WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost engineering

  1. Excel for Cost Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn C.

    2007-01-01

    Excel is a powerful tool with a plethora of largely unused capabilities that can make the life of an engineer cognizant of them a great deal easier. This paper offers tips, tricks and techniques for better worksheets. Including the use of data validation, conditional formatting, subtotals, text formulas, custom functions and much more. It is assumed that the reader will have a cursory understanding of Excel so the basics will not be covered, if you get hung up try Excel's built in help menus, or a good book.

  2. Effective control of engineering cost measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑虹; 戚悦

    2013-01-01

    the civil engineering cost function mainly lies in the calculation of the required for the construction cost to the sum of al. Civil engineering cost throughout the project, the efective use of human, financial weakness, can beter benefit our investment, so the control of civil engineering cost measures is very necessary.

  3. Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbee, Charles V.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, life cycle costing (LCC) was adopted by the federal government. LCC is a method of evaluating all the costs associated with acquisition, construction and operation of a project. LCC was designed to minimize costs of major projects, not only in consideration of acquisition and construction, but especially to emphasize the reduction of operation and maintenance costs during the project life. Authors of engineering economics texts have been very reluctant and painfully slow to explain and deal with LCC. Many authors devote less than one page to the subject. The reason for this is that LCC has several major drawbacks. The first of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The second problem with LCC is that some life span must be selected over which to evaluate the project, and many projects, especially renewable energy projects, are expected to have an unlimited life (they are expected to live for ever). The longer the life cycle, the more inaccurate annual costs become because of the inability to forecast accurately.

  4. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    BASICS AND COST-ESTIMATING METHODOLOGY Several RAND studies detail cost methodology and spending assessments across the full range of support of both...Moore, Lorell, Mason, and Graser’s 2002 RAND Report Military Jet Engine Acquisition: Technology Basics and Cost- Estimating Methodology, pages 9 -14...9 2 2 ,016 .75$ F t W ayn e F W A 3 3 .6 7.9 3 2 0 .526 2 .326 1 .01 5 2 .8 9 2 92 .5 2 3 ,400 .00$ D ulu th D LH 4 0

  5. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  6. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  7. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents so called “engineering” approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into “engineering” form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.

  8. The 'negative cost' of value engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Martin Wilkinson, national sales manager at system protection specialist, Spirotech UK, highlights the 'potential negative consequences' of value engineering in heating system specification in the healthcare sector, and argues that system protection products such as de-aerators and dirt separators have considerable value in preventative maintenance, and in helping to extend the useful life of both the system as a whole, and its vital parts.

  9. Generomak: Fusion physics, engineering and costing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.

    1988-06-01

    A generic fusion physics, engineering and economics model (Generomak) was developed as a means of performing consistent analysis of the economic viability of alternative magnetic fusion reactors. The original Generomak model developed at Oak Ridge by Sheffield was expanded for the analyses of the Senior Committee on Environmental Safety and Economics of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM). This report describes the Generomak code as used by ESECOM. The input data used for each of the ten ESECOM fusion plants and the Generomak code output for each case is given. 14 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2004-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  11. Cost estimation and analysis using the Sherpa Automated Mine Cost Engineering System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, P.E. [Western Mine Engineering, Spokane, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Sherpa Automated Mine Cost Engineering System is a menu-driven software package designed to estimate capital and operating costs for proposed surface mining operations. The program is engineering (as opposed to statistically) based, meaning that all equipment, manpower, and supply requirements are determined from deposit geology, project design and mine production information using standard engineering techniques. These requirements are used in conjunction with equipment, supply, and labor cost databases internal to the program to estimate all associated costs. Because virtually all on-site cost parameters are interrelated within the program, Sherpa provides an efficient means of examining the impact of changes in the equipment mix on total capital and operating costs. If any aspect of the operation is changed, Sherpa immediately adjusts all related aspects as necessary. For instance, if the user wishes to examine the cost ramifications of selecting larger trucks, the program not only considers truck purchase and operation costs, it also automatically and immediately adjusts excavator requirements, operator and mechanic needs, repair facility size, haul road construction and maintenance costs, and ancillary equipment specifications.

  12. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork.

  13. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Wendy; Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-11-25

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students' recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes.

  14. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  15. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  16. LHC Civil Engineering Construction Contracts Cost Monitoring and Budget Forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, K

    2000-01-01

    The Civil Engineering project for the LHC is estimated at 350 MCHF, of which about 316 MCHF is for the construction contracts. These contracts are based on a system of remeasurement whereby the consultant estimates the quantities required for the construction of each structure and the contractor commits himself to the unit price, which define the initial tender price. There are many factors that affect the final price for these contracts, from increases or decreases in quantities of the estimated amounts in the original bill of quantities to variations to the contract. This paper will look at how these factors change costs at the individual level of a structure to the overall costs of the contract. It will look at how the Civil Engineering Group monitors these changes to calculate cash flows and final costs and how this information is used as a basis for budget forecasts.

  17. An improved effective cost review process for value engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, D S; Park, J I

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis.

  18. Economic and cost engineering aspects of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, A.N.

    1990-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the economic feasibility of current wind energy conversion systems (WECS) from a cost engineering basis is presented. The initial stage covers a subjective review of the cost implications of various design aspects of current medium sized Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), based around a 330 kW wind turbine (WT). The second stage is focused on the collection and initial analysis of a comprehensive database of WT technical, cost and performance information from over 100 WT models ranging in size from 8 metre to 55 metre rotor diameter. The formulation of a life cycle cost estimation model for HAWTs, based on semi-empirical relationships between sub-system cost, mass and design parameters is described. The economic feasibility of WECS private generating operation under the tariff structures available in the UK, under the auspices of the Energy Act of 1983, is examined, and broad results are given in terms of feasible tariff scenarios for topographical and regional locations throughout the UK. The prospects for reducing the cost of energy from WECS are explored, and the macro-economic and socio-environmental aspects of WECS are examined. (author).

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... production engineering costs. 31.205-25 Section 31.205-25 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable: (1...

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  1. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  2. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  3. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  4. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  5. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  6. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  7. Analysis of hospital logistics and costs of the Clinical Engineering Sector in a Philanthropic Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Artur de Souza; André Sousa Braga; Ciro Gustavo Bragança; Luiz Augusto de Carvalho Francisco Soares; Ewerton Alex Avelar

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are considered complex organizations mainly due to the high cost of the health care structure employed for care. Reducing operating costs is a challenge for hospital managers. Particularly in the clinical engineering sector, adequate hospital logistics can reduce costs. In this context, the aim of the research was to analyze the activities of hospital logistics of the Clinical Engineering department at a charity hospital, focusing on cost reduction. The paper presents a ...

  8. Army Corps of Engineers: Cost Increases in Flood Control Projects and Improving Communication with Nonfederal Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Expertise located in Walla Walla , Washington, which provides technical support and assistance to the districts on cost engineering issues, such as...headquarters and its cost engineering center of expertise located in Walla Walla , Washington. The Corps identified 87 new or ongoing flood control projects

  9. Calculation of the Actual Cost of Engine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) helps analysts store, retrieve, and analyze data; build cost models; analyze risk; time phase budgets; and...Tools ( ACEIT ).” n. pag. http://www.aceit.com/ 21 February 2003. • USAMC Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA). “Cost Analysis Strategy Assessment

  10. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  11. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Beshouri; Kirby S. Chapman; Jim McCarthy; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Mike Whelan

    2006-03-01

    This quarterly report re-evaluates current market objectives in the exploration and production industry, discusses continuing progress in testing that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine, and presents a scheme for enacting remote monitoring and control of engines during upcoming field tests. The examination of current market objectives takes into account technological developments and changing expectations for environmental permitting which may have occurred over the last year. This demonstrates that the continuing work in controlled testing and toward field testing is on track Market pressures currently affecting the gas exploration and production industry are shown to include a push for increased production, as well as an increasing cost for environmental compliance. This cost includes the direct cost of adding control technologies to field engines as well as the indirect cost of difficulty obtaining permits. Environmental regulations continue to require lower emissions targets, and some groups of engines which had not previously been regulated will be required to obtain permits in the future. While the focus remains on NOx and CO, some permits require reporting of additional emissions chemicals. Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOx emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing

  12. Business Process Re-engineering: A Panacea for Reducing Operational Cost in Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Joseph Sungau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations in today’s business environment struggle on how to reduce operation cost in order to set prices that can be afforded by many customers while obtaining reasonable profit.  In order to reduce Operational Cost, service organizations have been working hard to identify techniques that facilitate business processes improvement for reduced Operational Cost. In so doing, the global literature indicates that service organizations adopt Business Process Re-engineering technique as a panacea of reducing Operational Cost. Despite a documented potentiality of Business Process Re-engineering technique, there are mixed empirical results, findings and conclusions regarding the effect of Business Process Re-engineering on Operational Cost. Therefore, this paper aimed at assessing and explaining effects of BPR on Operational Cost.   The study used cross-sectional survey design to investigate the effect of BPR on Operational Cost. Intensive literature review enabled the construction of structural measurement model, formulation of testable hypotheses and operationalization of constructs. In order to test the model and hypotheses, data were collected from ninety five (95 service organizations in Tanzania. Results of the study reveal that BPR and delivering speed have no direct effects on Operational Cost; they indirectly affect Operational Cost through the mediations of service quality. Therefore, BPR influences first both service quality and delivery speed in affecting Operational Cost of service organizations. It is now recommended that service organizations should use Business Process Re-engineering as panacea of reducing Operational Cost.    

  13. Assessment of activity-based pyroprocess costs for an engineering-scale facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Won Il [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis Department, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Sung Sig [Dept. of Business and Technology Management, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study set the pyroprocess facility at an engineering scale as a cost object, and presented the cost consumed during the unit processes of the pyroprocess. For the cost calculation, the activity based costing (ABC) method was used instead of the engineering cost estimation method, which calculates the cost based on the conceptual design of the pyroprocess facility. The calculation results demonstrate that the pyroprocess facility's unit process cost is $194/kgHM for pretreatment, $298/kgHM for electrochemical reduction, $226/kgHM for electrorefining, and $299/kgHM for electrowinning. An analysis demonstrated that the share of each unit process cost among the total pyroprocess cost is as follows: 19% for pretreatment, 29% for electrochemical reduction, 22% for electrorefining, and 30% for electrowinning. The total unit cost of the pyroprocess was calculated at $1,017/kgHM. In the end, electrochemical reduction and the electrowinning process took up most of the cost, and the individual costs for these two processes was found to be similar. This is because significant raw material cost is required for the electrochemical reduction process, which uses platinum as an anode electrode. In addition, significant raw material costs are required, such as for Li3PO4, which is used a lot during the salt purification process.

  14. Assessment of activity-based pyroprocess costs for an engineering-scale facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set the pyroprocess facility at an engineering scale as a cost object, and presented the cost consumed during the unit processes of the pyroprocess. For the cost calculation, the activity based costing (ABC method was used instead of the engineering cost estimation method, which calculates the cost based on the conceptual design of the pyroprocess facility. The calculation results demonstrate that the pyroprocess facility's unit process cost is $194/kgHM for pretreatment, $298/kgHM for electrochemical reduction, $226/kgHM for electrorefining, and $299/kgHM for electrowinning. An analysis demonstrated that the share of each unit process cost among the total pyroprocess cost is as follows: 19% for pretreatment, 29% for electrochemical reduction, 22% for electrorefining, and 30% for electrowinning. The total unit cost of the pyroprocess was calculated at $1,017/kgHM. In the end, electrochemical reduction and the electrowinning process took up most of the cost, and the individual costs for these two processes was found to be similar. This is because significant raw material cost is required for the electrochemical reduction process, which uses platinum as an anode electrode. In addition, significant raw material costs are required, such as for Li3PO4, which is used a lot during the salt purification process.

  15. Architect and engineering costs at Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this audit was to determine whether architect and engineering (A-E) costs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories were reasonable in comparison with industry standards.

  16. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    technologies follow: 1. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) 2. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) – electrically regenerated active (ERADPF...insurmountable obstacles such as vessel range, engine room space, SLM, additional electric power, etc. Recommendations are developed on the basis of both...Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels? Jonathan DeHart 1 (M

  18. Customer Focused Product Design Using Integrated Model of Target Costing, Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target costing by integrating customer requirements, technical attributes and cost information into the product design phase and eliminating the non-value added functions, plays a vital role in different phases of the product life cycle. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE are two techniques which can be used for applying target costing, successfully. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of target costing, QFD and VE to explore the role of target costing in managing product costs while promoting quality specifications meeting customers’ needs. F indings indicate that the integration of target costing, QFD and VE is an essential technique in managing the costs of production process. Findings also imply that integration of the three techniques provides a competitive cost advantage to companies.

  19. Cost estimation in software engineering projects with web components development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen multitud de modelos propuestos para la predicción de co stes en proyectos de software, al gunos orientados específicamen te para proyectos Web. Este trabajo analiza si los modelos específicos para proyectos Web están justifi cados, examinando el comportami ento diferencial de los costes entre proyectos de desarrollo softwar e Web y no Web. Se analizan dos aspectos del cálculo de costes: las deseconomías de escala, y el im pacto de algunas características de estos proyectos que son utilizadas como cost drivers. Se en uncian dos hipótesis: (a en estos proyect os las deseconomías de escala so n mayores y (b el incremento de coste que provocan los cost dr ivers es menor para los proyectos Web. Se contrastaron estas hipótesis a nalizando un conjunto de proyectos reales. Los resultados sugie ren que ambas hipótesis se cumplen. Por lo tanto, la principal contribu ción a la literatura de esta inv estigación es que el desarrollo de modelos específicos para los proyectos Web está justificado.

  20. E-COCOMO: The Extended COst Constructive MOdel for Cleanroom Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mistakes create rework. Rework takes time and increases costs. The traditional software engineering methodology defines the ratio of Design:Code:Test as 40:20:40. As we can easily see that 40% time and efforts are used in testing phase in traditional approach, that means we have to perform rework again if we found some bugs in testing phase. This rework is being performed after Design and code phase. This rework will increase the cost exponentially. The cleanroom software engineering methodology controls the exponential growth in cost by removing this rework. It says that "do the work correct in first attempt and move to next phase after getting the proof of correctness". This new approach minimized the rework and reduces the cost in the exponential ratio. Due to the removal of testing phase, the COCOMO (COst COnstructive MOdel used for the traditional engineering is not directly applicable in cleanroom software engineering. The traditional cost drivers used for traditional COCOMO needs to be revised. We have proposed the Extended version of COCOMO (i.e. E-COCOMO in which we have incorporated some new cost drivers. This paper explains the proposed E-COCOMO and the detailed description of proposed new cost driver.

  1. An analysis of the aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP) : a life cycle cost approach

    OpenAIRE

    Borer, Chris Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Increasing budgetary constraints have prompted actions to reduce the maintenance cost of current naval aircraft. This thesis examines the Aircraft Engine Component Improvement Program (CIP), its impact on these cost at the organizational and intermediate levels of maintenance, and savings from these improvements. The objectives of the research were to identify current life cycle cost (LCC) models used by the Navy andor the other services...

  2. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  3. Determining the optimal costs on engineering equipment control systems for smart house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Samarin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some candidate solutions of a problem of a decrease of energy consumption in civil buildings were reviewed. The features of implementation of measures on the engineering equipment for smart house were shown. The basic constituents of the working costs were submitted at operation of such object. The dependence of costs change on the depth of engineering measures implementation was investigated. The economically optimum degree of building equipping according to criterion of cumulative discounted costs minimization was detected. The presentation is illustrated by graphic examples and numerical examples of calculations.

  4. Study of the costs and benefits of composite materials in advanced turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhagen, C. A.; Stotler, C. L.; Neitzel, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Composite component designs were developed for a number of applicable engine parts and functions. The cost and weight of each detail component was determined and its effect on the total engine cost to the aircraft manufacturer was ascertained. The economic benefits of engine or nacelle composite or eutectic turbine alloy substitutions was then calculated. Two time periods of engine certification were considered for this investigation, namely 1979 and 1985. Two methods of applying composites to these engines were employed. The first method just considered replacing an existing metal part with a composite part with no other change to the engine. The other method involved major engine redesign so that more efficient composite designs could be employed. Utilization of polymeric composites wherever payoffs were available indicated that a total improvement in Direct Operating Cost (DOC) of 2.82 to 4.64 percent, depending on the engine considered, could be attained. In addition, the percent fuel saving ranged from 1.91 to 3.53 percent. The advantages of using advanced materials in the turbine are more difficult to quantify but could go as high as an improvement in DOC of 2.33 percent and a fuel savings of 2.62 percent. Typically, based on a fleet of one hundred aircraft, a percent savings in DOC represents a savings of four million dollars per year and a percent of fuel savings equals 23,000 cu m (7,000,000 gallons) per year.

  5. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-07-01

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

  6. Corps of Engineers’ Acquisition of Fish Hatchery Proves Costly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-18

    point, even with the low beef prices, cattle ranches are selling stronger in the Northwest than any other type of real estate at this time. [GAO COMMENT...of the bare land to the depreciated reproduction or replacement cost of I/The required rate of return necessary to induce investors to buy or hold a...substantial effect on farm land prices. It is common knowledge prices paid for pork, beef , and poultry are dictated by supply and demand. You will

  7. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  8. Evaluation of the St. Lucia geothermal resource: engineering investigation and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Taylor, W.B.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    An engineering and economic study of the development of geothermal energy in St. Lucia has given cost estimates for electricity and process heat produced from the geothermal energy, identified additional industries that are worthy of further examination, and developed methods for examining the economic impact of this new energy source. Costs have been estimated for electricity produced from geothermal energy, by diesel engines used only during peak power demand, by diesel engines producing the total electricity requirement, by an oil-fired steam-power plant, and by a coal-fired steam-power plant. Costs have also been estimated for thermal energy to be used for industrial process heat under various conditions of transport distances, capacity factors, and temperature requirements. Several industries that may be attracted to St. Lucia by the development of geothermal energy have been identified.

  9. Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Isik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA, a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware.

  10. Systems Engineering and Program Management. Trends and Costs for Aircraft and Guided Weapons Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Project AIR FORCE PCA Physical Configuration Audit P&D Production and Deployment PDR Preliminary Design Review P3I Preplanned Product Improvement PIN ...Program Management SEPM LOT Lot Cost of SE/PM (in production) SEPM UC Unit Cost of SE/PM (in production) SFR System Functional Review ii SE/PM...perform as intended, without a mission critical failure , for a specified period of time. Maintainability engineers are concerned with the resource re

  11. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  12. Analysis of hospital logistics and costs of the Clinical Engineering Sector in a Philanthropic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Artur de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are considered complex organizations mainly due to the high cost of the health care structure employed for care. Reducing operating costs is a challenge for hospital managers. Particularly in the clinical engineering sector, adequate hospital logistics can reduce costs. In this context, the aim of the research was to analyze the activities of hospital logistics of the Clinical Engineering department at a charity hospital, focusing on cost reduction. The paper presents a case study in a large charity hospital located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG. The analysis focuses on the activities of hospital logistics at this hospital clinical engineering sector. The work in this sector is concentrated in the realization and implementation of equipment maintenance, to the detriment of efforts to reduce costs and increase safety for all streams managed by the sector. It was also found that there are risks of increased costs with inadequate routines: (i acquisition of new and large equipment; (ii maintenance and release schedule for use; and (iii the theft of equipment.

  13. STRATEGIES TO TEACH COSTING AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN IN TODAY'S MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRALY Andrei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Not a long time ago in “Eastern Economies”, especially in the mechanical design domain, words like costing or sustainability were practical neglected. Their importance is raising nowadays more and more and the author explains how it introduced them in mechanical engineers curriculum at the computer aided design discipline, because good habits must be implemented from young ages.

  14. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... assessments of service reliability and financing requirements and risks. Requirements for analyzing purchased... costs; (2) Financing requirements and risks; (3) System reliability; (4) Alternative unit sizes;...

  15. Integrated emission management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  16. Low Cost Propulsion Technology at the Marshall Space Flight Center: Fastrac Engine and the Propulsion Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Ise, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    The need for low cost access to space has initiated the development of low cost liquid rocket engine and propulsion system hardware at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The engine, the 60,000 lbf, RP-1 and LOX Fastrac Engine has been designed as a robust, low cost liquid rocket engine with applications for X-34 as well as future low cost booster systems. The engine is a turbopump fed, gas generator cycle, rocket motor with an ablative nozzle. The Propulsion Test Article (PTA) is a test bed for low cost propulsion system hardware including a composite RP-1 tank, flight feedlines and pressurization system, stacked in a booster configuration. A general description of the PTA and the Fastrac engine is given, with emphasis on the technical specification of the hardware including flow rates, pressures and other operating conditions. The process which has been used for the design and integration of this hardware is described.

  17. WELCST: engineering cost model of geothermal wells. Description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, D.J.; Lopez, A.

    1979-02-01

    WELCST, a FORTRAN code for estimating the effects of R and D project results upon the future cost of geothermal wells is described. The code simulates the drilling and completion of a well at 27 specific US geothermal prospects, given assumptions about well design and casing plan, formation drillability, and selected engineering and cost characteristics of today's drilling technology. The user may change many of the assumptions about engineering and cost characteristics to allow WELCST to simulate impacts of specific R and D projects on the estimated cost of wells at the prospects. An important capability of WELCST is that it simulates rates and costs of major drilling mishaps, based on drilling incident data from the Imperial Valley and Geysers geothermal fields. WELCST is capable of estimating geothermal well costs at liquid-dominated (hydrothermal) sites, vapor-dominated sites, geopressured sites, and Hot Dry Rock sites. The model can contribute to many system-optimization studies, and could be easily adapted to estimate well costs outside of the United States.

  18. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  19. Analysis on cost influence factors of municipal engineering and the measures to reduce engineering cost%市政工程造价影响因素分析及降低工程造价措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王河

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the characteristics of municipal engineering cost, analyzed the current situation of municipal engineering cost, discussed the measures to reduce the municipal engineering cost, and according to the influence factors of municipal engineering cost, put forward some reasonable control method, in order to fundamentally improve the management level of municipal engineering cost.%阐述了市政工程造价的特点,对市政工程造价的现状进行了分析,探讨了降低市政工程造价的措施,并针对影响市政工程造价的因素提出了一些合理的控制方法,以期从根本上提高市政工程造价的管理水平。

  20. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  1. Discussion on engineering cost estimation%谈工程中的成本测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Combining with working experience,the paper introduces building engineering cost elements under BOQ background,identifies cost estimation scope and principles,and analyzes cost estimation contents including labor,materials,machineries and measures,which has laid a foundation for cost control.%结合工作经验,介绍了建筑工程中定额及工程量清单计价背景下的成本要素,明确了成本测算的范围与原则,并对成本测算中人、材、机械、措施四大要素中常见的一些情况进行了分析,为成本的控制工作奠定了基础。

  2. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  3. Study on Engineering Design and Cost Performance of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ground source heat pump (GSHP is an environmentally friendly and energy-efficient technology, and the investigations on the simulation models of borehole heat exchanger (BHE have made progress. However, the researches on engineering design and economic performance based on the simulation models of BHE are a few. This paper firstly describes the interior and exterior heat transfer according to the existing achievements, and the corresponding characteristics of models are explained. Afterwards, the detailed design procedures of BHE size are provided and the cost performance is highlighted. Accordingly, an actual engineering project which employs GSHP system as the air conditioning system is researched; the necessary expenses on BHE, heat pump units, and indoor end equipment are all taken into account. The initial investment, operating cost, and other factors that exert influences on the cost performance are demonstrated. In addition, comparisons between different systems are conducted to show the advantages of GSHP. By means of thermal transfer analysis and the design of engineering project, the practicability, energy saving, and environmental protection of GSHP are brought into play, which means the promotion of this technology is the general trend of development of air condition system.

  4. 谈工程造价发展趋势%Talking about the development tendency of engineering cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裕宏

    2012-01-01

    To start with the development history of domestic engineering cost,in light of engineering cost management status,the essay summarizes problems existing in current engineering cost management,and puts forward measures for enhancing cost management,with a view to improve engineering cost management and to realize the maximization of project investment benefit.%从我国工程造价的发展历程入手,针对工程造价管理现状,总结了目前工程造价管理存在的问题,并提出了加强造价管理的措施,以改善和提高工程造价管理工作,实现项目的投资效益最大化。

  5. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  6. A Low Cost Implementation of an Existing Hands-on Laboratory Experiment in Electronic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Onime

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In engineering the pedagogical content of most formative programmes includes a significant amount of practical laboratory hands-on activity designed to deliver knowledge acquisition from actual experience alongside traditional face-to-face classroom based lectures and tutorials; this hands-on aspect is not always adequately addressed by current e-learning platforms. An innovative approach to e-learning in engineering, named computer aided engineering education (CAEE is about the use of computer aids for the enhanced, interactive delivery of educational materials in different fields of engineering through two separate but related components; one for classroom and another for practical hands-on laboratory work. The component for hands-on laboratory practical work focuses on the use of mixed reality (video-based augmented reality tools on mobile devices/platforms. This paper presents the computer aided engineering education (CAEE implementation of a laboratory experiment in micro-electronics that highlights some features such as the ability to closely implement an existing laboratory based hands-on experiment with lower associated costs and the ability to conduct the experiment off-line while maintaining existing pedagogical contents and standards.

  7. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  8. Cost control management strategies of civil engineering%土建工程造价控制管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2015-01-01

    介绍了土建工程造价管理的重要性,从工程决策、设计、施工、决算四个阶段,阐述了土建工程造价管理的策略,指出工程造价管理贯穿于施工全过程,只有严格控制施工各环节,才能实现企业成本的节约与积累。%The article introduces the importance of civil engineering cost management,describes civil engineering cost management strategies from four phases of engineering decision,design,construction and computation,and finally points out that engineering cost management penetrates the whole construction process. Therefore,it is necessary for strictly controlling construction points so as to save and accumulate enterprise cost.

  9. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  10. Army Corps of Engineers: Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and Dam Project The following information appears as interactive content in figure 3 when viewed electronically . • 1985: Lower Ohio River...ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project ...Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project What GAO Found Reports by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  11. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  12. Designing Green Networks and Network Operations Saving Run-the-Engine Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the confluence of socio-political trends toward environmental responsibility and the pressing need to reduce Run-the-Engine (RTE) costs has given birth to a nascent discipline of Green IT. A clear and concise introduction to green networks and green network operations, this book examines analytical measures and discusses virtualization, network computing, and web services as approaches for green data centers and networks. It identifies some strategies for green appliance and end devices and examines the methodical steps that can be taken over time to achieve a seamless migratio

  13. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  14. Applying Costs, Risks and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) methodology to Engineering Support Request (ESR) prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1994-01-01

    Given limited budget, the problem of prioritization among Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) with varied sizes, shapes, and colors is a difficult one. At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the recently developed 4-Matrix (4-M) method represents a step in the right direction as it attempts to combine the traditional criteria of technical merits only with the new concern for cost-effectiveness. However, the 4-M method was not adequately successful in the actual prioritization of ESRs for the fiscal year 1995 (FY95). This research identifies a number of design issues that should help us to develop better methods. It emphasizes that given the variety and diversity of ESR's one should not expect that a single method could help in the assessment of all ESR's. One conclusion is that a methodology such as Costs, Risks, and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) should be adopted. It also is clear that the development of methods such as 4-M requires input not only from engineers with technical expertise in ESR's but also from personnel with adequate background in the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis. At KSC, ESR prioritization is one part of the Ground Support Working Teams (GSWT) Integration Process. It was discovered that the more important barriers to the incorporation of cost-effectiveness considerations in ESR prioritization lie in this process. The culture of integration, and the corresponding structure of review by a committee of peers, is not conducive to the analysis and confrontation necessary in the assessment and prioritization of ESR's. Without assistance from appropriately trained analysts charged with the responsibility to analyze and be confrontational about each ESR, the GSWT steering committee will continue to make its decisions based on incomplete understanding, inconsistent numbers, and at times, colored facts. The current organizational separation of the prioritization and the funding processes is also identified as an important barrier to the

  15. The influence factors of construction engineering cost and the strategy to reduce engineering cost%建筑工程造价的影响要素及降低工程造价的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华荣

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced in detail the construction engineering cost,and analyzed the human factors,policy factors,market factors,con-struction factors influence of engineering cost,and put forward specific strategies to reduce the engineering cost,to improve the economic benefits of whole engineering.%对建筑工程造价进行了详细的介绍,并对影响工程造价的人为要素、政策要素、市场要素、施工要素进行了分析,进而提出了降低工程造价的具体策略,以提升整个工程的经济效益。

  16. Role of geothermal reservoir engineering in reducing costs per kilowatt-hour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.W. [Maxwell Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Reservoir characterization and monitoring constitute small but finite components of the total cost of geothermal power, and also have substantial implications for overall cost reduction. There are at least three roles which reservoir engineering can play in improving the competitive position of the geothermal power industry. First, techniques are now being developed which will reduce the costs associated with the early part of field characterization--after the resource has been tentatively identified, but prior to exploitation. For example, the use of slimholes for exploration and preliminary assessment offers major cost savings compared to conventional drilling practice. Slim holes drilled originally for exploration may also serve as monitor wells during production. Second, using unconventional measurements (usually associated with exploration) for reservoir monitoring will substantially improve the reliability of reservoir models by providing more data for history-matching as the reservoir is exploited. Although not yet in routine use, surface microgravity changes have long been known to provide insights into quantity and character of reservoir recharge. Changes in electrical measurements (including self-potential and resistivity) and possibly even seismic techniques also appear promising. Improving the understanding of events which are actually taking place under-ground during field production will permit the development of improved exploitation strategies, reducing the need for makeup drilling, postponing or avoiding cold-water invasion of production wells, and prolonging reservoir life.

