to progress trismus can become so severe that the patient becomes debilitated due to lack of nutrition. Furthermore, trismus and limited oral access present a challenge to the clinician for dental treatment. This article describes a simple and cost-effective appliance for management of trismus.

  17. Management of trismus following radiation therapy by cost-effective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamleshwar; Rashmikant, Upadhyay Snehal; Alvi, Habib Ahmed; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-10-19

    Radiotherapy when used in head and neck cancer treatment can produce side effects in patients such as the trismus. If allowed to progress trismus can become so severe that the patient becomes debilitated due to lack of nutrition. Furthermore, trismus and limited oral access present a challenge to the clinician for dental treatment. This article describes a simple and cost-effective appliance for management of trismus.

  18. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  19. Activity-based costing saves on supply distribution costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Activity-based costing is coming, but is your organization ready? A few pioneering hospitals are already reaping the operational and economic benefits of activity-based costing in their materials management, and now the VHA purchasing alliance is offering this costing option to its 1,200 hospital members. The concept is simple, so why aren't there more takers? Here are the details on this pragmatic pricing approach that could save your facility plenty.

  20. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Criveanu Maria; Ţaicu Marian

    2013-01-01

    Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  1. Cost Overruns and Cost Estimation in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Emhjellen, Kjetil; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a Norwegian government report on the cost overruns of projects in the North Sea was presented (NOU 1999:11). It concluded that there was a 25% increase in development costs from project sanction (POD, Plan for Operation and Development) to last CCE (Capital Cost Estimate) for the 11 oil field projects investigated. Many reasons like unclear project assumptions in early phase, optimistic interpolation of previous project assumptions, too optimistic estimates, and underestimation of uncertainty were given as reasons for overruns. In this article we highlight the possibility that the cost overruns are not necessarily all due to the reasons given, but also to an error in the estimation and reporting of the capital expenditure cost (CAPEX). Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. The oil companies report, and are required to do so by government authorities, the estimated 50/50 (median) cost estimate instead of the estimated expected value cost estimate. We demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX estimate for the 11 projects when the cost uncertainty distributions are asymmetric, may explain at least part of the ''overruns''. Hence, we advocate changing the practice of using 50/50 cost estimates instead of expected value cost estimates for project management and decision purposes. (author)

  2. Improved cost monitoring and control through the Earned Value Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Howard; Fitzgerald, Richard; Barlow, Dewey

    2014-01-01

    As economic pressure and competition for budget among federal agencies has increased, there has been an increasing need for more granular data and robust management information systems. This is especially true for the execution of major civilian space programs. This need has resulted in new program management requirements being implemented in an attempt to limit cost and schedule growth. In particular, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7120.5D requires the implementation of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) compliant with the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748-B. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) program management team at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) made a decision to implement an EVMS on RBSP during Phase B—a year earlier than specified in the contractual Phase C reporting requirement as defined in the NPR. This decision was made so that the project would have the benefit of 12 months of training and hands-on implementation during Phase B. Although there were a number of technical and process hurdles encountered during Phase B and into Phase C, the system was working well when the Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) was held in August 2009. The IBR was a success because it met the review requirements. It was also clear to all IBR participants that the EVMS was providing value to the project management team. Although the IBR pointed out some areas of concern regarding process and ANSI compliance, the system had markedly improved the project's ability to monitor cost and schedule. This, in turn, allowed the project team to foresee problems in advance, formulate corrective actions, and implement course corrections without causing significant adverse impact to the project. Opponents of EVMS systems often communicate the unfavorable opinion that EVMS systems create unnecessary cost and administration. Although it is undeniable that EVMS

  3. Cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care versus self-management in patients with musculoskeletal chest pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Sørensen, Jan; Vach, Werner;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To assess whether primary sector healthcare in the form of chiropractic care is cost-effective compared with self-management in patients with musculoskeletal chest pain, that is, a subgroup of patients with non-specific chest pain. METHODS AND RESULTS: 115 adults aged 18-75 years with acute......, non-specific chest pain of musculoskeletal origin were recruited from a cardiology department in Denmark. After ruling out acute coronary syndrome and receiving usual care, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain were randomised to 4 weeks of community-based chiropractic care (n=59) or to a single......-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36)) were compared in cost-effectiveness analyses over 12 months from baseline. Mean costs were €2183 lower for the group with chiropractic care, but not statistically significant (95% CI -4410.5 to 43.0). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio...

  4. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2016-09-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of trees for demand-side management Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    Trees can reduce demand for air conditioning to cool buildings by shading residences and lowering summertime air temperatures. During winter, trees can reduce heating needs by lowering wind speeds and thereby reducing infiltration of cold air. On the otherhand, winter shade from improperly located trees can increase heating requirements. Projections from computer simulations indicate that 100 million mature trees in U.S. cities (3 trees for every other single family home) could reduce energy use for heating and cooling by 30 billion kWh and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by as much as 9 million tons per year. This energy analysis is part of a larger study that quantifies costs and benefits of proposed tree plantings in 12 U.S. cities. While energy savings is an important benefit from community forests, other benefits (e.g., air quality improvement, reduced stormwater runoff, increased property values) can have equal or greater value. Tree planting, care, and other costs (e.g., water-sewer line repair, green waste disposal, litigation/liability, program administration) from the cost-benefit study can be used to help estimate costs associated with a tree planting program for demand-side management. Data from this energy analysis should be of direct value to local utilities, urban foresters, planners, landscape designers, and non-profit tree planting groups.

  6. Medicare Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare certified institutional providers are required to submit an annual cost report to a Medicare Administrative Contractor. The cost report contains provider...

  7. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  8. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  9. Cash Management, Revenue Sources and Cost Effective Methods of Revenue Collection at Local Government Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Gimba Kumshe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to focus on the elements, objectives, goals and importance of cash management; and also to examine the sources of revenue and cost effective collections for local governments. The elements of cash management are identified as establishing bank relations, preparing cash flow statements, estimating collection receipts and analyzing cash flow and preparing a budget. Amongst the objectives of cash management is to ensure availability of cash resources at all times for efficient and unconstrained implementation of the annual budget. The primary goals of a good cash management system are to maintain adequate cash at hand to meet the daily cash requirements of the local government while maximizing the amount available for investment and to obtain the maximum earnings on invested funds while ensuring their safety. The local governments obtain their revenue through internal and external sources, the external sources of revenue includes federal statutory allocations and loans obtained from financial institutions and other agencies; while among the internal sources are revenue from market fees, fees collected from motor parks, street hawking fees, shop fees and other miscellaneous sources. Some of the cost effective methods of revenue collections are contracting out of revenue collections to private collection agency, designating collection points for convenience, application of e-collection method where the local governments device a means of allowing tax payers to pay their taxes online. It is recommended that proper management of funds, efficient accounting and auditing system is necessary for proper cash management.