  17. Engineering Halomonas TD01 for the low-cost production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dan; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The halophile Halomonas TD01 and its derivatives have been successfully developed as a low-cost platform for the unsterile and continuous production of chemicals. Therefore, to increase the genetic engineering stability of this platform, the DNA restriction/methylation system of Halomonas TD01 was partially inhibited. In addition, a stable and conjugative plasmid pSEVA341 with a high-copy number was constructed to contain a LacI(q)-Ptrc system for the inducible expression of multiple pathway genes. The Halomonas TD01 platform, was further engineered with its 2-methylcitrate synthase and three PHA depolymerases deleted within the chromosome, resulting in the production of the Halomonas TD08 strain. The overexpression of the threonine synthesis pathway and threonine dehydrogenase made the recombinant Halomonas TD08 able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) or PHBV consisting of 4-6 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate or 3 HV, from various carbohydrates as the sole carbon source. The overexpression of the cell division inhibitor MinCD during the cell growth stationary phase in Halomonas TD08 elongated its shape to become at least 1.4-fold longer than its original size, resulting in enhanced PHB accumulation from 69 wt% to 82 wt% in the elongated cells, further promoting gravity-induced cell precipitations that simplify the downstream processing of the biomass. The resulted Halomonas strains contributed to further reducing the PHA production cost.

  18. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  19. A simple, physically-based method for evaluating the economic costs of geo-engineering schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    The consumption of primary energy (e.g coal, oil, uranium) by the global economy is done in expectation of a return on investment. For geo-engineering schemes, however, the relationship between the primary energy consumption required and the economic return is, at first glance, quite different. The energy costs of a given scheme represent a removal of economically productive available energy to do work in the normal global economy. What are the economic implications of the energy consumption associated with geo-engineering techniques? I will present a simple thermodynamic argument that, in general, real (inflation-adjusted) economic value has a fixed relationship to the rate of global primary energy consumption. This hypothesis will be shown to be supported by 36 years of available energy statistics and a two millennia period of statistics for global economic production. What is found from this analysis is that the value in any given inflation-adjusted 1990 dollar is sustained by a constant 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts of global primary energy consumption. Thus, insofar as geo-engineering is concerned, any scheme that requires some nominal fraction of continuous global primary energy output necessitates a corresponding inflationary loss of real global economic value. For example, if 1% of global energy output is required, at today's consumption rates of 15 TW this corresponds to an inflationary loss of 15 trillion 1990 dollars of real value. The loss will be less, however, if the geo-engineering scheme also enables a demonstrable enhancement to global economic production capacity through climate modification.

  20. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; Sungsig Bang

    2015-01-01

    ...) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method...

  1. Engineering and cost comparison of three different all-dry cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, B.C.; Braun, D.J.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Wiles, L.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results of a detailed engineering and cost study of three different all-dry cooling systems to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for steam electric power plants are described. The three types of cooling systems considered were: state-of-the-art (SOA) dry cooling system; with a conventional surface condenser, and water used to condense the steam is passed through an induced mechanical draft, metal finned tube cooling tower; an advanced dry cooling system (PLASTIC) utilizing heat exchangers made of bare plastic tubes in the cooling tower; and an advanced dry cooling system utilizing ammonia as the coolant (NH/sub 3/). The NH/sub 3/ system differs from the SOA system in that ammonia is substituted for water as the intermediate fluid. Steam from the turbine is condensed by boiling ammonia in a condenser/reboiler; the ammonia vapor is condensed in an induced draft, metal finned tube heat exchanger and returned to the condenser/reboiler. The major conclusions drawn from this study are that: SOA systems offered by vendors are so near optimum in terms of heat exchanger unit geometry and configuration that there is little, if any, cost advantage to be gained by further study of SOA systems using wrap-on or extruded finned tubes other than in the selection of tube materials, materials compatibility, water quality control, or fin manufacturing methods; significant savings (34 percent) in incremental power production costs appear to be obtainable using NH/sub 3/ systems; and considerable savings (22 percent) can also be obtained with PLASTIC systems.

  2. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  3. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  4. On the Estimate Method of Construction Engineering Cost Based on the RS-GA-NNA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the low intelligent level and the low accuracy of valuation of civil architecture projects, we put forward in the study a constructional engineering assessment method based on Artificial Intelligence which taking advantage of data-calculation from rough set theory, genetic algorithm and neural network algorithm. First, the rough set theory is used to reduce the discrete attributes to optimize the input variables of BP neural network. And then use the global search feature of genetic algorithm to optimize the initial weight and the threshold value of BP neural network. The new algorithm covers both the global random search capability of genetic algorithm and the learning ability and robustness of neural network, thus the computational speed and accuracy have been more significantly improved than the traditional methods. To empirically analyze a case selected from a city in Hunan Province, the results show that the new algorithm model can rely on the engineering features, assess the construction costs scientifically and objectively and have high practical value.

  5. Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonassisi, Tonio; Istratov, Andrei A; Marcus, Matthew A; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Heald, Steven M; Weber, Eicke R

    2005-09-01

    As the demand for high-quality solar-cell feedstock exceeds supply and drives prices upwards, cheaper but dirtier alternative feedstock materials are being developed. Successful use of these alternative feedstocks requires that one rigorously control the deleterious effects of the more abundant metallic impurities. In this study, we demonstrate how metal nanodefect engineering can be used to reduce the electrical activity of metallic impurities, resulting in dramatic enhancements of performance even in heavily contaminated solar-cell material. Highly sensitive synchrotron-based measurements directly confirm that the spatial and size distributions of metal nanodefects regulate the minority-carrier diffusion length, a key parameter for determining the actual performance of solar-cell devices. By engineering the distributions of metal-impurity nanodefects in a controlled fashion, the minority-carrier diffusion length can be increased by up to a factor of four, indicating that the use of lower-quality feedstocks with proper controls may be a viable alternative to producing cost-effective solar cells.

  6. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Power Burst Facility (PER-620) Final End State and PBF Vessel Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. C. Culp

    2007-05-01

    Preparation of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, (DOE and EPA 1995) which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time critical removal action process as an approach for decommissioning. The scope of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is to evaluate alternatives and recommend a preferred alternative for the final end state of the PBF and the final disposal location for the PBF vessel.

  7. 谈工程造价的有效控制%On effective control over engineering cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红心

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the management status of current engineering cost, sums up some problems in the management, and points out some factual measures for controlling engineering cost effectively by doing will in signing contracts and paying attention to the cost control at the design stage, the construction stage, and the complete stage, so as to direct cost management personnel.%针对目前工程造价管理现状进行了分析,总结了存在的问题,并针对性的提出了有效控制工程造价的具体措施,包括搞好合同签订工作和做好设计阶段,施工阶段,竣工阶段的造价控制,对造价管理人员具有一定指导意义。

  8. Discussion on engineering project cost management%谈工程项目的成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊仙

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of cost management, combining with self working experience, the paper explores how to control engineering project cost management, describes controlling measures of labor cost, material cost and machine cost and administration cost, with a view to realize maximum profit under the premise of good construction project quality and rational schedule.%根据成本管理的定义,结合自身工作经验,对工程项目中如何进行成本管理进行了探讨,分别阐述了人、材、机直接费的控制措施及管理费的控制办法,以确保施工项目在质量优良、进度合理的前提下实现利润最大化。

  9. Validation of the Algorithms for Depot Exchangeable Repair and Modification Costs for NSNS and Engines for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    IDENTIFICATION OI 03 NOMENCLATURE . ITEM 012 03 PRICE. STANDARD INVENTORY 013 03 CODE. WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT 014 06 CODE. WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT. POSITIONS I TO...calculation of standard depot repair prices ( sales prices). Various knowledgeable Air Force personnel have noted that it is not unusual for an engine to be both...cost elements not used in calculation of standard depot repair prices (" sales prices"). ISI affirms the congruence of the definitions of repair prices as

  10. Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

    2013-01-01

    Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

  11. Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

    2013-01-01

    Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

  12. Engineering Cost Management under Building Energy Efficiency%建筑节能下的工程造价管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宏

    2015-01-01

    From building energy efficiency and the present situation of project cost management as well as the existing problems, the article analyzes building energy efficiency's influence on engineering cost, and puts forward some reform measures in project cost management to adapt to the energy conservation requirements.%本文从建筑节能和工程造价管理的现状以及存在的问题入手,分析了建筑节能对工程造价的影响,并提出了适应节能要求的工程造价管理改革措施。

  13. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology

  14. What is the cost per millimetre? Challenging traditional GNSS equipment for precise geosciences and engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, William; Boreham, Nicholas; Benedetti, Elisa; Roberts, William

    2017-04-01

    Surveyors, civil and geotechnical engineers are the typical users of professional grade GNSS receiver that is capable of achieving positioning accuracies of sub-centimetre and navigation accuracies of 1-2cm. When choosing the equipment for their needs, they are often faced with a dilemma with each additional frequency, constellation and feature coming at a cost, resulting in professional GNSS equipment being regarded as high-priced specialist equipment. Indeed there are many users that have discounted GNSS on the grounds that it is too expensive and too operationally complex to warrant purchase. Having identified this situation, Nottingham Scientific Ltd (NSL) set about the development of equipment that would break down this barrier making high accuracy GNSS affordable to new users and applications and more cost effective to existing users. NSL created "STICK" which is a single frequency, multi-constellation, IMU-integrated GNSS sensor for precise movement detection of the natural and built environments and infrastructures, at approximately 1/20th of the price of a professional grade GNSS system. STICK has been developed within the context of three European Space Agency (ESA) Integrated Applications Programme Demonstration projects that use space assets to monitor the land stability and the status of different types of infrastructure, each with its own operational challenges. However through the careful selection of components, the implementation of certain operational constraints and the use of advanced statistical data processing, sub-centimetre positioning can be achieved for monitoring purposes. This paper describes STICK, the applications for which it has been developed, and the environments within which it is operating. We then explore the performance by directly comparing STICK to geodetic GNSS receivers setup in an operational, test bed environment. This test bed allows the receivers/antennas to be subjected to a three-dimensional displacement in the order

  15. 卫星成本风险分析与评估%Risk Analyzing and Evaluating of Satellite Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一军; 王兆耀; 钱进

    2001-01-01

    Satellite engineering is a large-scale and complicated system engineer ing with longtime span, and varied indeterminate factors bring on very high risk of cost. It′s quite a problem to be solved urgently in the management of satel l ite developing that how the risk of satellite engineering cost can be evaluated effectively. It starts with analyzing the uncertainty of satellite cost and existed risk analysis methods, then on the base of it put forward a practica l and improved method adapted to the risk management of satellite cost. Finally this article presents the principle and method of reducing and controlling the r isk of cost.%从卫星成本不确定性分析入手,在已有的风险分析方法的基础上,针对卫星成本风险 管理的特点,提出了实用的改进方法,给出了降低和控制成本风险的原则和方法。

  16. 工程项目成本管理分析%Analysis of Engineering Project Cost Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵育成

    2011-01-01

    Engineering project cost management is the forecast,control,accounting,analysis and assessment management work of the engineering construction enterprise to control project cost control within the cost objectives.Its core is control in advance and the key process is control.This paper discusses the project cost control points of engineering project cost management and improves the project cost management level from five aspects that the project cost management system construction,outstanding precontrol,clear responsibility,and tight control of process and performance hook.In the premise of meeting the project period,quality and safety,we can maximize profits through the implementation of the project cost management.%工程项目成本管理,是施工企业为使工程项目成本控制在成本目标之内所进行的预测、控制、核算、分析和考核等管理工作。其核心是事前预先控制,关键是过程控制。此文从项目成本管理的体系构建、突出预控、明晰责任、严控过程、绩效挂钩5个方面,论述工程项目成本管理的控制要点,以提高项目成本管理水平。在满足项目工期、质量和安全的前提下,通过实施项目成本管理实现利润最大化。

  17. A Better Engineering Design: Low Cost Assistance Kit for Manual Wheelchair Users with Enhanced Obstacle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryvendra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a better engineering design of an assistance kit for manual wheelchair users. The design is aimed to enhance the detection of obstacles in the travelling path of the wheelchair user at low cost. This is facilitated by microcontroller and sensor technologies. The proposed design provides the intended user with obstacle detection, light detection, a light emitting diode (LED emergency light system, and an emergency alarm system. The microcontroller is the main controller that receives input from the sensors and produces output to the light crystal display (LCD screen, the LED emergency light system, and the emergency alarm system. An ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the presence of obstacles directly behind the wheelchair. If any obstacle exists behind the wheelchair within a set range, the system will alert the wheelchair user through different alarm sounds. In the case of absence of light, the LED emergency light system is activated and turns on a light source, which is attached to the wheelchair to provide a bright and clear path for the user. The distance between the obstacle and the wheelchair, and the status of the LED emergency light system are displayed on the LCD screen.

  18. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (233-S Facility) is located in the 200 Area. The facility has undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. A rapid freeze and thaw cycle occurred at the Hanford Site during February 1996, which caused cracking to occur on portions of the building`s roof. This has resulted in significantly infiltration of water into the facility, which provides a pathway for potential release of radioactive material into the environment (air and/or ground). The weather caused several existing cracks in the concrete portions of the structure to lengthen, increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred, causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure thus creating a potential for release of radioactive material t the environment. An expedited removal action is proposed to ensure that a release from the 233-S Facility does not occur. The US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), in cooperation with the EPA, has prepared this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) pursuant to CERCLA. Based on the evaluation, RL has determined that hazardous substances in the 233-S Facility may present a potential threat to human health and/or the environment, and that an expedited removal action is warranted. The purpose of the EE/CA is to provide the framework for the evaluation and selection of a technology from a viable set of alternatives for a removal action.

  19. Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

  20. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

  1. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  2. Discussion on engineering cost status and stage management%谈工程造价的现状与阶段管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星魁

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the development status of domestic engineering cost,points out problems existing in current domestic engineering cost,and describes the management points of engineering cost at various phases,so as to promote the development of domestic engineering cost and to improve the stage management level of engineering cost.%对我国工程造价的发展现状进行了简要分析,指出了目前国内工程造价存在的问题,阐述了工程造价各阶段的管理要点,以期促进我国工程造价的发展,提高工程造价的阶段管理水平。

  3. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  4. 基于经济成本控制的工程造价管理研究%Study of engineering cost management based on economic cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽凤; 禚新伦

    2015-01-01

    本文首先对工程造价管理进行概述,其次全面分析介绍了影响工程造价的直接因素和间接因素(人工费、材料费、机械设备费用、环保安全费用等).施工前需要对工程造价进行整体性经济评估,将其中的潜在风险因素充分考虑进去.施工过程中,需采取措施对影响造价成本的因素进行有效控制(如员工的日常安全环保教育培训,领导及员工时刻树立节能降耗的观念).通过上述措施,以期为经济成本控制工程造价管理研究的实施起到推广作用.%This article first overview of the construction cost, secondly introduces the direct and indirect factors affected the project cost (labor charges, materials expenses, machinery and equipment cost, environmental safety cost, etc.). Before the construction, economic evaluation of project cost is needed. During the construction process, we should take measures to control the influencing factors of construction cost,such as daily safety environmental education, keep the idea of saving energy and reducing consumption. With these measures, it will promote the project of cost management research of engineering project.

  5. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  6. Analysis of the Effective Control of the Pipeline Engineering Cost%试析管线工程造价的有效控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline engineering cost control is an important content of engineering cost management. In order to effect-tively control the pipeline cost, the author introduces the pipeline engineering cost and pipeline engineering cost control measures and hope to be able to put forward effective sugge-stions to improve the pipeline project cost control.%管线工程造价控制是工程造价管理的一项重要内容,为了能够有效地进行管线造价控制,笔者介绍了管线工程造价以及管线工程造价的具体控制措施,希望能够为提高管线工程造价控制提出有效的建议。

  7. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  8. On cost management of engineering construction programs%谈工程施工项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯三斌

    2012-01-01

    结合工程项目成本控制现状,从项目成本管理的组织要求、成本管理工作内容、前期成本预测、项目成本过程控制等方面进行了全面论述,并提出了自己的看法,从而完善项目成本管理体系,实现成本的有效控制。%Combining with the cost control status of the engineering programs, the study has the full-sided indication from the organization requirements of the program cost management, the work content of the cost management, the cost forecasting in primary period, and the process control over the program cost, and points out some opinions, so as to improve the cost management system of the program and to realize the effective control over the cost.

  9. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  10. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  11. Discussion on the effective control of highway engineering cost%谈公路工程造价的有效控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙泽军

    2012-01-01

    阐述了勘察设计阶段的公路工程造价影响因素和主要控制措施及工程施工成本的管理措施,分析了目前公路工程造价管理的问题及改进对策,并提出了全过程一体化造价管理理念,以实现公路工程造价的有效控制。%This paper elaborated the influence factors and main control measures of highway engineering cost and the management measures of engineering construction cost in survey and design stage, analyzed the problems and countermeasures of current highway engineering cost management, and put forward cost management concept of whole process integration, in order to realize the effective control of highway engineering cost.

  12. A System Dynamics Model for Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of USAF Engineering Officer Compensation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    the best available data on the Air Force’s engineering manpower requirements. The "Compared to Russia" Shortage. Another criterio which could be used...development engineer officer forces resulting from alternative retention policies. 218 Vita Kenneth L. Williams was born on 4 August 1949 in Atlanta , Georgia

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE ENGINEERING FOR ENERGY AND COST-EFFICIENT GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin

    Software product line engineering (SPLE) has shown promising results with respect to software reuse and has a wide range of benefits. Thus, we want to investigate the applicability of SPLE to develop tools for improving the energy and cost-efficiency of greenhouse production in Denmark...... control concept, called DynaLight, which reduces the energy consumption and cost by optimizing the use of the supplementary light in greenhouses. As the DynaLight concept can be used to analyze, plan and control production, a tool suite has to be developed. The need for developing multiple tools...... context especially with respect to small teams, it reports on the experience and describes the application in a detailed and tangible way. It describes the development process, the results of the tools with respect to cost and energy-efficiency, how component-based architecture is utilized as software...

  14. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better

  15. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix E: Cost estimation and economic evaluation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The cost estimation and economic evaluation methodologies presented are consistent with industry practice for assessing capital investment requirements and operating costs of coal conversion systems. All values stated are based on January, 1980 dollars with appropriate recognition of the time value of money. Evaluation of project economic feasibility can be considered a two step process (subject to considerable refinement). First, the costs of the project must be quantified and second, the price at which the product can be manufacturd must be determined. These two major categories are discussed. The summary of methodology is divided into five parts: (1) systems costs, (2)instant plant costs, (3) annual operating costs, (4) escalation and discounting process, and (5) product pricing.

  16. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  17. On costs management of engineering programs%谈工程项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俊芝

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the contents for the costs of the construction programs and the aims for the costs management of programs,from the steps of construction program costs management,the paper indicates the costs forecasting of the construction programs,the costs plans,the costs control,the costs settlement and the cost analysis,so as to improve the management methods for the program costs and to make enterprises be invincible.%结合施工项目成本包含的内容及项目成本管理的目标,从施工项目成本管理的环节入手,对施工项目成本预测、成本计划、成本控制、成本核算及成本分析等作了论述,以期完善项目成本管理方法,使企业在竞争中立于不败之地。

  18. Risk Simulation Modeling of Engineering Cost Based on MATLAB/SIMULINK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on MATLAB/SIMULINK, the paper has proposed cost risk simulation models separately in accordance with the circumstances of correlation and independence between the influential factors of cost risk. The mean, variance and the risk level under the above-mentioned two circumstances have also been compared with a case study. Also the sensitivity analysis of cost risk has been probed into. The result indicates that the model which takes into account correlation is more objective, and the model which ignores the circumstance of correlation normally underestimates the risk level of project cost.

  19. Value Analysis of Engine Maintenance Scheduling relative to Fuel Burn and Minimal Operating Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Van der Zwan, F.M.; Ouwehand, A.; Ghijs, S.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study in collaboration with an airline that looked at modeling the relationship of maintenance and fuel burn costs relative to minimizing the life cycle cost relative to schedule. The work has verified that the bucket theory presented in the paper is a correct a

  20. Integrated Model-Based Controls and PHM for Improving Turbine Engine Performance, Reliability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    actuators) as well as control logic and new architectures . Also, control engineers will have to work closely with hardware designers to take advantage of...Similarly, within engine systems themselves, it is becoming necessary to shift toward distributed control architectures to enable weight-neutral...Paulitsch, Michael, “Model-Based Development And The Implications To Design Assurance And Certification”, 0- 7803-9307, IEEE, 2005. MVC , PSC, MPC 7

  1. Research on Engineering Cost Management Measures%工程造价管理措施探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明

    2016-01-01

    工程造价管理不当不但会浪费资金浪费,还会浪费社会资源。尤其原材料价格不断上涨,必然会影响工程建设的总造价。在这种形势下,怎样对工程造价进行合理管理与控制,将工程造价增长速度控制在可控范围内,是目前建设工程的重要课题。本文就以某变电工程作为研究实例,分析该工程的造价管理存在的问题,并有针对性提出强化管理的措施建议。%Improper engineering cost management is not only a waste of money, but also a waste of social resources. In particular, rising prices of raw materials, will inevitably affect the total cost of construction projects. In this situation, how to manage and control the project cost reasonably, and to control the growth rate of the project cost in the controllable range, is an important subject of the current construction project. This paper, taking a substation project as an example, analyzes the project cost management problems, and puts forward the measures and suggestions for strengthening management.

  2. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  3. The Application of BIM Technology in Engineering Cost%BIM技术在工程造价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小烈

    2016-01-01

    The Application and promotion of BIM technology plays a crucial role for the sustainable and healthy development of construction industry, it also enhances the project lean management, reduce the waste and save the cost and promote the overall improvement of engineering benefits. How to make full use of the BIM technology to promoting the sustainable development of the engineering cost industry is worth each project cost professionals thinking and in-depth study.%BIM技术的应用和推广对建筑业的可持续健康发展起到至关重要的作用,同时可极大提高项目的精益化管理程度,减少浪费、节约成本、促进工程效益的整体提升。如何利用好BIM技术促进工程造价行业的可持续发展,对于每一位从业者都是值得思考和深入研究的问题。

  4. Low-Cost High-Performance Non-Toxic Self-Pressurizing Storable Liquid Bi-Propellant Pressure-Fed Rocket Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum proposes a high-performance liquid bi-propellant rocket engine that uses propellants that are non-toxic, self-pressurizing, and low cost. The proposed...

  5. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  6. Systems lifecycle cost-effectiveness the commercial, design and human factors of systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to minimize expenditure and provide value for money from reduced resources means that complex projects have to encompass a wide range of often conflicting issues and interests. Systems Lifecycle Cost-Effectiveness shows how to manage the difficulties that can arise. Massimo Pica presents a variety of models for calculating cost, benefits and risk in projects, and explains how the human factors associated with a system's design and consequent value are as important as the technical costs associated with its construction or creation. This comprehensive text can be used by students,

  7. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix D: Cost and economic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The detailed cost estimate documentation for the designs prepared in this study are presented. The include: (1) Koppers-Totzek, (2) Texaco (3) Babcock and Wilcox, (4) BGC-Lurgi, and (5) Lurgi. The alternate product cost estimates include: (1) Koppers-Totzek and Texaco single product facilities (methane, methanol, gasoline, hydrogen), (2) Kopers-Totzek SNG and MBG, (3) Kopers-Totzek and Texaco SNG and MBG, and (4) Lurgi-methane and Lurgi-methane and methanol.

  8. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": first-year activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG

  9. Recent advances in design of low cost film concentrator and low pressure free piston Stirling engines for solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwaechter, J.; Kleinwaechter, H.; Beale, W.

    1984-03-01

    The free piston Stirling-linear alternator was shown to be scalable to power levels of tens of kilowatts in a form which is simple, efficient, long lived and relatively inexpensive. It avoids entirely the vexing problem of high pressure shaft, and its control requirements are not severe nor do they represent a significant threat to durability. Linear alternators have demonstrated high efficiency and moderate weight, and are capable of delivering 3 phase power from single machines without great increases of cost or complexity. There remains no apparent impediments to the commercial exploitation of the free piston engine for solar electric power generation.

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Assessment of Ergonomic Interventions Effects: Case Study Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammad faam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: In Economic and competitive world today,cost-benefit analysis is one of the most important parameters for any intervention.The purpose of thisstudy was cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions effects in Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company. Methods:At first all workstations of the company assessed using QEC. Thenthose earned more than 70% in QEC assessed by OWAS. By analyzing the results of these two methods, the “Haarp welding” workstation selected as the critical one. After presentation of possible solutions in specialized committee, the final solution selected and cost-benefit analysis done by CyberManS tool. Finally after implementing the intervention workstation reassessed. Findings:The results of the survey showed that the final score of assessment using QEC, OWAS and NASA-TLX before the intervention was 84.7%, 3 and 75.4, respectively and after the intervention was 47.5%, 1 and 42.7 that witnesses a significant reduction in all three methods of assessment. Also the result of cost-benefit analysis by CyberManS showed that by spending 110 million rials after 1.5 years the investment returned and profitability initiated. Conclusion:In addition to reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic interventions have financial benefits by increasing the productivity and production, reducing the compensation and the lost work days can also cause financial benefits.

  11. Engineering costs proxy models for China rural access network and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yun-jin; ZHOU Huang-jia; XIN Zhan-hong; SUN Hong-bin

    2007-01-01

    The article builds three engineering rural access network models that describe the structure of network elements and their relative engineering parameters for cable access、synchronous code division multiple access (SCDMA), and very small aperture terminal (VSAT) access technologies in the rural areas of China. Of the three access technologies, cable access and SCDMA access are the most popular access technologies. Besides, there still exist some remote special areas such as western mountain areas, whose natural environment is so bad that VSAT becomes the unique economical access way. Fully considering rural areas' geographical environments' impact, the article introduces geographical revised factor (GRF) to the models. By substituting the network data from the operators into the models, the article obtains the integrated networking values and does further researches on different access networks.