  10. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in the Management of Keratoconus in Canada: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Victoria C; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Chew, Hall F; Hatch, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    To use patient-level microsimulation models to evaluate the comparative cost-effectiveness of early corneal cross-linking (CXL) and conventional management with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) when indicated in managing keratoconus in Canada. Cost-utility analysis using individual-based, state-transition microsimulation models. Simulated cohorts of 100 000 individuals with keratoconus who entered each treatment arm at 25 years of age. Fellow eyes were modeled separately. Simulated individuals lived up to a maximum of 110 years. We developed 2 state-transition microsimulation models to reflect the natural history of keratoconus progression and the impact of conventional management with PKP versus CXL. We collected data from the published literature to inform model parameters. We used realistic parameters that maximized the potential costs and complications of CXL, while minimizing those associated with PKP. In each treatment arm, we allowed simulated individuals to move through health states in monthly cycles from diagnosis until death. For each treatment strategy, we calculated the total cost and number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Costs were measured in Canadian dollars. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 5%, converting future costs and QALYs into present values. We used an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER = difference in lifetime costs/difference in lifetime health outcomes) to compare the cost-effectiveness of CXL versus conventional management with PKP. Lifetime costs and QALYs for CXL were estimated to be Can$5530 (Can$4512, discounted) and 50.12 QALYs (16.42 QALYs, discounted). Lifetime costs and QALYs for conventional management with PKP were Can$2675 (Can$1508, discounted) and 48.93 QALYs (16.09 QALYs, discounted). The discounted ICER comparing CXL to conventional management was Can$9090/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses revealed that in general, parameter variations did not influence the cost-effectiveness of CXL. CXL is

  11. The Contemporary Ways to Improve the Cost Management System in Order to Increase the Competitiveness of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumak Larysa F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the current directions and ways to improve the cost management systems, allowing to increase the competitiveness of enterprise. Costs of enterprise, in any conditions of existence, are the most significant aspect of the influence on formation of economic performance, as well as obtaining the important competitive advantages, playing a special role in achieving sustainable development. Cost management system of enterprise is one of the basic elements in developing and careful substantiating the managerial decisions, therefore its continuous improvement is necessary. Improving the enterprise’s cost management system requires an integrated approach to its formation, introduction of the latest modern approaches, methods, and elaborations. Analysis of directions for improving the efficiency of cost management systems allows to define the most promising way of adapting to the practical use of the most advanced automated systems.

  12. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.E. [CH2M Hill International Nuclear Services (United States)

    2008-07-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  13. Cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET for the management of solitary pulmonary nodules: a decision analysis based on cost reimbursement in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, M; Weber, K; Gandjour, A; Moka, D; Theissen, P; Lauterbach, K W; Schicha, H

    2000-10-01

    Management of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) of up to 3 cm was modelled on decision analysis comparing "wait and watch", transthoracic needle biopsy (TNB), exploratory surgery and full-ring dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for the main risk group, a cohort of 62-year-old men, using first "wait and watch" and second exploratory surgery as the baseline strategy. Based on published data, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were estimated at 0.95 and 0.80 for detecting malignancy in SPNs and at 0.74 and 0.96 for detecting metastasis in normal-sized mediastinal lymph nodes. The costs quoted correspond to reimbursement in 1999 by the public health provider in Germany. Decision analysis modelling indicates the potential cost-effectiveness of the FDG-PET strategy for management of SPNs. Taking watchful waiting as the low-cost baseline strategy, the ICER of PET [3218 euros (EUR) per life year saved] was more favourable than that of exploratory surgery (4210 EUR/year) or that of TNB (6120 EUR/year). Changing the baseline strategy to exploratory surgery, the use of PET led to cost savings and additional life expectancy. This constellation was described by a negative ICER of -6912 EUR/year. The PET algorithm was cost-effective for risk and non-risk patients. However, the ICER of PET as the preferred strategy was sensitive to a hypothetical deterioration of any PET parameters by more than 0.07. To transfer the diagnostic efficacy from controlled studies to the routine user and to maintain the cost-effectiveness of this technology, obligatory protocols for data acquisitions would need to be defined. If the prevalence of SPNs is estimated at the USA level (52 per 100,000 individuals) and assuming that multiple strategies without PET are the norm, the overall costs of a newly implemented PET algorithm would be limited to far less than one EUR per

  14. Scientific and methodological tools of cost management of enterprises: the main approaches and proposals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. S. Dikunova

    2017-01-01

    A study of the economic nature of expenses for the industrial and defense enterprises occurs through the definition of a conceptual framework, harmonization of definitions of such things as cost, costs and expenses...

  15. Medtronic Sprint Fidelis lead recall: determining the initial 5-year management cost to Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Amit K; Knight, Bradley P; Smelley, Matthew P; Shah, Dipak P; Weisberg, Ian; Baez-Escudero, Jose; Beshai, John F; Burke, Martin C

    2011-08-01

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillator lead has a high failure rate and was recalled in October 2007. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental cost of the management of this lead to Medicare. Real hospital cost data in U.S. dollars were collected on 32 patients with a Medtronic Sprint Fidelis lead who underwent lead revision. Of these patients, 15 were excluded because they had insurance coverage other than that provided by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Seventeen patients with Medicare or Medicaid coverage underwent lead revision either electively (n = 6) or after being hospitalized for multiple shocks caused by a lead fracture (n = 11). Eighty-eight percent of the patients underwent extraction of the Fidelis lead at the time of lead revision. A decision model was made that outlines the potential management of the lead recall over time. The existing literature and Medtronic data were reviewed for parameters included in the decision model. The model assumed that 175,000 patients were alive with an implanted Fidelis lead at the time of the recall and that the annual failure rate will be 1.8% over the first 5 years. It was also assumed that 1% of patients without a lead fracture would also undergo elective lead revision each year and that the proportion of patients who would have the Fidelis lead extracted rather than abandoned would be 20:80. Estimates with ranges were used for parameters for which no data are available. The industry standard rate of lead failure was estimated based on the Sprint Quattro model 6947 lead, and this was subtracted from the estimated rates for the Sprint Fidelis lead such that the incremental cost of the lead failure could be estimated. The cost of lead revision trended higher when the Fidelis lead was extracted rather than abandoned ($45,077 ± $11,693 vs $33,802 ± $33, P = .20). In 5 years, the estimated cost impact of the Medtronic Sprint Fidelis lead recall to Medicare will be $287

  16. Costs and benefits of river flood risk management at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P.

    2015-12-01

    Floods cause billions of dollars of economic damage each year, and this is expected to increase in the future due to socioeconomic development and climate change‎. To limit these losses, and to protect people and their livelihoods from flooding, adaptation in flood risk management systems is required that takes into account both current and future risk. Whilst several global scale flood risk models have now been developed to assess both current and future river flood risk, to date none of these include currently installed or future flood risk management measures, nor their costs and benefits. In this contribution, a new modelling framework is presented for assessing both the costs and benefits of flood risk management at the global scale, which employs a cascade of models to provide first-cut estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation by means of hazard reduction through the construction of dikes. The modeling framework is first used to assess what protection standards would be required in the future per state, in order to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels, and the costs and benefits associated with such a strategy. In a second analysis, flood risk protection standards are calculated per state that optimize the net present value of adaptation. The potential usefulness and limitations of the results for practical applications are discussed, as well as key avenues for future developments. In particular, recent research has shown flood risk itself to be non-stationary, being influenced by oscillations in climate variability caused by phenomenon such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results of the research will be discussed within the context of climate-driven ENSO variability.

  17. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  18. Is control through utilization a cost effective Prosopis juliflora management strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Hoag, Dana; Evangelista, Paul H; Luizza, Matthew; Laituri, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    The invasive tree Prosopis juliflora is known to cause negative impacts on invaded ranges. High P. juliflora eradication costs have swayed developing countries to follow a new and less expensive approach known as control through utilization. However, the net benefits of this new approach have not been thoroughly evaluated. Our objective was to assess the economic feasibility of selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches that are currently practiced in one of the severely affected developing countries, Ethiopia. The selected approaches include converting P. juliflora infested lands into irrigated farms (conversion), charcoal production, and seed flour production. We estimate the costs and revenues of the selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches by interviewing 19 enterprise owners. We assess the economic feasibility of the enterprises by performing enterprise, break-even, investment, sensitivity, and risk analyses. Our results show that conversion to irrigated cotton is economically profitable, with Net Present Value (NPV) of 5234 US$/ha over 10 years and an interest rate of 10% per year. Conversion greatly reduces the spread of P. juliflora on farmlands. Managing P. juliflora infested lands for charcoal production with a four-year harvest cycle is profitable, with NPV of 805 US$/ha. However, the production process needs vigilant regulation to protect native plants from exploitation and caution should be taken to prevent charcoal production sites from becoming potential seed sources. Though flour from P. juliflora pods can reduce invasions by destroying viable seeds, flour enterprises in Ethiopia are unprofitable. Conversion and charcoal production can be undertaken with small investment costs, while flour production requires high investment costs. Introducing new changes in the production and management steps of P. juliflora flour might be considered to make the enterprise profitable. Our study shows that control

  19. Discussion on engineering project cost management%谈工程项目的成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊仙

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of cost management, combining with self working experience, the paper explores how to control engineering project cost management, describes controlling measures of labor cost, material cost and machine cost and administration cost, with a view to realize maximum profit under the premise of good construction project quality and rational schedule.%根据成本管理的定义,结合自身工作经验,对工程项目中如何进行成本管理进行了探讨,分别阐述了人、材、机直接费的控制措施及管理费的控制办法,以确保施工项目在质量优良、进度合理的前提下实现利润最大化。

  20. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  1. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. Educational Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Donald L.

    Traditional approaches to the cost analysis of educational programs involve examining annual budgets. Such approaches do not properly consider the cost of either new capital expenditures or the current value of previously purchased items. This paper presents the methodology for a new approach to educational cost analysis that identifies the actual…

  4. Social Costs of the Inefficient Management of the EU Funds for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successfully used fo...

  5. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data; Energieliberalisierung: Kostenmanagement mit Messdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsberger, H. [Girsberger Informatik AG, Brunnen (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this.

  6. Danish Management Accounting Frameworks - a SWOT Analysis and an Activity Based Costing Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Rohde, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    . The present paper terms this tradition "basic registration frameworks" (BRFs) and accounts for the roots and characteristics of two of these frameworks in terms of their purpose, content and method using the "unbundling model" developed by Bjørnenak and Olson (1999). This allows for an analysis of the two...... and in addition a SWOT-like assessment of this tradition vis-à-vis the management accounting research community and practice. An alternative approach in designing management accounting systems is represented by Activity Based Costing (ABC). An unbundling of the nowadays multifaceted ABC brings forward...

  7. Use of TD ABC method for cost management in an accredited laboratory for physical and chemical testiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Gabaldo Aleksandra N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation of a laboratory is verification of the competence of a laboratory regarding methods and procedures applied, personnel, the equipment used and working conditions. The main goal is establishment of customer trust in accuracy and precision of laboratory test results. Accredited laboratory has more specific costs than laboratory which is not accredited. To survive on the market, regardless the laboratory is independent or it is a part of a bigger system, the laboratory needs to establish resource management, especially effective cost management. Cost management describes approaches and short-term and long-term management activities, which make value for the customer, according to his known, reported or obligatory requirements and needs. In modern approach, there are different methods for cost calculation. One of them is ABC (Activity-Based Costing method which adds activity costs to products and services trough activities needed for their finalization. In this paper, there is presented improved ABC method for obračun costs, affirmed as activity based cost calculation based on time - TD ABC (Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing. The method uses time as a primary base for costs allocation on products, porudžbine, customers. This is the way for simpler and less expansive getting of information's about costs. This paper describes TD ABC method implemented in accredited Laboratory for physical and chemical testing, which is a part of company Galenika Fitofarmacija a.d. The scope of testing in this laboratory are pesticide materials, meaning technical substances and finished products, within quality control for different internal customers. By using TD ABC method it is possible to define real costs, generated during the laboratory testing, and also effectiveness of specific activities in this process.

  8. Cost of Managing Waste in Contingency Operations: A Case Study from Bagram Air Force Base, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Local Resale Markets • On-Site Reuse /Composting • On-Site Incineration (all types) and/or Containerized Burn (solid) • On-Site Landfills (with liners...Transport Treatment: Blackwater:Yes Greywater : No Disposal: Local River 6 Cost Components Cost Component Cost Drivers Infrastructure Facility type (e.g

  9. Cost-effectiveness of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diogo; Peixoto Lima, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in Portugal is between 29.1% and 42.2%. International studies show that 13% of individuals have masked hypertension and 13% of diagnoses based on office blood pressure measurements are in fact white coat hypertension. More sensitive and specific blood pressure measuring methods could avoid costs associated with misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the cost-effectiveness of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) compared to other methods in the management of hypertension. We performed a literature search in CMA Infobase, Guidelines Finder, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Bandolier, BMJ Clinical Evidence, the Cochrane Library, DARE, Medline, the Trip Database, SUMSearch and Índex das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas. We researched articles published between January 2005 and August 2015 in Portuguese, English and Spanish, using the MeSH terms "Hypertension", "Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory" and "Cost-Benefit Analysis" and the Portuguese search terms "Hipertensão", "Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial" and "Análise Custo-Benefício". Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation were attributed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scale. Five hundred and twenty-five articles were identified. We included five original studies and one clinical practice guideline. All of them state that ABPM is the most cost-effective method. Two report better blood pressure control, and a Portuguese study revealed a saving of 23%. The evidence shows that ABPM is cost-effective, avoiding iatrogenic effects and reducing expenditure on treatment (grade of recommendation B). The included studies provide a solid basis, but further evidence of reproducibility is needed in research that is not based mainly on analytical models. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

  11. Incorporating uncertainty of management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Yacov; McCarthy, Michael A; Taylor, Peter; Wintle, Brendan A

    2013-02-01

    The importance of accounting for economic costs when making environmental-management decisions subject to resource constraints has been increasingly recognized in recent years. In contrast, uncertainty associated with such costs has often been ignored. We developed a method, on the basis of economic theory, that accounts for the uncertainty in population-management decisions. We considered the case where, rather than taking fixed values, model parameters are random variables that represent the situation when parameters are not precisely known. Hence, the outcome is not precisely known either. Instead of maximizing the expected outcome, we maximized the probability of obtaining an outcome above a threshold of acceptability. We derived explicit analytical expressions for the optimal allocation and its associated probability, as a function of the threshold of acceptability, where the model parameters were distributed according to normal and uniform distributions. To illustrate our approach we revisited a previous study that incorporated cost-efficiency analyses in management decisions that were based on perturbation analyses of matrix population models. Incorporating derivations from this study into our framework, we extended the model to address potential uncertainties. We then applied these results to 2 case studies: management of a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population and conservation of an olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population. For low aspirations, that is, when the threshold of acceptability is relatively low, the optimal strategy was obtained by diversifying the allocation of funds. Conversely, for high aspirations, the budget was directed toward management actions with the highest potential effect on the population. The exact optimal allocation was sensitive to the choice of uncertainty model. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty when making decisions and suggest that more effort should be placed on

  12. On the role of budget sufficiency, cost efficiency, and uncertainty in species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Max Post; Bly, Bartholomew B.; Vercauteren, Tammy; Grand, James B.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many conservation planning frameworks rely on the assumption that one should prioritize locations for management actions based on the highest predicted conservation value (i.e., abundance, occupancy). This strategy may underperform relative to the expected outcome if one is working with a limited budget or the predicted responses are uncertain. Yet, cost and tolerance to uncertainty rarely become part of species management plans. We used field data and predictive models to simulate a decision problem involving western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) using prairie dog colonies (Cynomys ludovicianus) in western Nebraska. We considered 2 species management strategies: one maximized abundance and the other maximized abundance in a cost-efficient way. We then used heuristic decision algorithms to compare the 2 strategies in terms of how well they met a hypothetical conservation objective. Finally, we performed an info-gap decision analysis to determine how these strategies performed under different budget constraints and uncertainty about owl response. Our results suggested that when budgets were sufficient to manage all sites, the maximizing strategy was optimal and suggested investing more in expensive actions. This pattern persisted for restricted budgets up to approximately 50% of the sufficient budget. Below this budget, the cost-efficient strategy was optimal and suggested investing in cheaper actions. When uncertainty in the expected responses was introduced, the strategy that maximized abundance remained robust under a sufficient budget. Reducing the budget induced a slight trade-off between expected performance and robustness, which suggested that the most robust strategy depended both on one's budget and tolerance to uncertainty. Our results suggest that wildlife managers should explicitly account for budget limitations and be realistic about their expected levels of performance.