  12. What has led the automotive industry to offshore engineering services to low cost countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, Steve; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review of this ......This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review...... of this area and present a case study of a global multinational premium automotive organization with headquarters in Germany. The findings showed that an outsourced offshore delivery center is multi-dimensional and difficult to manage when faced with such complexity.The case company decided to outsource again...... to a specialized third party, also with headquarters in Germany, to minimize complexity. This paper adds to theoretical knowledge in the field by expanding on existing research in diversified areas and gives practitioners insights into why the premium automotive organization outsourced offshore, what the drivers...

  13. A Quantitative Methodology for Mapping Project Costs to Engineering Decisions in Naval Ship Design and Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Table 4-3 Material Yield Strength Material Yield Strength (TSI) Mild Steel 16.51786 High Strength Steel 20.98214 HY80 29.01786 Aluminum 5454 7.14286...mild steel to Eglass / Kevlar sandwich. In order to come up with an adequate input for the ANN, instead of documenting cost changes based on a...Values Parameter Monohull Catamaran Structural Material Type Mild Steel Mild Steel Ship Armament Minimum Military Minimum Military Ship Beam 60 Feet 90

  14. Analysis of Adverse Selection for Motivation Mechanism in Engineering Project Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yiyong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available When the principal-agent contracts for design, supervision and construction of an engineering project are signed, the agent and the principal have hidden information. By means of tendering and negotiation, etc., it selects an agent offering a lower quotation which leads to “Bad money drives out good”, that is, commonly termed adverse selection problem. This study starts from the discussion of adverse selection and introduces a motivation mechanism to motivate the agent to exert initiative strategies more efficiently so that the agent can expose its hidden information automatically. The study also analyzes the project principal-agent strategies and finally uses a calculation example to demonstrate that the motivation mechanism in this study is efficient in inducing the agent to tell the truth, which aids the principal in selecting an agent with higher operational level.

  15. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  16. Analysis on the Cost of Installation Engineering%对建筑安装工程造价的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正喜

    2014-01-01

    随着经济的不断发展,高层建筑承包市场竞争日益激烈。施工企业为了能够对利益进行最大化实现,应该要加强建筑质量和技术。本文主要对当前建筑安装工程的造价问题进行了分析,并提出了有效的解决措施。%With the continuous development of the economy, contractors are in increasingly fierce competition in the market of high-rise building. In order to maximize the realization of interests, the enterprises should strengthen the construction qu- ality and technology. In this paper, the author mainly analyzed the main problems of the cost of instalation engineering, and put forward effective measures.

  17. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 1 - Design and realisation of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment for civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Persico, Raffaele; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 1 "Novel Ground Penetrating Radar instrumentation" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.cost.eu, www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the Action, which started in April 2013 and is ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG1 include: 1. The state of the art on GPR systems and antennas was composed; merits and limits of current GPR systems in civil engineering applications were highlighted and open issues were identified. 2. The Action investigated the new challenge of inferring mechanical (strength and deformation) properties of flexible pavement from electromagnetic data. A semi-empirical method was developed by an Italian research team and tested over an Italian test site: a good agreement was found between the values measured by using a light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) and the values estimated by using the proposed semi-empirical method, thereby showing great promises for large-scale mechanical inspections of pavements using GPR. Subsequently, the method was tested on a real scale, on an Italian road in the countryside: again, a good agreement between LFWD and GPR data was achieved. As a third step, the method was tested at larger scale, over three different road sections within the districts of Madrid and Guadalajara, in Spain: GPR surveys were carried out at the speed of traffic for a total of 39 kilometers, approximately; results were collected by using different GPR antennas

  18. Engineering IT-enabled sustainable electricity services the tale of two low-cost green Azores Islands

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Le; Liu, Qixing

    2013-01-01

    Engineering IT-Enabled Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands covers sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative sources. The “Green Islands” project represents a decade of work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources. The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).  Sited on two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute, coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy, fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources available. This contributed volume presents methods for predicting variable resources, such as wind power generation, and analyzes the achievable accuracy of these predictions. Throughout this book, contributors sho...

  19. 建筑安装工程造价的影响因素和控制措施%Building installation engineering cost influencing factors and control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing current building installation engineering project cost problems,the paper studies effective methods of controlling building installation engineering project cost from aspects of project design,tender,completion settlement and personnel management,with a view to effectively solving building engineering project installation cost problem.%通过分析当前建筑安装工程项目造价出现的问题,从项目设计、招投标、竣工结算、人员管理等环节研究了有效控制管理建筑安装工程项目造价的手段,以期有效解决建筑工程项目安装造价的问题。

  20. Discussion on the influence of project decision making to engineering cost%谈项目决策对工程造价的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超越

    2016-01-01

    论述了建筑工程中项目决策阶段的重要性,介绍了项目决策的主要内容,结合工程实例,分析了项目决策对工程造价的影响,提出了项目决策阶段进行工程造价控制的策略。%This paper discussed the importance of project decision making phase in construction engineering,introduced the main contents of pro-ject decision making,combining with the engineering examples,analyzed the influence of project decision to engineering cost,put forward the strategies of engineering cost control in project decision making phase.

  1. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  2. Design the Cost Approach in Trade-Off's for Structural Components, Illustrated on the Baseline Selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolloni, L.; Juhls, A.; Rieck, U.

    2002-01-01

    Designing for value is one of the very actual upcoming methods for design optimization, which broke into the domain of aerospace engineering in the late 90's. In the frame of designing for value two main design philosophies exist: Design For Cost and Design To Cost. Design To Cost is the iterative redesign of a project until the content of the project meets a given budget. Designing For Cost is the conscious use of engineering process technology to reduce life cycle cost while satisfying, and hopefully exceeding, customer demands. The key to understanding cost, and hence to reducing cost, is the ability to measure cost accurately and to allocate it appropriately to products. Only then can intelligent decisions be made. Therefore the necessity of new methods as "Design For Value" or "Design For Competitiveness", set up with a generally multidisciplinary approach to find an optimized technical solution driven by many parameters, depending on the mission scenario and the customer/market needs. Very often three, but not more than five parametric drivers are sufficient. The more variable exist, the higher is in fact the risk to find just a sub-optimized local and not the global optimum, and the less robust is the found solution against change of input parameters. When the main parameters for optimization have been identified, the system engineer has to communicate them to all design engineers, who shall take care of these assessment variables during the entire design and decision process. The design process which has taken to the definition of the feasible structural concepts for the Engine Thrust Frame of the Ariane 5 Upper Cryogenic Stage ESC-B follows these most actual design philosophy methodologies, and combines a design for cost approach, to a design to cost optimization loop. Ariane 5 is the first member of a family of heavy-lift launchers. It aims to evolve into a family of launchers that responds to the space transportation challenges of the 21st century. New

  3. On the Efficient Competitive Tender of Coal Mine Engineering Cost%煤矿工程造价竞标的高效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康铁钢

    2015-01-01

    本文在分析和研究煤矿工程造价的基础上,介绍了其含义与职能,并进一步探讨了煤矿工程造价竞标的意义和作用。%This paper analyzes and researches coal mine engineering cost, introduces the meaning and functions of it and further expounds the significance and effect of the competitive tender of coal mine engineering cost.

  4. Low-Cost Production of Composite Bushings for Jet Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this research program were to reduce the manufacturing costs of variable stator vane bushings by 1) eliminating the expensive carbon fiber braiding operation, 2) replacing the batch mode impregnation, B-stage, and cutting operations with a continuous process, and 3) reducing the molding cycle and machining operations with injection molding to achieve near-net shapes. Braided bushings were successfully fabricated with both AMB-17XLD and AMB-TPD resin systems. The composite bushings achieved high glass transition temperature after post-cure (+300 C) and comparable weight loss to the PNM-15 bushings. ANM-17XLD bushings made with "batch-mode" molding compound (at 0.5 in. fiber length) achieved a +300 lb-force flange break strength which was superior to the continuous braided-fiber reinforced bushing. The non-MDA resin technology developed in this contract appears attractive for bushing applications that do not exceed a 300 C use temperature. Two thermoplastic polyimide resins were synthesized in order to generate injection molding compound powders. Excellent processing results were obtained at injection temperatures in excess of 300 C. Micro-tensile specimens were produced from each resin type and the Tg measurements (by TMA) for these samples were equivalent to AURUM(R). Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) conducted at 10 C/min showed that the non-MDA AMB-type polyimide thermoplastics had comparable weight loss to PMR-15 up to 500 C.

  5. How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit

  6. Brief Discussion on Visual Management of Engineering Project Cost%浅析工程项目成本可视化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晨阳

    2012-01-01

    工程项目在企业经营中发挥着越来越重要的主导作用,然而却存在着项目成本管理粗放、成本控制不到位等问题。针对目前公路市场现状,以项目成本管理得失为例,提出项目成本可视化管理模式。%Though engineering project plays a more and more important leading role in business operation, problems still exist, such as extensive project cost management and lack of cost management. Based on the current situation of highway market and taking gain and loss of project cost management as an example, visual management of engineering project cost is put forward.

  7. A Brief Study on how to Control Direct Engineering Cost%浅析如何控制直接工程费

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 单雪丽; 吕少琳; 朱蔚蔚

    2012-01-01

    In terms of labor cost,material cost and construction machine cost,this paper analyzed measures of controlling direct engineering cost and proposed relative suggestions,which could provide references for construction unit in improving the efficiency of engineering funds.%本文从人工费、材料费和施工机械使用费三方面分析了控制直接工程费用的措施,并提出了相关的建议和方法,对工程施工单位提高工程资金的使用效益,具有一定的参考价值。

  8. 精益物流视角下的工程项目成本创新管理%A Lean Perspective for Engineering Project Cost Innovation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼

    2011-01-01

    从精益物流的视角出发,首先分析了当前工程项目成本管理方面存在的诸多问题,并通过把精益物流的思想渗入工程项目的成本管理研究,提出了成本创新管理的措施,以推进工程项目的成本管理走向精益化管理的道路.%The paper first analyzes the problems in the current engineering project cost management practices against the standard of lean logistics, then integrates project cost management researches with lean principles, and puts forward measures of the innovation of cost management to direct engineering project cost management toward a greater lean consciousness.

  9. 论高速公路路基工程施工项目成本管理%Discussion on highway subgrade engineering construction project cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建祥

    2016-01-01

    简述了高速公路路基工程施工中成本管理的必要性,针对路基施工中成本管理的现状,从树立成本管理理念、建立信息系统、使用作业成本法三方面,阐述了成本管理的策略,以提升公路项目的成本管理水平。%The paper discusses the necessity of cost management in highway subgrade engineering construction. In light of cost management status in subgrade construction,starting from three aspects of establishing cost management concept,establishing information system and using operation cost method,it describes cost management strategies,with a view to improve highway project cost management level.

  10. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the

  11. Using Multi-Robot Systems for Engineering Education: Teaching and Outreach with Large Numbers of an Advanced, Low-Cost Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLurkin, J.; Rykowski, J.; John, M.; Kaseman, Q.; Lynch, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of using an advanced, low-cost robot in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. It presents three innovations: It is a powerful, cheap, robust, and small advanced personal robot; it forms the foundation of a problem-based learning curriculum; and it enables a novel multi-robot…

  12. Using Multi-Robot Systems for Engineering Education: Teaching and Outreach with Large Numbers of an Advanced, Low-Cost Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLurkin, J.; Rykowski, J.; John, M.; Kaseman, Q.; Lynch, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of using an advanced, low-cost robot in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. It presents three innovations: It is a powerful, cheap, robust, and small advanced personal robot; it forms the foundation of a problem-based learning curriculum; and it enables a novel multi-robot…

  13. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the act

  14. 建筑安装工程造价全过程控制%The Whole Process Control of Engineering Cost of Construction and Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学广

    2014-01-01

    The construction and instalation engineering occu- pies an important position in the construction project, so its co- st control in engineering is the core work. Therefore, it has im- portant significance to study the cost control in whole process of construction and instalation engineering for controlling the cost of construction project.%建筑安装工程在建设项目工程中占据重要地位,建筑安装工程的全过程造价控制在工程中是比较核心的工作。因此,研究建筑安装工程全过程的造价控制对控制整个建筑工程的造价具有重要意义。

  15. The Forecast and Control of Engineering Project Cost Management%关于工程项目成本管理的预测和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾振宇

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this article analyzes the eng-ineering project cost management process, and the second part discusses the specific content of engineering project manage-ment in detail, and the third part put forward the pre-control improvement measures. The author further explores the impor-tant role of engineering project cost management pre-control in the construction enterprises profit.%本文第一部分分析了工程项目成本管理过程,第二部分详细论述了工程项目管理的具体内容,第三部分提出了预控改善的措施。进一步探究工程项目成本管理的预控在施工企业实现盈利中的重要作用。

  16. Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for state-delayed system with disturbance and its application to engine idle speed control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihu WU; Run PEI

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a delay-dependent guaranteed cost control scheme for engine idle speed control (ISC) with induction-to-torque delay and external load disturbance.An augmented linearization model of engine at idle speed operating mode was developed based on physical principle and experiment data.To provide a compromise between disturbance rejection and other performance requirements of ISC,a multi-objective cost function upper bound was given,which can help us to take into account the fuel economy and disturbance rejection performance together in ISC.Poles constraint was added to the closed-loop system to guarantee convergence rates of state.The whole optimization solution to ISC can be solved under the framework of LMI.A commercial engine model was utilized to assess the performance of the controller.Simulation results on this model show us that designed controller can achieve desired performance.

  17. 建筑装饰工程造价管理与控制研究%Research on Cost Management and Control in Architectural Decoration Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀亭

    2012-01-01

    Cost management in decoration engineering is a new task in construction management.Through analyzing the present situation of cost management in decoration engineering,the paper proposes some measures about cost control management from five aspects,including markets administration,design,tender,construction and project settlement.%装饰工程造价管理是建设管理面临的新课题。通过分析装饰工程造价管理的现状,从装饰工程市场管理、设计、招标、施工、结算五个方面提出装饰工程造价管理与控制的措施。

  18. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Application of Mathematics Method in Engineering Project Cost Management%数学方法在工程项目成本管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解德元

    2012-01-01

    Project cost management is one of the important contents of project management. On the basis of descri- bing the cost structure, engineering project cost management and relevant features, this article discuss the application of mathematics method in project cost management: with the earned value method in the construction of a comparative analysis of the relevant time quantity and quantity node complete plan, the actual costs and the cost difference plans, in order to take effective control measures; With regression measuring method of Labour cost, so as to effectively control Labour costs. And the value engineering in project cost management application was introduced.%成本管理是工程项目管理的重要内容之一。此文在阐述工程成本构成、项目成本管理及有关特点的基础上,论述数学方法在项目成本管理中的应用:用赢得值法对比分析项目施工中有关时间节点完成5工程量与计划工程量、实际成本支出与计划成本支出的差异,以便采取有效的控制措施;用回归法测算人工费成本,以有效控制人工费成本支出。并对价值工程在项目成本管理中的应用进行介绍。

  20. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  1. Would Consolidation of Army Software Engineering Organizations Help to Control Software Costs for Current and Future Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-16

    Development and Engineering Center; Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC); and Tank and Automotive Research, Development and...specializes in specific Army domains and programs—aviation and missile, communications and electronics, armaments, tank and automotive . In fiscal year...Sustaining engineering o Product fielding and user support o Regression testing • Efficiencies are needed to cope with workload . AMC Software Support

  2. Experience with integrally-cast compressor and turbine components for a small, low-cost, expendable-type turbojet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion regarding experiences with integrally-cast compressor and turbine components during fabrication and testing of four engine assemblies of a small (29 cm (11-1/2 in.) maximum diameter) experimental turbojet engine design for an expendable application is presented. Various operations such as metal removal, welding, and re-shaping of these components are performed in preparation of full-scale engine tests. Engines with these components have been operated for a total of 157 hours at engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and at turbine inlet temperatures as high as 1256 K (1800 F).

  3. 浅谈合同管理对工程造价的有效管控%Effective Management and Control of Contract Management for Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耘可; 张峰

    2013-01-01

      工程造价管理是对建设项目投资实施全过程的管理、控制与监督。工程合同作为工程造价的重要依据,是工程造价控制的基础。合理确定和有效控制工程造价,最大限度的提高投资效益是工程造价的最根本目的。其控制的主要手段,就是根据有效的计价依据,对项目内容和过程进行计价。%Engineering cost management is the whole-process management, control and supervision of investment of construction project. Engineering contracts as an important basis for project cost is the basis for project cost control. Reasonably determinating and effectively controlling project cost, and increasing investment efficiency is the most fundamental goal of project cost. Its primary means of control is based on a valid basis for the valuation and pricing of the project content and process.

  4. 公路养护工程造价影响因素评价研究%Research on Influence Factors Evaluation of Highway Maintenance Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 顾剑

    2014-01-01

    the present situation of highway maintenance engineering cost technology at home and abroad was investigated and analyzed,and through studying on the influence of pavement performance, maintenance standards,and road characteristics on highway maintenance engineering cost,the change trend of maintenance cost with different influence factors was obtained,and the quantitative relationship between different road characteristics and daily maintenance cost was make out,providing the theory basis for reasonable cost planning and arrangement later.%通过调查分析国内外公路养护工程造价技术现状,深入研究路面使用性能、养护标准,以及路段特点对公路养护工程造价的影响,得到养护费用随不同影响因素的变化趋势,并确定出不同路段特点与日常养护费用间的定量关系,为公路工程养护费用合理规划与安排提供了理论依据。

  5. Cost Management for Large Weak Current Engineering Project%大型弱电工程项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗富琨

    2014-01-01

    弱电项目成本管理和其它专业的成本管理虽然相似,但是又有其自身特点。本文结合上海市政府浦东集中办公点弱电工程中采取的部分成本管理措施,与大家作个探讨。%Cost management of weak current project may be similar with that of other engineering projects, it still has its own characteristics in the weak current domain. Setting some measures taken by Shanghai Municipal Government′s Pudong Centralized Office in its weak current engineering cost management for example, the article will discuss with you in detail.

  6. Problems in Civil Engineering Cost Management and Measures%土建工程造价管理存在的问题及措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮立娟

    2014-01-01

    At present, accompanied by an expansion of the scale in civil engineering and construction, civil engineering cost management has gradually been put on the agenda. This paper discusses the main problems in cost management in the current period, and puts forward the corresponding measures to solve the problem accordingly.%现阶段,伴随土木建筑工程规模的日益扩大,土建工程的造价管理逐渐被提上议事日程。本文主要针对当前一个时期内造价管理的主要问题进行论述,据此提出相应的解决问题的措施。

  7. 工程量清单计价模式下的工程造价管理%Engineering cost management under the BOQ mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文丽

    2014-01-01

    对在工程量清单计价模式下,工程造价管理工作中现存的问题进行了分析研究,并提出了提高工程造价管理工作水平的主要措施,以实现经济效益的最大化,推动国内建设市场健康、有序、稳定地发展。%The paper analyzes and studies current engineering cost management problems under the BOQ mode,puts forward major measures of improving engineering cost management level,with a view to realize maximum economic benefits and to promote domestic construction market de-velopment healthy,orderly and stable.

  8. 工程造价管理现状的分析与解决措施%The present situation of engineering cost management analysis and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬丽芳

    2016-01-01

    建设工程造价是指某项工程建设所花费的全部费用,即该建设项目有计划地进行固定资产再生产和形成相应的无形资产和铺底流动资金的一次性费用总和。它不仅与工程内容有关系,还与地区的经济发展速度、建设者的管理与技术水平、国家和当地政府的政策等存在着紧密的联系。对于建筑施工行业而言,科学合理的工程造价对于施工企业而言更加重要。工程造价的计价与控制水平随着现代企业管理水平的提升也在不断发展,根据当前工程造价管理中的现状情况对加强工程造价控制管理措施做一下分析探讨。%Construction engineering cost is to point to a ful cost of the engineering construction cost, namely the construction projects carried out in a planned way of fixed assets reproduction and the formation of the corresponding sum of intangible assets and the circulating funds of one-time charges. It not only has relationship with engineering content, also with the region's economic development speed, builders of the level of management and technology, state and local government policies, etc. There are closely linked. For the construction industry, scientific and reasonable project cost for construction enterprise is more important. Project cost accounting and control level along with the modern enterprise management level of ascension also in development, according to the current situation of engineering cost management situation of strengthening the project cost control management measures to do the analysis.

  9. 工程公司造价管理人员能力评价体系研究%Capability Evaluation System of Cost Manager in Engineering Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜萍

    2011-01-01

    现代工程公司之间的竞争随着市场化的深入日趋激烈,优秀的造价管理人员无论对于工程公司在前期获取项目,实施过程中控制项目成本赢得利润都具有至关重要的作用.本文在层次分析法的基础上,以定性分析为基础构建合理的造价管理人员评价指标体系,并在该指标体系之上对造价管理人员进行定量分析,适用于工程公司对于造价管理人员的考核评价.通过评价结果反映的情况,针对造价管理人员应具备的核心能力进行招聘和培养,有利于公司的人力资源管理水平的提高.%The competition between modern engineering companies is increasingly fierce with the market depth. The excellent cost manager both has the crucial role in obtaining the project in the early and controlling the cost and winning profits in the implementation process for the engineering company. On the basis of AHP, this paper constructed a reasonable evaluation index system of cost manager based on qualitative analysis, and conducted quantitative analysis of cost manager for engineering companies by the index system, to adapt to the personnel appraisal for the cost manager. Through the situation reflected by evaluation result and based on the core ability of the roost manager should have to recruit and train is conducive to improve the level of company's human resources management.

  10. Robust, Cost-Optimal and Compliant Engine and Aftertreatment Operation using Air-path Control and Tailpipe Emission Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, S.N.; Hommen, G.; Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Willems, F.; Kupper, F.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitive

  11. 大型工程项目的造价数学建模过程仿真%Simulation of Cost Mathematical Modeling Process of Large Engineering Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇飞

    2014-01-01

    In engineering cost management system, we need to proceed mathematical modeling for large engineering project cost to realize the overall planning and to cut down expenses. In the course of traditional project cost mathematical modeling ,we have adopted the variable cost fluctuation prediction method and regarded engineering economic cost data sequence as a set of nonlinear time series, and also we have adopted the Lyapunov index prediction algorithm to forecast the cost volatility. While the traditional algorithm cannot effectively consider the complex uncertain factors of the renovation projects, and then the accuracy is not high, it cannot effectively satisfy the principle of maintaining the minimization of the present cost value and the maximization of state indicator within the life span. A mathemati⁃cal model for the simulation of large engineering project cost is proposed based on principal component analysis and cross equalization. From analysis of the cost constraint relationship of large scale construction project, we can get the production quality-efficiency-cost control model of the large engineering project;by using the method of principal component analysis to reconstruct the optimization problem of construction project cost forecasting, we can get the cost constraints multi-objective close degree mathematical model for large-scale construction;based on the principle of cross equalization, according to the cumulative contribution degree of the variance, and using the method of time series, we estimate the time series for engineering budget growth index;and combining Lyapunov index prediction algorithm, the improvement for the design of the project cost mathematical modeling and cost calculation method can be achieved. The simulation experiment results show that the model has higher precision, and smaller mean square error. With it we can save project cost by 23%for building of the same quality, with the merits of improving construction quality as

  12. To Explore the Cost Index System and Calculation Model of Engineering%探究工程造价指数体系与计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕文雄

    2014-01-01

    With the implementation of engineering quantity list, there gradualy formed a cost patern of construction pro- ject determined by the market. Therefore, it is vital to establish a perfect project cost index system and calculation model. This paper discusses on some aspects of project cost system and calculation model.%随着工程量清单不断地向外推行,社会逐渐形成了一种由市场决定建设工程项目价格的造价格局。因此,建立一个完善的工程造价指标体系与计算模型就显得尤为重要。本文对工程造价体系与计算模型方面进行了一些论述。

  13. On recognition of improvement of management of engineering costs%关于加强工程造价管理的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常佳文

    2011-01-01

    According to the importance of the costs management of architectural projects,sums up the main problems in the current costs management of projects,and analyzes their influential factors,and explores a series of measures to improve the management of engineering costs,so as to solve the problem of losing control in investment of the projects.%针对建筑工程造价管理的重要性,总结了当前工程造价管理面临的主要问题,分析了其影响因素,并探讨了一系列加强工程造价管理的措施,从而解决工程建设中投资失控的问题。

  14. Discussion on engineering project cost control and management%论工程项目成本控制与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高元平

    2011-01-01

    With a summary on problems existing in current engineering project cost control,based on identifying cost controlling boundary division,it proposes measures of strengthening cost controlling and management,with a view to guarantee maximum building construction enterprise profits and to realize sustainable development purpose.%总结了现阶段工程项目成本控制存在的问题,在明确成本控制界限划分的基础上,提出了加强成本控制与管理的措施,以保证建筑施工企业利润最大化,实现可持续发展目标。

  15. 建设工程项目工程造价前期控制%Preliminary Control of the Project Cost of Construction Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝文枭

    2016-01-01

    The engineering cost is the cost in the process of project construction. Engineering construction mainly includes investment decision-making stage, design stage, construction project contract stage and construction project implementation stage. The atages before the project implementation are considered to be the early stage of the project. In the cost control of the project investment, people often only pay attention to the construction stage, but neglecte the preliminary control, it causes serious mistakes in cost management. So this paper analyzes the cost control of project decision-making and design stages to provide the reference for relevant personnel in the project cost.%工程造价是工程项目建设过程中的全部费用.工程建设主要包括投资决策阶段、设计阶段、建设项目发包阶段和建设实施阶段,工程实施之前均视为工程项目的前期阶段.在工程造价的投资控制中,人们往往只注重于施工阶段,却忽视了前期控制,造成造价管理上的重大失误.所以本文就针对项目决策和设计阶段造价控制予以分析,为有关人员在工程造价中提供借鉴.

  16. 工程造价计价模式和造价控制分析%Engineering Cost Valuation Model and Cost Control Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洪

    2013-01-01

    工程作为一个重要项目,任何经济体制下都有一定的造价计价模式,我国在计划经济体制下是定额计价,在市场经济体制下是清单计价。本文就清单计价模式进行分析,探讨工程造价如何在清单计价模式下得到合理有效的控制。%The project as an important project, there are ce-rtain cost valuation model in any economic system, our count-ry in the planned economy system is the quota valuation, and in the market economy system is detailed list valuation. This article analyzes quantities bill valuation mode of construction cost, discusses how to make a reasonable and effective control of construction cost under the bil valuation mode.

  17. 工程量清单计价下电力工程造价的风险管理措施%Risk Management Measures of Power Engineering Cost under the Engineering Quantity List Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗雷

    2015-01-01

    电网的建设对我国民生有很大的影响。在其建设的过程中,由于建设的环境相对复杂、施工时间长,有各种各样无法确定的因素出现,常常会导致工程造价无法确定的情况。为防止超预算情况,风险控制和管理就变得非常重要。本文通过阐述工程量清单模式的概念、发展历程和优势及其对电力工程造价风险管理的重要性,分析工程量清单计价工程管理模式的问题,提出工程量清单计价下电力工程造价的风险管理的措施,以期提供参考。%The construction of power grid has an great influence on Chinese people's livelihood. In the process of its con⁃struction, due to its relatively complex construction environment and long construction time, there are various uncertain factors leading to the uncertainty of project cost. In order to avoid the situation of over budget, the control and manage⁃ment of these risks are of great importance. By expounding the concept, development history and advantages of engineer⁃ing quantity detailed list mode and its importance for electric power engineering cost risk management, the paper analyzes the problems of the project management mode of engineering quantity list valuation, and puts forward the risk manage⁃ment measures of electric power engineering cost under the engineering quantity list valuation, hoping to provide some ref⁃erence for the industry.