  13. Cost analysis helps evaluate contract profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, R W

    2000-02-01

    A cost-accounting analysis can help group practices assess their costs of doing business and determine the profitability of managed care contracts. Group practices also can use cost accounting to develop budgets and financial benchmarks. To begin a cost analysis, group practices need to determine their revenue and cost centers. Then they can allocate their costs to each center, using an appropriate allocation basis. The next step is to calculate costs per procedure. The results can be used to evaluate operational cost efficiency as well as help negotiate managed care contracts.

  14. PERCEPTION OF THE FINANCIAL MANAGERS OF THE SMALL AND MIDDLE BUSINESS WITH RELATIONSHIP AT THE COST OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has as purpose to analyze the degree of the financial managers' perception among small and middle organizations about the capital cost. The data were collected within 27 companies in 10 sections of the Brazilian economy. The method chosen for data collection relies greatly on personal interviews based on route previously elaborated. The interviews demonstrated that most of the interviewees even does not know about the cost of equity. The ones who know about it, in its majority, measure like as the minimum rate of profitability, measured for the cost of lost opportunity. In the regard of the cost of debt, most of them know and were unanimous to confirm that the cost of debt is explicit and it already comes defined by the financial institutions, in its contracts. It was observed that among the managers interviewed which affirmed to know the cost of equity and cost of debt, the great part were in the management position, had college degree in accounting or engineering,, had more than 15 years of experience in these functions, had over 40 years, worked within companies 21 years old and over in the market, and were basically male. Key-words: Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt, Small and Middle Business.

  15. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  16. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    scientists, is used to identify the most cost-effective configuration of abatement measures. BALTCOST utilises detailed regional and spatial data down to 10 x 10km grid cell level for all Baltic littoral countries. Modelling results suggest that it should be possible to achieve the BSAP load reduction......In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins....... This paper investigates the costeffective distribution of nutrient abatement measures between drainage basins and Baltic Sea regions, where the aim is to achieve the BSAP nutrient load reduction targets. The cost-minimisation model BALTCOST, an interdisciplinary development involving economists and natural...

  17. 论项目目标成本管理%On target costs management in programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建英

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the contents and implementation process for the establishment of the target Costs management system in programs, has the regulation for the identification of the target value of the program, the contents of costs accounting, and the%阐述了项目工程目标成本管理系统建立的内容及实施过程,对项目目标值的确定,成本核算内容及业务管理流程等进行了统一的规范,对项目成本管理的保障措施也进行了有益的探索,对提高经济效益和社会效益有着深远的现实意义。

  18. The K-1 reusable aerospace vehicle: managing to achieve low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller (HM), George E.; Lepore, Debra Facktor

    2000-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the world's first privately funded, fully reusable aerospace vehicle, the K-1. This vehicle represents a new implementation of proven technologies, designed by an elite, experienced team of engineers and managers and implemented by the best manufacturing capability in the United States. Kistler Aerospace expects to begin commercial operations of the K-1 in 2000. Market researchers predict that during the next decade telecommunications satellite ventures will require launch services for over 1,400 payloads to LEO. This prediction greatly exceeds the current available industry capacity. The K-1 was designed primarily to meet this anticipated growth in demand. Significant progress has been made in constructing the K-1 vehicle fleet. The fully reusable K-1 vehicle is designed to lower the cost of access to space, increase launch reliability, and reduce lead-time-to-launch requirements. The K-1 will offer significant cost benefits and aircraft type reliability based on a proven flight record.

  19. 工程造价管理与控制%Management and Control of Project Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳荣

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the phenomenon of financial estimation exceeding budget, budget exceeding financial estimation and final accounts exceeding budget, this paper discusses the effective measures to strengthen the project cost control based on the main problems in project cost management from the feasibility study stage, construction decision-making phase, design phase and implementation phase.%为减少工程建设过程中概算超估算、预算超概算、决算超预算的“三超”现象,本文基于工程造价管理中的主要问题,分别从可行性研究阶段、建设决策阶段、设计阶段、实施阶段等几个维度探讨加强工程造价控制的有效对策。

  20. Pharmacological management of chronic lower back pain: a review of cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marion; De Abreu Lourenco, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions in the developed world and accounts for significant health services use. The American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society have published a joint clinical guideline that recommends providing patients with information on prognosis and self-management, the use of medications with proven benefits and, for those who do not improve, consideration be given to the use of spinal manipulation (for acute lower back pain only), interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, massage, yoga, cognitive behavioural therapy or relaxation. The purpose of this review was to evaluate published economic evaluations of pharmacological management for chronic lower back pain. A total of seven studies were eligible for inclusion in there view. The quality of the economic evaluations undertaken in the included studies was not high. This was primarily because of the nature of the underlying clinical evidence, most of which did not come from rigorous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and the manner in which it was incorporated into the economic evaluations. All studies provided reasonable information about what aspects of healthcare and other resource use were identified, measured and valued. However, the reporting of total costs was not uniform across studies. Measures of pain and disability were the most commonly collected outcomes measures. Two studies collected information on quality of life directly from participants while two studies modelled this information based on the literature. Future economic evaluations of interventions for chronic lower back pain, including pharmacological interventions, should be based on the results of well-conducted RCTs where the measurement of costs and outcomes such as quality of life and quality-adjusted life-years is included in the trial protocol, and which have a follow-up period sufficient to capture meaningful changes in both costs and outcomes. In

  1. Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement. Cost or benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, J.; Roeser, D. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Research Unit (Finland)), email: johannes.windisch@metla.fi; Sikanen, L.; Gritten, D. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    It is commonly agreed that logistics is very demanding in forest fuel business. Even though logistics and supply chain management (SCM) tools already have found their way into forestry business, for example, in roundwood operations, they are not yet very widespread in the field of forest fuel procurement. The present study investigates if modern supply chain management applications are capable of increasing the profitability of forest fuel procurement operations. Since margins are low, decreasing the provision costs could boost wood-based bioenergy business. The study is based on the investigation of two Finnish forest owners associations (FOA) involved in forest fuel procurement using a modern SCM tool. The investigation is done by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using the net present value (NPV) methodology to determine the profitability. According to the estimates made by the staff, which are based on data such as work time records and delivery notes from before and after introduction of the new system, in both FOAs, the benefits far outweigh the costs over a considered timespan of ten years. However, the amount of the NPV varied significantly. For FOA1, with an annual chip production of 150 000 loose m3, the NPV is 212 739 euro, while for FOA2, with an annual chip production of 37 000 loose m3, the NPV is 969 841 euro. Even if the NPV of FOA2 seems to be very high, the profitability of SCM tools in forest fuel procurement is clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the results indicate that a considerable cost saving potential in forest fuel procurement is attainable through improving work flows and thus reduce the work input. (orig.)

  2. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis of cost data is often difficult because of highly skewed data resulting from a few patients who incur high costs relative to the majority of patients. When the objective is to predict the cost for an individual patient, the literature suggests that one should choose...... a regression model based on the quality of its predictions. In exploring the econometric issues, the objective of this study was to estimate a cost function in order to estimate the annual health care cost of dementia. Using different models, health care costs were regressed on the degree of dementia, sex, age......, marital status and presence of any co-morbidity other than dementia. Models with a log-transformed dependent variable, where predicted health care costs were re-transformed to the unlogged original scale by multiplying the exponential of the expected response on the log-scale with the average...

  3. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...

  4. Using Technology to Control Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  5. LHC Cost Review To Completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the CERN Finance Committee and the Committee of Council on 19-20 September, CERN management presented a review of costs to completion in 2006 of the LHC project. A document on the web reviews the background, evolution, and facts behind these costs. To view it please go to: http://user.web.cern.ch/CERN/LHC.html

  6. An Insight Into the Two Costing Technique: Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nawaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will investigate the controversy that is innate between the two costing techniques; Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing and would throw light on which costing technique better serves its purpose in helping management for decision making process and if Marginal Costing technique is concluded as better technique then why it should not be used for external reporting purpose. This paper will only crystallize and highlight the issues descriptively and will not resolve the issues that are inherent between the two costing techniques. The unique thing about this paper is that it is in favor of treating fixed cost as product cost that is it is supporting the advocates of Absorption Costing Technique but it is against to consider profit as a function of production rather it believes that profit should only be considered as function of sales for stock valuation and to help management in decision making process that is, regarding this point it is supporting advocates of Marginal Costing.

  7. An Insight Into the Two Costing Technique: Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nawaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will investigate the controversy that is innate between the two costing techniques; Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing and would throw light on which costing technique better serves its purpose in helping management for decision making process and if Marginal Costing technique is concluded as better technique then why it should not be used for external reporting purpose. This paper will only crystallize and highlight the issues descriptively and will not resolve the issues that are inherent between the two costing techniques. The unique thing about this paper is that it is in favor of treating fixed cost as product cost that is it is supporting the advocates of Absorption Costing Technique but it is against to consider profit as a function of production rather it believes that profit should only be considered as function of sales for stock valuation and to help management in decision making process that is, regarding this point it is supporting advocates of Marginal Costing.

  8. C企业质量成本管理研究%Study on Quality Cost Management of C Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旭; 周贤君

    2015-01-01

    高质量、低成本、高效益是每个企业都追求的,这与质量成本管理的目的一致。而进行质量成本管理又是企业实现生产管理合理化,提高竞争力的必要措施,因此,企业进行质量成本管理是与时俱进的。以C企业质量成本管理为对象,用阶段分析法、质量成本构成分析法和质量成本总额分析法对其进行分析,研究数据表明:C企业质量成本管理存在着质量成本率偏高、产品质量成本结构不合理、鉴定成本率逐月下降而内部损失成本率逐月上涨、质量成本总额波动大等问题。对此,应从以下几个方面加以解决:完善质量成本管理体系;适当加大对控制成本的投入,平衡质量成本结构;重视检测设备及工具使用维护费的投入;增强对质量成本的管理意识。%Every company pursues the goal of high quality, low cost, and high efficiency. This is also the goal of quality cost management which is the key to rationalizing the management of production and improving the competitiveness of a company. Therefore, quality cost management must keep pace with the times. This paper studies the quality cost management of C company using sequential analysis method, quality cost constituent analysis method, and quality cost calculation. According to the study, major problems facing C company include high quality cost rate, poor structure of quality and cost, declining appraisal cost rate and increasing internal loss cost rate on monthly basis, and highly fluctuating total quality cost. These problems can be solved by improving the quality cost management system, increasing controlling cost, creating a well-structured quality and cost, increasing maintenance input in inspection equipment and tools, and promoting the awareness of quality cost management.

  9. Results from the NASA Spacecraft Fault Management Workshop: Cost Drivers for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; McDougal, John; Barley, Bryan; Stephens Karen; Fesq, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    Fault Management, the detection of and response to in-flight anomalies, is a critical aspect of deep-space missions. Fault management capabilities are commonly distributed across flight and ground subsystems, impacting hardware, software, and mission operations designs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for five missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that four out of the five missions studied had significant overruns due to underestimating the complexity and support requirements for fault management. As a result of this and other recent experiences, the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD) commissioned a workshop to bring together invited participants across government, industry, and academia to assess the state of the art in fault management practice and research, identify current and potential issues, and make recommendations for addressing these issues. The workshop was held in New Orleans in April of 2008. The workshop concluded that fault management is not being limited by technology, but rather by a lack of emphasis and discipline in both the engineering and programmatic dimensions. Some of the areas cited in the findings include different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; unclear ownership of end-to-end fault management engineering; inadequate understanding of the impact of mission-level requirements on fault management complexity; and practices, processes, and tools that have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of mission requirements and spacecraft systems. This paper summarizes the

  10. The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management on Transportation Cost Reduction in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet SARIDOGAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management (SCM has become an important competitive approach for organizations. The issue of green supply chain management is critical for the successful implementation of industrial ecosystems and industrial ecology. Organizations have a number of reasons for implementing these green supply chain policies, from reactive regulatory reasons, to proactive strategic and competitive advantage reasons. From an overall environmental and organizational perspective, it is important to understand the situation and what issues exist in this field. Many organizations worldwide have already experienced globalization and a shifting focus to competition among networks of companies in this environment. Multinational enterprises have established global networks of suppliers that take advantage of country-industry specific characteristics to build this competitive advantage. To success having this competitive advantage, logistics and supply chain managers have to balance efforts to reduce costs and innovate while maintaining good environmental (ecological performance (Pagell et al., 2004. Therefore, today, competition is not between companies, between supply chains. This study brings us the effect of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM on the Transportation Cost Reduction (TCR.

  11. Tele-Dysphagia Management: An Opportunity for Prevention, Cost-Savings and Advanced Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Coyle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many patients survive severe stroke because of aggressive management in intensive care units.  However, acquiring pneumonia during the post-onset phase significantly reduces both the quality and likelihood of survival. Aspiration pneumonia (AP, a relatively recent addition to the list of the pneumonias, is associated with dysphagia, a swallowing disorder that may cause aspiration of swallowed food or liquids mixed with bacterial pathogens common to saliva, or by aspiration of gastric contents due to emesis or gastroesophageal reflux. While it is within the purview of speech-language pathologists to provide evaluation, treatment, and management of dysphagia, the number of patients with dysphagia is growing faster than the number of qualified dysphagia clinicians.  Because dysphagia consultations via telepractice are feasible and relatively accessible from a technological standpoint, they offer a promising strategy to bring the expertise of distant dysphagia experts to patients in underserved areas.  Tele-dysphagia management has the potential to increase patients’ survival, enhance the expertise of primary, local clinicians, and reduce healthcare costs. Even a modest reduction in either hospital admissions for aspiration pneumonia, or in the length of stay for AP, could save the US health care system hundreds of millions of dollars each year.  Wide spread tele-dysphagia management offers significant opportunities for prevention, cost-savings and advanced training, and is therefore worthy of consideration by stakeholders in the health care system and university training programs.

  12. Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care : A controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Amber A. W. A.; de Bruijne, Martine C.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Baan, Caroline A.; Bosmans, Judith E.; Bot, Sandra D. M.; Donker, Ge A.; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of diabetes is associated with increased health care use and costs. Innovations to improve the quality of care, manage the increasing demand for health care and control the growth of health care costs are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the care

  13. Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care : A controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, A.W.A.; de Bruijne, M.C.; Feenstra, T.L.; Dekker, J.M.; Baan, Caroline; Bosmans, J.E.; Bot, S.D.M.; Donker, G.A.; Nijpels, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes is associated with increased health care use and costs. Innovations to improve the quality of care, manage the increasing demand for health care and control the growth of health care costs are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the care

  14. Effect of a chronic disease management service for patients with diabetes on hospitalisation and acute care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekaba, Tshepo M; Lim, W Kwang; Hutchinson, Anastasia F

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of a diabetes-management program for patients with type 2 diabetes and related comorbidities on acute healthcare utilisation and costs. This was a retrospective administrative dataset analysis using data for patients enrolled from 2007 to 2008. Inpatient admissions for diabetes-related conditions were compared before, during and following enrolment. Costs per episode were estimated from Weighted Inlier Equivalent Separations (WIES) funding. A cost model was then developed based on admission rates per 100 patients. Data were retrieved for 357 patients; 49% males, mean age 62 years. The mean per-patient cost of the program was AU$524 (s.d. $213). The mean cost of an inpatient admission was $4357(95% CI 2743-5971) pre-enrolment and $4396 (95% CI 2888-5904) post-enrolment. Following program completion the annual costs (per 100 patients) for managing 'diabetes with multiple complications' and hypoglycaemia decreased from $10181 to $1710 and $9947 to $7800. In contrast, the annual cost of cardiovascular disorders increased from $14485 to $40071 per 100 patients. In the short-term diabetes-management programs for patients with comorbid vascular disease may reduce hospital utilisation for diabetes but not for cardiovascular disease. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine whether intensive management of vascular complications can reduce costs.