  18. A Partnership between Value Engineering and the Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages Community to Reduce Ownership Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Engineering Proposals ( VEPs ) and Value Engineering Change Proposals (VECPs). A VEP is a specific proposal developed internally by DoD personnel for...total value improvement from the use of VE techniques. Since VEPs are developed and implemented by Government personnel, all resulting savings...accrue to the Government. A VEP can also be the result of a technical support contractor effort if it is funded by the Government specifically to

  19. Research on settlement audit pricing of construction engineering cost%关于建设工程造价结算审计计价的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 权伟; 燕飞

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the common problems in engineering settlement,introduced the settlement audit and pricing methods,from the early audit work,collection of the economic documents with complete and effective visa,emphatically examination of engineering quantity,done well material cost audit,examination of fixed price and other aspects summarized relevant measures to strengthen engineering cost settlement au-dit pricing work,conducive to the smooth progress of audit pricing work.%分析了工程结算中的常见问题,介绍了结算审计和计价办法,从审计的前期工作,搜集签证齐全有效的经济文件,重点审核工程量,做好甲供材料费用的审核,对定额单价的审核等方面总结了加强工程造价结算审计计价工作的相关对策,有利于审计计价工作的顺利进行。

  20. Analysis of Power Engineering Cost Management and Control Measures%浅谈电力工程造价管理与控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 凌俊斌

    2013-01-01

    近年来,国内电力企业蓬勃兴起,极大的推动了国民经济发展。但是随着电力市场趋于饱和,行业竞争日趋激烈,不仅电力工程的建设速度和规模有所下降,而且工程造价高,负担重。因此电力企业要想在电力行业站稳脚跟,必须首先立足于造价管理,降低工程造价,提高竞争力。对此,阐述了电力工程造价管理的内涵,分析了其现状,并探讨了控制电力工程造价的策略,以此促进电力企业稳健发展。%In recent years, booming domestic power companies greatly promoted the development of national economy. But with the electricity market becomes saturated, the increasingly fierce competition in the industry, not only the power engineering construction speed and scale of decline,and the project cost is high. Therefore,power companies want to gain a firm foothold in the power industry, must first be based on cost management,reduce construction costs and improve competitiveness. In this regard,this paper described the connotation of power engineering cost management, analyzed its situation and discussed electricity project cost control strategy, to promote the healthy development of electric power enterprises.

  1. On cost management of municipal public engineering construction programs%谈市政公用工程施工项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海林

    2014-01-01

    结合孝义市新安街东延道排工程,依据成本管理的基本原则,主要介绍了在确保文明施工及施工质量和安全的前提下,实施市政公用工程项目成本管理的方法,以最大限度地降低工程成本,追求自身经济效益的最大化,切实提高施工企业的综合效益。%Combining with the project at the east extension road rows of Xin’an Street in Xiaoyi,the paper mainly introduces the cost manage-ment methods for the municipal public engineering program with the premise of ensuring the civilized construction,construction quality and safety by referring to the basic principle for the cost management,so as to reduce the engineering cost maximally,maximize self economic benefits and promote the comprehensive benefits of construction enterprises.

  2. Using Life-Cycle Human Factors Engineering to Avoid $2.4 Million in Costs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Requirements Verification Process for Space Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel; Ellenberger, Rich

    2008-01-01

    The Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) process has been used to verify human factors requirements for NASA International Space Station (ISS) payloads since 2003, resulting in $2.4 million in avoided costs. This cost benefit has been realized by greatly reducing the need to process time-consuming formal waivers (exceptions) for individual requirements violations. The HFIT team, which includes astronauts and their technical staff, acts as the single source for human factors requirements integration of payloads. HFIT has the authority to provide inputs during early design phases, thus eliminating many potential requirements violations in a cost-effective manner. In those instances where it is not economically or technically feasible to meet the precise metric of a given requirement, HFIT can work with the payload engineers to develop common sense solutions and formally document that the resulting payload design does not materially affect the astronaut s ability to operate and interact with the payload. The HFIT process is fully ISO 9000 compliant and works concurrently with NASA s formal systems engineering work flow. Due to its success with payloads, the HFIT process is being adapted and extended to ISS systems hardware. Key aspects of this process are also being considered for NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  3. Cost of Green Houses Based on Value Engineering%基于价值工程的绿色建筑成本控制*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶; 郑朝锋; 王梓霖; 顾明

    2013-01-01

    绿色建筑能够最大限度地节约资源,保护环境。绿色建筑的主要功能包括环境功能、节能功能和舒适性功能,可以通过一系列关键节能技术的综合应用来实现。根据江南地区绿色建筑应用情况统计和分析,绿色建筑会比普通建筑的成本有所增加,通过价值工程分析方法可以实现绿色建筑价值的提升并进行成本控制。%The green building is crucial, and is attracting more attention. The appropriate energy-saving technologies can maximally save resources and protect the environment. The major functions of green building rely on some key saving energy technologies using in building. Statistical analysis shows that cost of green buildings in the area of southern Yangtze River are higher than cost of ordinary buildings. The value engineering analysis can realize green buildings’ value improvement in the functions of environment, energy and comfort. Implementing green building cost control and the value improvement through the value engineering analysis is very important.

  4. 试论建设工程造价咨询的现状与发展策略%Discussion on construction engineering cost consulting status and development strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玺

    2015-01-01

    Starting from major construction engineering cost consulting contents,the paper analyzes problems existing construction engineering cost consulting,puts forward strategies of promoting construction engineering cost consulting development,with a view to establish fair and equita-ble construction engineering cost consulting institutions and to promote stable healthy development of domestic construction industry as well.%简述了建设工程造价咨询的主要内容,分析了建设工程造价咨询存在的问题,提出了促进建设工程造价咨询工作发展的策略,旨在建立公平公正的建设工程造价咨询机构,促进我国建设行业的稳步健康发展。

  5. An analysis of the costs and benefit in improving the T56-A-427 interconnector harness end and mating thermocouple end connector under the aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis is a study validating the cost effectiveness of the Component Improvement Program for aircraft engines. It determines the costs and benefits derived from the Navy incorporating Power Plant Change 111 which improved the interconnector harness end and mating thermocouple end connector of the T56-A-427 engine. Useful maintenance data pertaining to this component was extracted from the Naval Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) sys...

  6. 有效控制建筑工程电气安装造价%Effective Cost Control of Electrical Installation of Construction Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由晨光

    2014-01-01

    Along with the accelerating of city construction, the city housing construction has also ushered in a new deve-lopment climax. Electrical engineering is an important comp-onent of the housing construction;and the instal ation process is relatively complex. This paper studied the cost of electrical instal ation the construction engineering and put forward some suggestions.%随着我国城市化建设进程的不断加快,城市房屋建筑也迎来了新的发展高潮。电气工程是房屋工程建设的重要组成,其安装过程相对复杂。文章就建筑工程中电气安装造价问题进行了研究,并提出了一些建议。

  7. Cost optimization of Modularization Construction in Offshore Engineering%论海洋工程模块化建造的成本优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫宝春

    2014-01-01

    海洋工程模块化建造比较于传统的海洋工程建造模式,在材料使用、设备投入、人工投入等方面均有明显的优势,使得建造效率更高、成本更低,势必将成为未来海洋工程建造的主流趋势。%Compared with traditional offshore engineering construction method, modularized construction makes efficiency higher and cost lower, because of having obvious advantages in materials, equipment, human labor and other aspects. Modularized construction will become the main trend in offshore engineering.

  8. Discussion of Urban Rail Transit Engineering Cost Management Measures%城市轨道交通工程造价管理措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志年

    2012-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通建设的快速发展,其投资占基础设施建设的比例不断增加,为进一步做好工程投资控制、质量控制、工期控制和合同管理,以及安全管理等方面的工作,充分发挥投资的经济效益和社会效益,对目前工程造价管理中存在的主要问题进行分析,对各阶段工程造价管理方法进行论述和探讨。通过分析与探讨提出进一步加强和完善工程造价管理的措施与建议。%With the rapid development of urban rail transit construction, the proportion of its investment accounts in infrastructure construction increases constantly. In order to promote engineering investment control, qual- ity control, time limit control, contract management, and safety management work, give full play to the investment's economic efficiency and the social efficiency, the main problems existing in the current engi- neering cost management are analyzed, and engineering cost management method in each stage is de- scribed and discussed. Through the analysis and studies, measures and suggestions on further strengthe- ning and perfecting engineering cost management are put forward.

  9. 探讨石油工程概预算编制与费用管理%Budget estimate making and cost management in petroleum engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚鸣

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum engineering budget estimate making and cost management is one of the key content in financial management, which directly affect the economic benefits of a corporation. The state of financial management of oil companies in China are investigated in this paper to put forward solutions that can effectively improve quality of budgeting and cost management.%石油工程的概预算编制与费用管理可以说是企业财务管理的关键内容之一,这一环节的进行直接影响到企业后期的经济收益.本文通过对我国石油企业财务管理工作现状的研究,探讨有效提高企业概预算编制质量加强企业费用管理的方法.

  10. Development of low cost ceramic recuperator technology applicable to automotive gas turbine engines. Final report, April 1972--April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormanyos, K.R.

    1978-02-01

    Oxide glass--ceramic recuperators for application to automotive gas turbine engines were investigated. Design data and fabrication feasibility were established. Evaluation of glass--ceramic recuperator structures was carried out on a series of experimental test specimens. Parametric design data for plate--fin type glass--ceramic recuperator configurations was developed over a range of engine operating conditions. Recuperator sizing procedures were developed to fit four conceptual recuperator designs to the DOE/Chrysler Baseline regenerated gas turbine engine. Assumed pressure drop and effectiveness value constraints on sizing yielded two design packages with acceptable dimensions to fit an automobile engine compartment. Four conceptual recuperator designs were fabricated as demonstration samples using CER-VIT C-132 glass--ceramic material. Single-pass cross-flow cores were fabricated using CER-VIT C-126 material for laboratory scale tests of cross-circuit leakage and hot-gas flow thermal cycling effects. The laboratory tests precipitated the development effect of a modified material system for test core fabrication. The modified material system proved successful in initial studies on small core sections; however, upon scale up to test core size unacceptably high cross-leakage resulted.

  11. Microfluidics made easy: A robust low-cost constant pressure flow controller for engineers and cell biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiannis, Nicholas; Ibo, Markela; Fu, Xiaotong; Crivellari, Francesca; Gagnon, Zachary

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, microfluidics has become increasingly popular in biology and bioengineering. While lab-on-a-chip fabrication costs have continued to decrease, the hardware required for delivering controllable fluid flows to the microfluidic devices themselves remains expensive and often cost prohibitive for researchers interested in starting a microfluidics project. Typically, microfluidic experiments require precise and tunable flow rates from a system that is simple to operate. While many labs use commercial platforms or syringe pumps, these solutions can cost thousands of dollars and can be cost prohibitive. Here, we present an inexpensive and easy-to-use constant pressure system for delivering flows to microfluidic devices. The controller costs less than half the price of a single syringe pump but can independently switch and deliver fluid through up to four separate fluidic inlets at known flow rates with significantly faster fluid response times. It is constructed of readily available pressure regulators, gauges, plastic connectors and adapters, and tubing. Flow rate is easily predicted and calibrated using hydraulic circuit analysis and capillary tubing resistors. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of the flow system by performing well-known microfluidic experiments for chemical gradient generation and emulsion droplet production.

  12. 谈煤矿建设项目工程造价%Analysis of coal mine construction project engineering cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In view of the problems existing in the project cost,put forward by strengthening project quality supervision and management and con-struction period cost control and strengthen the comprehensive effect of management mechanism to enhance the effective measures to coal mine construction project cost,then analysis the construction project in decision-making,design,bidding,implement,completion of the settlement during the period of project cost management and control. In order to ensure the coal mine construction project cost effectiveness and rationality, and comprehensively promote the overall development of coal mine construction project.%针对项目工程造价中存在的各种问题,提出了通过加强项目质量监督管理和施工期间造价控制工作及加强管理机制的综合效果来提升煤矿建设项目工程造价的有效措施,进而探析了建设项目在决策、设计、招投标、实施、竣工结算等期间的工程造价管理与控制措施,以确保煤矿建设项目造价的有效性和合理性,进而全面促进煤矿建设项目的整体发展。

  13. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  14. 工程造价专业学生批判性思维培养探析%Discussion on critical thinking training of engineering cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竹隰生; 杨静; 杨肖霞

    2016-01-01

    At present, it” s not optimistic about the college students” ability of critical thinking in China, which needs to be improved eagerly. This paper summarizes the connotations and functions about the critical thinking, and especially emphasizes the significance of critical thinking to engineering cost specialty. Finally, the methods and suggestions are given to cultivate the engineering cost students” ability of critical thinking.%目前,中国高校学生的批判性思维能力不容乐观,亟待提高。文章总结了批判性思维的内涵和作用,并根据工程造价专业的特殊性,强调了批判性思维能力对工程造价专业的意义,提出了工程造价专业学生批判性思维培养的具体方法和建议。

  15. 谈建设项目在设计阶段的工程造价控制%Preliminary discussion on the engineering cost control of construction project at design phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江欣

    2011-01-01

    This thesis discusses engineering cost controlling points and existing problems at design phase,introduces engineering cost controlling countermeasures at design phase from four aspects of rationed design,value engineering,standard design and establishing corresponding regulations,which has significant meaning for correctly determine engineering cost and improving investment efficiency.%论述了设计阶段是工程造价控制的重点和存在的问题,从运用限额设计、价值工程、采用标准设计、建立相应制度四方面介绍了设计阶段控制工程造价的对策,对准确确定工程造价,提高投资效率具有重要意义。

  16. Sacrificing power for more cost-effective treatment: A techno-economic approach for engineering microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Zachary A; Ma, Zhaokun; Trivedi, Christopher B; Spear, John R; Xu, Pei

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising energy-positive wastewater treatment technology, however, the system's cost-effectiveness has been overlooked. In this study, two new anode materials - hard felt (HF) and carbon foam (CF) - were evaluated against the standard graphite brush (GB) to determine if using inexpensive materials with less than ideal properties can achieve more cost-effective treatment than high-cost, high-performing materials. Using domestic wastewater as the substrate, power densities for the GB, HF and CF-MFCs were 393, 339 and 291 mW m(-2) normalized by cathodic surface area, respectively. Higher power densities correlated with larger anodic surface areas and anodic current densities but not with electrical conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry revealed that redox systems used for extracellular electron transport in the GB, HF and CF-MFCs were similar (-0.143 ± 0.046, -0.158 ± 0.004 and -0.100 ± 0.014 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and that the electrochemical kinetics of the MFCs showed no correlation with their respective electrical conductivity. 16S rRNA sequencing showed the GB, HF and CF microbial community compositions were not statistically different while organic removal rates were nearly identical for all MFCs. The HF-MFC generated a power output to electrode cost (W $(-1)) 1.9 times greater than the GB-MFC, despite producing 14% less power and 15% less anodic current, while having 2.6 times less anodic surface area, 2.1 times larger charge transfer resistance and an electrical conductivity three orders of magnitude lower. The results demonstrate that inexpensive materials are capable of achieving more cost-effective treatment than high-performing materials despite generating lower power when treating real wastewater.

  17. 谈海外工程项目成本管理之开源与节流%measures in cost management of overseas engineering programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇军

    2012-01-01

    Taking the 55 km railway standard bridges and roads in Algeria by overseas engineering company of China Railway 12th Bureau Group Co. as the example, the paper analyzes the tapping and economizing measures in the cost management of the overseas engineering programs, and sums up the effective measures for the tapping and economizing measures in the overseas engineering programs, so as to create better economic benefits in the future overseas programs by helping the managers of the overseas projects.%以中铁十二局集团有限公司海外工程公司阿尔及利亚55 km铁路标路桥项目经理部为例,分析了海外工程项目成本管理中的开源与节流,总结了海外工程项目开源与节流的有效措施,以期帮助海外经营管理者在今后海外项目中创造出更好的经济效益。

  18. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  19. 隧道工程成本控制与财务管理分析评价%Analysis & Evaluation of Tunnel Engineering Cost Control and Financial Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发强

    2015-01-01

    隧道工程中缺少对项目工程成本和财务的控制管理,会严重影响工程进度和工程质量。合理的工程项目成本管理、详尽的成本计划和系统的财务管理对一个工程项目,乃至整个企业生存发展至关重要。本文通过理论研究,并结合工程实际,分析了成本控制和财务管理的重要性,得出全面管理是基础,程序化、制度化是保证,责、权、利结合是关键的结论;通过分析在隧道工程中成本预算超支的原因,表明只有认真规划好预算成本,才能保证整个工程项目的顺利完工;还提出提高经济效益的方法,并分析了在工程中资金的流动规律,进一步对成本控制和财务管理的重要性做了详细阐释,对以后的工程项目成本管理工作起到一定的参考作用。%In the tunnel engineering, the lack of control and management of the project cost and finance will seriously im⁃pact the progress and the quality of the project. Rational project cost management, detailed cost plan and systematic finan⁃cial management are very vital factors for the survival and development of an enterprise. Through theoretical study, com⁃bining with the actual project, the article analyzes the importance of cost control and financial management and draws the conclusion that:the overall management is the foundation, routinization and institutionalization are the guarantees, while the combination of responsibility, right and profit is the master key of cost control and financial management;by analyzing the reasons of cost budget overruns in the tunnel engineering, it concludes that nothing but careful planning of the budget cost can ensure the successful completion of the whole project;by putting forward the method of improving economic benefit and analyzing the flowing law of capital in the project, the article develops further illustration of the importance of cost control and financial management, which

  20. GPR applications in civil engineering collaborating with a Company and preparation of material for the educational package to teach in Universities. STSM, COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossa, Viviana; Assunção, Sonia; Pérez, Vega

    2017-04-01

    The STSM, Short-Term Missions, was carried out with the support of Murphy Survey company from Dublin - Ireland, was proposed for to Develop a module "GPR Applications in Archaeology" of the educational pack defined in the different meetings of the Cost Action TU 1208. The employ of GPR is mainly determined by the limits and uncertainties associated to this technique that affects to the measurements and the results. Private companies and end-users are highly interested in known the limits associated to particular cases and the advantages of the methodology compared to other studies. During this STSM, we plan to prepare a field survey, analyzing the possible problems and defining the objectives, and to acquire data to assess the structure. This data will be analyzed and processed in order to determine the limits of the technique in the particular case. The results will be compared to other surveys, in order to determine some clear restrictions that the company need to take into account in further works. Aknowledgments: This work has been partially funded by the EU COST Action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", and it is a contribution to the working group 2.2 tasks in the COST Action TU1208.

  1. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  2. PDCA思想在工程造价管理中的应用实践%PDCA Thoughts in the Application of Engineering Cost Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁进国

    2015-01-01

    Major policies of the entire process construction cost management in our country have been established in 1997,and due to various reasons,it is still confined to a certain stage management,lack of systematic,especially lack of PDCA closed-loop management.According to current situation of the management,focus on 20 kV and below power engi-neering.Through some simple statistical methods,carry out the proj ect cost management analysis application practice,and the regional distribution network engineering cost database is formated.The purpose is to further enrich the whole process cost management thinking,and to supply some practical implications to grid.%我国全过程工程造价管理的大政方针自1997年确立以来,由于种种原因,仍局限于某个阶段管理,缺乏系统性,尤其缺乏PDCA闭环管理。针对该管理现状,着眼于20 kV 及以下配电网工程,旨在通过一些简易的统计方法的应用,开展工程造价管理分析应用实践,形成区域配电网工程造价数据库。目的在于进一步丰富全过程造价管理思想,给电网投资者提供实用的启示。

  3. A User’s Manual for the Cost Effectiveness Analysis Spreadsheet Model for Aircraft Engines (CEAMOD Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    is provided as well as the Standard History File fleet input pages. Accession Yor NTIS CFA -&Iý DTIC TAB El Unariau-.Luc ed By DiaLribut1oG...0’ $0 so so so 2014 $0’ 50 s0 so s0 2015 s0o $0 $05 $0 $0 2016 so. s so $s $o 2017 $() $0 so: $0 $0 2018 so: $0 so: 0 $D 2019 so: $0 W, $0 $0 2020 s0...2017 ’ 0 1 2017 0 1 2017 0’ 2018 o _ _2018 0 _ 2018 0 ’ 2019 0 2019 0 T 2019 0 i 2020 0 2020 0 i 2020 0 347 STO lIST XLS Fleet 4 Fleet 5 Flet6 ENGINE

  4. The Status and Construction Plan of Highway Engineering Cost Major%公路工程造价专业现状及建设规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王险峰

    2011-01-01

    There are 12 main problems in the highway engineering construction in each phase of the project budget preparation and investment control.Cost control measures in project decision-making stage(well preparation of project decision-making,do the project feasibility study report,compiled thorough and careful investment estimate and scheme optimization)and cost control measures in design stage(strengthen the coordination and supervision of the design process,and professional design personnel with planning construction organization and design scheme,strengthen the quota design and control of the project cost) are presented in view of the existing problems.The suggestions for planning and construction of project cost standardized management system in the aspects of the general ideas,standardized management and the technical route to achieve the purpose of engineering cost control.%针对在公路工程建设各阶段概预算编制和投资控制中存在的12个主要问题,从工程设计角度进行分析,对存在的问题提出项目决策阶段造价控制的对策(做好项目决策前的准备工作、认真做好项目可行性研究报告、全面细致编制投资估算、方案优化)和设计阶段造价控制的对策(加强设计过程的协调与监督、与专业设计人员配合编制施工组织设计方案、加强限额设计控制工程造价)。并对工程造价标准化管理体系的规划建设,从总体思路、标准化管理、技术路线提出建议,达到控制工程造价的目的。

  5. Study on Hydraulic Engineering Cost Prediction by Unit Price Method%单价法预测水利工程造价的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 岳春芳

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure of water conservancy projects is one of the basic industries for the development of national economy. The hydraulic engineering is characterized by large scale,sophisticated technique, long duration,and big investment,which is a systematic and comprehensive work. The current method of cost prediction for water conservancy projects is the unit price method, which is still following the planned economy system. Although adjusted and improved several times, the unit price method still has many defects and the results are often inconsistent with the fact. The problems of calculating the hydraulic engineering cost in unit price predicting, such as labor budgeting and indirect expenditure, were analyzed and improving suggestions were proposed in this paper.%水利工程基本建设是我国国民经济发展的基础性产业之一,工程规模大,技术复杂,工期较长,投资很大,有很强的系统性和综合性.现行预测水利工程造价的单价法仍然沿用了计划经济体制时代模式,虽然经过了多次调整和改进,但还是存在诸多弊端,计算结果常常与实际偏差较大或与实际不符.现针对单价法预测水利工程造价中人工费、其他直接费、现场经费等计算中存在的问题进行分析,并提出了改进建议.

  6. Discussion on the causes and control strategy of construction engineering cost beyond budgeting%谈建筑工程造价超预算原因与控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓娟

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the causes of construction engineering cost beyond budgeting,from improving budget personnel professional quali-ty,strengthening budgeting control during construction stage,scientific prediction of building materials market and other aspects,elaborated the strategy control of construction engineering cost beyond budgeting,helpful to scientific control of construction engineering cost,improved the profit amount of construction enterprises.%分析了建筑工程造价超预算的原因,从提高预算人员专业素质、加强施工阶段预算控制、科学预测建材市场等方面,阐述了控制建筑工程造价超预算的策略,有助于科学控制建筑工程成本,提高建筑企业盈利数额。

  7. Kansei Analysis of the Japanese Residential Garden and Development of a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Kansei Engineering System for Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Matsubara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential garden design using Kansei engineering is a challenging problem. Landscaping components, such as rocks, trees, and ponds, are widely diversified and have a large number of possible arrangements. This large number of design alternatives makes conventional analyses, such as linear regression and its variations like Quantification Theory Type I (QT1, inapplicable for analyzing the relationships between design elements and the Kansei evaluation. We applied a partial least squares (PLS model that effectively deals with a large number of predictor variables. The multiple correlation coefficient of the PLS analysis was much higher than that of the QT1 analysis. The results of the analyses were used to create a low-cost virtual reality Kansei engineering system that permits visualization of garden designs corresponding to selected Kansei words. To render complex garden scenes, we developed an original 3D computation and rendering library built on Java. The garden is shown in public-view style with stereo 3D graphic projection. The rendering is scalable from low to high resolution and enables drop object shadowing, which is indispensable for considering the effect of daytime changes in insolation. Visualizing the garden design based on Kansei analysis could facilitate collaboration between the designer and customer in the design process.

  8. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials from pad 1 at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactively contaminated concrete and soil beneath a building on privately owned commercial property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The property, known as the Elza Gate site, became contaminated with uranium-238, radium-226, thorium-232, thorium-230, and decay products as a result of the Manhattan Engineer District storing uranium ore and ore processing residues at the site in the early 1940s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for cleanup of the property under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The DOE plans to remove the cracked and worn concrete pad and contaminated subsoil beneath the pad, after which the property owner/tenant will provide clean backfill and new concrete. Portions of the pad and subsoil are contaminated and, if stored or disposed of improperly, may represent a potential threat to public health or welfare and the environment. The EE/CA report is the appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of the EE/CA report, in addition to identifying the planned removal action, is to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and minimize the related threats to public health or welfare and the environment. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials from Pad 1 at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactively contaminated concrete and soil beneath a building on privately owned commercial property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The property, known as the Elza Gate site, became contaminated with uranium-238, radium-226, thorium-232, thorium-230, and decay products as a result of the Manhattan Engineer District storing uranium ore and ore processing residues at the site in the early 1940s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for cleanup of the property under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The DOE plans to remove the cracked and worn concrete pad and contaminated subsoil beneath the pad, after which the property owner/tenant will provide clean backfill and new concrete. Portions of the pad and subsoil are contaminated and, if stored or disposed of improperly, may represent a potential threat to public health or welfare and the environment. The EE/CA report is the appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. the objective of the EE/CA report, in addition to identifying the planned removal action, is to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and minimize the related threats to public health or welfare and the environment. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Low-cost processing technology for the synthesis of calcium phosphates/collagen biocomposites for potential bone tissue engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study two novel composites of Calcium phosphates (CaP and Collagen (COL were synthesized, hydroxyapatite/Collagen (HA/COL and hydroxyapatite-btricalcium phosphate/COL (HAbTCP/COL. Collagen was extracted from bovine pericardium submitted to enzymatic digestion and purification by ion-exchange chromatography yielding high purity grade type I collagen. Biocomposites of HAP/COL and HAbTCP/COL were produced with a calcium phosphate/COL ratio of 80/20 (wt. (% and were characterized by chemical analysis, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and FT-infrared spectroscopy. SEM results of the CaP powders showed agglomerates of particles at the nanometric size range with predominantly columnar shape and average chemical composition of [Ca/P] = 1.67. FTIR analysis of collagen has confirmed the major vibrational bands associated with chemical groups like amides and hydroxyls usually found in proteins. SEM micrographs have indicated that both morphological and structural features and chemical composition of the composites were very similar to their precursors, collagen and calcium phosphate components. SDS-PAGE characterization results of protein extracted and purified has showed that bovine type I collagen was successfully obtained. Finally, the biocomposites presented a homogeneous aspect with the calcium phosphate particles aggregated to the collagen fibers. Hence, the novel developed biocomposites have high potential to be used for rebuilding small lesions in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Standardized Elemental Basis for Gas-Turbine Engine Heat Exchangers is the Key Factor for Their Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soudarev A.V; Soudarev B.V; Kondratiev V.V; Lazarev M.V

    2001-01-01

    The competitiveness of the small gas turbine units (GTUs) (Ne<300 kW) in the world power market is dependent on both the maintenance expenses and the capital costs of production. Reduction in the maintenance expenditures could be achieved by increasing the plant efficiency. This task could be solved by some methods: increasing the cycle inlet temperature TIT, getting the cycle more complex (use of heat regeneration and compressed air intermediate cooling), cutting the power consumption on heat-stressed parts cooling. Putting the above into effect is linked with introduction of novel structural materials, a sharp increase in the mass-size values and the plant manufacture expenditures, in particular, at provision of its self-regulation.In connection with the above, the development of the combined metal-ceramic airheaters and standardization of the elemental basis of the metal gas-gas heat exchangers will promote reduction in the expenditures of the maintenance and the manufacture of the small-size independent power GTEs.

  12. 高速公路工程全寿命周期成本测算模块化平台研究%On the Modularization Platform of Life Cycle Cost Calculation of Highway Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟怡; 徐潇洁; 王倩

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at the difficulties of the plan's life cycle cost calculation, according to the life cycle cost calculation theory and modularization theory, this article constructs modularization model of life cycle cost calculation of highway engineering. Based on the model, it develops modularization platform of life cycle cost calculation of highway engineering.%针对方案的全寿命周期成本测算难问题,根据全寿命周期成本理论和模块化理论,本研究构建了高速公路工程全寿命周期成本测算模块化模型,并基于此模型,开发了高速公路工程全寿命周期成本测算模块化平台。

  13. 工程造价管理模式和计价方式改革初论%On discussion of reform in engineering cost management model and pricing approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鑫

    2015-01-01

    结合工程造价管理改革的现状,分析了工程造价管理改革中存在的问题,总结了完善造价依据和造价方法、突破原有造价依据的关键点、加强监督保障各项权益等建议,以完善工程造价管理模式。%Combining with the status of the engineering cost management reform,the paper analyzes some problems in its reform,and sums up suggestions to promote cost reference and methods,breaking through cost reference,and intensify the supervision and security of all sorts of rights,so as to enhance the engineering cost management model.

  14. 浅谈合理对电力工程项目造价全过程控制的措施%Reasonable Measures to Strengthen the Whole Process of Control of Power Engineering Project Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任兆龙

    2012-01-01

    在市场经济背景下,电力企业改革步伐加快.如何加强造价管理,有效控制工程成本,已成为当前不得不思考的问题.本文将结合当前由力工程造价营理现状,对加强电力工程项目造价全过程控制的有效措施进行分析与阐述.%Power companies accelerate the pace of reform under the background of market economy. How to strengthen cost management, control project cost effectively has become problem wroth considering. This paper will combine the current status of power engineering cost management, and analyze the effective measures to strengthen the whole process of control of power engineering project cost.

  15. 基于灰色预测的建筑工程造价快速估算%The Method Based on Grey Prediction in Quick Cost Estimating of Civil Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 王立志; 李雪秋

    2011-01-01

    以建筑工程造价快速估算为研究对象,运用灰色预测中GM(1,N)建模机理,对建筑工程造价指标进行系统分析,建立建筑工程造价、人工费、工程材料费和机械使用费的状态方程,进而构建建筑工程造价的定义型GM(1,N)预测模型与派生型GM(1,N,x,(O))预测模型,对建筑工程造价进行快速估算,最后通过实例验证灰色预测模型在建筑工程造价快速估算中的可行性,估算结果可靠.%This article takes the quick cost estimating of civil engineering as the research object. By applying the grey prediction GM(1,N)modeling mechanism, it analyzes the construction project cost indexes systematically, and sets up a state equation about construction project cost, labor cost, engineering cost of raw materials and mechanical cost. Then the defined prediction model and the derived type prediction model are set up to quickly estimate the construction engineering cost. Finally through examples, it proves that the grey forccasting model is feasibility and the estimating results are reliable in the quick cost estimating of civil engineering.

  16. 大型土建工程管理中成本控制增益均衡模型%The Cost Control Gain Equilibrium Model of The Large Civil Engineering Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓娟

    2015-01-01

    The increased cost of construction. For this, put forward a large civil engineering management cost control gain equilibrium model, using the data from the civil engineering construction of construction cost estimates, cost control gain balance model is established, through the forecast data and actual cost error gain balance calculation, the process of the project cost control for minimum error value. The simulation experiment indicates that the gain equalization algorithm can effectively improve the efficiency of soil construction cost management, reduce the error of cost management at the same time, with the most effective the most reasonable method, to budget, cost effective for the management of civil engineering to provide better protection.%提出大型土建工程管理中成本控制增益均衡模型,利用土建工程相关施工数据,对施工建设做成本预估,建立成本控制增益均衡模型,通过预估数据与实际成本误差进行增益均衡计算,使工程成本控制得到最小误差值的过程.仿真试验表明,这种增益均衡算法更能有效的提高土建工成本管理的效率,同时降低成本管理的误差,以最有效最合理的方法,对成本进行预算,有效的为土建工程的管理提供更好的保障.

  17. Proceedings of OSD Aircraft Engine Design & Life Cycle Cost Seminar Held at Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania, May 17, 18 & 19, 1978,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    No. 1558 EXERCISING PROPULSION DTLCC METHODS ON ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT ENGINES By: Eli H. Benstein William Q. Wagner Teledyne CAE Toledo, Ohio Engine...METHODS ON ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT ENGINES Eli H. Benstein ** William Q. Wagner * Teledyne CAE Toledo, Ohio ABSTRACT This paper describes one engine

  18. Management of Procurement Costs of Nuclear Power Engineering Equipment Items%核电工程项目设备采购费用管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛润泽; 孙柯柯

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of society,people paid more attention to energy conservation issues gradually improved energy efficiency has become a global issue.Nuclear power is a new type of efficient energy,nuclear power has become the key to select the development of power industry. Nowadays,the number of nuclear power projects is gradually increasing,equipment installation is the prerequisite and basis for nuclear applications,nuclear power engineering construction is an indispensable element.However, nuclear power project management status equipment procurement costs can be seen,there are many problems in the management of project equipment procurement costs,electricity companies must exist a detailed analysis of the problem and take countermeasures to adjust the costs of procurement for the management of the existing problems.%随着社会的快速发展,人们对节能问题的关注程度逐渐提高,节能问题已经成为全球性问题。核电属于新型高效能源,核电也已经成为电力行业发展的关键选择。如今,核电工程项目的数量逐渐增多,设备安装是核电应用的前提和基础,也是核电工程建设中不可或缺的元素。但是,从核电工程项目设备采购费用管理现状可以看出,项目设备采购费用管理中还存在很多问题,电力企业必须详细分析问题存在的原因,并针对采购费用管理中存在的问题采取调整对策。

  19. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  20. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  1. Impact of Power Engineering Design on Project Cost%论电力工程设计对工程造价的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红

    2011-01-01

    Power engineering design is very important to project construction since rational design proposal is critical to keep project cost in control,which tends to suggest the opposite in practice.Accordingly,standardized design scheme along with quota design is adapted to reinforce whole process management of project construction,which optimizes design scheme through controlling design modification.%工程造价失控是当前建设领域普遍存在的现象,工程设计是工程建设的重要环节,先进合理的设计是控制工程造价的关键。针对工程设计对工程造价的影响,应该优化设计方案、采用标准设计、推行限额设计、推广典型设计、严格控制设计变更,以降低工程造价。

  2. Design and testing of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications: ongoing activities in Working Group 1 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Manacorda, Guido; Persico, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 1 'Novel GPR instrumentation' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Working Group 1 (WG1) of the Action focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. It includes three Projects. Project 1.1 is focused on the 'Design, realisation and optimisation of innovative GPR equipment for the monitoring of critical transport infrastructures and buildings, and for the sensing of underground utilities and voids.' Project 1.2 is concerned with the 'Development and definition of advanced testing, calibration and stability procedures and protocols, for GPR equipment.' Project 1.3 deals with the 'Design, modelling and optimisation of GPR antennas.' During the first year of the Action, WG1 Members coordinated between themselves to address the state of the art and open problems in the scientific fields identified by the above-mentioned Projects [1, 2]. In carrying our this work, the WG1 strongly benefited from the participation of IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi, one of the biggest GPR manufacturers, as well as from the contribution of external experts as David J. Daniels and Erica Utsi, sharing with the Action Members their wide experience on GPR technology and methodology (First General Meeting, July 2013). The synergy with WG2 and WG4 of the Action was useful for a deep understanding of the problems, merits and limits of available GPR equipment, as well as to discuss how to quantify the reliability of GPR results. An

  3. Research on Application of BIM to The Whole Team of Engineering Cost Management%BIM在全团队工程造价管理中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊; 雷雪莲; 黄山

    2014-01-01

    分析了当前工程造价管理的现状和问题,在此基础上提出了全团队工程造价管理的概念。同时文章全面阐述了BIM技术在全团队工程造价管理中的原理、优势、应用以及如何利用BIM技术全面提升全团队造价管理能力。%This-paper-analyzes-the-current-situation-and-problems-of-engineering-cost-management,-putting-forward-the-concept-of-the-whole-team-of-engineering-cost-management-based-on-that.-Meanwhile,-the-paper-gives-a-comprehensive-exposition-of-the-principles,-technology,-application-based-on-BIM-tech-nology-in-the-whole-team-of-engineering-cost-management-and-how-to-make-advantage-of-BIM-technology-to-improve-the-cost-management-ability-of-whole-team.

  4. Cost Control of Urbanization Water Supply and Drainage Engineering in the Design Stage%城镇化给排水工程设计阶段的造价控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计琳

    2014-01-01

    排水管道工程的成本管理是工程建设中的重要部分,科学合理的制定和控制工程成本一直是工程建设的难点。近几年,随着城镇化进程脚步的加快,各种招标制度与定额预算得到不断完善并且取得了良好效果。现代是商品经济快速发展的时代,社会上普遍存在基础建设工程投资失去控制现象,特别是“三超现象”较为严重,很多企业在控制城镇化排水工程的投资成本时,都忽视了工程设计阶段,而过于重视工程施工阶段,使得控制成本效果非常不理想。本文主要论述了设计阶段造价控制方面存在的问题及有效控制工程成本的方法及措施。%The cost control of drainage pipeline engineering is an important part of the engineering construction. The difficulty of the engineering construction is to scientifically and reasonably formulate and control the project cost. In recent years, with the speeding up of urbanization process steps, all kinds of bidding system and norm budget have constantly improved and achieved good results. Now it is a time with rapid expansion of commodity economy. The phenomena of infrastructure construction investment out of control are common in society, particularly the phenomenal of"three exceeds". Many companies ignore the engineering design stage in the control of the cost of the investment of urbanization water supply and drainage engineering, but pay too much attention to the construction phase of the project, which makes the effect of the cost control unsatisfactory. This paper mainly introduces the problems of the cost control in design stage and the methods and measures to control the engineering cost.

  5. Inquiry on problems and countermeasures of engineering project responsibility cost accounting%工程项目责任成本核算的问题及对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世奇

    2012-01-01

    阐述了工程项目责任成本核算的概念及其与会计核算的联系与区别,总结出责任成本核算存在的问题,并提出解决措施,以加强责任成本核算,实现施工企业的经济效益最大化。%This paper describes the concept of engineering project responsibility cost accounting,illustrates the relation and differences of responsibility cost accounting and financial accounting,summarizes problems existing in responsibility cost accounting,and puts forward solutions,with a view to strengthen responsibility cost accounting and to realize maximum economic benefit of construction enterprises.

  6. 30 CFR 203.89 - What is in a cost report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... based on historical costs, engineering estimates, or analogous projects. These costs cover: (1... evaluations). (d) Transportation costs, based on historical costs, engineering estimates, or analogous... lines; and (3) Gas plant processing for natural gas liquids. (e) Abandonment costs, based on...

  7. The Application of Earned Value Management in Engineering Project Cost Control%赢得值法在工程项目成本控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金连

    2013-01-01

    本文对赢得值法的三个基本参数和四个评价指标的确定与关系进行分析,提出相应的处理措施,并结合某工程项目成本控制进行案例分析,为赢得值法在工程项目成本控制中的应用提供一定的参考。%This paper analyzes the determinations and relationships of earned value management's three basic parameters and four evaluations, then proposes appropriate measures, and analyzes the case combined with an engineering project's cost control, which provides some references for the application of earned value management in engineering projects' cost control.

  8. 完善工程项目承包商费用管理策略的思考%Thoughts on the Strategies for Improving the Cost Management of Engineering Project Contractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇哲

    2016-01-01

    工程项目费用管理是一项系统工程,需要进行全过程、全方位、多角度的策划。从理论原则、制度流程、实施阶段和知识体系四个维度,阐述我国工程项目承包商费用管理中的不足,剖析原因并提出解决策略。%Cost management of engineering project is a systematic project,which needs the planning of whole process,full scale and multi-dimensions. From the theoretical principle,the system flow,the implementation stage and the knowledge system four dimensions,elaborates the insufficiency of the cost management of engineering project contractor,analyzes the reason and proposes the strategies.

  9. The Main Points of the Pre-settlement Audit in Construction Engineering Cost%建筑工程造价预结算审核应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔璟宜; 彭雪

    2016-01-01

    Construction engineering cost problem is a basic link at the beginning of a project.Its cost directly affects the material selection and quality of the engineering.Therefore,the pre-settlement audit of engineering cost should notice the following points.Firstly,train highly qualified professional personnel.Secondly,confirm the responsibility of audit personnel.Thirdly,improve the audit procedure.And last,check all the fund.%建筑工程造价问题是一项工程开始的基础性环节,其造价的高低直接影响到该建筑工程的材料选择及工程质量.因此,工程造价预结算审核工作应注意:一是培养高素质的预结算专业人才,二是明确预结算人员的职责范围,三完善审核的工作程序,四是核对各项款项要列入审核工作的重点.

  10. The Analysis of the Application of the Engineering Cost Control in the Construction%工程造价控制在施工中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鸿武

    2015-01-01

    本文主要介绍了公路工程造价控制实务,依据从事工程造价工作人员必须具备的基本技能和业务知识,详细阐述了施工图工程量的计算方法,定额的套用,确定单价的原则、方法及注意事项。本文中,笔者结合自身工作经验,提出了造价控制方面的一些思路和方法。%This paper mainly introduces the practice of highway engineering cost control. According to the basic skills and business knowledge that cost engineer must master, this paper elaborates on how to compute the engineering quantity of working drawings, how to touse the quota and what the principles, methods and notes of the computation of comprehensive unit price are. With working experiences, the paper offers some adviceand keys in cost management.

  11. The Project Cost Management under Engineering Quantities List Valuation Mode%工程量清单计价模式下的工程造价管理探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何君

    2013-01-01

    In the background of economic globalization, Chi-na's market economy has ushered in a new development and adjustment. Under the regulation of market economy, project cost also gradual y from the initial quota valuation mode to list valuation mode. This paper starts with the concept and charac-teristics of engineering quantity list valuation mode, makes a specific analysis and valuation work of engineering cost man-agement mode in the bil of quantities, in order to further impr-ove the project cost management under engineering bil pric-ing mode.%在经济全球化的背景下,我国的市场经济已经迎来了新的发展与调整。在市场经济的调节下,工程造价的计价模式也渐渐从最初的定额计价模式转变为清单计价模式。本文主要从工程量清单计价模式的概念与特点入手,具体分析在工程量清单计价模式下工程造价管理的工作重点,以期进一步完善工程量清单计价模式下的工程造价管理。

  12. Concurrent engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  13. 综合利用水利工程的投资成本核算方法分析%Analysis on the Accounting Method of Multi-purpose Hydro-engineering Investment Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单桂芝

    2015-01-01

    根据我国的水资源国情,我国的水利工程要具有多个服务目的,综合利用水利工程成为我国水利研究中的一个重大课题。为了合理开发利用我国的水资源,要提高对综合利用水利工程的认识,做好对综合水利工程的投资成本核算。本文介绍了综合利用水利工程的经济特点,分析了综合水利工程的投资成本核算方法。%According to the situation of water resources in China, the water conservancy project needs to have multiple service purpose, so multi-purpose hydro-engineering has become a major issue in the study of water conservancy in China. In order to rationally develop and utilize water resources, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the multi-purpose hydro-engineering and do well in investment cost accounting. This paper introduces the economic characteristics of multi-purpose hydro-engineering, and analyzes the multi-purpose hydro-engineering investment cost accounting method.

  14. Study on engineering application of construction project cost management and control%建筑工程项目成本管理与控制工程应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉美

    2015-01-01

    针对目前企业成本管理和控制难以满足日益多元化市场竞争的需求,采用案例分析法,以某典型建筑工程为研究对象,分析了工程项目造价的组成,对工程项目土建工程成本进行了预测,制定了项目目标成本,在此基础上,提出一系列施工项目成本控制措施,并对项目成本盈亏结果展开了详细分析。%In view of the present enterprise cost management and control is difficult to meet the needs of increasingly diverse market competition, this paper has took case analysis as the study method,taking a typical construction project as the research object,analyzing the composition of project cost,the projections for civil engineering project cost,develop the project target cost. On this basis,put forward a series of construction project cost control measures,Finally,the result of the project cost and carried out detailed analysis.

  15. 电力工程造价的随机权深度神经学习估算方法%Random weighted deep neural learning based cost estimation of power engineering project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈元鹏; 许刚; 赵妙颖

    2015-01-01

    为了实现对电力工程造价高效、精确的估算,提出了一种电力工程造价的随机权深度神经学习估算算法(Random Weighted Deep Neural Learning,RWDNL)。通过构建外权随机的带有小中间层的多隐层神经网络模型,利用神经网络深度学习实现了对海量数据有效特征的提取以及电力工程项目造价估算。数值仿真实验结果表明该方法使工程造价估算精度和速度大大提高,可获得令人满意的泛化能力。%In order to realize an efficient and accurate cost estimation of power engineering project, a cost estimation method for power engineering project with big data is proposed based on a so-called Random Weighted Deep Neural Learning(RWDNL)algorithm. By means of building a multi-layer random weighted neural network with a small central layer, effective features are extracted from mass engineering data and power engineering project cost estimation is also real-ized by neural network deep learning. The experimental results demonstrate the outstanding performances of the proposed RWDNL method on estimation time consume and estimation accuracy, as well as its satisfactory generalization ability.

  16. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  17. 土建工程造价指标及关联数据在预结算中的应用%Application of the Cost Indexes and Relative Data of Construction Engineering in Construction Budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢翔军

    2014-01-01

    The cost indexes of construction engineering include value indicators and quantative indexes; the associated data contains the related data among engineering quantity and value, the associated effect or data of engineering cost, building massing and architectural structure characteristic factor. It is the most visible form of qualifications, experience and ability for a person to master indexes and relative data;while it is the reflection of accumulated qualification and core competence for a company to master indexes and relative data. The cost indexes and relative data play an important role in the normality, rapid cost estimation and optimal design of project budget auditing.%土建工程造价指标包括价值性指标和数量性指标两大类;土建工程造价关联数据包括工程量间相关性数据、价值间的相关性数据、工程造价与建筑体量及建筑结构特征因素的相关性影响或数据等。对于个人来讲,掌握指标和关联数据是资历、经验、能力的最直观的一种表现形式;对于企业来讲,掌握指标和关联数据更是一种资历积淀、核心竞争力的体现。造价指标和关联数据,在审核工程预结算的正常性、快速估算造价、优化设计等方面发挥着重要作用。

  18. Reasons for Power Engineering Project Cost budget and Control Strategies%电力工程项目成本超概预算原因和控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝翠莉

    2012-01-01

    With the growing shortage of natural resources,the higher labour costs,etc,various kinds of electric power companied face increasingly grim situation which restrict its profit severely.The reason on electric power engineering cost budget was analyzed from the following four aspects such as the project organization and implementation methods,cost responsibility and target cost established way,cost control material management.To ensure the project to achieve a higher profits,electric power enterprises shall control the project cost through each cost saving,reduction of project staff and institutions,implement of the responsibility system,enhancement of the project cost management and improve the quality of project mechanism of claims and so on.%随着自然资源的日益紧缺、劳动力成本的上升等各种电力公司面临的日益严峻的形势使得其利润受到更加严重的制约。文章从工程项目的组织及实施方式、从成本责任及目标成本确立方式上、从成本控制上看、从材料管理上看四个方面分析了电力工程成本超概预算的原因。本文认为确保工程项目取得较高的利润,电力企业应当通过节约各项成本、缩减项目人员及机构,落实成本责任制、增强工程的质量管理、健全工程项目索赔机制等四个方面入手控制项目成本。

  19. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  20. 工程量清单计价模式在路桥工程造价管理中的应用%Application of the Engineering Quantity List Valuation Mode in the Cost Management of Road and Bridge Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭于东

    2013-01-01

    路桥工程工期较长,传统的定额计价模式在路桥工程整个周期中不能体现市场因素的浮动性,而工程量清单计价模式克服了这种缺点,在路桥造价管理中得到广泛应用,下面重点介绍工程量清单计价的特点和在路桥工程造价管理中的应用。%The duration of road and bridge project is longer, floating traditional quota valuation mode does not reflect the market factors in the cycle of road and bridge project, but the engineering quantity list valuation model overcame this shortc-oming, obtained the widespread application in the cost manag-ement of road and bridge project, the fol owing introduces cha-racteristics of engineering quantity list valuation and the appli-cation in the engineering cost management of road and bridge project.

  1. On the Cost Control of the Construction Stage of Electricity Installation and Debugging Engineering%试论电力安装调试工程施工阶段的成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馗

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous innovation and improvement of market economic system, the competition between electric power enterprises is more and more fierce. To gain a foothold in the competition, it is necessary for electric power enterprises to strictly control the construction cost, in order to improve their comprehensive competitiveness. For electricity installation and debugging engineering, the cost of construction stage mainly includes the cost of construction materials, construction machinery and equipment, project management, construction personnel labor and so on. Of course, the construction scheme is the direct influencing factor of these costs. Based on the author's own working experience, effective measures to control the cost of the construction stage of electric installation and debugging engineering are put forward.%在市场经济体制不断创新和完善下,电力行业之间的市场竞争力越来越激烈。电力企业若想在激烈的竞争中站稳脚跟,就必须严格控制施工成本,以提高企业的综合竞争力。对于电力安装调试工程来讲,其施工阶段的成本主要包括了施工材料费、施工机械设备费、项目管理费、施工人员劳务费等,当然这些费用的直接影响因素就是电力安装调试工程的施工方案。笔者结合自身的工作经验,基于电力安装调试工程,对其施工阶段的成本进行有效控制。

  2. Study on the Life Cycle Cost of Energy-saving Residential Project Based on Value Engineering%基于价值工程的节能住宅项目全寿命周期费用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林永民; 朱卫东

    2013-01-01

    In the process of rapid development of China's city,there is a sharp increase of building energy consumption.Saving energy is the inevitable choice that will promote the continuouse development of our country.The residential building become the key field of saving energy.In this paper,based on Value Engineering,the optimization of life cycle cost is systematically researched.The conclusions are as follow:First of all,a dynamic and opening life cycle cost estimation model based on Value Engineering is put forward; Secondly,empirical research based on the life cycle cost is carried out in Tangshan City typical energy-efficient buildings.%随着经济的发展,城市化进程也在不断加快.建筑损耗不断增加.在对节能住宅和住宅的寿命进行了系统的分析之后,对于住宅的寿命周期和本论文基于全寿命周期和成本花费做了实际调查.调查后得出了基于价值工程的动态方面,开放的节能建筑全寿命周期费用估算模型,以及对唐山市典型的节能建筑的寿命周期费用进行了实地考察.

  3. 浅论我国现阶段的电网工程造价管理研究%Study on Grid Engineering Cost Management at the Present Stage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟明帅

    2012-01-01

    随着我国社会主义市场经济体系的初步建立,我国的电力事业获得了空前的发展.电网工程在电力系统发展过程中,同样在我国遍地开花.这种情况下,电力系统中电网工程造价管理,也显示出越来越重要的作用.当前形势下,如何有效控制电力工程工程造价,已经成为我国电力工程造价管理工作中的重中之重.%With the initial establishment of China's socialist market economy system, China's power industry has gained unprecedented development. Grid engineering also has the unprecedented development in the development process of the power system. In this case, the grid project cost management also shows the increasingly important role in electric power system. Under the current circumstances, how to effectively control the project cost of electric power engineering has become the top priority of China's electric power project cost management.

  4. Análisis coste-efectividad de dispositivos sanitarios diseñados para prevenir exposiciones percutáneas Safety-engineered devices to prevent percutaneous injuries: cost-effectiveness analysis on prevention of high-risk exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lluís Armadans Gil; María Isabel Fernández Cano; Inmaculada Albero Andrés; María Luisa Anglés Mellado; José María Sánchez García; Magda Campins Martí; Josep Vaqué Rafart

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia de sustituir algunos dispositivos médicos por otros diseñados para prevenir exposiciones percutáneas (EP). Métodos: Se han estimado las relaciones coste-efectividad de sustituir algunos dispositivos por otros diseñados para prevenir EP: se han considerado los costes de adquisición y de la asistencia a una EP; el número de EP prevenibles por cada dispositivo se ha estimado a partir de las 252 exposiciones ocupacionales notificadas por el personal de un hospital ...

  5. Study on Cost Control of Garden Engineering Project During Design Stage%园林工程项目设计阶段造价控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅文; 汪霞

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the current situation of garden project design stage cost control ,and put forward the effective measures and methods of cost control during the design stage.%分析了园林工程设计阶段造价控制面临的问题和现状,提出设计阶段造价控制的有效措施和方法。

  6. Analysis of the Application of Target Cost Management in Highway Engineering Construction Project%浅析目标成本管理在公路工程施工项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军良; 陈政

    2015-01-01

    当前我国的公路工程建筑施工市场已逐步建立并迅速发展,在激烈的市场竞争中,公路施工企业的利润空间越来越小,对工程项目的成本管理变得越来越重要。现代施工企业应建立一套适合自身的成本控制的管理模式,而推行目标成本管理无疑是项目控制消耗、降低成本的有效途径。本文从公路施工项目中目标成本管理的应用入手,分析了目标成本管理在公路项目实施过程中的应用环节及实践情况,提出了实际执行中可用的目标成本的控制方法和考核方法,以期保证项目的利润。%Highway engineering construction market has been gradually established and is developing rapidly nowadays in China, under the circumstance of fierce market competition, the profit space of highway construction enterprises becomes narrower and narrower, therefore cost management of engineering project becomes more and more important. In this way, modern construction enterprises should set up a set of cost control management mode suitable for their own enterprises, and the adoption of target cost management is an effective way to control consumption and lower cost of the project. From the application of target cost management in highway construction project, this article analyzes the application steps and practice situations of target cost management in the implementation of highway project, after that it puts forward the avail⁃able control and assessment methods of target cost in the actual execution in order to guarantee the profit of the project.

  7. Analysis of the Problems about Project Cost Management in Present Stage of Engineering Construction Projects%分析现阶段工程建设项目中工程造价管理存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌

    2011-01-01

    阐述了现阶段工程建设项目中工程造价管理存在的主要问题,为造价管理理论的研究起到抛砖引玉的作用,为项目管理者提供借鉴,使我国的建设项目能够健康发展,更好的为经济建设服务.%This paper explains the main problems about project cost management in present stage of engineering construction projects, which plays a role that offers a few ordinary introductory remarks so that others may offer their valuable ideas in the research of construction cost management theory,helps the project managers, makes our country's construction projects develop healthily and serves the economic construction better.

  8. On the reasons of engineering cost control of construction and control measures%建筑工程造价失控的原因与控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建红; 唐文娟

    2014-01-01

    建筑工程造价方面出现失控情况,不仅制约着行业发展,而且扰乱了经济发展现状,建筑行业未来发展也会有所制约。必须重视建筑工程中对于造价失控现状分析,能够采用控制措施加以调控,加强建筑行业造价方面控制,以带动建筑工程行业发展。%Industry characteristics of the construction industry, the construction cost out of control, not only restricts the development of the industry,but also disturbs the economic development will be restricted,the future development of the construction industry.So,must pay attention to the architectural engineering for analysis of the current situation of the cost control,to control the use of measures to control,strengthen the construction industry cost control,in order to promote the development of construction industry. Scientific regulation of construction project cost is the key to the development of construction industry.

  9. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    OpenAIRE

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information about costs is extremely valuable for all engineering tasks. Therefore, a cost estimation system for the generation of cost information and for cost control, integrated in the product development cy...

  10. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 2: Analysis of On-Board Treatment Methods, Alternative Ballast Water Management Practices, and Implementation Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    citric acid monohydrate, sodium thiosulfate neutralizer Yes .05 to 32 Decreased sediment, potential corrosion increase (see Section 2.3) http...Kilograms KORDI Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute kPa Kilopascals kW Kilowatt kWh Kilowatt hour lb Pounds LCC Life cycle cost lt...flushing filter, disinfection with injected chlorine dioxide (chlorine dioxide is generated onboard from two component chemicals, sulfuric acid

  11. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  12. Analysis on the influencing factors of cost controlling in municipal engineering under the quota valuation%市政项目管理中定额计价的造价影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚华

    2014-01-01

    运用计量经济建模检验的基本原理,以使用定额计价编制的市政工程造价为依据,以20个样本数据为基础利用 Eviews 软件建立模型,根据检验结果分析了影响市政工程造价的因素,以期为市政建设投资成本控制提供科学依据。%The thesis propose is using the econometric modeling test principle,basis on the quota valuation system of municipal engineering. There are 20 sample data based on Eviews software was applied to build the model,according to the inspection result analysis of the impact of mu-nicipal engineering cost factors,in order to municipal construction cost control to provide the scientific basis.

  13. 我国工程造价咨询行业问题与对策分析%Analysis on problems and countermeasures of our engineering cost consultation industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾支华

    2015-01-01

    This paper simply elaborated the development history of domestic engineering cost consultation industry,and from several aspects ana-lyzed the problems to be solved at present stage,and presented perfect of legal system and industry norms,improvement the industry management level,give full play of the role of finance in service and other countermeasure,in order to promote the long-term stable development of engineering cost consultation industry.%简述了国内工程造价咨询行业的发展历史,从多个方面分析了其现阶段亟待解决的问题,并给出了完善法律体系与行业规范、提高行业管理水平、发挥融资在服务中的作用等对策,以促进工程造价咨询行业的长期、稳定发展。

  14. 加速技能大赛成果转化,深化工程造价专业课程改革%Accelerate the Skills Competition Achievement Transformation, Deepen the Course Reform of the Engineering Cost Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹智

    2014-01-01

    进行技能大赛成果转化,需结合大赛赛点,尝试工程造价专业技能大赛与岗位技能及核心课程的对接;通过开发课程标准、教材及引入大赛评分标准,实现教学资源的开发与利用;通过开设专业社团、校内企业工作室和企业专业教研室等,深化课程教学模式的改革,为工程造价专业课程改革提供有效途径和方法。%Conduct the achievements transformation of skills competition , need to be combined with competition match point ,try to dock with engineering cost professional skills ,job skills contest and core course;By developing the course standards ,textbooks and introduction of competition score stand‐ard ,enables the development and use of teaching resources ;By establishing the professional associations , school enterprise studios and professional teaching and researching office ,deepen the reform of course teaching mode ,providing effective ways and methods for course reform of engineering cost majors .

  15. 建筑工程造价预结算审核管理的有效举措%Analysis of the Effective Initiatives of Pre-settlement Audit Management in the Construction Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      随着经济水平的快速发展,如何在保证建筑工程质量的基础上,对建筑工程的造价进行管理与控制,是当前建筑行业发展过程中所要解决的问题。本文就当前建筑工程造价预结算审核中所存在的问题,提出了有效措施。%With the rapid development of economic level, ho-w to management and control the construction engineering cost on the basis of making sure that the quality of construction is the problem that should be solved in the development pro-cess of the construction industry. In this article, the author puts forward some effective measures for the problems of pre-set-lement audit management in the current construction engine-eering cost.

  16. Panchromatic symmetrical squaraines: a step forward in the molecular engineering of low cost blue-greenish sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Barbero, N; Yoon, J; Dell'Orto, E; Galliano, S; Borrelli, R; Yum, J-H; Di Censo, D; Grätzel, M; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Barolo, C; Viscardi, G

    2014-11-28

    Two novel symmetrical blue squaraine sensitizers were synthesized, which exhibit panchromatic light harvesting and a record efficiency over 6% with Jsc exceeding 14 mA cm(-2), and Voc over 620 mV under 1 sun. Their color, low cost, easiness of synthesis, and relatively high photo- and thermal stability open up the way for commercial applications.

  17. 浅谈绿色建筑与工程造价管理%Discussion on green building and engineering cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊艳瑾

    2012-01-01

      介绍了建筑能耗的概念及各个阶段的工程造价管理,以期为同行提供借鉴。%  This paper introduces the concept of building energy consumption and the various stages of project cost management, in order to provide peer-to learn.

  18. The Current Management Situation and Countermeasures of Construction Engineering Cost%建设工程造价管理现状与应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓彦

    2014-01-01

    在建设工程的整个过程中,建设工程的造价管理具有重要的影响作用。本文首先介绍了建设工程造价管理的当前现状及存在的问题,然后提出了针对当前建设工程造价管理现状的应对策略,为建设工程的造价管理提供了必要的参考依据。%The construction project cost management plays an important role in the whole process of construction project. This article first introduces the current situation and existing problems of construction project cost management, and then put forward the countermeasures in view of the current con-struction project cost management, in order to provide the necessary reference basis for the construction project cost management.

  19. Exemplary.... Nine examples to save energy and cost by intelligent engineering; Zur Nachahmung empfohlen.... Neun Faelle, in denen mit intelligenter Technik Energie und Kosten gespart werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Contents: Daylighting and energy management, light offices by daylight guidance, fresh air after demand by frequency converters, saving heating cost by intelligent control, optimized lighting systems in schools, fresh air from an external provider and compressed air monitoring in a mine. (GL)

  20. 建筑工程施工项目成本控制的措施研究%Study on construction project cost control measures of building engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耀兴; 陈政辉

    2009-01-01

    Combined with the survival situations of construction enterprises at present, the questions existed in cast control of construction projeers in our country are analyzed and discussed, at the same time tram two aspects: whole procedure management and main management controt, quality cost and time cost practical project cost control measures are elaborated, in order to cost control work well to broaden sources of income and reduce expenditure.%结合当前建筑施工企业生存现状,对我国施工项目成本控制中存在的问题进行了分析和探讨,并从项目全过程管理及管理主体、质量成本与工期成本两方面阐述了具体的工程项目成本控制措施,以期搞好成本控制,达到增收节支的目的.

  1. On the Cost Control of Project Management in Construction Engineering%论建筑工程项目管理中的成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永华

    2014-01-01

    Every construction enterprise is in pursuit of high efficiency and high quality, and analyzes the control of the cost of the construction project management. It not only can save the cost of building construction units but also can timely co- rrect deviation. This article has carried on the analysis to the present situation and the problem of cost of construction proj- ect management, finding out the cost control measures.%高效益、高质量是每个建筑企业所追求的,而对建筑工程项目管理中的成本进行控制分析,不仅可以节约建筑施工单位的建筑成本,也可及时纠正偏差。本文从项目管理中的成本控制角度出发,对其进行了阐述。

  2. Kansei Analysis of the Japanese Residential Garden and Development of a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Kansei Engineering System for Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuro Matsubara; Shigekazu Ishihara; Mitsuo Nagamachi; Yukihiro Matsubara

    2011-01-01

    Residential garden design using Kansei engineering is a challenging problem. Landscaping components, such as rocks, trees, and ponds, are widely diversified and have a large number of possible arrangements. This large number of design alternatives makes conventional analyses, such as linear regression and its variations like Quantification Theory Type I (QT1), inapplicable for analyzing the relationships between design elements and the Kansei evaluation. We applied a partial least squares (PL...

  3. ADVANCES IN DECISION ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FOR MANAGING LARGE-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN A VOLATILE WORLD: INTEGRATING BENEFITS, OPPORTUNITIES, COSTS AND RISKS (BOCR) WITH THE BUSINESS MOTIVATION MODEL (BMM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom FEGLAR; Jason K.LEVY; Tatiana FEGLAR; Tomas FEGLAR,JR.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, innovations in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)have led to a significant increase in the complexity of enterprise information systems. This has led to new challenges for enterprise architects, systems engineers, business managers and other decision makers who must cope with the complexity of business plans and processes (particularly automated engineering processes). In order to better manage this complexity, the Business Rule Group (BRG) has put forth the Business Motivation Model (BMM). The original BMM uses a SWOT (Strength,Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat) decision analysis approach. However, the SWOT framework contains significant limitations with respect to decision making and ICT risks, hampering the decision making ability of enterprise architects, business managers, engineers, and other decision makers. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) are among the most widely used decision making tools: they commonly implement a Benefit - Opportunity - Cost - Risk (BOCR)analysis to improve the effectiveness of business decision making. A new approach is put forth that replaces the original SWOT assessment with an ANP-based BOCR analysis. As well, the original BMM is modified and applied in a Component Architecture Framework (CAF).

  4. 价值工程理论在混凝土成本控制中的应用%The application of value engineering theory in concrete cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文丽

    2015-01-01

    Applied the value engineering principle,taking the C35S concrete used in Fuqing nuclear power engineering conventional island as an example,through the analysis on the concrete production process and the main factors influence of concrete cost,selected the raw materials,pro-duction equipment amortization ,equipment operation,production personnel,on-site management as the object of value engineering,through the quantitative calculation,obtained the value coefficient,according to the size of value coefficient,combining with the actual production situation of nuclear power site mixing station,put forward new method to reduce the concrete cost.%应用价值工程原理,以福清核电工程常规岛所用C35S混凝土为例,通过对混凝土生产过程及影响混凝土成本的主要因素的分析,选择原材料、生产设备摊销、设备运行、生产人员、现场管理为价值工程的对象,通过量化计算,得出了价值系数,根据价值系数大小,结合核电现场搅拌站实际生产情况,提出针对性的降低混凝土成本的方法。

  5. Research on Improved Fuzzy Rule Weights in Imbalanced Cost Data Classification & Applications in Engineering Cost%基于改进模糊规则权重算法的不平衡造价数据分类及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟炜; 马啸雨; 姜腾腾; 邢忠桂

    2015-01-01

    针对传统不平衡造价数据分类算法准确率较低的问题,将专家经验分析这一维度引入到造价数据分类工作中,在对国内外相关学者在造价数据分类领域的研究成果进行归纳总结的基础上,将造价行业专家先验知识引入到不平衡造价数据分类领域,构建了基于改进模糊规则权重算法的不平衡造价数据分类模型;并将该模型应用到某单位工程项目的造价数据分类实例中,验证了该模型的可操作性,为其他单位进行类似工作提供了一个新的思考角度。%For the low classification accuracy problem of traditional unbalanced engineering cost data classification algorithm,this paper introduces the dimension of expertise,and an improved fuzzy rules weight algorithm is proposed for unbalanced data classification model. Firstly,we analyze relevant researches home and overboard, and summarize solutions against construction cost data classification proposed by experts in the same field. Secondly,we bring in the experts' prior knowledge in construction cost industry to the field of unbalanced construction cost data classification,thus build an unbalanced construction cost data classification model based on improving fuzzy rule and weight arithmetic. At last,we apply this model to the construction cost data classification example of a certain company's engineering project and get a relatively optimized method in solving the unbalanced construction cost data classification,which provides a new thinking perspective for other similar jobs.

  6. Reducing Lifecycle Sustainment Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    funding is not allocated for its implementation .  Technology Refresh often requires non-recurring engineering investment, but the Working Capital Funds...Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) systems • Industry • Government • Keys to Achieving O&S Cost Reduction Agenda 6 O&S Cost Estimating...policy and conducts oversight – Military departments are allowed considerable latitude in implementation • Army: OSMIS • Navy: Navy VAMOSC • Air

  7. 铁路工程造价现状分析及发展趋势探析%Status Quo and Development Trend of Railway Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨连波

    2013-01-01

      随着我国加入 WTO,工程造价管理的国际化发展也是一种必然趋势。在投资主体多元化、新技术大量应用的铁路建设新时代,铁路工程造价现有的模式存在的一些弊端,已经无法适应市场经济与国际接轨,改革势在必行。%With China's accession to WTO, the international development of the project cost management is an inevitable trend. In the new era of railway construction with investment diversification and applications of a large number of new technologies, existing models of railway project cost exist some drawbacks, and have been unable to adapt to the market economy with international standards, so the reform is imperative.

  8. SOLERAS: Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Exxon Research and Engineering. Volume 3: Appendices pilot plan and design details and subsystem direct cost support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details of the design of a water desalination solar pilot plant in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia are presented. The major subsystems of the plant are defined, including solar energy collection and simulation, energy storage, energy delivery, reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation, water storage, waste disposal, backup power generators, controls and instrumentation data acquisition, facilities and enclosures, and computers. A list of the plant equipment and a set of process flow diagrams are provided. A cost analysis of the pilot plant is included.

  9. Incidence and Management Costs of Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species at Projects Operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    the occurrence of ANS impacts (Yes or No) from freshwater algae, large aquatic plants, fish , zebra mussels, Asiatic clams, water fleas, crayfish...investment in research and development, especially for nuisance aquatic plants, fresh- water clams, and certain invasive fish species. Even so, aggregate...water hyacinths, hydrilla, common reed, sea lamprey, and the zebra mussel are especially notorious for their costly impacts on freshwater services

  10. 基于BIM的变电站工程图形算量系统研究%Development and Research of Substation Engineering BIM Cost Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠庆波; 王霄燕; 曾大林; 纪凡荣; 刘宏志

    2015-01-01

    BIM plays an important role in the project cost management of construction industry. Based on BIM technology,it is beneficial that using BIM technology will enhance the working efficiency of grid technology. At present substation project cost has problems in the aspects of quadratic computation and construction,reinforced,and small installation cost integration. Based on three-dimensional MVC modeling platform and synchronous support,BIM cost software and modular structure were put forward. The quantities calculation of cable channel and earthwork in substation project were selected for case study to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method.%BIM技术在建筑行业的工程造价管理中逐渐发挥其作用,基于BIM技术的多方优势,利用其可视化、精确性特点可为电网工程技经方面提升工作效率。变电站工程造价存在二次算量及建筑、钢筋、安装造价无法集成等问题。利用MVC模式的三维建模平台和同步算量技术支撑,提出了基于BIM的变电站工程图形算量系统。以变电站站区工程中常见的电缆沟及盖板和基础土方工程量计算为例阐述了主要技术的实现方式。

  11. The Installation Engineering Cost Management and Control%安装工程造价成本管理与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锐

    2012-01-01

      本文针对建设单位成本管理的现状,阐述安装工程在决策定位及设计阶段、招投标阶段、施工及竣工结算阶段成本管理存在的问题,结合工作经验,在进行风险分析的基础上,提出成本管理优化目标、思路和措施。%  This paper introduces the status quo of the cost management of the construction unit, and the problems of cost management of instal ation works in the decision-making posi-tioning and design phase, bidding phase, and the construction and completion of the set lement stage. Combined with worki-ng experience, and based on the risk analysis, it proposed cost management optimization goals, ideas and measures.

  12. 基于物联网和大数据的电力工程造价分析%Cost Analysis of Electric Power Engineering Based on Internet of Things and Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇; 王征

    2015-01-01

    The integration of electric power engineering and modern science and technology and the traditional industrial production process is the era development product of the demands from electric energy's production, transmission and dis⁃tribution, it is also the technical basis of material civilization and spiritual civilization in modern society. Under the global coverage of Internet of things and big data ,automation of electric power engineering and the application of the current net⁃work information has almost got in touch with every sphere. With the development of time and social civilization, the de⁃ velopment prospect of electric power engineering is unlimited, meanwhile, affected by Internet of things and big data, the cost of electric power engineering is also given brand new characteristics.%电力工程与现代科技技术和传统工业生产工艺相融合,是物联网和大数据发展背景下,电能的生产、输送、分配需求的时代发展产物,是现代社会物质文明与精神文明的技术基础。物联网和大数据的全球覆盖之下,电力工程的自动化和网络信息应用无所不及。随着时代的发展、社会文明的进步,电力工程发展的前景无限,基于物联网和大数据的影响,电力工程造价也拥有了全新的特点。

  13. Integrated Management on Project Cost Management of Construction Engineering and Process Engineering%浅谈建设工程成本管理与全过程工程项目集成化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马改芝

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the present situation of project management mode at present and the existence of defects, construction project on the integrated management system is able to make up for the disadvantages of present stage, and, on the construction project cost management analysis, carry out effective cost management under the new model to reduce the construction investment costs and increase later benefits in the future, and project construction under the new direction for the development of this model are described.%  本文针对现阶段工程项目管理模式现状及存在的弊端,工程建设项目集成化管理系统恰恰是能够弥补现阶段的弊端,进而,就建设工程投资成本管理进行分析,在新模式下进行有效的成本管理以减少建设方的投资建设费用及增加后期效益,并对将来此模式下工程项目建设发展新方向进行阐述。

  14. 建筑企业工程项目成本核算管控问题的思考%Discussion on a large scale construction enterprise engineering project cost accounting and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飞

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing market competition,construction enterprises grasp the business in hand,expand market share, at the same time,stick to the “benefit oriented,strengthen the implementation”,“continued to scale and benefit, the transformation of the development direction of giving priority to efficiency”,the cost control into every link of the construction process,responsibility of the main clear each links of cost control,project organization and implementation of the corrective process has happened and will happen the difference between cost and the cost,strict control of engineering project,improve the project benefit.%随着市场竞争日益加剧,建筑企业在一方面抓经营,扩大市场份额同时,另一方面应当坚持“效益导向、强化执行”,持续向“规模与效益并重,效益优先”的发展方向转变,这就要求在项目实施过程中,把成本控制渗透到施工过程的每一个环节上,明确每一环节成本控制的责任主体,将工程项目组织实施过程中已经发生和即将要发生的成本差额及时纠正,严格控制工程项目的各项成本,提高工程项目效益。

  15. Municipal Water Supply and Drainage Engineering Cost Control and Management%市政给排水工程造价控制与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利萍

    2014-01-01

    Municipal water supply and drainage engineering is a municipal infrastructure construction, which is closely related to the quality of life and the vital interests of citizens, and plays an important role in improving the urban planning and greening urban environment. To improve the efficiency of funds is the direction and pursuit of municipal builders.%市政给排水工程是一项市政基础建设事业,与广大市民的生活质量及切身利益息息相关,并在完善城市规划、绿化城市环境等方面具有重要的保障作用,提高资金的使用效益是市政建设者必须努力和追求的方向。

  16. 节能建筑对工程造价的影响探讨%To Investigate the Effect of Energy Saving Building on Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increasing shortage of resources, al walks of life in the pursuit of energy-saving and environment-friendly mode of production, so is the construction industry. This paper introduces the reasons why current construction pr-oject cost is out of control, and analyses the energy saving bu-ilding materials used on the construction project cost, hopes to provide reference and help to workers.%随着资源紧缺状况的加重,各行各业都在追求节能环保的生产方式,建筑行业亦是如此。本文介绍了我国当前建筑工程造价失控的原因,并重点分析了节能建筑材料的运用对建筑工程造价的影响,希望对相关工作者有所借鉴和帮助。

  17. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  18. 建设项目投标阶段的工程造价风险规避%Risk Aversion of Engineering Cost in the Bidding Stage in Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚红

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the risk of engineering cost in bidding stage, the paper systematic-al y studied the factors causing bidding risk and response mea-sures, which is of great practical significance to avoid the risk of bidding of construction projects.%本文在分析工程造价投标阶段风险的特点上,系统地研究了投标风险产生的因素和应对措施,对建设项目规避投标报价风险具有重大的实践指导意义。

  19. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  20. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  1. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  2. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  3. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  4. 五星级酒店装修工程造价的全过程控制%The Cost Control in the Whole Process of Five Stars Hotel Decoration Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红琴

    2014-01-01

    笔者于2007年进入深圳万利加集团,负责集团工程造价的审计工作,集团旗下有酒店、烟草、地产、矿业四大产业。笔者做为昇逸酒店装修工程的结算审核人,现结昇合集团旗下的逸酒店和馨悦酒店精装修工程,从设计、招投标、施工、结算等方面分析影响酒店装修工程造价的因素,论述酒店精装修工程如何能够有效的全过程控制。%The author joined the Shenzhen GloryHarvest Group in 2007, and have been responsible for the auditing of Group's construction cost. The Group has four major industries: the Hotels, the Tobacco, the Real Estate, and the Mining. As the reviewer of the settlement audit of Zense Hotel renovation project, combining the Group's decoration engineering of Zense Hotel and Zense Inn Hotel, The author would like to analyze the factors which influence the hotel renovation cost of the whole process in design, bidding, construction, and settlement, and also would like to discuss how to make the effectively control during the hotel renovation.

  5. Combining metabolic engineering and adaptive evolution to enhance the production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans in a low-cost way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Leifang; Wei, Liujing; Zhu, Kun; Wei, Dongzhi; Hua, Qiang

    2012-08-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans can rapidly and effectively transform glycerol to dihydroxyacetone (DHA) by membrane-bound quinoprotein sorbitol dehydrogenase (mSLDH). Two mutant strains of GDHE Δadh pBBR-PtufBsldAB and GDHE Δadh pBBR-sldAB derived from the GDHE strain were constructed for the enhancement of DHA production. Growth performances of both strains were largely improved after adaptively growing in the medium with glucose as the sole carbon source. The resulting GAT and GAN strains exhibited better catalytic property than the GDHE strain in the presence of a high concentration of glycerol. All strains of GDHE, GAT and GAN cultivated on glucose showed enhanced catalytic capacity than those grown on sorbitol, indicating a favorable prospect of using glucose as carbon source to reduce the cost in industrial production. It was also the first time to reveal that the expression level of the sldAB gene in glucose-growing strains were higher than that of the strains cultivated on sorbitol.

  6. 项目管理软件在建设工程管理中的应用%Application of project management software in engineering cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钊

    2014-01-01

    随着科学技术的不断进步,计算机软硬件技术、互联网技术的发展为工程项目管理计算机化的实现提供了实现的前提和基础。项目管理软件的研发为工程建设项目的信息化管理提供了有效的技术平台。本文就项目管理软件类型和用途进行分析,并对项目管理软件在应用中存在的问题进行研究,进而探讨项目管理软件应用的优化措施,对其应用效果进行分析,从而有效的提高项目管理软件的作用。%With the continuous progress of science and technology, provides the premise and foundation to realize the development of Internet technology, computer software and hardware technology, the management of engineering projects of computerized. Research and development of project management software provides effective technology platform for the information management of construction project. In this paper, the types and application of project management software is analyzed, and the research on project management of software problems in application, and then discusses the measures to optimize project management software application, the application effect is analyzed, so as to effectively improve project management software for.

  7. Tapping Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    management , survival analysis  lead image by Diane Fleischer 58 Controlling cost growth for a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) has been...directing and controlling a totally integrated engineering effort of a system or program.” Program management is defined as “the business and...56 Defense ARJ, January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 56–76 TAPPING Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition COST BREACHES Laura E. Armey and Diana I

  8. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  9. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  10. Economic analysis of transmission line engineering based on industrial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    The modern industrial engineering is applied to the technical analysis and cost analysis of power transmission and transformation engineering. It can effectively reduce the cost of investment. First, the power transmission project is economically analyzed. Based on the feasibility study of power transmission and transformation project investment, the proposal on the company system cost management is put forward through the economic analysis of the effect of the system. The cost management system is optimized. Then, through the cost analysis of power transmission and transformation project, the new situation caused by the cost of construction is found. It is of guiding significance to further improve the cost management of power transmission and transformation project. Finally, according to the present situation of current power transmission project cost management, concrete measures to reduce the cost of power transmission project are given from the two aspects of system optimization and technology optimization.

  11. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  12. Tracking Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  13. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  14. Heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  15. Application of Value Engineering in Controlling Construction Project Cost%浅析价值工程在控制建筑工程造价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良

    2011-01-01

    Currently, with continuous enlargement of China's construction investment scale and the increasing investment quota, we need a more perfect management theory to guide the engineering project management. Through the systematical value management, we make enterprises obtain more economic benefits, and make people get more social benefits. In 1982 value management theory is first applied to the construction project. The complexity of the construction project makes the application of value engineering theory in construction projects difficult. However, we have achieved some results. This paper attempts to present its application in controlling construction project cost.%当前随着我国建设投资规模的不断扩大和投资额度的不断增加,我们需要一种更加完善的管理理论来指导工程项目管理,通过系统的价值管理来使企业获得更大的经济效益,使人们获得更多的社会效益.在1982年价值管理理论首次应用于建设工程项目.建设工程项目的复杂性特点使得价值工程理论在建设工程项目中运用的难度比较大,但也取得了一定的成效.本文试就价值工程在控制建筑工程造价方面的应用做简要介绍.

  16. Cost Benefit Analysis: Cost Benefit Analysis for Human Effectiveness Research: Bioacoustic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    APPENDIX A. ACRONYMS ACCES Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System ACEIT Automated Cost estimating Integrated Tools AFSC Air Force...documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed by Tecolote, Inc. The factor used was 14 percent of PMP. 1.3 System Engineering/ Program...The data source is the ASC Aeronautical Engineering Products Cost Factor Handbook which is documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed

  17. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  18. LC21-Hopes and Cautions for the Library of Congress; The NSF National Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education Digital Library (NSDL) Program: A Progress Report; A Grammar of Dublin Core; Measuring the Impact of an Electronic Journal Collection on Library Costs: A Framework and Preliminary Observations; Emulation As a Digital Preservation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James J.; Zia, Lee L.; Baker, Thomas; Montgomery, Carol Hansen; Granger, Stewart

    2000-01-01

    Includes five articles: (1) discusses Library of Congress efforts to include digital materials; (2) describes the National Science Foundation (NSF) digital library program to improve science, math, engineering, and technology education; (3) explains Dublin Core grammar; (4) measures the impact of electronic journals on library costs; and (5)…

  19. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.

  20. 23 CFR 1.11 - Engineering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Engineering services. 1.11 Section 1.11 Highways FEDERAL... Engineering services. (a) Federal participation. Costs of engineering services performed by the State highway... to specific projects. (b) Governmental engineering organizations. The State highway department may...

  1. 以职业竞争力为导向的工程造价专业教学%Teaching exploration for engineering cost specialty to improve students' career competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽; 刘海芳

    2012-01-01

    在大学生就业形势严峻的今天,如何提高学生的职业竞争力已成为高校学生培养工作的一个重点。文章从工程造价专业毕业生在实际工作中存在的问题出发,深入分析工程造价专业的职业竞争力,建立了五项核心能力模型,并结合学校实际,提出了工程造价专业五项核心能力重点培养的具体措施。%Nowadays, it is hard for graduate students to find a well-pleasing job. Therefore, how to enhance students' career competitiveness is an important work in the colleges and universities. We presented main problems in graduate students' practical work, analyzed career competitiveness of engineering cost specialty, established a model of five core capabilities, and proposed specific measures to realize the training of five core capabilities based on the reality of our university.

  2. Practical knowledge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Richard

    1991-01-01

    This book provides knowledge engineers with practical methods for initiating, designing, building, managing, and demonstrating successful commercial expert systems. It is a record of what actually works (and does not work) in the construction of expert systems, drawn from the author's decade of experience in building expert systems in all major areas of application for American, European, and Japanese organizations.The book features:* knowledge engineering programming techniques* useful skills for demonstrating expert systems * practical costing and metrics* guidelines for using knowledge repr

  3. Tunnel Cost-Estimating Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    8 ae1e 066 c LINING CALCULATES THE LINING COSTS AND THE FORMWORK COST FOR A 982928 ees C TUNNEL OR SHAFT SEGMENT 682636 0066...AD-AIO . 890 ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURGETC F/B 13/13 TUNNEL COST-ESTIMATING METNDS(U) OCT 81 R D BENNETT UNCLASSIFIED WES...TR/L-81-101-3lEEEEEE EIIIl-IIIIIIIu IIIIEIIIEIIIIE llllEEEEllEEEI EEEEEEEEEIIII C EllTE-CHNICAL RGPORT GL-81-10 LI10 TUNNEL COST-ESTIMATING METHODS by

  4. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  5. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  6. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  7. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  8. Four Engineers...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  9. Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Lin, Shi-Woei

    2013-01-01

    This book is based on the research papers presented during The Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013 held at Taipei in July 2013. It presents information on the most recent and relevant research, theories and practices in industrial and systems engineering. Key topics include: Engineering and Technology Management Engineering Economy and Cost Analysis Engineering Education and Training Facilities Planning and Management Global Manufacturing and Management Human Factors Industrial & Systems Engineering Education Information Processing and Engineering Intelligent Systems Manufacturing Systems Operations Research Production Planning and Control Project Management Quality Control and Management Reliability and Maintenance Engineering Safety, Security and Risk Management Supply Chain Management Systems Modeling and Simulation Large scale complex systems.

  10. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  11. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  12. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  13. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  14. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  15. Engine Downsizing and Electric Hybridization Under Consideration of Cost and Drivability Réduction de taille moteur et hybridation électrique avec considérations de coût et de performance de conduite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbesen S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturers of hybrid electric vehicles are confronted with the multi-objective non-trivial optimization problem of engine downsizing and electric hybridization under consideration of cost and drivability. Solutions to this sizing problem are typically reached by heuristic design methodologies. However, a design approach formalized in an optimization theoretical setting is necessary in order to obtain globally optimal solutions. In this paper, we present a framework for optimal sizing of hybrid electric drivetrain components. This framework is cast within standard optimization theory. Moreover, it is flexible in order to easily include any number of objectives, such as minimization of fuel consumption, cost of hybridization, emission levels and (or maximization of acceleration performance. Based on this framework, we demonstrate a number of techniques and tools to analyze, accept, improve, or reject the proposed solutions to the optimal sizing problem. Les constructeurs de véhicules automobiles électriques hybrides sont confrontés au problème délicat de l’optimisation multiobjectifs de la réduction de taille moteur et de l’hybridation électrique, tout en considérant le coût et la performance de conduite. Les solutions à ce problème de dimensionnement moteur sont généralement obtenues par des méthodes de conception de type heuristique. Cependant, afin d’obtenir des solutions optimales globales, il est nécessaire de recourir aux formalismes théoriques d’optimisation. Dans cet article, nous présentons une méthodologie de travail, qui s’appuie sur les théories classiques d’optimisation, pour le dimensionnement optimal des composants d’une chaîne de traction électrique hybride. En outre, cette approche est flexible afin de permettre l’ajout d’un nombre quelconque d’objectifs, comme la minimisation de la consommation d’essence, le coût de l’hybridation, les niveaux d’émission et (ou la

  16. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  17. 八面河油区井下作业工程运输及特车费造价要素分析%Cost Elements Analysis of Downhole Engineering Transportation and Special Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东强; 程姜红

    2015-01-01

    八面河油区井下作业工程运输及特车费定额收入与财务成本差异大,通过对措施作业中运输及特种车辆的机械台数、台时、台时价格逐层分析,发现措施作业中罐车、水泥车消耗量定额的差异是造成运输及特车费差异的主要因素;定额机械台时价格是造成运输及特车费差异的次要因素;车辆计划与生产组织衔接问题、工农关系、车辆故障等非正常因素对运输及特车费差异有一定影响。因此,消耗量定额应随科学技术进步、工艺水平的提高做出相应的合理的编制及调整。%There is a big difference between the cost of downhole engineering transportation and special truck and that of finance in Bamianhe Oilfield .It is found that such a difference is caused majorly by the difference of consumption quota of tanker and cementing truck in measure operation and also by machine -hour price quota and other factors through analyzing the numbers of operation transportation and special trucks ,machine hour and its price .Therefore , consumption quota should be rationally worked out and adjusted in accordance with technological progress .

  18. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  19. Alternative engines for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulton, M.L. [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The book discusses the development of each alternative engine and discloses current manufacturing research and experimental testing, together with the results where available. Prospects for further development of conventional engines are discussed and comparisons are made with reference to fuel economy and exhaust emissions. Cost issues are made generally, with definitive data where it exists. (UK)

  20. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  1. Engineering and Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  2. Selecting and Ranking Cost Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Model (STACM) Enhancements Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) Libraries BM/C 3 GEP Engineering and Cost BM/C 3 EP Engineering and Cost...50K NOM VHI 0.02635481 STACM ENHANCEMENTS NOM អK NOM VHI 0.02468682 ACEIT LIBRARIES VHI 50-IOOK HI VHI 0.06357704 GEP ENGRG. & COST VHI 100-150K VHl...0.02505922 SCATS LOW អK NOM VIII 0.02468682 PICES SUPPORT NOM 50-100K NOM VlIl 0.02455186 ACEIT SUPPORT VIII 50-100K VHI VHI 0.08208244 GUARDIAN

  3. Minimizing Costs Can Be Costly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A quite common practice, even in academic literature, is to simplify a decision problem and model it as a cost-minimizing problem. In fact, some type of models has been standardized to minimization problems, like Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs, where a maximization formulation would be treated as a “generalized” QAP and not solvable by many of the specially designed softwares for QAP. Ignoring revenues when modeling a decision problem works only if costs can be separated from the decisions influencing revenues. More often than we think this is not the case, and minimizing costs will not lead to maximized profit. This will be demonstrated using spreadsheets to solve a small example. The example is also used to demonstrate other pitfalls in network models: the inability to generally balance the problem or allocate costs in advance, and the tendency to anticipate a specific type of solution and thereby make constraints too limiting when formulating the problem.

  4. How software can sharpen up cost estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, S.

    1993-05-01

    Sherpa is a menu driven software package, designed by Western Mine Engineering Inc., to determine capital and operating costs for surface mining operations. The programme is engineering-based (as opposed to based on statistics) meaning that all equipment, labour and supply requirements are determined from deposit design, production, and geologic information using standard engineering techniques. These requirements are used in conjunction with equipment, supply, and labour cost data bases internal to the programme to determine all associated costs. By programming the engineering processes commonly used to estimate costs, Sherpa is designed to allow users working in the pre-feasibility stage to function at a level of detail normally reserved for final feasibility studies. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  6. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    pass, depend- ing on skiway condition. Total construction time will take approximately 27–30 hours, or 4 working days. Surface maintenance ...ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the...cargo loads. To explore further skiway improvement and cost saving techniques, this report reviews alternative maintenance and construction options

  7. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  8. 18 CFR 4.3 - Report on project cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1 is received by the Commission, its representative will schedule and conduct an audit of the books, cost records, engineering reports, and other records supporting the project's original cost. The...

  9. National Airspace Review Benefits and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    engine The APO study describes the following costs.’ 5 piston (MEP) and turboprop (TP), respectively. Furthermore, FAA estimates the value of time Task...aircraft flown by these operators, the average "On the basis of previously provided Stage Ill weighted GA operator value of time per hour TRSA services, it...engine The APO study describes the following costs.15 piston (MEP) and turboprop (TP), respectively. Furthermore, FAA estimates the value of time Task

  10. Engineering Change Management Method Framework in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekolschik, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Engineering changes make an impact on different process chains in and outside the company, and lead to most error costs and time shifts. In fact, 30 to 50 per cent of development costs result from technical changes. Controlling engineering change processes can help us to avoid errors and risks, and contribute to cost optimization and a shorter time to market. This paper presents a method framework for controlling engineering changes at mechanical engineering companies. The developed classification of engineering changes and accordingly process requirements build the basis for the method framework. The developed method framework comprises two main areas: special data objects managed in different engineering IT tools and process framework. Objects from both areas are building blocks that can be selected to the overall business process based on the engineering process type and change classification. The process framework contains steps for the creation of change objects (both for overall change and for parts), change implementation, and release. Companies can select singleprocess building blocks from the framework, depending on the product development process and change impact. The developed change framework has been implemented at a division (10,000 employees) of a big German mechanical engineering company.

  11. Engineering change management report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Langer, Stefan

    Changes or modifications have always been a fundamental part of product- and service design, yet they are often costly and potentially decrease overall development efficiency and effectiveness. How Danish manufacturing firms are able to improve engineering change management practice is a decisive......, challenges, and strategies for improved engineering change management of more than 90 engineering firms from different industry sectors and sizes in Denmark. In particular, the report presents an overview of current practice of engineering change management in Denmark, shows the extent to which engineering...... implementation, with software use in comparison being surprisingly low. The biggest problems listed range from engineering change process support to internal and external communication and the need for company-internal awareness and competence training for better engineering change management. The biggest need...

  12. 47 CFR 32.6535 - Engineering expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering expense. 32.6535 Section 32.6535... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6535 Engineering expense. (a) This account shall include costs incurred in the general engineering of the telecommunications plant...

  13. 浅谈基于ERP系统的中低压电网改造工程全寿命周期造价管理%Discussion on the WholeLife CycleCost Management of Mesolow Power Grid Reconstruction Engineering Based on ERP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧颖

    2015-01-01

    Currently there are a lot of problems existing in the cost management of mesolow power grid renovation engi⁃neering, which causes the waste of resources and funds in the process of reconstruction, while the adoption of the Whole Life Cycle cost management can effectively solve these problems. Based on the theoretical source and significance of the Whole Life Cycle cost management, comparing with the characteristics of simple preliminary budget control of cost and the overall process engineering cost management, and then combining with the features of ERP system ,we can predict that the Whole Life Cycle cost management is necessary and feasible in mesolow power grid reconstruction project.%当前中低压电网改造工程造价管理存在诸多问题,造成改造过程中资源资金的浪费,采用全寿命周期造价管理可有效解决这些问题。基于全寿命周期造价管理的理论来源和意义,通过与简单的概预算控制造价、全过程工程造价管理特点的对比,结合ERP系统的特点,中低压电网改造工程实行全寿命周期造价管理是必要的和可行的。

  14. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... may be reimbursed. (b) Labor surcharges. (1) Labor surcharges include worker compensation...

  15. Jet engine. Strahltriebwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.J.

    1990-11-15

    A gas turbine axial-flow compressor aggregate is mounted in a jet engine consisting of a high-temperature combustion chamber that is composed of conical rings forming slits and set together to a ring column and reaches up to the propelling nozzle, a compressed-air generator supplying the jet engine with compressed air at subsonic speeds and running into the propelling nozzle and a shell encasing the jet engine while leaving a certain intermediate space. The compressor aggregate has a relatively high fuel consumption and high emission rates, involves high production and maintenance costs and puts the blades at a high risk of overheating. The problem basic to the invention was to install a compressed-air generator in the jet engine that has lower fuel consumption and emission rates and is cheaper to manufacture and to service. The invention provides free-piston compressors for compressed-air generators arranged in a circle around the central high-temperature combustion chamber. The ring of compressors can rotate on bearings against the jet engine shell, so that each compressor can be turned to the bottom and serviced there. The jet engine is suitable as an engine for supersonic aircraft.

  16. Engineering change management report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Langer, Stefan

    implementation, with software use in comparison being surprisingly low. The biggest problems listed range from engineering change process support to internal and external communication and the need for company-internal awareness and competence training for better engineering change management. The biggest need...... for appropriate strategies is seen in supporting early phases of engineering change management, for example, for early detection, risk-assessment, and avoidance of unnecessary changes.......Changes or modifications have always been a fundamental part of product- and service design, yet they are often costly and potentially decrease overall development efficiency and effectiveness. How Danish manufacturing firms are able to improve engineering change management practice is a decisive...

  17. Computer graphics in engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, David F

    2013-01-01

    Computer Graphics in Engineering Education discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) as an instructional material in engineering education. Each of the nine chapters of this book covers topics and cites examples that are relevant to the relationship of CAD-CAM with engineering education. The first chapter discusses the use of computer graphics in the U.S. Naval Academy, while Chapter 2 covers key issues in instructional computer graphics. This book then discusses low-cost computer graphics in engineering education. Chapter 4 discusses the uniform b

  18. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  19. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  20. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  1. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  3. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  4. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  5. Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

  6. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  7. Prosthetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview CoE for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering Menu Menu VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

  8. 75 FR 37311 - Airplane and Engine Certification Requirements in Supercooled Large Drop, Mixed Phase, and Ice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... certain transport category airplanes certified for flight in icing conditions and the icing airworthiness... charged with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing minimum standards... million annually) Costs Nominal cost PV cost Engine Cert Cost 7,936,000 6,931,610 Engine Capital Cost 6...

  9. Engineering Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  10. Engineering Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  11. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  13. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  14. Adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-02-01

    The research and development of an adiabatic turbocompound engine have shown that the concept is feasible. The ability to meet the performance and sociability goals of the future power plants has been demonstrated. Low brake specific fuel consumption, low smoke and particulates, better NO /SUB x/ -BSFC trade-off, excellent multifuel capability, white smoke suppression, and potentially lower maintenance and greater reliability and durability are some of the attributes. The absence of the water cooling system adds to its attractiveness because of lower installed weight, cost, and reduction in parasitic losses. The operating environment of an adiabatic engine is shown as the basis for analysis and designing of adiabatic components. The types of material which can satisfy the needs of an adiabatic engine are presented. These materials include high temperature metals, high performance ceramics, and glass ceramics. The use of a turbocompound system to utilize the increased exhaust energy of an adiabatic engine is covered. A minimum fuel consumption of 0.285 lb/bhp-hr was achieved at 200 psi BMEP. Although the technical feasibility and viability of an adiabatic engine was demonstrated, the adiabatic diesel engine has problems which must be solved before it becomes a commercially viable product. These problem areas where more work is required are discussed.

  15. Integrated approach to cost consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Cost consciousness was given a very necessary boost by the collapse of oil prices in 1986 and downward movements in prices have served to re-inforce the need for vigilance: oil companies were becoming complacent. The climate necessary for cost consciousness to flourish as part of the oil company culture is established by higher management attitude and can be reinforced by organizational structure. British Petroleum's current production/exploration organisational structure is reported on in the first section of this paper and this is followed by a discussion of pertinent cost-oriented observations to emerge from this grouping related both to the component phases of the exploitation of a field, and to the cost of engineering/managing same.

  16. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  17. Cost objective PLM and CE

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during t...

  18. Mechanical engineering in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, J W

    1980-10-01

    The design of a modern hospital owes more to engineering than the layman may realize. In this context, many engineers are in the position of laymen, being unfamiliar with the multitude of services that lies behind the impressive facade of a modern hospital. In recent years medicine and surgery themselves have taken on many of the characteristics of a technology. This has required a matching development of the services both mechanical and electrical that are required in modern health care buildings. In medical terms, if the architectural features provide the 'skin' of the hospital, the mechanical and electrical engineering services provide the nerves and sinews. If we take as an example the recently completed Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, (Fig. 1), which cost 10 million pounds at current cost, the service network was responsible for about half the total cost. About 400 miles (643 km) of electrical wiring and more than 40 mile (64.5 km) of copper and steel piping were used to service 3000 separate rooms. This compares with percentages of between 18 and 25 per cent for other large buildings such as office blocks, hotels and sports complexes.

  19. The engineering report and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, D.H. [Gilbert Laustsen Jung, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The importance of engineering reports in takeover strategies within the petroleum industry are discussed. Due diligence objectives and approaches are reviewed. One of the approaches involves the analysis and evaluation of current assets and liabilities, another is concerned with the analysis and evaluation of upside to current assets. Evaluation parameters (reserves, production rates, capital costs, operating costs, development programs, base price forecast, pricing differentials, abandonment costs, undeveloped acreage, processing income, fiscal environment) are explained. Types of engineering reports and their evaluation criteria, among them the importance of who prepared it (whether internal or external), the mandate, currency issues, price volatility, documentation, (not just results, but methodology), and evidence of the level of due diligence effort, are described. Matters of importance beyond the engineering report, such as examination of current assets, exploration and strategic upsides, tax optimization, technical and price sensitivities, and value characterization are also explored. 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. CONSTRUCTION COST INTEGRATED CONTROL BASED ON COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Construction cost control is a complex system engineering. Thetraditional controlling method cannot dynamically control in advance the construction cost because of its hysteresis. This paper proposes a computer simulation based construction cost integrated control method, which combines the cost with PERT systematically, so that the construction cost can be predicted and optimized systematically and effectively. The new method overcomes the hysteresis of the traditional systems, and is a distinct improvement over them in effect and practicality.

  1. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  2. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  3. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  4. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  5. Digital electronic engine control history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    Full authority digital electronic engine controls (DEECs) were studied, developed, and ground tested because of projected benefits in operability, improved performance, reduced maintenance, improved reliability, and lower life cycle costs. The issues of operability and improved performance, however, are assessed in a flight test program. The DEEC on a F100 engine in an F-15 aircraft was demonstrated and evaluated. The events leading to the flight test program are chronicled and important management and technical results are identified.

  6. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  7. Method and Measures for Whole Process Cost Control of Expressway Engineering%浅谈高速公路工程全过程造价控制方法与措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永春

    2013-01-01

    At present, expressway construction is extending rapidly, but there is lack of control and management of expressway project cost. The problem of high project cost has not been improved. This article puts forward specific cost control methods and measures for each stage of expressway construction.%当前高速公路建设迅速扩展,但对高速公路工程造价的控制、管理缺乏,工程造价过高问题没有得到改善,文章针对高速公路工程的各个环节提出了具体的造价控制方法和措施。

  8. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 基于 PM3的公路工程造价管理成熟度模型%Highway engineering cost management maturity model based on PM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟军; 石志飞

    2015-01-01

    为了提高工程造价管理水平,基于项目管理成熟度模型(PM3)的基本思想,构建了公路工程造价管理成熟度模型。以成熟度等级、公路工程造价管理过程和公路建设类型作为模型的三个维度,构建了贯穿公路工程建设全过程的造价管理定量化评价指标体系。分析了各指标的含义和量化方法,明确了工程造价管理5个成熟度等级的内涵。最后采用层次分析法和加权平均法确定了工程造价管理的成熟度等级。%To improve the level of project cost management,a highway project cost manage-ment maturity model is established based on the basic idea of the Project Management Ma-turity Model (PM3 ).Taking the maturity level,highway construction cost management process and highway construction type as the three model dimensions,the cost management quantitative evaluation index system was constructed through the whole process of highway construction,the meaning of each index and the quantitative method were analyzed,and the connotation of five maturity levels of construction cost management was clarified.AHP a-nalysis and weighted average method were used to determine the construction cost manage-ment maturity level.

  10. Any Chance Left for China's Large Engineering Tire Producers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The service the large engineering tire producers offer is to satisfy the lowest transport cost, moving the maximum volume of minerals at the lowest environmental costs and in the shortest period of time.

  11. Methodology and Technology for Design to Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 曾庆良; 熊光楞

    2001-01-01

    Product cost is one of the most important factors affectingproduct market share. Traditionally, product costs are estimated after they are manufactured. However, in this way, the best opportunity to control product cost is lost. In this paper, a method trying to reduce product cost at the design stage is proposed. This method is called Design to Cost (DTC). According to this method, product structure can be optimized with the application of value engineering and Design for Manufacturing/Assembly (DFMA) criteria in the conceptual stage of product design. During embodiment design, products are evaluated economically on the basis of the product model which includes manufacturing, assembly and test cost information. According to the results, products are redesigned before manufacture, and the production cost is reduced.

  12. Program For Engineering Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    DFACS is interactive multiuser computer-aided-engineering software tool for system-level electrical integration and cabling engineering. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in and gaining access to data on functional definition of system, details of end-circuit pinouts in systems and subsystems, and data on wiring harnesses. Objective, to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding error-prone, time-consuming, and costly shuttling of data along multiple paths. Designed to operate on DEC VAX mini or micro computer using Version 5.0/03 of INGRES.

  13. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  14. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142564Chen Mingxing(Beijing Research Institute of Survey and Design,China Hydropower Engineering Consulting Group Co.,Beijing 100024,China);Chen Baoguo Application of Drilling Deviation Correcting and Deflecting Techniques in Geological Exploration at Songta Hydropower Station(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,

  15. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  16. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of knowledge, belief and opinions in which engineering is immersed. Thus the overall objective is explorative. By investigating the language, practices and techniques by which engineering is governed the chapter sets out to point to the presumptions, stipulations and ‘limits’ of the dominant discourses...

  17. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  18. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  19. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  20. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  1. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, H. P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Lyons, Jennifer [EG& G Technical Services, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States); White, Charles W. [EG& G Technical Services, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  2. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  3. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new

  4. Year 2000 small engine technology payoffs in cruise missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Benstein, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been conducted for advanced small (450-850 pounds thrust) gas turbine engines for a subsonic strategic cruise missile application, using projected year-2000 technology. Engine performance and configuration analyses were performed for two and three spool turbofan and propfan engine concepts. Mission and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analyses were performed in which the candidate engines were compared to the baseline engine over a prescribed mission. The advanced technology engines reduced system LCC up to 41 percent relative to the baseline engine. The critical aerodynamic materials and mechanical systems necessary for turbine engine technology were identified.

  5. HCCI Engine Optimization and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf D. Reitz

    2005-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop methods to optimize and control Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, with emphasis on diesel-fueled engines. HCCI offers the potential of nearly eliminating IC engine NOx and particulate emissions at reduced cost over Compression Ignition Direct Injection engines (CIDI) by controlling pollutant emissions in-cylinder. The project was initiated in January, 2002, and the present report is the final report for work conducted on the project through December 31, 2004. Periodic progress has also been reported at bi-annual working group meetings held at USCAR, Detroit, MI, and at the Sandia National Laboratories. Copies of these presentation materials are available on CD-ROM, as distributed by the Sandia National Labs. In addition, progress has been documented in DOE Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Progress Reports for FY 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports are included as the Appendices in this Final report.

  6. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  7. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  8. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    The design professions have always been an amorphous phenomena difficult to merge under one label. New constellations continually emerge, questioning, stretching, and reconfiguring the understanding of design and the professional practices linked to it. In this paper the idea of architectural...... engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...

  9. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.125 Allowable advance planning costs. (a) The United States' share of the allowable costs of...

  10. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed costs reflect complete, current, and accurate cost and pricing data applicable to the date of... complete, current, and accurate. EPA may, on a selected basis, perform a pre-award cost analysis on any... borrowed capital and bad debts. (6) The engineer shall have an accounting system which accounts for...

  11. 论新时期、新形势下如何做好工程造价管理工作%Discuss How to Do a Good Job of Engineering Cost Management under New Era and New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      根据工程造价的历史和现状,结合新时期工程造价理论和实践经验的最新成果,本文分析了当前工程造价管理工作的特点和不足,针对这些问题总结了解决的办法,以期让工程造价的管理工作能够跟上时代的步伐。%In this article, the author bases on the history and current status of the project cost, combines with the project cost theory in the new era and the latest achievements of pra-ctical experience, and analyzes the features and shortcomings of the current project cost management, sums up the solutions of these problems so that the project cost management can ke-ep pace of the times.

  12. Research on the Dynamic Management of Engineering Cost of the Whole Life Cycle%工程造价全生命周期的动态管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志飞

    2016-01-01

    Along with the reform and progress of the construction project management system in China,the project cost management is developed from the original static management to dynamic management,and from the original stage management to the whole life cycle management,so as to complete the construction and operation of the project withthe smaller cost in a whole life cycle. This paper discusses how to strengthen the dynamic management of the whole life cycle of project cost to effectively and dynamically control project cost.%随着我国工程建设项目管理体制的改革与发展,工程造价管理由原来的静态管理发展为动态管理,由原来的阶段管理发展为全生命周期管理,从而以较小的全生命周期成本去完成项目的建设和运营。为此就加强工程造价全生命周期的动态管理进行探讨,以动态有效地控制工程造价。

  13. Application of Activity-based Costing in Construction Enterprises of Hydropower Engineering%作业成本法在水电工程施工企业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵守杰; 徐学东

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis of the characteristics and environment of construction projects, authors define the activities and resource types combining with the construction plan. Then resources are allocated and the quantities of resources are determined. Furthermore activity productivity and activity durations are estimated. Depending on the resource cost per unit time and the duration of the operation, cost of activity is calculated. This method can accurately estimate the project cost and response to the real cost of the project.%通过对工程施工项目的工程特点、施工环境等因素的分析,结合施工计划,确定施工作业类型和各作业中所需要的资源种类,然后进行资源配置,确定资源数量,估算作业生产率和作业持续时间,进而根据资源的使用持续时间和单位时间消耗的费用来计算作业成本.以此估算的工程造价能够较准确地反映工程成本.

  14. Analysis and Suggestions of the Subway Engineering Power Supply System Cost Index%地铁工程供电系统造价指标分析与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永超; 朱红军

    2012-01-01

    In the urban subway construction, power supply system is the important part of the construction project. The construction cost directly influence the whole metro lines investment. Therefore, based on collecting the subway construction material in several major cities, the power supply system cost per kilometer, cat- enary and contact rail per kilometer, underground stations and elevated station power lighting cost per square meter are compared and analyzed. Through which the reference suggestions of using cost index in subway power supply system design period are put forward.%在城市地铁建设中,供电系统是工程建设的重要组成部分,其造价直接影响到整条地铁线路的投资。为此在收集国内几个主要城市地铁建设资料的基础上,对地铁供电系统每正线公里造价、接触网和接触轨每条公里造价、地下站和高架站动力照明每平方米造价、区间动力照明每正线公里造价进行分析与对比,由此提出今后在开展地铁供电系统设计时采用造价指标的参考建议。

  15. Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    account for how cost estimating for autonomy is different than current methodologies and to suggest ways it can be addressed through the integration and...required effort for a UMAS, we use the Constructive Systems Engineering Cost Model (COSYSMO). This parametric model’s output accounts for integrating...Fabrycky, 2003). The current practice in many organizations is to focus most of the cost of product development and when the project reaches the T

  16. Diagnostic Methods for an Aircraft Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ε. L. Ntantis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main gas path components, namely compressor and turbine, are inherently reliable but the operation of the aero engines under hostile environments, results into engine breakdowns and performance deterioration. Performance deterioration increases the operating cost, due to the reduction in thrust output and higher fuel consumption, and also increases the engine maintenance cost. In times when economic considerations dominate airline operators’ strategies, carrying out unnecessary rectification, can be very costly and time consuming. In an attempt to minimize such unexpected circumstances, having detailed knowledge prior to any inspection will allow the gas turbine user to take some of the maintenance action when it is necessary. Advanced engine-fault diagnostics tools offer the possibility of identifying degradation at the module level, determining the trends of these degradations during the usage of the engine, and planning the maintenance action ahead.

  17. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  18. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  19. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  20. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  1. Engineering and Sustainability: Attitudes and Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an extensive survey of engineers and engineering students suggest there is a strong focus on the implementation of sustainability concepts, actions and measures in engineering. The main sustainable technology priorities are using less energy and natural resources, reducing emissions and material wastes, and utilizing renewable, recyclable and recycled materials. Sustainable engineering within organizations is mainly driven by regulatory requirements, rising energy costs and client demand, but challenges to sustainable engineering like economics need to be addressed to increase the incorporation of sustainability in engineering. Nonetheless, about two-thirds of practicing engineers have worked on sustainable products and processes, and over half of engineering students are involved with sustainable design in their studies.

  2. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  3. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  4. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2

  5. 深圳大运中心室外景观工程全过程造价管理%The Whole Process of Cost Management of the Outdoor Landscape Engineering in Shenzhen University Games Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      全过程造价管理在工程施工中的重要性、必要性是项目总投资控制的有效方法和手段。%The importance and necessity of the whole process of cost management in the construction is an effective method and means of the total project investment control.

  6. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

  7. Economic Analysis of Carriage Steel Form Cost in Tunnel Concrete Engineering%洞室混凝土工程中的钢模台车费用经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟德宇; 丁震宇

    2016-01-01

    水利水电项目地下洞室中的平洞段混凝土衬砌工程中,常选用组合钢模立模法或钢模台车法施工。哪种方式更经济,是造价人员较为关注的问题。针对两种支模方法,通过费用的计算与经济性对比分析,为模板费用的计算、支模方法的选择提供依据。%In the construction of concrete lining in the flat section of the underground cavern of the water conservancy and hydropower project,the composite steel formwork method and the carriage steel form method is often used. In practice,cost personnel concerns about which method is more economic. Aiming at these two methods,through comparative analysis of the cost and the economy,this paper provides the conclusion and the basis for the calculation of the template cost and the choice of the model.

  8. Economics Analysis and Actual Operation of the Rationality of Engineering Cost%试论工程造价合理性的经济学分析及实际操作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文广

    2012-01-01

    造价技术的先进与否将直接关系到工程造价合理性的实现.为此,建立跨部门的协同机制,以及建立现场观测的实践机制等,都应成为造价人员需要履行的职责.其合理性的经济学分析及操作,应围绕着:人员素质、信息传递、激励机制、有限理性等四个方面展开.%The advance or not of cost technology directly relates to the implementation of rationality of project cost. To this end, to establish cross-sector collaborative mechanism and practical mechanism for field observation should become the duties and responsibilities of cost staff. The economics analysis and operation of its rationality should focus on the quality of personnel, information transmission, incentive mechanism and bounded rationality.

  9. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  10. The system of concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent engineering (CE) has been a major theme in the 80s and 90s of the previous century in research and practice. Its main aim is to reduce time-tomarket, improve quality and reduce costs by taking into account downstream requirements and constraints already in the design phase. While start

  11. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  12. Model based development of engine control algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Model based development of engine control systems has several advantages. The development time and costs are strongly reduced because much of the development and optimization work is carried out by simulating both engine and control system. After optimizing the control algorithm it can be executed b

  13. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  14. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  15. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  16. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112760 Dai Guozhong (College of Civil Engineering,Changzhou Institute of Tech- nology,Changzhou 213002,China);Zhang Yaxing Study on Solid-Free Drilling Fluid of PVM Polymer and Its Application (Geology

  17. Engineering Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  18. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  19. Conversion of diesel engines for natural gas engines; Conversao de motores diesel para gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro Junior, Leonardo; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: leonardomauro@terra.com.br, e-mail: silvio@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The present project approach the conversion of a Scania engine DSI 11, originally Diesel cycle, used for stationary generation, to operate at a Otto cycle natural gas. The conversion dedicated to Otto cycle allows a better performance at a lower cost generation to the consumer providing an energy economy when operating at a peak hours compared with the fees charged by the distributors. In the power range of this engine (231 kw), there is no other engine available at the brazilian market. An economic study of the conversion shows that the cost is significantly less than the importation of a similar engine. (author)

  20. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Rehabilitation Engineering What is rehabilitation engineering? How can future rehabilitation ... the area of rehabilitation engineering? What is rehabilitation engineering? Powered prosthetic leg. Source : M. Goldfarb, Vanderbilt U. ...

  1. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  2. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  3. Engineering performance metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  4. The Quality Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenie Constantin PAULICĂ

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality has a cost and this fact cannot be denied. In the same time, it is true that non-quality is more expensive. Quality is considered asbeing expensive because no one tries to calculate non-quality costs. Out of the final cost of a product, non-quality stands for 20% up to 35%.According to this idea all the economic sectors contain error costs caused by the mistakes made during the production process. To have a realconsummation situation, it is necessary to know the cost quantum. The final quality cost is the result of the following costs: prevention costs,necessary to preclude errors; evaluation costs, as results of a final product evaluation, and failure costs, generated by the non – attainment ofproduct’s purpose. The gross of these costs stand for the total quality costs. Nowadays, the problem inheres in how much this quality cost representsout of the final cost.

  5. The next generation rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichel, Rudi; O'Brien, Charles J.; Taylor, James P.

    This paper examines propulsion system technologies for earth-to-orbit vehicles, and describes several propulsion system concepts which could support the recommendations of the Commission for Space Development for the year 2000. The hallmark of that system must and will be reliability. Reliability will be obtained through a very structured design approach, coupled with a rational, cost effective, development and qualification program. To improve the next generation space transportation propulsion systems we need to select the very best of alternative power and performance cycles and engine physical concepts with a rigid requirement to achieve a robust, dependable, affordable propulsion system. For example, engine concepts using either propellants or non-propellant fluids for cooling and/or power drive offer the potential to provide smooth, controlled engine starts, low turbine temperatures, etc. as required for long life turbomachinery. Concepts examined are LOX/LH 2, |LOX/LH 2 + hydrocarbon, and LOX/LH 2 + hydrocarbon + Al dual expander engines, separate LOX/LH 2 and LOX/hydrocarbon engines, and variable mixture ratio engines. A fully reusable propulsion system that is perceived to be very low risk and low in operation cost is described.

  6. Analysis of quality costs - A critical element in CIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.

    1990-01-01

    Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) is a cohesive database of manufacturing information, providing an opportunity to track quality costs and measure progress toward their reduction. This paper presents the quality cost concept as an approach to identify, measure and reduce quality costs while improving quality within CIM. The effect of advanced failure prevention methodologies, such as continuous process improvement and the quality engineering methods of Taguchi, on quality and cost, is discussed.

  7. CAME-Computer Aided Maintenance Engineering: a new methodology to reduce maintenance life cycle cost pipelines (repair level, spares, preventive/scheduled/inspection and resources) by modeling, analysis and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bot, Yizhak [BQR Reliability Engineering Ltd. (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    In today's insecure and uncertain climate in the high-tech industry, where money is less accessible, companies are constantly searching for ways to cut expenses. Two important financial factors to consider are maintenance and down time when the equipment/system/processes are not functioning/operating. In this paper we shall describe a new technology, which will help designers and operators of complex systems to improve the reliability of the products and to reduce the maintenance cost, when they are used in field. These set of tools are interfaced to exist CAD/CAE and ERP/CMMS systems concurrently. (author)

  8. Printed MIMO antenna engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sharawi, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications has made a huge leap during the past two decades. The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology was proposed in the 1990's as a viable solution that can overcome the data rate limit experienced by single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. This resource is focused on printed MIMO antenna system design. Printed antennas are widely used in mobile and handheld terminals due to their conformity with the device, low cost, good integration within the device elements and mechanical parts, as well as ease of fabrication.A perfect design companion for practicing engineers

  9. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  10. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  11. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  12. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-03

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

  13. Large Engine Emission Reduction - LEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The target of the project LEER is to find the most cost-effective means of today to reduce exhaust gas emissions, particularly NO{sub x} and particulates, of power-plant and ship propulsion diesel engines. The methods are controlling of the combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment. As research methods, theoretical and literature studies as well as engine tests are used. Using the state of the art technology in the whole engine process from combustion control to after treatment is vital for keeping the product competitive in today's engine market. The project consists of two main tasks, Performance and Emission. The Performance task deals with controlling the combustion for optimising the trade-off between fuel consumption and pollutant formation, NO{sub x} in particular. The Emission task concentrates on improving the after treatment technology in particulate reduction, and understanding the particulate formation by gaining information of particulate nature and composition. (orig.)

  14. Impact Analysis and Countermeasures of VAT Reform on Telecommunication Engineering Cost Control and Engineering Contracting Mode%“营改增”对工程造价控制和工程承包模式的影响及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良; 吴伟平

    2015-01-01

    为评估“营改增”对通信工程建设造成的影响,最大程度降低“营改增”税制改革对电信企业经营造成的冲击,从“营改增”的背景出发,结合案例定量分析了改革对通信工程建设项目中涉及的投资额、后续折旧和现金流造成的影响,并探讨了改革对工程建设项目承包模式的影响,提出电信企业可从强化工程物资采购管理、规范工程立项管理和优化工程承包模式三方面入手进行应对及相关注意事项。%To assess the impact of VAT reform on telecommunications engineering construction and minimize the impact of the reform on telecommunications business, from the context of VAT reform, it analyzes the impacts of reform on investment, subsequent depreciation and cash flow involved in telecommunications construction projects quantitatively according to case, and explores the impact of reform on engineering contract model. Final y it discusses that telecom companies can cope with these changes from strengthening procurement and management of engineering materials, standardizing engineering project management and optimizing engineering contracting mode, and some related precautions is also essential.

  15. Prosthetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Costs Copays Means Test Health Insurance Make a Payment Annual Income Thresholds Non-VA Care Purchased Care ... center of pressure under the prosthetic foot; enhancing balance and stability of lower limb amputees. Foot-Ankle ...

  16. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, ten Erik

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information a

  17. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information

  18. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  19. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  20. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  1. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091943 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China);Zhu Mingcheng Application of Pipe-Roof Curtain Grouting in Construction of Coal Mine Tunnel Crossing the Fractured Zone(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.79-81,3 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:curtain grouting20091944 Chen Changfu(Civil Engineering College,Hunan University,Changsha 410082,China);Xiao Shujun Application of Weighted Residual Method in Whole Internal Force Calculation of Anti-Slide Pile(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.75-79,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:slide-resistant

  2. Cost - The challenge for advanced materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John G., Jr.; Freeman, William T., Jr.; Siddiqi, Shahid

    1992-01-01

    Information is presented on the cost of various aircraft structures, together with methods for predicting and reducing cost. The need for the development of cost models, and of a comparative cost algorithm which could function as an engineering design tool to evaluate different design concepts, is emphasized. Efforts are underway to develop cost models that establish building-block unit cell elements that represent different material forms, geometric shapes, fabrication processes, and methods of assembly, with the purpose of expressing cost per pound or labor per pound data, with physical design and manufacture variables that a designer can visualize.

  3. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design of reference Stirling engine system as well as the engine auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

  4. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  5. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  6. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  7. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  8. Lightwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokubun, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Suitable as either a student text or professional reference, Lightwave Engineering addresses the behavior of electromagnetic waves and the propagation of light, which forms the basis of the wide-ranging field of optoelectronics. Divided into two parts, the book first gives a comprehensive introduction to lightwave engineering using plane wave and then offers an in-depth analysis of lightwave propagation in terms of electromagnetic theory. Using the language of mathematics to explain natural phenomena, the book includes numerous illustrative figures that help readers develop an intuitive unders

  9. Cost Modeling for SOC Modules Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the system design is increasing very rapidly as the number of transistors on Integrated Circuits (IC doubles as per Moore’s law.There is big challenge of testing this complex VLSI circuit, in which whole system is integrated into a single chip called System on Chip (SOC. Cost of testing the SOC is also increasing with complexity. Cost modeling plays a vital role in reduction of test cost and time to market. This paper includes the cost modeling of the SOC Module testing which contains both analog and digital modules. The various test cost parameters and equations are considered from the previous work. The mathematical relations are developed for cost modeling to test the SOC further cost modeling equations are modeled in Graphical User Interface (GUI in MATLAB, which can be used as a cost estimation tool. A case study is done to calculate the cost of the SOC testing due to Logic Built in Self Test (LBIST and Memory Built in Self Test (MBIST. VLSI Test engineers can take the benefits of such cost estimation tools for test planning.

  10. Low cost training aids and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, J.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The need for advanced flight simulators for two engine aircraft is discussed. Cost effectiveness is a major requirement. Other training aids available for increased effectiveness are recommended. Training aids include: (1) audio-visual slides; (2) information transfer; (3) programmed instruction; and (4) interactive training systems.

  11. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Legal fees; (5) Site acquisition fees-contractor; and (6) Arbitrator fee; (c) Transmission facility—analog conversion costs: (1) Transmitter upgrading or retuning; (2) Combiner re-tuning or new; (3) Power... modifications; (iii) Electrical/HVAC; and (iv) Mechanical (7) Engineering: (i) Structural; and (ii)...

  12. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  13. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    . We use three axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well as all...... connection costs; and, (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on estimated connection costs and allocates true connection costs of the selected network....

  14. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  15. Cost Quality Management Assessment for the Idaho Operations Office. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Office of Engineering and Cost Management (EM-24) conducted a Cost Quality Management Assessment of EM-30 and EM-40 activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on Feb. 3--19, 1992 (Round I). The CQMA team assessed the cost and cost-related management activities at INEL. The Round II CQMA, conducted at INEL Sept. 19--29, 1994, reviewed EM-30, EM-40, EM-50, and EM-60 cost and cost-related management practices against performance objectives and criteria. Round II did not address indirect cost analysis. INEL has made measurable progress since Round I.

  16. I-RaCM: A Fully Integrated Risk and Lifecycle Cost Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) proposes development of the Integrated Risk and Cost Model I-RaCM, as the innovation to meet the need for integrated cost and risk...

  17. Life cycle costs of electric industrial drives. Reliability and energy consumption are decisive cost factors. Life-Cycle Costs elektrischer Industrieantriebe. Zuverlaessigkeit und Energieverbrauch als entscheidende Kostenfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniek, K. (BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany))

    1999-06-01

    In the case of electric drives for the chemical industry, the purchase cost is only a fraction of the life cycle cost. The main criteria for engine assessment are reliability and energy consumption resp. performance. After the issuing of the US Energy Policy Act, the EC is discussion energy savings with the aid of high-performance electric motors.

  18. Road crash costs.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  19. A Study on Equipment Cost of Internet Companies on Value Engineering%基于价值工程的互联网企业设备成本研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻毅峰

    2015-01-01

    本文结合当前实际,对价值工程在服务器设备采购和设备价值评估中的应用进行了阐述,提出了最优价值理论。分析购置单台和多台服务器两种情况时最优价值点的差异。创新了服务器设备采购时的最优价值模型,为互联网企业评价设备效能提供了可供参鉴的理论和方法。%This research is based on the actual project, elaborate the application of value engineering in the server equipment procurement and value assessment. We put forward the definition of optimal value theory. Then analyze the difference of two cases when purchase single and multiple servers. An innovative optimal value model is applied to the server equipment procurement. It provides a theoretical and methodological for internet companies evaluating the effectiveness of device.

  20. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research on engineering methods for cost effective PV installation; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Tashu secchi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of engineering methods for photovoltaic power system installation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on applicable fields, various application aspects, applicability, and problems on location and legal regulation were continuously studied for railway, river reservation, lake surface and public facility as promising locations after highway in the last fiscal year. The result pointed out relatively easy possibility of PV power generation of nearly 11,700MW except residence and building fields. (2) On installation technology of solar cell arrays, several models based on various installation conditions, construction methods and system configurations were studied, and various application aspects were proposed by combination of simple design conditions. (3) On test and evaluation of the structural design of array racks, wind tunnel experiments were conducted for structure wall, platform shed and highway sound insulation wall. (4) On basic design of various promising systems, the conceptual design of interconnection systems was carried out assuming applications to highway and railway. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Photoreceptor engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eZiegler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regulated actuators for the perturbation of a plethora of cellular events are now available. Here, we review fundamental principles of photoreceptors and light-regulated allostery. Photoreceptors dichotomize into associating receptors that alter their oligomeric state as part of light-regulated allostery and non-associating receptors that do not. A survey of engineered photoreceptors pinpoints light-regulated association reactions and order-disorder transitions as particularly powerful and versatile design principles. Photochromic photoreceptors that are bidirectionally toggled by two light colors augur enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and use as photoactivatable fluorophores. By identifying desirable traits in engineered photoreceptors, we provide pointers for the design of future, light-regulated actuators.

  2. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  3. Geospatial Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    drinking , sanitation, food preparation, construction, and decontamination. Support activities (helicopter maintenance , operation of medical facilities...analyses to find water sources for wells and key infrastructure locations. There are additional missions performed by geospatial engineers during the...polygons). Each feature can include embedded information (attributes) (body- of- water bank heights, road surface type, road width, bridge load-bearing

  4. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20051144 Gu Jun (Petroleum University, Beijing); Gao Deli Analysis of Mechanic Characterstics for Coal Bed and Drilling Countermeasure in Tuha Basin, Xinjiang, China (Exploration Engineering (Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling), ISSN 1672 - 7428, CN11-5063/TD, 31(5), 2004, p. 51-52, 55, 3 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Key words: coal seams, drilling

  5. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica...

  6. Concurrency engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesshope, C.; Shafarenko, A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a discussion paper on a very important topic that is about to become mainstream. It deals with the issues of software engineering in concurrent systems. It introduces this topic and illustrates the arguments for a change of perspective. It underlines these arguments with two examples, an

  7. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20161419Cao Baomin(Shaanxi Binchang Xiaozhuang Mining Co.Ltd,Binxian 7135000,China);Zhang Jianghao Application of Rotary Drilling Combination to Pile Foundation Engineering in Xiaozhuang Mine,Shaanxi Province(Geology of Shaanxi,ISSN1001-6996,CN61

  8. Engineering Ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Pim; Akkermans, Hans; Top, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the construction as well as the role of ontologies in knowledge sharing and reuse for complex industrial applications. In this article, the practical use of ontologies in large-scale applications not restricted to knowledge-based systems is demonstrated, for the domain of engineering syst

  9. Final Technical Report; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING RECRUITMENT EFFORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrick, Sharon S.; Vincent, Charles D.

    2007-07-02

    This report provides the summary of a project whose purpose was to support the costs of developing a nuclear engineering awareness program, an instruction program for teachers to integrate lessons on nuclear science and technology into their existing curricula, and web sites for the exchange of nuclear engineering career information and classroom materials. The specific objectives of the program were as follows: OBJECTIVE 1: INCREASE AWARENESS AND INTEREST OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING; OBJECTIVE 2: INSTRUCT TEACHERS ON NUCLEAR TOPICS; OBJECTIVE 3: NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMS WEB-SITE; OBJECTIVE 4: SUPPORT TO UNIVERSITY/INDUSTRY MATCHING GRANTS AND REACTOR SHARING; OBJECTIVE 5: PILOT PROJECT; OBJECTIVE 6: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING ENROLLMENT SURVEY AT UNIVERSITIES

  10. Software Engineering Improvement Activities/Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    bd Systems personnel accomplished the technical responsibilities for this reporting period, as planned. A close working relationship was maintained with personnel of the MSFC Avionics Department Software Group (ED14). Work accomplishments included development, evaluation, and enhancement of a software cost model, performing literature search and evaluation of software tools available for code analysis and requirements analysis, and participating in other relevant software engineering activities. Monthly reports were submitted. This support was provided to the Flight Software Group/ED 1 4 in accomplishing the software engineering improvement engineering activities of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Software Engineering Improvement Plan.

  11. Software Engineering Improvement Activities/Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    bd Systems personnel accomplished the technical responsibilities for this reporting period, as planned. A close working relationship was maintained with personnel of the MSFC Avionics Department Software Group (ED14). Work accomplishments included development, evaluation, and enhancement of a software cost model, performing literature search and evaluation of software tools available for code analysis and requirements analysis, and participating in other relevant software engineering activities. Monthly reports were submitted. This support was provided to the Flight Software Group/ED 1 4 in accomplishing the software engineering improvement engineering activities of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Software Engineering Improvement Plan.

  12. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  13. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  14. Engine Management: A Decision Support Tool for Strategic Engine Maintenance Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayordomo, A.F.; Ghobbar, A.A.; Ghijs, S.S.A.; Cator, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model that helps engine management make cost saving decisions. The model is developed around airline-influenced factors that have an impact on engine Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO): Operations, maintenance philosophy, contract type, and fleet age. Within the model a decisi

  15. IFC implementation in lifecycle costing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Fu; Ghassan Aouad; Amanda Marshall Ponting; Angela Lee; Song Wu

    2004-01-01

    Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is always a major concern in the Architecture, Engineering and Coustruction (AEC) industry. This paper presents the implementation of Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology in the development of a lifecycle cost-estimating tool. The IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) model as an interoperable building information model has been adopted as the central data repository to deliver the integrated information of building designs from CAD design systems into the lifecycle-costing database. In this paper, the coneeptions and relevant factors, which could affect the LCC estimation, have been introduced. The problems of current lCC applications have been identified as the lack of LCC data and the complexity of LCC exercises.The software application of IFC models and relevant auxiliary are depicted as a solution of the problem identified. The lifccycle costing tool is a part of the nD Modeling tool and as such is based on its integrated interface prototype toolkit and is able to holistically present an IFC model into a 3D virtual reality view, a tree-view and a list of element properties. The functions and some technical points are also detailed in the paper. Through the research, it demonstrates the potential and possibility of implementing BIM methods and techniques, particularly IFCs to enhance the computer applications in the processes of building construction and faeility management.

  16. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  17. What kind of students should be developed through aeronautical engineering education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The educational requirements for future aeronautical engineering students are postulated. The change in aeronautical engineering from increasing aircraft performance without regard to cost is compared with the cost effective aspects of future research. The capabilities of future engineers are discussed with respect to the following areas: (1) problem solving, (2) planning and organizing, (3) communication, and (4) professionalism.

  18. Trends in green hospital engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Walter N

    2009-01-01

    When health-care facilities do pursue green initiatives, it's often because there is some incentive available to them that buys down the cost. When hospitals make claims that green does not cost more, generally, these claims are based on strategies that simply cost less, and would therefore be pursued regardless of green goals, and/or strategies implemented because of a one-time opportunity to buy-down the cost through some kind of incentive programme. Engineers who design health-care facilities are often cast as being "nay-sayers"; we can't find ways to do better systems because we are too constrained. Behind the voluminous green smoke that surrounds healthcare building, there is some real green fire.

  19. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  20. Estimating Production Cost While Linking Combat Systems and Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    42  1.  Royal Thai Navy CDR Peerapong’s MIO Simulation ....................42  2.  LT Joe Ashpari of the United States...Estimates for MIO Simulation Output Analysis ......................................45  Table 12.  Cost Estimates for SAR Simulation Output Analysis...Systems Engineering JIC Joint Inflation Calculator MBSE Model Based System Engineering MIO Maritime Interdiction Operations MOE Measure of

  1. Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathy; Hunolt, Greg; Booth, Arthur L.; Banks, Mel

    2011-01-01

    The Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool (CET) and Comparables Database (CDB) package provides to NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) the ability to estimate the full range of year-by-year lifecycle cost estimates for the implementation and operation of data service providers required by ESE to support its science and applications programs. The CET can make estimates dealing with staffing costs, supplies, facility costs, network services, hardware and maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software licenses, software development and sustaining engineering, and the changes in costs that result from changes in workload. Data Service Providers may be stand-alone or embedded in flight projects, field campaigns, research or applications projects, or other activities. The CET and CDB package employs a cost-estimation-by-analogy approach. It is based on a new, general data service provider reference model that provides a framework for construction of a database by describing existing data service providers that are analogs (or comparables) to planned, new ESE data service providers. The CET implements the staff effort and cost estimation algorithms that access the CDB and generates the lifecycle cost estimate for a new data services provider. This data creates a common basis for an ESE proposal evaluator for considering projected data service provider costs.

  2. Sources of Operating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    Historically, road vehicle operating costs have tended to dominate highway economic appraisals in developing countries, due to the poor road surfaces that can occur there. The operating costs of railways and ports are also substantial, and form key components of cost benefit analyses of their associated infrastructure. The definition of operating costs for Bank projects is therefore important ...

  3. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092040 Chen Jing(College of Petroleum Engineering,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,China);Xiong Qingshan Technology of Well Cementing with Expandable Tube and Its Application(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.19-21,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:cementingExpandable tube is a new technology and has been developed oversea.It can be applied in well drilling and completion for deep water,deep well,extended reach well and multilateral well,as well as in oil extraction and workover.This paper briefly introduces the technology of well cementing with

  4. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090712 Ge Mingjun(General Institution of Mineral Exploration & Development in Qiqihaer of Heilongjiang Province,Qiqihaer 161006,China) Application of Emulsified Diesel Oil Drilling Fluid in Under-Balanced Drilling(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,34(11),2007,p.43-45,1 illus.,2 tables,4 refs.)

  5. Engineering Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Pim; Akkermans, Hans; Top, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the construction as well as the role of ontologies in knowledge sharing and reuse for complex industrial applications. In this article, the practical use of ontologies in large-scale applications not restricted to knowledge-based systems is demonstrated, for the domain of engineering systems modelling, simulation and design. A general and formal ontology, called PHYSSYS, for dynamic physical systems is presented and its structuring principles are discussed. We show how the PHYSSYS ...

  6. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072985 Bai Mingzhou(Beijing Jiaotong University,Beijing 100044,China);Du Yongqiang Study on Application Technology of Geology Horizontal Drilling in Qiyueshan Tunnel at Yiwan Railway(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,33(4),2006,p.59-61,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:tunnels,horizontal drilling

  7. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  9. Software Cost Estimation Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Alphonce

    2013-01-01

    Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort, the time and the cost re-quired to complete software project successfully. It involves size measurement of the soft-ware project to be produced, estimating and allocating the effort, drawing the project schedules, and finally, estimating overall cost of the project. Accurate estimation of software project cost is an important factor for business and the welfare of software organization in general. If cost and effort estimat...

  10. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  11. Capacity Planning for Vertical Search Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Badue, Claudine; Almeida, Virgilio; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Ribeiro-Neto, Berthier; Ziviani, Artur; Ziviani, Nivio

    2010-01-01

    Vertical search engines focus on specific slices of content, such as the Web of a single country or the document collection of a large corporation. Despite this, like general open web search engines, they are expensive to maintain, expensive to operate, and hard to design. Because of this, predicting the response time of a vertical search engine is usually done empirically through experimentation, requiring a costly setup. An alternative is to develop a model of the search engine for predicting performance. However, this alternative is of interest only if its predictions are accurate. In this paper we propose a methodology for analyzing the performance of vertical search engines. Applying the proposed methodology, we present a capacity planning model based on a queueing network for search engines with a scale typically suitable for the needs of large corporations. The model is simple and yet reasonably accurate and, in contrast to previous work, considers the imbalance in query service times among homogeneous...

  12. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e......Statistical analysis of cost data is often difficult because of highly skewed data resulting from a few patients who incur high costs relative to the majority of patients. When the objective is to predict the cost for an individual patient, the literature suggests that one should choose...... a regression model based on the quality of its predictions. In exploring the econometric issues, the objective of this study was to estimate a cost function in order to estimate the annual health care cost of dementia. Using different models, health care costs were regressed on the degree of dementia, sex, age...

  13. Database Engines: Evolution of Greenness

    OpenAIRE

    Miranskyy, Andriy V.; Al-zanbouri, Zainab; Godwin, David; Bener, Ayse Basar

    2017-01-01

    Context: Information Technology consumes up to 10\\% of the world's electricity generation, contributing to CO2 emissions and high energy costs. Data centers, particularly databases, use up to 23% of this energy. Therefore, building an energy-efficient (green) database engine could reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Goal: To understand the factors driving databases' energy consumption and execution time throughout their evolution. Method: We conducted an empirical case study of energ...

  14. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  15. Internet Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  16. Support to LANL: Cost estimation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-04

    This report summarizes the activities and progress by ICF Kaiser Engineers conducted on behalf of Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Waste Management (EM-33) in the area of improving methods for Cost Estimation. This work was conducted between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993. ICF Kaiser Engineers supported LANL in providing the Office of Waste Management with planning and document preparation services for a Cost and Schedule Estimating Guide (Guide). The intent of the Guide was to use Activity-Based Cost (ABC) estimation as a basic method in preparing cost estimates for DOE planning and budgeting documents, including Activity Data Sheets (ADSs), which form the basis for the Five Year Plan document. Prior to the initiation of the present contract with LANL, ICF Kaiser Engineers was tasked to initiate planning efforts directed toward a Guide. This work, accomplished from June to September, 1992, included visits to eight DOE field offices and consultation with DOE Headquarters staff to determine the need for a Guide, the desired contents of a Guide, and the types of ABC estimation methods and documentation requirements that would be compatible with current or potential practices and expertise in existence at DOE field offices and their contractors.

  17. Marshall Engineers Use Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall Spce Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).

  18. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  19. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  20. Optimal Shielding for Minimum Materials Cost of Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D. [PPPL

    2014-08-01

    Material costs dominate some shielding design problems. This is certainly the case for manned nuclear power space applications for which shielding is essential and the cost of launching by rocket from earth is high. In such situations or in those where shielding volume or mass is constrained, it is important to optimize the design. Although trial and error synthesis methods may succeed a more systematic approach is warranted. Design automation may also potentially reduce engineering costs.