  15. Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care: a controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.A.W.A. van der; Bruijne, M.C. de; Feenstra, T.L.; Dekker, J.M.; Baan, C.A.; Bosmans, J.E.; Bot, S.D.M.; Donker, G.A.; Nijpels, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of diabetes is associated with increased health care use and costs. Innovations to improve the quality of care, manage the increasing demand for health care and control the growth of health care costs are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the care

  16. Strategies and Consequences. Managing the Costs in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggaman, John S.

    This report focuses on the need for better management of higher education resources in view of the rising costs and changing revenues now confronting higher education institutions in the United States. Rising costs and changing revenues are reflected in stagnating faculty salaries, a decline in enrollment, rising administrative and insurance…

  17. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing is a business trend aimed at reducing costs and enabling companies to concentrate on their core competencies. This qualitative multiple case design research study explored the effects of hidden costs on the operational management of IT outsourcing. The study involved analyzing IT outsourcing agreements as…

  18. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing is a business trend aimed at reducing costs and enabling companies to concentrate on their core competencies. This qualitative multiple case design research study explored the effects of hidden costs on the operational management of IT outsourcing. The study involved analyzing IT outsourcing agreements as…

  19. Current hospital cost management and studies%医院成本管理现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温艳; 刘子先; 刘俊兰; 李娅访

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the development and present status of overseas hospital cost management pinpoints the setbacks found in China's hospital cost management, and brings forth the proposal to learn from advanced ideas and methods in overseas hospital industrial engineering and cost management. The goals are to build a nationwide total cost control system, explore new fields in cost management and introduce strategic cost management, in an effort to realize scientific cost management in China.%分析了国外医院成本管理的发展和研究现状,指出目前我国在医院成本管理中存在的问题,提出借鉴国外医院工业工程和成本管理的先进理念和方法,建立我国系统化的全面成本控制体系,拓展成本管理的新领域并引入战略成本管理,以提高我国成本管理的科学化水平。

  20. MRCP is not a cost-effective strategy in the management of silent common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboym, Irene; Winner, Megan; Allendorf, John D

    2013-05-01

    Few formal cost-effectiveness analyses simultaneously evaluate radiographic, endoscopic, and surgical approaches to the management of choledocholithiasis. Using the decision analytic software TreeAge, we modeled the initial clinical management of a patient presenting with symptomatic cholelithiasis without overt signs of choledocholithiasis. In this base case, we assumed a 10 % probability of concurrent asymptomatic choledocholithiasis. Our model evaluated four diagnostic/therapeutic strategies: universal magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), universal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), or laparoscopic cholecystectomy with universal intraoperative cholangiogram (LCIOC). All probabilities were estimated from a review of published literature. Procedure and intervention costs were equated with Medicare reimbursements. Costs of hospitalizations were derived from median hospitalization reimbursement for New York State using diagnosis-related groups (DRG). Sensitivity analyses were performed on all cost and probability variables. The most cost-effective strategy in the diagnosis and management of symptomatic cholelithiasis with a 10 % risk of asymptomatic choledocholithiasis was LCIOC. This was followed by LC alone, MRCP, and ERCP. LC was preferred only when the probability that a retained CBD stone would eventually become symptomatic fell below 15 % or if the probability of technical success of an intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) was less than 35 %. Universal MRCP and ERCP were both more costly and less effective than surgical strategies, even at a high probability of asymptomatic choledocholithiasis. Within the tested range for both procedural and hospitalization-related costs for any of the surgical or endoscopic interventions, LCIOC and LC were always more cost-effective than universal MRCP or ERCP, irrespective of the presence or absence of complications. Varying the cost, sensitivity, and

  1. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  2. Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutavchi, Viacheslav

    2012-11-01

    Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios. This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological-economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management's efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBAbased modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic

  3. Cost management as basis of harmonious approaches to the development of the construction business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Nikita Mikhaylovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The management of construction companies’ development is rarely aimed at harmonization of business and at the development of the ways of its sustainable development. Case studies and the application scope for harmonization as an approach allowing systematic and balanced development of business showed its practical relevance. The use of this approach allows not only correlating the objectives, clarifying the mission, structuring the problems, or determining the optimal salary of employees, but also correlating the costs to each other, which is particularly important in light of the need for rapid transformation of the building production methods. They are based on competent use of system properties of the systems. The properties of emergence, resonance, measurability, and others are of particular importance. Their accounting allows achieving the optimal cost outlay required in the process of investment and construction activities. It complies with the requirements and conditions of the market economy. The mentioned advantages of the use of harmonization technologies to ensure the stability and sustainability of investment and construction activities enable to confirm the hypothesis of the impossibility to achieve the optimum cost, for example, for the implementation of an investment and construction project without implementation of the system properties of a harmonious approach.

  4. Research on cost control and management in high voltage transmission line construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    Enterprises. The cost control is of vital importance to the construction enterprises. It is the key to the profitability of the transmission line project, which is related to the survival and development of the electric power construction enterprises. Due to the long construction line, complex and changeable construction terrain as well as large construction costs of transmission line, it is difficult for us to take accurate and effective cost control on the project implementation of entire transmission line. Therefore, the cost control of transmission line project is a complicated and arduous task. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the cost control scheme of transmission line project by a more scientific and efficient way. Based on the characteristics of the construction project of the transmission line project, this paper analyzes the construction cost structure of the transmission line project and the current cost control problem of the transmission line project, and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of studying the cost control scheme of the transmission line project more accurately. In this way, the dynamic cycle cost control process including plan, implementation, feedback, correction, modification and re-implement is achieved to realize the accurate and effective cost control of entire electric power transmission line project.

  5. Danish Management Accounting Frameworks - a SWOT Analysis and an Activity Based Costing Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Rohde, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    and in addition a SWOT-like assessment of this tradition vis-à-vis the management accounting research community and practice. An alternative approach in designing management accounting systems is represented by Activity Based Costing (ABC). An unbundling of the nowadays multifaceted ABC brings forward......The theoretical management accounting tradition in Denmark has a long history of focusing on development of data registration frameworks as a basis for aggregation and use of financial and non-financial data for different strategic, tactical and operational decisions and control purposes....... The present paper terms this tradition "basic registration frameworks" (BRFs) and accounts for the roots and characteristics of two of these frameworks in terms of their purpose, content and method using the "unbundling model" developed by Bjørnenak and Olson (1999). This allows for an analysis of the two...

  6. The Direct Cost of Managing a Rare Disease: Assessing Medical and Pharmacy Costs Associated with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Sarah; Bell, Christopher; McDonald, Craig M

    2017-06-01

    A Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort was identified using a claims-based algorithm to estimate health care utilization and costs for commercially insured DMD patients in the United States. Previous analyses have used broad diagnosis codes that include a range of muscular dystrophy types as a proxy to estimate the burden of DMD. To estimate DMD-associated resource utilization and costs in a sample of patients identified via a claims-based algorithm using diagnosis codes, pharmacy prescriptions, and procedure codes unique to DMD management based on DMD clinical milestones. DMD patients were selected from a commercially insured claims database (2000-2009). Patients with claims suggestive of a non-DMD diagnosis or who were aged 30 years or older were excluded. Each DMD patient was matched by age, gender, and region to controls without DMD in a 1:10 ratio (DMD patients n = 75; controls n = 750). All-cause health care resource utilization, including emergency department, inpatient, outpatient, and physician office visits, and all-cause health care costs were examined over a minimum 1-year period. Costs were computed as total health-plan and patient-paid amounts of adjudicated medical claims (in annualized U.S. dollars). The average age of the DMD cohort was 13 years. Patients in the DMD cohort had a 10-fold increase in health care costs compared with controls ($23,005 vs. $2,277, P costs were significantly higher for the DMD cohort across age strata and, in particular, for DMD patients aged 14-29 years ($40,132 vs. $2,746, P costs of DMD are substantial and increase with age. Funding for this study (GHO-10-4441) was provided by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). Optum was contracted by GSK to conduct the study. Thayer was an employee of Optum Health Economics and Outcomes Research at the time of this study and was not compensated for her participation as an author of this manuscript. Bell is an employee and shareholder of GSK. McDonald has been a consultant for GSK, Sarepta

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  8. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  9. Research on the Application of Life Cycle Cost Management in the Civil Aircraft Assembly Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawei, Lian; Xuefeng, Zhao

    Based on the investigation of airplane enterprises, the paper defines the life cycle of the airplane's assembly line in a reasonable way. It takes the model of project list in the stage of bidding to make it more actual. Regarding the airplane's assembly line, it also applies the equipments life cycle management theory into the using stage so that we can control the using cost more effectively. The paper uses the Crystal Ball to analyze the risk factors of the airplane's assembly line and improves the investment budget's accuracy.

  10. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  11. The Cost of Social Relations Oversight in the Adaptive Appropriation of Japanese Management Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, a late July settlement of the Flint, Michigan United Auto Workers strikes at General Motors narrowly averted or postponed a labor-management confrontation fully capable of precipitating an economic meltdown with far reaching consequences for our increasingly global economy. This paper uses...... a comparative legal ecology model of the modern enterprise to gain theoretical and empirical insight into the economic and societal costs of combining Japanese manufacturing techniques with managerial prerogative pursued "the American way." I begin by introducing the comparative legal ecology of the workplace...

  12. Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-based program designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D; Neilson, Matthew P; Gardner, Matthew; Li, Yanhong; Briggs, Andrew H; Polsky, Daniel E; Graham, Felicia L; Bowers, Margaret T; Paul, Sara C; Granger, Bradi B; Schulman, Kevin A; Whellan, David J; Riegel, Barbara; Levy, Wayne C

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure disease management programs can influence medical resource use and quality-adjusted survival. Because projecting long-term costs and survival is challenging, a consistent and valid approach to extrapolating short-term outcomes would be valuable. We developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model, a Web-based simulation tool designed to integrate data on demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; use of evidence-based medications; and costs to generate predicted outcomes. Survival projections are based on a modified Seattle Heart Failure Model. Projections of resource use and quality of life are modeled using relationships with time-varying Seattle Heart Failure Model scores. The model can be used to evaluate parallel-group and single-cohort study designs and hypothetical programs. Simulations consist of 10,000 pairs of virtual cohorts used to generate estimates of resource use, costs, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from user inputs. The model demonstrated acceptable internal and external validity in replicating resource use, costs, and survival estimates from 3 clinical trials. Simulations to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of heart failure disease management programs across 3 scenarios demonstrate how the model can be used to design a program in which short-term improvements in functioning and use of evidence-based treatments are sufficient to demonstrate good long-term value to the health care system. The Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model provides researchers and providers with a tool for conducting long-term cost-effectiveness analyses of disease management programs in heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-15

    Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  14. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  15. Heliostat cost optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  16. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  17. Assessment of economic benefits and costs of marine managed areas in Hawaii, 1998 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  18. Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in Hawaii 1998-2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  19. Design to Cost and Life Cycle Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Structural Corrosion Reductiop Bird Reistant Windshiel ds Standard Elt -ct rnic ’lodulet; N)tI 1NDE Fue I -l’ste Reduct ion .i gh Adhesion Sealants 4-1...Hence, the success of a new weapon system will decisively denend por t. p r,- ict -d n- naal cost for operations and support. The need to meet weapon

  20. Big Cost to Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATT; YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    If tobacco multinationals had their way, China might more closely resemble a chimney. So what are the costs of a potentially smokier future in China? Aside from health costs, there could be economically (and educationally) severe ones, according to a new study published in Social Science & Medicine by a Yale professor. Dr. Hong Wang analyzed how the cost of smoking impacts China's critical economic strengths: human capital investment (defined by education and healthcare), risk-taking capacity (defined by...

  1. ACTIVITY - BASED COSTING DESIGNING

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Skibiñska; Marta Kad³ubek

    2010-01-01

    The traditional costing system sometimes does not give accurate information about the consumption of different resources and the activities of the organisation. The activity-based costing system is an information-rich costing system which is more and more necessary for the success of many European companies. Base of designing and implementation of an ABC system in the enterprises are presented in the article.

  2. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  3. MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY COSTS IN TOURISM BUSINESSES AND AN INVESTIGATION ON HOTEL BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban ŞİMŞEK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intense competition in today business world makes offer of qualified goods and services essential in tourism businesses as it is in manifacturing businesses. To continue their existence, these profit-oriented businesses have to have an active quality costs system which follows cost of exercises to provide quality, keeps them under control besides providing quality. This study reveals managers’ opinion and present state of 3,4 and 5-star hotel businesses according to their quality costs applications. In this sense, hotel managers’ aspects of quality costs and their activities within quality costs were tired to be evalu ated, as a result of the study, it was discovered that essential part of the hotel businesses (67,2 % didn’t have quality costs system.

  4. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...... the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use...... NPC as a decision variable has the problematic effect, that two alternatives performing completely differently when focusing on environmental cost can have the same NPC. The extreme example is one alternative with high risk and low cost and another with low risk and high cost. In this example it is up...

  5. Controlling pharmacy costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, S

    1988-01-01

    There are many costs associated with parenteral nutrition: physician time, nursing time, biochemical monitoring, patient education, ancillary equipment and the nutrition solutions themselves. The solutions are easily identified as responsible for a large proportion of these costs. There are several strategies that can be used to help control pharmacy costs, such as selection of ingredients, purchasing contracts, standardized formulae and prescribing procedures, preprinted doctor's order forms, automated manufacturing and labelling processes, patient monitoring, all-in-one preparation, and contracted manufacturing services. Individual pharmacies need to know what options are available in order to select those that, in the context of their own institutions, can lead to cost savings and improved efficiency.

  6. Why activity based costing (ABC) is still tagging behind the traditional costing in Malaysia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Devinaga

    2011-01-01

    This study compares activity-based costing (ABC) model and traditional costing method in Malaysia. Activity based costing (ABC) which was developed into the manufacturing/service sectors in Malaysia. It calculates the cost and performance of activities, resources and cost objects. It can be considered as an alternative model to Traditional Cost-based accounting systems. In this study the results indicated that most operations managers believed that their present cost systems were adequate for...

  7. Out-of-pocket cost of managing sick newborns in Enugu, southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwochi U

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uchenna Ekwochi,1 D Chidiebere Osuorah,3 Ikenna K Ndu,1 Osita U Ezenwosu,2 Ogechukwu F Amadi,1 Ikenna C Nwokoye,1 O Israel Odetunde2 1Department of Pediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Nigeria; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 3Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council (UK, The Gambia unit, Fajara, The Gambia Background: Neonatal illnesses usually require long hospital stays and specialized care and/or facilities, which usually results in huge medical bills. With more than 70% of people in Nigeria living on less than US$2 per day, these bills are not affordable to many families' livelihoods. Aim: This study aims to determine the average cost of managing neonatal illnesses in Enugu in southeast Nigeria and the proportion of family income spent on these illnesses. It further seeks to ascertain the cost of various components in the management of neonatal diseases. Methods: This is a longitudinal and descriptive study involving 106 newborns admitted to the sick baby unit of the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital and the out-of-pocket medical expenditure in the management of their illnesses. Results: A hundred and six newborns participated in the study. All (100% medical bills were out-of-pocket payments, and 103 (97.2% of these were catastrophic health expenditure (more than 10% of total family monthly income. The average duration of hospital stay and cost of managing a neonatal illness was 12.86±8.81 days and ₦36,382±19,389.72 (US$223±119, respectively. This expenditure amounted to 157%, 71%, and 25% of total monthly family income for the low, middle, and upper socioeconomic class families, respectively, with a mean percentage of 85%. Families with a total monthly income of less than ₦10,000 (US$61, ₦10,000–49,999 (US$61–306, and ₦50,000–100,000 (US$306–612 and more than ₦100,000 (US$612 on average spent 683%, 108%, 54%, and 20% of their

  8. Engineering Cost Management under Building Energy Efficiency%建筑节能下的工程造价管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宏

    2015-01-01

    From building energy efficiency and the present situation of project cost management as well as the existing problems, the article analyzes building energy efficiency's influence on engineering cost, and puts forward some reform measures in project cost management to adapt to the energy conservation requirements.%本文从建筑节能和工程造价管理的现状以及存在的问题入手,分析了建筑节能对工程造价的影响,并提出了适应节能要求的工程造价管理改革措施。

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of farmers' rice straw management practices considering CH4 and N2O emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launio, Cheryll C; Asis, Constancio A; Manalili, Rowena G; Javier, Evelyn F

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the environmental consequences of burning and other rice straw management practices in terms of non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of selected rice straw management alternatives. On a per-hectare basis and considering a time horizon of five years, incorporating stubble more than 30 days before crop establishment, and incorporating composted rice straw in the field yielded the lowest cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions. Considering the associated costs and secondary benefits, the most cost-effective option for farmers is to incorporate stubble and straw in the soil more than 30 days before crop establishment. Rapid straw composting and incorporation of rice straw compost entails much higher additional cost but it also significantly mitigates GHG emission, hence it is the next most cost-effective option. Incorporating rice stubble and straw less than a month before crop establishment and removing rice straw for use as animal feed, on the other hand, appear to result in a net increase in ton CO2-eq given the assumed time horizon. The results underscore the impacts on the environment of small changes in straw management practices entailing minimal costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis considering rice straw for power generation and bio ethanol production is recommended. Further study on water management and tillage practice as mitigation options is recommended for a broader perspective useful for farmers, policy-makers, and other rice stakeholders.

  10. [Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, W

    2008-11-01

    In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal.

  11. INFORMATION MODEL OF MAJOR DEPRESSION TREATMENT COST - RELEVANCE OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Tadić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops multirelational data base for major depression costs. It lists how data are collected and stored into the fact base and dimension base. Uncertain data is described linguistically and modelled by fuzzy sets. Linguistic expressions are stored in dimension base. Models of major depression treatment costs are developed for each patient and all population. On the basis of this model and multirelational data base MD-OLAP a model for major depression treatment costs is developed.

  12. Cost accounting for blood bank laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessel, J A

    1989-01-01

    To meet the challenges of present-day blood banking, laboratory managers and supervisors must acquire and use skills in financial management. One such skill is cost analysis. Cost analyses vary from simple to complex and are used to determine the basic elements contributing to a test cost. Cost analysis can be used to identify costs, justify updating laboratory test prices, monitor general supply and reagent costs, help in the decision to lease or buy an instrument, modify existing test procedures to cut costs, determine staffing needs, and assure accurate reimbursement for laboratory services.

  13. ESTIMATING THE COST-VALUE RELATIONSHIP USING INSTRUMENTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana GEORGESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC, 1998, in the managementaccounting evolution the period after 1995 is characterized by the interest in creating or producing value throughefficacious and efficient use of resources using the techniques whuch analyze the value inductors for the customer andshareholders, through institutional innovation. In this context, the concern is to eliminate "non-value added activities",that were characteristic for higher prices without increasing value for the customer. Awareness of this fact wasfollowed by a general mobilization to cover the development of integrative tools and models designed to manage costsand value together, put them in bundles and carry out arbitrage between these two categories of elements: "the stakes isto optimize the enterprise supply by adapting the capital that it invests at the same level that is the customer value of theproduct".Starting from the definition of value, we intend to begin to explore the concept of customer value and, in particular, wewill try to see if it differs from the price paid by the customer. Then we highlight the complexity of the concept ofcustomer, multiple customers and unstable customers, because this is the fact that makes measuring and ranking thevalues that they perceive to be difficult, or in any case, relative. In the second part of the article we will look on theproblematic relationship between cost and value. To do this we will analyze the main management accounting methodsproposed to build this relationship, especially insisting on the target costing method and activity-based costing method.

  14. New York Dairy Manure Management Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Costs (1992-2022).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Jenifer L; Woodbury, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Livestock manure can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) including methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO). However, GHG emissions are strongly affected by the type of waste management system (WMS) used. For example, CH emissions increase substantially under anaerobic conditions that occur in many WMSs. There is a need for improved estimates at regional and national scales of the effect of WMSs on GHG emissions and identification of opportunities and associated costs to mitigate these emissions. As New York State is the fourth largest dairy producer in the country, our objectives were to quantify (i) the changes in WMS and associated GHG emissions over time, (ii) a methane conversion factor (MCF) derived from existing data from three covered manure storage units in New York, and (iii) the benefit and cost of installing covers and flares to destroy CH from existing storage units. We found that GHG emissions from changing manure management increased from 0.7 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents per year (COe yr) in 1992 to 1.6 Tg COe yr in 2012. We derived an MCF of 0.61 based on data from dairy manure storage units with covers that captured and flared CH in 2010 and used this MCF to project GHG reductions for a statewide mitigation scenario in year 2022. This scenario, covering and flaring CH from 662 manure storage units, mitigates 1.8 Tg COe annually or 62% of manure GHG (CH and NO) at an estimated cost of $224 million ($0.005 L milk or $13 Mg COe). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1997-06-27

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge.

  16. Implementing a trustworthy cost-accounting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hospitals and health systems can develop an effective cost-accounting model and maximize the effectiveness of their cost-accounting teams by focusing on six key areas: Implementing an enhanced data model. Reconciling data efficiently. Accommodating multiple cost-modeling techniques. Improving transparency of cost allocations. Securing department manager participation. Providing essential education and training to staff members and stakeholders.

  17. Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y C

    1993-01-01

    In this article, activity-based costing, an approach that has proved to be an improvement over the conventional costing system in product costing, is introduced. By combining activity-based costing with standard costing, health care administrators can better plan and control the costs of health services provided while ensuring that the organization's bottom line is healthy.

  18. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  19. Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutell R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard Mutell, Jaime L Rubin, T Christopher Bond, Tracy Mayne DaVita Clinical Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Ferric citrate (FC is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. Objectives: To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. Methods: We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. Results: When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron, the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. Conclusion: The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs. Keywords: phosphate binders, hyperphosphatemia, end-stage renal disease

  20. Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutell, Richard; Rubin, Jaime L; Bond, T Christopher; Mayne, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders) was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron), the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs.