WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost digitally controlled

  1. High Performance Low Cost Digitally Controlled Power Conversion Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes

    2008-01-01

    Digital control of switch-mode power supplies and converters has within the last decade evolved from being an academic subject to an emerging market in the power electronics industry. This development has been pushed mainly by the computer industry that is looking towards digital power management...

  2. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis...... for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...

  3. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Culture is currently funding a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project is to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future financial requirements...... for digital preservation and to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities. In this study we describe an activity based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the OAIS Reference Model. In order to estimate the cost of digital migrations we have identified cost critical...... model provides a sound overall framework for cost breakdown, but that some functions, especially when it comes to performing and evaluating the actual migration, need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately....

  4. Low-Cost Digital Implementation of Proportional-Resonant Current Controllers for PV Inverter Applications Using Delta Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Será, Dezsö; Kerekes, Tamas; Lungeanu, Marian

    2005-01-01

    of the P+Resonant controller with selective harmonic compensation on a low-cost fixed-point DSP. The resonant part of the P+R has been implemented as a second order filter based on Delta operator. The current controller, together with harmonic compensation for the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics has been......The performances of the P+Resonant controller in case of current control for a single phase grid connected inverter have been proved to be superior to the PI controller, since it is able to remove the phase error of the control at the fundamental frequency of the grid. It offers also...... the possibility of selective harmonic compensation. However, in case of digital implementation on a low-cost fixedpoint DSP, the limited computational power and the limited numerical representation precision can restrict the utilization of it. The present paper proposes a different way of digital implementation...

  5. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    activities by analysing the OAIS Model, and supplemented this analysis with findings from other models, literature and own experience. To verify the model it has been tested on two sets of data from a normalisation project and a migration project at the Danish National Archives. The study found that the OAIS...... for digital preservation and to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities. In this study we describe an activity based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the OAIS Reference Model. In order to estimate the cost of digital migrations we have identified cost critical...... model provides a sound overall framework for cost breakdown, but that some functions, especially when it comes to performing and evaluating the actual migration, need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately....

  6. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital Preservation (CMDP, the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been supplemented with findings from the literature, and our own knowledge and experience. The identified cost-critical activities have subsequently been deconstructed into measurable components, cost dependencies have been examined, and the resulting equations expressed in a spreadsheet. Currently the model can calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA. The study found that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration projects, while it reinstates an often underestimated cost, which is the cost of developing migration software. The model has proven useful for estimating the

  7. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA). The study found...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...... that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration...

  8. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  9. Digital automatic gain control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  10. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based...

  11. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  12. Digital electronic engine control history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    Full authority digital electronic engine controls (DEECs) were studied, developed, and ground tested because of projected benefits in operability, improved performance, reduced maintenance, improved reliability, and lower life cycle costs. The issues of operability and improved performance, however, are assessed in a flight test program. The DEEC on a F100 engine in an F-15 aircraft was demonstrated and evaluated. The events leading to the flight test program are chronicled and important management and technical results are identified.

  13. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  14. Digital Optical Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  15. Cost effectiveness of a medical digital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, F; Darmoni, S J; Thirion, B

    2001-01-01

    The rapid increase in the price of electronic journals has made the optimization of collection management an urgent task. As there is currently no standard procedure for the evaluation of this problem, we applied the Reading Factor (RF), an electronically computed indicator used for consultation of individual articles. The aim of our study was to assess the cost effective impact of modifications in our digital library (i.e. change of access from the Intranet to the Internet or change in editorial policy). The digital OVID library at Rouen University Hospital continues to be cost-effective in comparison with the interlibrary loan costs. Moreover, when electronic versions are offered alongside a limited amount of interlibrary loans, a reduction in library costs was observed.

  16. Cost-efficient Transition to Digital Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Dhaenens

    2005-08-01

    steps to take for a cost-efficient transition, add digital mo-dalities (CR and DR and RIS (with work lists and improve image quality, get lower dose and optimal workflow; switch to diagnostic workstations (high quality, archiving system which allows integration of modalities and full access to the patient’s history, and is necessary to construct a digital archive, but with difficult economical justification; introduce clinical workstations to display/access images and pa-tient information across the hospital and even abroad and start the EPR (Electronic Patient Record as component of the Hospital Information System (HIS. The film-less era starts here: Telemedicine and Tel-eradiology are derivates of the existing digital radiol-ogy. Selection of digital x-ray systems is critical because of the cost. Computed Radiography (CR is the most fa-vourable technology in “low labour cost” countries because it does not need replacement of x-ray rooms, serves several rooms and offers an excellent image quality through processing at lower dose (400-600 ISO speed. Repeat rates for under and over-exposures are very low (<1% as CR is a fault tolerant and robust technology even with old x-ray equip-ment. CR fits all applications from emergency, inten-sive care up to mammography and radiotherapy without changes to exposure techniques. Adding PACS and RIS to digital detectors has to be imple-mented in open and standardized way in order to protect your investments for future expansion to-wards a complete digital environment. Selection of vendors with a far-ahead and proven roadmap is es-sential to make digital radiology successful.

  17. Digital Flight Control System Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Uperioust languages and formal progrmiag Logic (Such was the cae ina the formation of the Radio end design, hag resulted in the accelerated Technical...wee In defined , dM tin Osytm e all as wssLuete Ohe 0esig of these same- Isei to btop ues eM m defined . "UK""t fault coie am ep~es syste prior ft Mo... Softwre Cost etilstift, 131 Computer Society 17. ’Simulator Investigation Plan for Digital 1977, Pages 13-177. Flight Controls Validation Technology

  18. Controlling pharmacy costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, S

    1988-01-01

    There are many costs associated with parenteral nutrition: physician time, nursing time, biochemical monitoring, patient education, ancillary equipment and the nutrition solutions themselves. The solutions are easily identified as responsible for a large proportion of these costs. There are several strategies that can be used to help control pharmacy costs, such as selection of ingredients, purchasing contracts, standardized formulae and prescribing procedures, preprinted doctor's order forms, automated manufacturing and labelling processes, patient monitoring, all-in-one preparation, and contracted manufacturing services. Individual pharmacies need to know what options are available in order to select those that, in the context of their own institutions, can lead to cost savings and improved efficiency.

  19. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  20. Digital Signal Controller Based Digital Control of Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Elizabeth Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the digital control of a brushless dc (BLDC motor using TMS320F2812 DSP controller and an EPROM. The real-time control of electrical motors is an application area that is not usually the domain of Digital Signal Processors. The TMS320F2812 has got dedicated modules for digital motor control. Control algorithms used for the control has been in TMS320F2812 DSP controller. The output of the driver is 6 independent PWM pulses that have to be given to the corresponding gates of the six MOSFETs power switches used in the three-phase bridge driving circuit whose output is given to the stator of the Brushless DC Motor. The commutation technique used in this work is the trapezoidal commutation owing to its excellent speed and current control and it has been implemented using an EPROM

  1. Space Digital Controller for Improved Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nunes, Samuel; Daras, Gaetan; Dehez, Bruno; Maillard, Christophe; Bekemans, Marc; Michel, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Performing digital motor control into space equipment is a new challenge. The new DPC (Digital Programmable Controller) is the first chip that we can use as a micro-controller, allowing us to drive motors with digital control schemes. In this paper, the digital control of hybrid stepper motors is considered. This kind of motor is used for solar array rotation and antenna actuation. New digital control technology brings a lot of advantages, allowing an important reduction of thermal losses inside the motor, and a reduction of thermal constraints on power drive electronic components. The opportunity to drive motors with a digital controller also brings many new functionalities like post-failure torque analysis, micro- vibrations and cogging torque reduction, or electro- mechanical damping of solar array oscillations. To evaluate the performance of the system, Field-Oriented Control (FOC) is implemented on a hybrid stepper motor. A test-bench, made of an active load, has been made to emulate the mechanical behaviour of the solar array, by the use of a torsionally-compliant model. The experimental results show that we can drastically reduce electrical power consumption, compared with the currently used open-loop control scheme.

  2. All digital pulsewidth control loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Jan, Shiun-Dian; Pu, Ruei-Iun

    2013-03-01

    This work presents an all-digital pulsewidth control loop (ADPWCL). The proposed system accepts a wide range of input duty cycles and performs a fast correction to the target output pulsewidth. An all-digital delay-locked loop (DLL) with fast locking time using a simplified time to digital converter and a new differential two-step delay element is proposed. The area of the delay element is much smaller than that in conventional designs, while having the same delay range. A test chip is verified in a 0.18-µm CMOS process. The measured duty cycle ranges from 4% to 98% with 7-bit resolution.

  3. Patterning mechanisms controlling digit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate digits are essential structures for movement,feeding and communication.Specialized regions of the developing limb bud including the zone of polarizing activity(ZPA),the apical ectodermal ridge(AER),and the non-ridge ectoderm regulate the patterning of digits.Although a series of signaling molecules have been characterized as patterning signals from the organizing centers,the delicate cellular and molecular mechanisms that interpret how these patterning signals control the detailed digit anatomy remain unclear.Recent studies from model organisms and human hand malformations provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating this process.Here,we review the current understanding of the genetic networks governing digit morphogenesis.

  4. Digital control in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buso, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the reader, whether an electrical engineering student in power electronics or a design engineer, a selection of power converter control problems and their basic digital solutions, based on the most widespread digital control techniques. The presentation is primarily focused on different applications of the same power converter topology, the half-bridge voltage source inverter, considered both in its single- and three-phase implementation. This is chosen as the test case because, besides being simple and well known, it allows the discussion of a significant spectrum of the mo

  5. (AJST) A LOW COST FIELD USABLE PORTABLE DIGITAL GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhartal PO, Jabalpur (M.P.)- 482004, India. 2Faculty of Electrical ... explains the design and development of a low cost portable Digital ... The paper explains the development of grain moisture meter based on ..... News, Vol. 103, pp 37-. 38.

  6. How much does it cost? The LIFE Project - Costing Models for Digital Curation and Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Davies

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation is concerned with the long-term safekeeping of electronic resources. How can we be confident of their permanence, if we do not know the cost of preservation? The LIFE (Lifecycle Information for E-Literature Project has made a major step forward in understanding the long-term costs in this complex area. The LIFE Project has developed a methodology to model the digital lifecycle and to calculate the costs of preserving digital information for the next 5, 10 or 100 years. National and higher education (HE libraries can now apply this process and plan effectively for the preservation of their digital collections. Based on previous work undertaken on the lifecycles of paper-based materials, the LIFE Project created a lifecycle model and applied it to real-life digital collections across a diverse subject range. Three case studies examined the everyday operations, processes and costs involved in their respective activities. The results were then used to calculate the direct costs for each element of the digital lifecycle. The Project has made major advances in costing preservation activities, as well as making detailed costs of real digital preservation activities available. The second phase of LIFE (LIFE2, which recently started, aims to refine the lifecycle methodology and to add a greater range and breadth to the project with additional exemplar case studies.

  7. LIFE:Costing the Digital Preservation Lifecycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL WHEATLEY; PAUL AYRIS; RICHARD DAVIES; RORY MCLEOD; HELEN SHENTON

    2008-01-01

    The LIFE projeet creates a digital lifecycle model based on previous work undertaken on the lifeeycle of paper-based material.Web Archiving,Voluntarity Deposited Electronic Publications(VDEP),and E-Journal are chosen as cases tudy for application and evaluation of the LIFE Mode.Case studies show its potential for further USe in a numble of roles,such as improving assessment of the financial commitment,more effective planning for preservation activities etc.The LIFE Mode will be revised and refined in LIFE2 Project.

  8. Using Technology to Control Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  9. Efficient control structures for digital programmable retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thierry M.

    2001-05-01

    A digital programmable artificial retina (PAR) is a functional extension of a CMOS imager, in which every pixel is fitted with a local ADC and a tiny digital programmable processor. From an architectural viewpoint, a PAR is an SIMD array processor with local optical input. A PAR is aimed at processing images on-site until they can be output from the array under concentrated form. The overall goal is to get compact, fast and inexpensive vision systems, in particular for robotics applications. A 256 by 256 PAR with up to a few tens bits of local memory per pixel is now within reach at reasonable cost. However, whereas the local memory size benefits quadratically from the feature size decrease, wiring density improvement can only be linear, at best. So control should become more complex with the danger of a growing proportion of the digital pixel area being devoted to instruction or address decoding. We propose efficient scalable solutions to this problem at the architectural, circuit and topological levels, which attempt to minimize both silicon area and power consumption.

  10. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  11. Digital control for turbogas units; Control digital para unidades turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Beltran, Carlos Daniel

    1997-02-01

    The present thesis deals with the rehabilitation of the control system for the gas turbines W501 of the Gomez Palacio Combined Cycle Power Station in the state of Durango, Mexico. The first part of the development deals with a re-engineering process of software applied to the digital control system of the gas turbines of the Gomez Palacio Combined Cycle Power Station. This process was developed using concepts of several branches of engineering: a) involved the knowledge of the software engineering, using formal methods for the analysis of the original system and the redesign of the new system; b) The control engineering was used in the analysis of diverse control and automation strategies employed for gas turbines control, with the objective of verifying the type of instructions and existing routines within the software. The final product of this stage is a modulated programmatic system, based on structured design that is functionally a mirror image of the original system. The system obtained conformed by five main modules which are based on a model proposed originally for control by batch: i) Man Machine Interface, ii) Regulatory Control, iii) Protections, iv) Logic sequences and v) Supervision. The second stage of development was the improvement of the speed control of the turbine. When a turbogas unit is controlled, it must be taken into account several operation stages such as the starting, the control in stable state and the shut down. The real behavior of the turbine during the starting, and mainly the great number of backward movements produced, proposed by itself the search of a new controller who more closely maintained the acceleration specifications whereupon the turbine was designed. The development of a new control algorithm began with the analysis of the process, trying to identify which are the critical stages of this one and be able to evaluate in an objective form the advantages of an algorithm upon the other. It was continued with the

  12. Volume control device for digital signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    A digital volume control device comprises a logic unit for volume control of digital input signals. Successively supplied m-bits words with maximally k bits active, derived from the output signals of or supplied by a volume control (4) with a quantizer (5) element the filtered m-bits workds are

  13. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  14. Guaranteed cost control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo XIE; Huajing FANG; Ying ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for networked control systems (NCSs) is addressed under communication constraints and varying sampling rate. First of all, a simple information-scheduling scheme is presented to describe the scheduling approach of system signals in NCSs. Then, based on such a scheme and given sampling method, the design procedure in dynamic output feedback manner is also derived which renders the closed loop system to be asymptotically stable and guarantees an upper bound of the LQ performance cost function.

  15. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  16. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1978-11-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directy related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  17. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  18. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-09-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  19. A digital control system for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Bent; Skaarup, Per

    1968-01-01

    A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer.......A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer....

  20. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  1. Building a cost efficient digital radiography system for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    Due to the growing need for Medical Physicists, many universities are implementing a Medical Physics program into their academic catalog. To help establish a new program, feasible equipment may be needed to help academic departments provide a hands-on experience for students and help teach the basic concepts of Medical Physics. For example, clinical Digital Radiography Systems (DRS) are used to help teach the basic concepts of digital imaging. However, such systems can cost in excess of 100,000, creating a financial obstacle that will be difficult to overcome. Hence, the development of a cost efficient digital radiography system may be desired in order to eliminate the financial obstacle and give students a hands-on learning experience. This DRS uses three main components to develop an image, an x-ray source, an intensifying plate, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All three components are housed in a lead-lined box. The purpose of this project is to find the limitations of our DRS and compare the price between our DRS and commercially available DRSs. At optimal settings, a SNR of 25 is shown across the intensifying screen that can identify objects as small as 0.42mm. A Contrast-detail phantom shows the ability to decipher the varying thickness of foam rubber squares. The total cost of our DRS comes to 17,000.00, a fractional price tag compared to a commercially available DRS.

  2. The LIGO Suspended Optic Digital Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Heefner, J W

    2001-01-01

    The original LIGO suspension control system [1] used analog circuitry to implement the closed loop damping required for local control of each the suspended optics. Recent developments in analog to digital converters (ADC), digital to analog converters (DAC), increased processor speed and performance, and the use of reflective memory have made a digital alternative possible. Such a control system would provide additional performance and flexibility that will be required for operation of the interferometers. This paper will describe the real-time digital servo control systems that have been designed, developed and implemented for the LIGO suspended optics. In addition, the paper will describe how the suspension controls have been integrated into the overall LIGO control and data acquisition systems [2].

  3. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  4. Digitizing dissertations for an institutional repository: a process and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorun, Mary; Palmer, Lisa A

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the Lamar Soutter Library's process and costs associated with digitizing 300 doctoral dissertations for a newly implemented institutional repository at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Project tasks included identifying metadata elements, obtaining and tracking permissions, converting the dissertations to an electronic format, and coordinating workflow between library departments. Each dissertation was scanned, reviewed for quality control, enhanced with a table of contents, processed through an optical character recognition function, and added to the institutional repository. Three hundred and twenty dissertations were digitized and added to the repository for a cost of $23,562, or $0.28 per page. Seventy-four percent of the authors who were contacted (n = 282) granted permission to digitize their dissertations. Processing time per title was 170 minutes, for a total processing time of 906 hours. In the first 17 months, full-text dissertations in the collection were downloaded 17,555 times. Locally digitizing dissertations or other scholarly works for inclusion in institutional repositories can be cost effective, especially if small, defined projects are chosen. A successful project serves as an excellent recruitment strategy for the institutional repository and helps libraries build new relationships. Challenges include workflow, cost, policy development, and copyright permissions.

  5. Cost Analysis of Different Digital Fir Filter Design Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amninder Singh,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available FIR digital filters are widely used in the communication world. The implementation cost of filter circuit is counted by the number of multipliers & adders used, that decides the chip area. In this paper, design techniques of low pass FIR filter using the different windows are presented. The simulation is done in MATLAB. It is shown that filter designed using Hamming and Blackman windows are better than rest of the windows used. Out of two, Hamming window is better as its transition width is narrow, 0.019 than Blackman, 0.034. Further the performance analysis of Kaiser Window, Equiripple and Minimum phase filters was obtained, for same 0.04 transition width. There is a disparity in implementation cost & area. The minimum phase filter can be implemented with lesser number of filter coefficients with tolerable pass-band, stop-band ripples specifications.

  6. Digital control of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Vukosavic, Slobodan N

    2007-01-01

    Offers insight into electric drives and their usage in motion control environment. This book provides links among electrical machine and control theory, practical hardware aspects, programming issues, and application-specific problems. It covers the key elements of motion control systems, and discrete-time speed and position controllers.

  7. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouillot, M. [Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear SAS (France)

    2010-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  8. The use of minimum order state observers in digital flight-control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Hatch, H. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of selecting the 'arbitrary' design parameters of digital state observers when they are being used as a part of a digital flight-control system. A cost index is developed which indicates the output noise caused by input quantization due to analog-to-digital conversion. The cost index assumes that the input quantization error is uniformly distributed over the least-significant-bit of the conversion. Formulas relating the cost index to the observer design parameters are presented. The cost index is minimized with respect to the design parameters using a conjugate gradient algorithm. An example of the theory is presented in which a digital observer is designed so that a satisfactory digital flight-control system is obtained starting from an unacceptable one.

  9. Cost Of Managing Digital Diagnostic Images For A 614 Bed Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Samuel J.; Templeton, Arch W.; Martin, Norman L.; Cook, Larry T.; Lee, Kyo R.; Levine, Errol; Batnitzky, Solomon; Preston, David F.; Rosenthal, Stanton J.; Price, Hilton I.; Anderson, William H.; Tarlton, Mark A.; Faszold, Susan

    1982-01-01

    The cost of recording and archiving digital diagnostic imaging data is presented for a Radiology Department serving a 614 bed University Hospital with a large outpatient population. Digital diagnostic imaging modalities include computed tomography, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and digital radiography. The archiving media include multiformat video film recordings, magnetic tapes, and disc storage. The estimated cost per patient for the archiving of digital diagnostic imaging data is presented.

  10. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  11. Digital system identification and its application to digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotob, S.; Kaufman, H.

    1974-01-01

    On-line system identification of linear discrete systems for implementation in a digital adaptive flight controller is considered by the conventional extended Kalman filter and a decoupling process in which the linear state estimation problem and the linear parameter identification problem are each treated separately and alternately. Input requirements for parameter identifiability are established using the standard conditions of observability for a time variant system. Experimental results for simulated linearized lateral aircraft motion are included along with the effect of different initialization and updating procedures for the priming trajectory used by the filter.

  12. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  13. Effective control of engineering cost measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑虹; 戚悦

    2013-01-01

    the civil engineering cost function mainly lies in the calculation of the required for the construction cost to the sum of al. Civil engineering cost throughout the project, the efective use of human, financial weakness, can beter benefit our investment, so the control of civil engineering cost measures is very necessary.

  14. Low cost valves motorization using micro controller; Motorizacion de valvulas de bajo coste mediante microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, A.; Leal, M. A.; Dominguez Ademe, G.; Yaglian, E.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes a new solution for valves motorization with the objective to obtain a minimum cost and a minimum size. With it, it is proposed to facilitate the complex applications of automation in the hydraulic sector, with multiple volume and pressure controls, like the one made on Integrated Digital Control of Desalting Water Plants. The design presented here consists basically of an original mechanical connection that allows to use standard market valves and moto-gearboxes and a simplified electronic controller based on a micro controller with an elaborated software that allows to control the mother either in ON/Off (open/close) applications or in incremental applications of Regulation. (Author)

  15. Digital electronic engine control F-15 overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, B.

    1984-01-01

    A flight test evaluation of the digital elctronic engine control (DEEC) system was conducted. An overview of the flight program is presented. The roles of the participating parties, the system, and the flight program objectives are described. The test program approach is discussed, and the engine performance benefits are summarized. A description of the follow-on programs is included.

  16. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  17. Selecting a software development methodology. [of digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art analytical techniques for the development and verification of digital flight control software is studied and a practical designer oriented development and verification methodology is produced. The effectiveness of the analytic techniques chosen for the development and verification methodology are assessed both technically and financially. Technical assessments analyze the error preventing and detecting capabilities of the chosen technique in all of the pertinent software development phases. Financial assessments describe the cost impact of using the techniques, specifically, the cost of implementing and applying the techniques as well as the relizable cost savings. Both the technical and financial assessment are quantitative where possible. In the case of techniques which cannot be quantitatively assessed, qualitative judgements are expressed about the effectiveness and cost of the techniques. The reasons why quantitative assessments are not possible will be documented.

  18. Digitally Controlled Analog Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Self-Tuned Filters,’ Proc. 26th Mid- west Symp. Ckts Systems, Puebla , Mexico, 1983. V in V C Fig. 6. (Compensated) OTA Integrator. DigWitly ControlDW...Proc. WS Mid- filters obtained by cascading the proposed second-order wat Symp. Circuits Sjdanwk INAOE, Puebla , Mex- block is presently under...REF IN and the instru- ment has warmed up at least 20 minutes at the ambient temperature. FREOUENCY: * Mesursmeet Buale 20 Hz to 40.1 MHz ODiplayed 114

  19. Analysis and design of digital output interface devices for gas turbine electronic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newirth, D. M.; Koenig, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A trade study was performed on twenty-one digital output interface schemes for gas turbine electronic controls to select the most promising scheme based on criteria of reliability, performance, cost, and sampling requirements. The most promising scheme, a digital effector with optical feedback of the fuel metering valve position, was designed.

  20. Laboratory cost control and financial management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M

    1998-02-09

    Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of cost analysis, and exemplifies use of software to achieve optimized cost control. One commercially available cost analysis software, LabCost, is described in some detail. In addition to provision of cost information, LabCost also serves as a general management tool for resource handling, accounting, inventory management and billing. The application of LabCost in the selection process of a new high throughput analyzer for a large clinical chemistry service is taken as an example for decisions that can be assisted by cost evaluation. It is concluded that laboratory management that wisely utilizes cost analysis to support the decision-making process will undoubtedly have a clear advantage over those laboratories that fail to employ cost considerations to guide their actions.

  1. Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lunze, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic

  2. Distributed and recoverable digital control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A real-time multi-tasking digital control system with rapid recovery capability is disclosed. The control system includes a plurality of computing units comprising a plurality of redundant processing units, with each of the processing units configured to generate one or more redundant control commands. One or more internal monitors are employed for detecting data errors in the control commands. One or more recovery triggers are provided for initiating rapid recovery of a processing unit if data errors are detected. The control system also includes a plurality of actuator control units each in operative communication with the computing units. The actuator control units are configured to initiate a rapid recovery if data errors are detected in one or more of the processing units. A plurality of smart actuators communicates with the actuator control units, and a plurality of redundant sensors communicates with the computing units.

  3. Electronic artificial hand controlled by reconstructed digit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objecive: To treat the loss of part of the forearm with a multi-dimension-freedom electronic artificial hand,which is controlled by a reconstructed finger transplanted from the second toe to the forearm stump.Methods: The female patient was 19 years old, whose right hand and wrist were crushed into pieces by machine at work and her forearm was amputated at the level of 8 cm proximal to the wrist. The second toe of her left foot was transplanted to reconstruct the digit onto the stump of her forearm. Two months after the transplantation, the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation center for further rehabilitation training, which consisted of: training for adaptation to weight bearing, testing and training of sensibility to weight. testing and training for stability of the hand, and testing and training for the controlling function of the reconstructed digit. Results: The transplanted toe survived well. After rehabilitation the reconstructed digit functioned well. In testing the performance under control mandate, the accuracy rate of the electronic artificial hand was 100%.Conclusions: A 100% accuracy rate of the electronic artificial hand can be achieved by transplantation of the toe onto the stump of the forearm. It provides a useful pathway and an example for improvement of control accuracy of a multiple-freedom electronic artificial hand and reduction of false action.

  4. SIMULACIÓN DE CONTROLADORES DIGITALES SIMULATION OF DIGITAL CONTROLLERS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Álvarez G; Andrés Soto P; Francisco Watkins O

    2009-01-01

    ... teoría de control digital sobre procesos reales.This paper describes an implementation of digital controllers in a simulation environment for including a hardware platform for running programs generated on a workstation...

  5. Digitally Controlled Linear Four-Port Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalek

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a universal linear multipart. The circuit is based on digitally controlled multiple voltage-controlled voltage sources (MVCVSs. The main advantages of this control are accuracy, invariability, and very small area requirements. The whole system is simply connected to a PC via its parallel port. This multipart can generally be used as a building block for any model of a nonlinear dynamic system, namely for the piecewise-linear (PWL model in both explicit and implicit forms.

  6. Technology research for digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  7. Digital LLRF controller for NICA booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkin, G. A.; Batrakov, A. M.; Ilyin, I. V.; Vasilyev, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The digital LLRF controller based on embedded microcontroller for the booster of the Dubna superconducting accelerator complex NICA is presented. It allows setting the frequency in accordance with the magnetic field value in the 0.5-5 MHz range with an inaccuracy ± 110 Hz. A novel method of frequency calculation based on the derivative is proposed. The specialized tester module allows tuning up and checking the RF system during comissioning and operation.

  8. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  9. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  10. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  11. A high performance cost-effective digital complex correlator for an X-band polarimetry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergano, Miguel; Rocha, Armando; Cupido, Luís; Barbosa, Domingos; Villela, Thyrso; Boas, José Vilas; Rocha, Graça; Smoot, George F

    2016-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the Milky Way radio emission is important to characterize galactic foregrounds masking extragalactic and cosmological signals. The update of the global sky models describing radio emissions over a very large spectral band requires high sensitivity experiments capable of observing large sky areas with long integration times. Here, we present the design of a new 10 GHz (X-band) polarimeter digital back-end to map the polarization components of the galactic synchrotron radiation field of the Northern Hemisphere sky. The design follows the digital processing trends in radio astronomy and implements a large bandwidth (1 GHz) digital complex cross-correlator to extract the Stokes parameters of the incoming synchrotron radiation field. The hardware constraints cover the implemented VLSI hardware description language code and the preliminary results. The implementation is based on the simultaneous digitized acquisition of the Cartesian components of the two linear receiver polarization channels. The design strategy involves a double data rate acquisition of the ADC interleaved parallel bus, and field programmable gate array device programming at the register transfer mode. The digital core of the back-end is capable of processing 32 Gbps and is built around an Altera field programmable gate array clocked at 250 MHz, 1 GSps analog to digital converters and a clock generator. The control of the field programmable gate array internal signal delays and a convenient use of its phase locked loops provide the timing requirements to achieve the target bandwidths and sensitivity. This solution is convenient for radio astronomy experiments requiring large bandwidth, high functionality, high volume availability and low cost. Of particular interest, this correlator was developed for the Galactic Emission Mapping project and is suitable for large sky area polarization continuum surveys. The solutions may also be adapted to be used at signal processing

  12. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  13. Digital control of magnetic bearings in a cryogenic cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, J.; Law, A.; Lind, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a digital control system for control of magnetic bearings used in a spaceborne cryogenic cooler. The cooler was developed by Philips Laboratories for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Six magnetic bearing assemblies are used to levitate the piston, displacer, and counter-balance of the cooler. The piston and displacer are driven by linear motors in accordance with Stirling cycle thermodynamic principles to produce the desired cooling effect. The counter-balance is driven by a third linear motor to cancel motion induced forces that would otherwise be transmitted to the spacecraft. An analog control system is currently used for bearing control. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibilities for improved performance using digital control. Areas for potential improvement include transient and steady state control characteristics, robustness, reliability, adaptability, alternate control modes, size, weight, and cost. The present control system is targeted for the Intel 80196 microcontroller family. The eventual introduction of application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology to this problem may produce a unique and elegant solution both here and in related industrial problems.

  14. Deterministic digital WDM LAN for controlled configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, John

    2013-09-01

    This work introduces the concept of a digital Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) network for small avionic and space platforms. For packaging and heat transfer efficiency, all optical wavelength sources occupy a common location. Addressable wavelengths are allocated to each receiver, which may be reached by selection or tuning of a transmitter wavelength. Individual delays may be applied to assure synchronization at each receiver. The output of each individual source wavelength is pre-modulated with a clock signal. Signal modulation is applied by passing or rejecting the clock signals. Due to the simplicity of the modulation, the control plane functions can be merged with the data plane functions. Although the concept is based on a single data rate, the digital WDM LAN concept can possibly be extended to process packet and analog payloads.

  15. An introduction to auditing and control of digital library systems

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup Kumar; Dutta, Bidyarthi

    2004-01-01

    Digital libraries consist of interactive and integrated digital information systems. The intelligent control of information systems is necessary to enhance the capabilities and effectiveness of such digital libraries. The information systems auditing and control is popular in other information systems, like e-banking systems, CRM systems, e-governance systems, etc. To exploit the optimum benefits from a digital library system, some auditing and control measures should be maintained. This pape...

  16. Design of Digital Control System for Cement Raw Material Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; LI Hongsheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of cement raw material prepared digital control system by PROFIBUS. It uses the digital technology to implement the digital control system for raw material prepared of the cement factory. This system improves the communication between the industrial system and locale instrument devices. It applies digital communication to replace the 4-20 mA or 24VDC signal between locale lever device and controller.

  17. Challenges and implementation aspects of switched-mode power supplies with digital control for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenzer-Hohmuth, Samuel; Rosahl, Thoralf; Ritzmann, Steffen; Wicht, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) convert an input DC-voltage into a higher or lower output voltage. In automotive, analog control is mostly used in order to keep the required output voltages constant and resistant to disturbances. The design of robust analog control for SMPS faces parameter variations of integrated and external passive components. Using digital control, parameter variations can be eliminated and the required area for the integrated circuit can be reduced at the same time. Digital control design bears challenges like the prevention of limit cycle oscillations and controller-wind-up. This paper reviews how to prevent these effects. Digital control loops introduce new sources for dead times in the control loop, for example the latency of the analog-to-digital-converter (ADC). Dead times have negative influence on the stability of the control loop, because they lead to phase delays. Consequently, low latency is one of the key requirements for analog-to-digital-converters in digitally controlled SMPS. Exploiting the example of a 500 kHz-buck converter with a crossover frequency of 70 kHz, this paper shows that the 5 µs-latency of a ΔΣ-analog-to-digital-converter leads to a reduction in phase margin of 126°. The latency is less critical for boost converters because of their inherent lower crossover frequencies. Finally, the paper shows a comparison between analog and digital control of SMPS with regard to chip area and test costs.

  18. Assessment of costs and benefits in the introduction of digital radiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B L; Hailey, D M; Carter, R

    1992-01-01

    A discussion is presented of cost and benefit considerations in establishing digital radiology systems and an approach to assessment of such factors. Costs of digital radiology systems need to be defined and compared appropriately. Assessments should consider capital and replacement costs, but also less tangible items such as effects on staff and training requirements, hospital infrastructure, productivity, file integrity and diagnostic accuracy. Benefits of digital radiology systems could be assessed using cost-benefit and social audit analysis techniques, yielding a matrix of monetary items and also summaries of non-monetary benefits. Such analysis would define the major participants in the digital radiology process and the nature of their interests and assess the costs and benefits impacting on each of them. Economic evaluation of digital radiology to date has focused on the cost side of the appraisal. Analyses of benefits of digital radiology systems have been limited and have given inconclusive results. There is a need for better definition of comparative costs and benefits to inform interested parties, including hospital staff and health policy makers. Such economic analysis is an important way of asking the right questions about resource usage and could usually be carried out in a pilot setting before there is wider diffusion of digital radiology systems.

  19. IDSAC-IUCAA digital sampler array controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Chordia, Pravin; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Joshi, Bhushan; Chillal, Kalpesh

    2016-07-01

    In order to run the large format detector arrays and mosaics that are required by most astronomical instruments, readout electronic controllers are required which can process multiple CCD outputs simultaneously at high speeds and low noise levels. These CCD controllers need to be modular and configurable, should be able to run multiple detector types to cater to a wide variety of requirements. IUCAA Digital Sampler Array Controller (IDSAC), is a generic CCD Controller based on a fully scalable architecture which is adequately flexible and powerful enough to control a wide variety of detectors used in ground based astronomy. The controller has a modular backplane architecture that consists of Single Board Controller Cards (SBCs) and can control up to 5 CCDs (mosaic or independent). Each Single Board Controller (SBC) has all the resources to a run Single large format CCD having up to four outputs. All SBCs are identical and are easily interchangeable without needing any reconfiguration. A four channel video processor on each SBC can process up to four output CCDs with or without dummy outputs at 0.5 Megapixels/Sec/Channel with 16 bit resolution. Each SBC has a USB 2.0 interface which can be connected to a host computer via optional USB to Fibre converters. The SBC uses a reconfigurable hardware (FPGA) as a Master Controller. IDSAC offers Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to eliminate thermal kTC noise. CDS performed in Digital domain (DCDS) has several advantages over its analog counterpart, such as - less electronics, faster readout and easier post processing. It is also flexible with sampling rate and pixel throughput while maintaining the core circuit topology intact. Noise characterization of the IDSAC CDS signal chain has been performed by analytical modelling and practical measurements. Various types of noise such as white, pink, power supply, bias etc. has been considered while creating an analytical noise model tool to predict noise of a controller

  20. Digital Avionics Information System Preliminary Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis. Final Report (November 1974-May 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Gary K.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The results of a study to evaluate the potential life-cycle costs and cost savings that could be realized by applying the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept to future avionic systems were presented. The tasks evaluated included selection of program elements for costing, selection of DAIS installation potential, definition of a…

  1. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  2. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozański, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using digital signal processing (DSP) methods. It includes Matlab examples for illustration of considered problems.

  3. Digital system accurately controls velocity of electromechanical drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G. B.

    1965-01-01

    Digital circuit accurately regulates electromechanical drive mechanism velocity. The gain and phase characteristics of digital circuits are relatively unimportant. Control accuracy depends only on the stability of the input signal frequency.

  4. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  5. Research methods of simulate digital compensators and autonomous control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the present stage of development of the production is the need to control and regulate a large number of process parameters, the mutual influence on each other that when using single-circuit systems significantly reduces the quality of the transition process, resulting in significant costs of raw materials and energy, reduce the quality of the products. Using a stand-alone digital control system eliminates the correlation of technological parameters, to give the system the desired dynamic and static properties, improve the quality of regulation. However, the complexity of the configuration and implementation of procedures (modeling compensators autonomous systems of this type, associated with the need to perform a significant amount of complex analytic transformation significantly limit the scope of their application. In this regard, the approach based on the decompo sition proposed methods of calculation and simulation (realization, consisting in submitting elements autonomous control part digital control system in a series parallel connection. The above theoretical study carried out in a general way for any dimension systems. The results of computational experiments, obtained during the simulation of the four autonomous control systems, comparative analysis and conclusions on the effectiveness of the use of each of the methods. The results obtained can be used in the development of multi-dimensional process control systems.

  6. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria

    2017-02-13

    Consider a distributed control problem with a communication channel connecting the observer of a linear stochastic system to the controller. The goal of the controller is minimize a quadratic cost function. The most basic special case of that cost function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b. The bound applies as long as the system noise has a probability density function. If target cost b is not too large, that bound can be closely approached by a simple lattice quantization scheme that only quantizes the innovation, that is, the difference between the controller\\'s belief about the current state and the true state.

  7. Low Cost Magnetic Field Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Malafronte, Alexandre A

    2005-01-01

    The Physics Institute of the University of São Paulo (IFUSP) is building a continuous wave (cw) racetrack microtron. This machine has several dipole magnets, like the first and second stage recirculators, and a number of smaller ones in the transport line. These magnets must produce very stable magnetic fields to allow the beam to recirculate along very precise orbits and paths. Furthermore, the fields must be reproducible with great accuracy to allow an easier setup of the machine, though the effects of hysteresis tend to jeopardize the reproducibility. If the magnetic field is chosen by setting the current in the coils, temperature effects over the magnet and power supply tend to change the field. This work describes an inexpensive magnetic field controller that allows a direct measure of the magnetic field through an Hall probe. It includes a microcontroller running a feedback algorithm to control the power supply, in order to keep the field stable and reproducible. The controller can also execu...

  8. A self-reorganizing digital flight control system for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents a design method for digital self-reorganizing control systems which is optimally tolerant of failures in aircraft sensors. The functions of this system are accomplished with software instead of the popular and costly technique of hardware duplication. The theoretical development, based on M-ary hypothesis testing, results in a bank of M Kalman filters operating in parallel in the failure detection logic. A moving window of the innovations of each Kalman filter drives the detection logic to decide the failure state of the system. The detection logic also selects the optimal state estimate (for control logic) from the bank of Kalman filters. The design process is applied to the design of a self-reorganizing control system for a current configuration of the space shuttle orbiter at Mach 5 and 120,000 feet. The failure detection capabilities of the system are demonstrated using a real-time simulation of the system with noisy sensors.

  9. Considerations in developing geographic informations systems based on low-cost digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F. M.; Dobson, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of digital image processing systems costing $20,000 or less for geographic information systems is assessed with the emphasis on the volume of data to be handled, the commercial hardware systems available, and the basic software for: (1) data entry, conversion and digitization; (2) georeferencing and geometric correction; (3) data structuring; (4) editing and updating; (5) analysis and retrieval; (6) output drivers; and (7) data management. Costs must also be considered as tangible and intangible factors.

  10. Field Programmable Gate Array for Implementation of Redundant Advanced Digital Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this effort was to develop a digital motor controller using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This is a more rugged approach than a conventional microprocessor digital controller. FPGAs typically have higher radiation (rad) tolerance than both the microprocessor and memory required for a conventional digital controller. Furthermore, FPGAs can typically operate at higher speeds. (While speed is usually not an issue for motor controllers, it can be for other system controllers.) Other than motor power, only a 3.3-V digital power supply was used in the controller; no analog bias supplies were used. Since most of the circuit was implemented in the FPGA, no additional parts were needed other than the power transistors to drive the motor. The benefits that FPGAs provide over conventional designs-lower power and fewer parts-allow for smaller packaging and reduced weight and cost.

  11. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  12. Digital Servo Control of a Robotic Excavator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jun; SEWARD Derek

    2009-01-01

    An electro-hydraulic control system is designed and implemented for a robotic excavator known as the Lancaster University Computerised and Intelligent Excavator (LUCIE). The excavator is being developed to autonomously dig trenches without human intervention. Since the behavior of the excavator arm is dominated by the nonlinear dynamics of the hydraulic actuators and by the large and unpredictable external disturbances when digging, it is difficult to provide adequate accurate, quick and smooth movement under traditional control methodology, e.g., PI/PID, which is comparable with that of an average human operator. The data-based dynamic models are developed utilizing the simplified refined instrumental variable (SRIV) identification algorithm to precisely describe the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of the electro-hydraulic actuation system. Based on data-based model and proportional-integral-plus (PIP) methodology, which is a non-minimal state space method of control system design based on the true digital control (TDC) system design philosophy, a novel control system is introduced to drive the excavator arm accurately, quickly and smoothly along the desired path. The performance of simulation and field tests which drive the bucket along straight lines beth demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed control scheme.

  13. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  14. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding evaluation criteria in the quality management system of enterprises is introduced. Authors also introduce the method of controlling quality costs and propose it for the practical application, which allows them to determine useful and unnecessary costs at the existing operating plant. Implementing the proposed recommendations in the system of cost management at an enterprise will allow to improve productivity of processes operating and reduce wasted expense on the quality of the process on the basis of determining values of useful and useless costs of quality according to criteria of processes functioning in the system of quality management.

  15. Design of Digital Imaging System for Optimization of Control Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong; HAO Qun; YANG Guang; SUN Hong-wei

    2007-01-01

    The design of experimental system of digital imaging system for control parameter is discussed in detail. Signal processing of digital CCD imaging system is first analyzed. Then the real time control of CCD driver and digital processing circuit and man-machine interaction are achieved by the design of digital CCD imaging module and control module. Experimental results indicate that the image quality of CCD experimental system makes a good response to the change of control parameters. The system gives an important base for improving image quality and the applicability of micro imaging system in complex environment.

  16. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs...... was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital...

  17. Low Power CMOS Digitally Controlled Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Pandey,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, two new designs of CMOS digitally controlled oscillators (DCO for low power application have been proposed. First design has been implemented with one driving strength controlled delay cell and withtwo NAND gates used as inverters. The second design with one delay cell and by two NOR gates is presented. The proposed circuits have been simulated in spice with 0.35 μm (micrometer technology at supply voltage of 3.3V. The first design shows 35-40% reduction in power consumption and second design shows 37.5-41.8% power saving as compared to conventional DCO. The frequency range of first and second design varies [3.1316 - 3.1085] GHz and [3.8112 – 3.7867] GHz respectively with the variation in control word from ‘000000’ to ‘000001'. Power consumption of first and second design varies [640.3845 - 700.2977] μW and [617.6616 -6 77.3996] μW respectively.

  18. Digital Camera Control for Faster Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katharine; Siekierski, James D.; Mangieri, Mark L.; Dekome, Kent; Cobarruvias, John; Piplani, Perry J.; Busa, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Digital Camera Control Software (DCCS) is a computer program for controlling a boom and a boom-mounted camera used to inspect the external surface of a space shuttle in orbit around the Earth. Running in a laptop computer in the space-shuttle crew cabin, DCCS commands integrated displays and controls. By means of a simple one-button command, a crewmember can view low- resolution images to quickly spot problem areas and can then cause a rapid transition to high- resolution images. The crewmember can command that camera settings apply to a specific small area of interest within the field of view of the camera so as to maximize image quality within that area. DCCS also provides critical high-resolution images to a ground screening team, which analyzes the images to assess damage (if any); in so doing, DCCS enables the team to clear initially suspect areas more quickly than would otherwise be possible and further saves time by minimizing the probability of re-imaging of areas already inspected. On the basis of experience with a previous version (2.0) of the software, the present version (3.0) incorporates a number of advanced imaging features that optimize crewmember capability and efficiency.

  19. Evaluation of Digital Checklists for Command and Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    EVALUATION OF DIGITAL CHECKLISTS FOR COMMAND AND CONTROL OPERATIONS Christopher K. McClernon 1 , Victor S. Finomore 2 , Terence S. Andre 3...the potential effectiveness of a digital system that could take the place of the paper system that is currently being used. A between groups...assessments of each system were analyzed and compared. The data showed that a linear digital checklist takes a longer amount of time than both a paper

  20. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    1999-09-17

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  1. Research study on IPS digital controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.

    1976-01-01

    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  2. Digitally Controlled High Availability Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNair, David; /SLAC

    2009-05-07

    This paper will report on the test results of a prototype 1320 watt power module for a high availability power supply. The module will allow parallel operation for N+1 redundancy with hot swap capability. The two quadrant output of each module allows pairs of modules to provide a 4 quadrant (bipolar) operation. Each module employs a novel 4 FET buck regulator arranged in a bridge configuration. Each side of the bridge alternately conducts through a small saturable ferrite that limits the reverse current in the FET body diode during turn off. This allows hard switching of the FETs with low switching losses. The module is designed with over-rated components to provide high reliability and better then 97% efficiency at full load. The modules use a Microchip DSP for control, monitoring, and fault detection. The switching FETS are driven by PWM modules in the DSP at 60 KHz. A Dual CAN bus interface provides for low cost redundant control paths. The DSP will also provide current sharing between modules, synchronized switching, and soft start up for hot swapping. The input and output of each module have low resistance FETs to allow hot swapping and isolation of faulted units.

  3. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  4. Digital controlling for GMA welding machine based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华学明; 吴毅雄; 张勇; 焦馥杰; 于乾波

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduced a welding machine for GMAW using digital controlling method based on DSP (Digital Signal Process). By means of flexible programming according to welding technologies and experiences the suitable characteristics of welding machine, such as line compensation, welding voltage and current feedback, wire-feed driving, SCR trigging and so on, can be controlled and self-adjusted using digital signals. Through the designing based on DSP it is put out that the traditional hardware of control circuit is decreased greatly which can enhance the stability and reliability of welding machine. Finally, the welding experiment using CO2 shielding gas proves that the welding process is stable.

  5. Robust digital controllers for uncertain chaotic systems: A digital redesign approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ababneh, Mohammad [Department of Controls, FMC Kongsberg Subsea, FMC Energy Systems, Houston, TX 77067 (United States); Barajas-Ramirez, Juan-Gonzalo [CICESE, Depto. De Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Ensenada, BC, 22860 (Mexico); Chen Guanrong [Centre for Chaos Control and Synchronization, Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (China); Shieh, Leang S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4005 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, a new and systematic method for designing robust digital controllers for uncertain nonlinear systems with structured uncertainties is presented. In the proposed method, a controller is designed in terms of the optimal linear model representation of the nominal system around each operating point of the trajectory, while the uncertainties are decomposed such that the uncertain nonlinear system can be rewritten as a set of local linear models with disturbed inputs. Applying conventional robust control techniques, continuous-time robust controllers are first designed to eliminate the effects of the uncertainties on the underlying system. Then, a robust digital controller is obtained as the result of a digital redesign of the designed continuous-time robust controller using the state-matching technique. The effectiveness of the proposed controller design method is illustrated through some numerical examples on complex nonlinear systems--chaotic systems.

  6. Digital Control System For Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Mcgraw, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Multiple functions performed by multiple coordinated processors for real-time control. Multiple input, multiple-output, multiple-function digital control system developed for wind-tunnel model of advanced fighter airplane with actively controlled flexible wings. Digital control system provides flexibility in selection of control laws, sensors, and actuators, plus some redundancy to accommodate failures in some of its subsystems. Implements feedback control scheme providing simultaneously for suppression of flutter, control of roll angle, roll-rate tracking during maximized roll maneuvers, and alleviation of loads during roll maneuvers.

  7. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  8. Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital controls research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J. F.; Baez, A. N.

    1981-01-01

    The emphasis of a program to conduct digital controls research for small turboshaft engines is on engine test evaluation of advanced control logic using a flexible microprocessor based digital control system designed specifically for research on advanced control logic. Control software is stored in programmable memory. New control algorithms may be stored in a floppy disk and loaded directly into memory. This feature facilitates comparative evaluation of different advanced control modes. The central processor in the digital control is an Intel 8086 16 bit microprocessor. Control software is programmed in assembly language. Software checkout is accomplished prior to engine test by connecting the digital control to a real time hybrid computer simulation of the engine. The engine currently installed in the facility has a hydromechanical control modified to allow electrohydraulic fuel metering and VG actuation by the digital control. Simulation results are presented which show that the modern control reduces the transient rotor speed droop caused by unanticipated load changes such as cyclic pitch or wind gust transients.

  9. Survey of Integration Cost-Adoption between Digital Library Systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article was identifying cost elements in syntactic integrating digital library systems in Iran. The levels of integration are content, technical, and organizational. It is obvious we could access some sub goals such as identifying current situation of information systems from the view points of data storage, needed standard outputs, and the current situation of interoperability in Iran, and suitable integration model in Iranian digital libraries. The analytical survey method was used in this research. Research population included 11 digital library systems that were used in Iranian digital libraries. In order to gather information, a researcher made questionnaire was used because of not existing standard collecting data tool. Findings demonstrated that we should search on three levels of interoperability: content, technical, and organizational level in order to identifying cost-adoption elements in syntactic interoperability. Also, findings showed that the elements of organizational level were too important level in cost-adoption elements. Also this research demonstrated that the high cost of adoption was related to libraries and their organizations.

  10. State of the Art of Cost and Benefit Models for Digital Curation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Davidson, Joy; Wang, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation carried out by the EU 4C project to assess how well current digital curation cost and benefit models meet a range of stakeholders’ needs. This work aims to elicit a means of modelling that enables comparing financial information across organisation...

  11. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…

  12. Built-In Measurements in Low-Cost Digital-RF Transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliezer, O.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Digital RF solutions have been shown to be advantageous in various design aspects, such as accurate modeling, design reuse, and scaling when migrating to the next CMOS process node. Consequently, the majority of new low-cost and feature cell phones are now based on this approach. However, another eq

  13. F-15 digital electronic engine control system description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    A digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was developed for use on the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. This control system has full authority control, capable of moving all the controlled variables over their full ranges. The digital computational electronics and fault detection and accomodation logic maintains safe engine operation. A hydromechanical backup control (BUC) is an integral part of the fuel metering unit and provides gas generator control at a reduced performance level in the event of an electronics failure. The DEEC's features, hardware, and major logic diagrams are described.

  14. A method for reducing sampling jitter in digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. O.; HURBD W. J.; Hurd, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Digital phase lock loop system is designed by smoothing the proportional control with a low pass filter. This method does not significantly affect the loop dynamics when the smoothing filter bandwidth is wide compared to loop bandwidth.

  15. Effect of various features on the life cycle cost of the timing/synchronization subsystem of the DCS digital communications network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on the life cycle cost of the timing subsystem was examined, when these optional features were included in various combinations. The features included mutual control, directed control, double-ended reference links, independence of clock error measurement and correction, phase reference combining, self-organization, smoothing for link and nodal dropouts, unequal reference weightings, and a master in a mutual control network. An overall design of a microprocessor-based timing subsystem was formulated. The microprocessor (8080) implements the digital filter portion of a digital phase locked loop, as well as other control functions such as organization of the network through communication with processors at neighboring nodes.

  16. Comparison of flight results with digital simulation for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Substantial benefits of a full authority digital electronic engine control on an air breathing engine were demonstrated repeatedly in simulation studies, ground engine tests, and engine altitude test facilities. A digital engine electronic control system showed improvements in efficiency, performance, and operation. An additional benefit of full authority digital controls is the capability of detecting and correcting failures and providing engine health diagnostics.

  17. Applying emerging digital video interface standards to airborne avionics sensor and digital map integrations: benefits outweigh the initial costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    1996-06-01

    Video signal system performance can be compromised in a military aircraft cockpit management system (CMS) with the tailoring of vintage Electronics Industries Association (EIA) RS170 and RS343A video interface standards. Video analog interfaces degrade when induced system noise is present. Further signal degradation has been traditionally associated with signal data conversions between avionics sensor outputs and the cockpit display system. If the CMS engineering process is not carefully applied during the avionics video and computing architecture development, extensive and costly redesign will occur when visual sensor technology upgrades are incorporated. Close monitoring and technical involvement in video standards groups provides the knowledge-base necessary for avionic systems engineering organizations to architect adaptable and extendible cockpit management systems. With the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the process of adopting the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance System standard proposed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), the entertainment and telecommunications industries are adopting and supporting the emergence of new serial/parallel digital video interfaces and data compression standards that will drastically alter present NTSC-M video processing architectures. The re-engineering of the U.S. Broadcasting system must initially preserve the electronic equipment wiring networks within broadcast facilities to make the transition to HDTV affordable. International committee activities in technical forums like ITU-R (former CCIR), ANSI/SMPTE, IEEE, and ISO/IEC are establishing global consensus on video signal parameterizations that support a smooth transition from existing analog based broadcasting facilities to fully digital computerized systems. An opportunity exists for implementing these new video interface standards over existing video coax/triax cabling in military aircraft cockpit management systems. Reductions in signal

  18. State of the Art of Cost and Benefit Models for Digital Curation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Davidson, Joy; Wang, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation carried out by the EU 4C project to assess how well current digital curation cost and benefit models meet a range of stakeholders’ needs. This work aims to elicit a means of modelling that enables comparing financial information across organisations......, to support decision-making and for selecting the most efficient processes – all of which are critical for ensuring sustainability of digital curation investment. The evaluation revealed that the most prominent challenges are associated with the models’ usability, their inability to model quality and benefits...... of curation, and the lack of a clear terminology and conceptual description of costs and benefits. The paper provides recommendations on how these gaps in cost and benefit modelling can be bridged....

  19. Cost-effective bidirectional digitized radio-over-fiber systems employing sigma delta modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Woon; Jung, HyunDo; Park, Jung Ho

    2016-11-01

    We propose a cost effective digitized radio-over-fiber (D-RoF) system employing a sigma delta modulation (SDM) and a bidirectional transmission technique using phase modulated downlink and intensity modulated uplink. SDM is transparent to different radio access technologies and modulation formats, and more suitable for a downlink of wireless system because a digital to analog converter (DAC) can be avoided at the base station (BS). Also, Central station and BS share the same light source by using a phase modulation for the downlink and an intensity modulation for the uplink transmission. Avoiding DACs and light sources have advantages in terms of cost reduction, power consumption, and compatibility with conventional wireless network structure. We have designed a cost effective bidirectional D-RoF system using a low pass SDM and measured the downlink and uplink transmission performance in terms of error vector magnitude, signal spectra, and constellations, which are based on the 10MHz LTE 64-QAM standard.

  20. High flexibility and low cost digital implementation for modern PWM strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new low cost technique for PWM strategy implementation is presented. The proposed technique does not require dedicated hardware PWM units, thus offering higher flexibility of use. Furthermore, the aforementioned method eases the digital implementation of modern modulation methods ...... with hardware PWM unit. The experimental results show that this new technique is suitable to replace traditional implementation methods with minimum computational overhead, with the benefit of high flexibility, lower cost and faster code development.......In this paper a new low cost technique for PWM strategy implementation is presented. The proposed technique does not require dedicated hardware PWM units, thus offering higher flexibility of use. Furthermore, the aforementioned method eases the digital implementation of modern modulation methods...

  1. CONSTRUCTION COST INTEGRATED CONTROL BASED ON COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Construction cost control is a complex system engineering. Thetraditional controlling method cannot dynamically control in advance the construction cost because of its hysteresis. This paper proposes a computer simulation based construction cost integrated control method, which combines the cost with PERT systematically, so that the construction cost can be predicted and optimized systematically and effectively. The new method overcomes the hysteresis of the traditional systems, and is a distinct improvement over them in effect and practicality.

  2. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian Kroo

  3. Design and Implementation of Digital Current Mode Controller for DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel

    to be regulated by a closed-loop controller. The Peak Current Mode Control (PCMC) is one of the most promising control methods for dc-dc converters. It has been known for high bandwidth (speed), and inherent current protection. Increasing the controller bandwidth decreases the output filter size and cost. Analog...... a bandwidth of 1/10 of the switching frequency. In the current state-of-the-art, the best reported digital PCMC has crossover frequency of 1/15 of the switching frequency. In this PhD study a novel digital PCMC with negligible delay in the inner current loop has been proposed. The proposed solution has...... are eliminated in current mode control; applying the current mode control in high efficiency dc-dc converters results in much higher controller bandwidth....

  4. Can we control health care costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzlinger, R

    1978-01-01

    The health care system will never go bankrupt, the author of this article asserts. But the expense of maintaining it is putting such a strain on our resources that bankruptcy sometimes seems not so far off. The controls and devices we use, like certificate-of-need requirements and health management organizations, obviously have not slowed the rise in costs. We need to focus our attention on three elements in the picture that can do the most about curbing expenditures: the health care administrator, the physician, and the business organization (the labor union as well as the corporation). The author offers suggestions for action from these quarters.

  5. Digital adaptive control laws for the F-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Harvey, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is conducting a flight control research program in digital fly-by-wire technology using a modified F-8C aircraft. The first phase of this program used Apollo hardware to demonstrate the practicality of digital fly-by-wire in an actual test vehicle. For the second phase, conventional aircraft sensors and a large floating point digital computer are being utilized to test advanced control laws and redundancy concepts. As part of NASA's research in digital fly-by-wire technology, Honeywell developed digital adaptive flight control laws for flight test in the F-8C. Adaptation of the control laws was to be based on information sensed from conventional aircraft sensors excluding air data. The control laws were constrained to use only existing elevator, rudder, and ailerons as control effectors, each powered by existing actuators. Three adaptive control laws were successfully designed using maximum likelihood estimation, a Liapunov stable model tracker and a self-excited limit cycle concept. The maximum likelihood estimation design was selected as the most promising because of its capability to identify more than surface effectiveness parameters. The adaptive concepts, the control laws and comparisons of predicted performance are described.

  6. Costs and Benefits of a Shared Digital Long-Term Preservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa-Pekka Keskitalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the cost-benefit analysis of digital long-term preservation (LTP that was carried out in the context of the Finnish National Digital Library Project (NDL in 2010. The analysis was based on the assumption that as many as 200 archives, libraries, and museums will share an LTP system. The term ‘system’ shall be understood as encompassing not only information technology, but also human resources, organizational structures, policies and funding mechanisms. The cost analysis shows that an LTP system will incur, over the first 12 years, cumulative costs of €42 million, i.e. an average of €3.5 million per annum. Human resources and investments in information technology are the major cost factors. After the initial stages, the analysis predicts annual costs of circa €4 million. The analysis compared scenarios with and without a shared LTP system. The results indicate that a shared system will have remarkable benefits. At the development and implementation stages, a shared system shows an advantage of €30 million against the alternative scenario consisting of five independent LTP solutions. During the later stages, the advantage is estimated at €10 million per annum. The cumulative cost benefit over the first 12 years would amount to circa €100 million.

  7. Prophylactic digitalization fails to control dysrhythmia in thoracic esophageal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A J; Tolan, M; Whiteside, M; McGuigan, J A; Gibbons, J R

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled, randomized study of 80 patients undergoing esophageal operations was undertaken, in which one group of patients was given digoxin and the other was not. The incidence of cardiac dysrhythmia was compared in each group. Twenty-six patients underwent operation for benign disease. Equal numbers were digitalized or not and no dysrhythmias occurred. Fifty-four patients underwent operation for malignant disease. Of 26 in the group digitalized, 12 suffered dysrhythmia (46%). Of 28 not digitalized, 9 suffered dysrhythmia (32%). Overall, 39% of patients with malignant disease suffered a dysrhythmia compared with none with benign disease (p < 0.002 by chi 2).

  8. Integrated low power digital gyro control electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Closkey, Robert (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Grayver, Eugene (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention generally encompass a digital, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed to perform excitation of a selected mode within a vibratory rate gyroscope, damping, or force-rebalance, of other modes within the sensor, and signal demodulation of the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal containing the angular rate information. The ASIC filters dedicated to each channel may be individually programmed to accommodate different rate sensor designs/technology or variations within the same class of sensors. The ASIC architecture employs a low-power design, making the ASIC, particularly suitable for use in power-sensitive applications.

  9. Low cost, practical, all-digital open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanhong Yang(杨远洪); Weixu Zhang(张惟叙); Jing Ma(马静); Xinjun Chen(陈新军)

    2003-01-01

    A novel all-digital scheme for open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG), where only two key points of outputwave were digitized directly, has been proposed. A control equation, with which the modulation depthof PZT modulator is stable when setting the modulation depth as 4.35 and a calculation equation, withwhich the Sagnac phase can be worked out, are derived. A modulation depth control and an automaticcorrelation sampling and a gain control technology were induced. A photo-type FOG was made and tested.The good performance was achieved.

  10. Improving Hypertension Control and Patient Engagement Using Digital Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J; Bober, Robert M; Milani, Alexander R; Ventura, Hector O

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is present in 30% of the adult US population and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. The established office-based approach yields only 50% blood pressure control rates and low levels of patient engagement. Available home technology now provides accurate, reliable data that can be transmitted directly to the electronic medical record. We evaluated blood pressure control in 156 patients with uncontrolled hypertension enrolled into a home-based digital-medicine blood pressure program and compared them with 400 patients (matched to age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure) in a usual-care group after 90 days. Digital-medicine patients completed questionnaires online, were asked to submit at least one blood pressure reading/week, and received medication management and lifestyle recommendations via a clinical pharmacist and a health coach. Blood pressure units were commercially available that transmitted data directly to the electronic medical record. Digital-medicine patients averaged 4.2 blood pressure readings per week. At 90 days, 71% of digital-medicine vs 31% of usual-care patients had achieved target blood pressure control. Mean decrease in systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 14/5 mm Hg in digital medicine, vs 4/2 mm Hg in usual care (P digital-medicine group (P = .004). Mean patient activation increased from 41.9 to 44.1 (P = .008), and the percentage of patients with low patient activation decreased from 15% to 6% (P = .03) in the digital-medicine group. A digital hypertension program is feasible and associated with significant improvement in blood pressure control rates and lifestyle change. Utilization of a virtual health intervention using connected devices improves patient activation and is well accepted by patients.

  11. Fault tolerant programmable digital attitude control electronics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude control electronics mechanization study to develop a fault tolerant autonomous concept for a three axis system is reported. Programmable digital electronics are compared to general purpose digital computers. The requirements, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) general fault tolerance can be achieved relatively economically, (2) recovery times of less than one second can be obtained, (3) the number of faulty behavior patterns must be limited, and (4) adjoined processes are the best indicators of faulty operation.

  12. Digital set point control of nonlinear stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moose, R. L.; Vanlandingham, H. F.; Zwicke, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for digital control of nonlinear stochastic plants is presented. The development achieves a practical digital algorithm with which the closed-loop system behaves in a classical Type I manner even with gross nonlinearities in the plant structure and low signal-to-noise power ratios. The design procedure is explained in detail and illustrated by an example whose simulated responses testify to the practicality of the approach.

  13. SIMULACIÓN DE CONTROLADORES DIGITALES SIMULATION OF DIGITAL CONTROLLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la implementación de controladores digitales en un entorno de simulación controlado, para esto se desarrolla una plataforma de hardware que permite ejecutar los programas en lenguaje C generados en una estación de trabajo. Estos programas corresponden al controlador y a la planta que son generados por un software que genera dichos programas a partir de sus parámetros de modelación aplicando teoría de control digital sobre procesos reales.This paper describes an implementation of digital controllers in a simulation environment for including a hardware platform for running programs generated on a workstation. These programs for both the controller and the plant are generated by software based on parameters using digital control theory for real processes.

  14. Low-cost Landsat digital processing system for state and local information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper details a minicomputer-based system which is well within the budget of many state, regional, and local agencies that previously could not afford digital processing capability. In order to achieve this goal a workable small-scale Landsat system is examined to provide low-cost automated processing. It is anticipated that the alternative systems will be based on a single minicomputer, but that the peripherals will vary depending on the capability emphasized in a particular system.

  15. Development of Full Automatic Flash Butt Welding with Digital Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SUN Hexu; WANG Hongwen

    2006-01-01

    The hardware and software design of two digital control systems based on 80C196KB MCU for flash butt welder is introduced in this paper. The welding power supply is made of six-phase half-wave rectifier. The welding outer characteristic of welding machine is realized by digital PI algorithm with the voltage close-loop feedback. The flashing curve is finished by electric-hydraulic servo valve .The process control system transfers datum with power supply system by a serial communication interface. The parameters of the control systems are collected by photoelectrical seclusion to avoid the disturbing of the electromagnetism in welding process.

  16. A novel testing approach for SSRF digital power supply controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xinhua; LU Songlin; LI Rui; XU Ruinian; SHEN Tianjian

    2008-01-01

    Digital power supply controller is one of the key parts of SSRF high resolution high stability magnet power supply system.It is very essential to keep any degradation of these excellent properties by any stages as small as possible via careful testing when the controller is developed.In this study,a novel testing approach was presented,with which a novel closed conrail loop without actual power converter was constructed,and the new developed SSRF Digital Controller can work well in it.

  17. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-21

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog–digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  18. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-01

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog-digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  19. Digital Sliding Mode Control of Anti-Lock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITIC, D. B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of anti-lock braking system is a great challenge, because of the nonlinear and complex characteristics of braking dynamics, unknown parameters of vehicle environment and system parameter variations. Using some of robust control methods, such as sliding mode control, can be a right solution for these problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to design of ABS controllers, which is based on digital sliding mode control with only input/output measurements. The relay term of the proposed digital sliding mode control is filtered through digital integrator, reducing the chattering phenomenon in that way, and the additional signal of estimated modelling error is introduced into control algorithm to enhance the system steady-state accuracy. The given solution was verified in real experimental framework and the obtained results were compared with the results of implementation of two other digital sliding mode control algorithms. It is shown that it gives better system response, higher steady-state accuracy and smaller chattering.

  20. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    OpenAIRE

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information about costs is extremely valuable for all engineering tasks. Therefore, a cost estimation system for the generation of cost information and for cost control, integrated in the product development cy...

  1. Multivariable robust digital controller design by convex optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation is essentially concerned with methods of robust digital multivariable and monovariable controller design. For controller desing, a linear discrete-time model of plant to be controlled is used. The controller robustness is treated by sensitivity frequency analysis(sensitivity is transfer function/matrix of closed loop). Correspondingly to H∞ design, the singular values of frequency responses are used for the analysis.The work is divided into five parts. The first part concerns...

  2. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  3. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain - Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; Koeijer AA de; Wit GA de; LEI; Animal Sciences Group; PZO; MGB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the costs-of-illnes

  4. Progress in multirate digital control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Martin C.; Mason, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    A new methodology for multirate sampled-data control design based on a new generalized control law structure, two new parameter-optimization-based control law synthesis methods, and a new singular-value-based robustness analysis method are described. The control law structure can represent multirate sampled-data control laws of arbitrary structure and dynamic order, with arbitrarily prescribed sampling rates for all sensors and update rates for all processor states and actuators. The two control law synthesis methods employ numerical optimization to determine values for the control law parameters. The robustness analysis method is based on the multivariable Nyquist criterion applied to the loop transfer function for the sampling period equal to the period of repetition of the system's complete sampling/update schedule. The complete methodology is demonstrated by application to the design of a combination yaw damper and modal suppression system for a commercial aircraft.

  5. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  6. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  7. Real Time Digital Control of a Magnetostrictive Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrostlik, Rick L.; Hall, David L.; Flatau, Alison B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as a motion source in active vibration control (AVC) systems are being studied. Currently it is of limited use due to the nonlinear nature of the strain versus magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis in the Terfenol-D. One manifestation of these nonlinearities is waveform distortion in the output velocity of the transducer. For Terfenol-D to be used in ever greater numbers of AVC systems, these nonlinearities must be addressed. In this study the nonlinearities are treated as disturbances to a linear system. The acceleration output is used in simple analog and digital feedback control schemes to improve linearity of the transducer. In addition, the use of a Terfenol-D actuator in an AVC system is verified. Both analog and digital controllers are implemented and results compared. A cantilever beam system is considered for AVC applications. The second thrust of this presentation is the reduction of harmonic distortions. Two conclusions can be reached from this work. One, the linearization of Terfenol-D transducers is possible with the use of feedback controllers, both digital and analog. Second, Terfenol-D is a viable motion source in active vibration control systems utilizing either analog or digital controllers.

  8. Digital control of diode laser for atmospheric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Rutledge, C. W. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for remote absorption spectroscopy of trace species using a diode laser tunable over a useful spectral region of 50 to 200 cm(-1) by control of diode laser temperature over range from 15 K to 100 K, and tunable over a smaller region of typically 0.1 to 10 cm(-1) by control of the diode laser current over a range from 0 to 2 amps. Diode laser temperature and current set points are transmitted to the instrument in digital form and stored in memory for retrieval under control of a microprocessor during measurements. The laser diode current is determined by a digital to analog converter through a field effect transistor for a high degree of ambient temperature stability, while the laser diode temperature is determined by set points entered into a digital to analog converter under control of the microprocessor. Temperature of the laser diode is sensed by a sensor diode to provide negative feedback to the temperature control circuit that responds to the temperature control digital to analog converter.

  9. Real Time Digital Control of a Magnetostrictive Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrostlik, Rick L.; Hall, David L.; Flatau, Alison B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as a motion source in active vibration control (AVC) systems are being studied. Currently it is of limited use due to the nonlinear nature of the strain versus magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis in the Terfenol-D. One manifestation of these nonlinearities is waveform distortion in the output velocity of the transducer. For Terfenol-D to be used in ever greater numbers of AVC systems, these nonlinearities must be addressed. In this study the nonlinearities are treated as disturbances to a linear system. The acceleration output is used in simple analog and digital feedback control schemes to improve linearity of the transducer. In addition, the use of a Terfenol-D actuator in an AVC system is verified. Both analog and digital controllers are implemented and results compared. A cantilever beam system is considered for AVC applications. The second thrust of this presentation is the reduction of harmonic distortions. Two conclusions can be reached from this work. One, the linearization of Terfenol-D transducers is possible with the use of feedback controllers, both digital and analog. Second, Terfenol-D is a viable motion source in active vibration control systems utilizing either analog or digital controllers.

  10. Trends in the use of digital technology for control and regulation of power supplies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carwardine, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1999-10-22

    Since the availability of computers, accelerator power supplies have relied on digital technology in some way, from such simple tasks as turning the supplies on and off to the supplying of computer-controlled references. However, advances in digital technology, both in performance and cost, allow considerably more than simple control and monitoring. This, coupled with increasing demand for higher performance and monitoring capabilities, has made it appealing to integrate such technology into power supply designs. This paper will review current trends in the use of such advanced technology as embedded DSP controllers, and the application of real-time algorithms to the regulation and control of power supplies for accelerators and other large-scale physics applications.

  11. Dynamics of control mechanisms in a cost plus percentage contract

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wen-Haw; Yin, Samuel Yen-Lian; Tserng, H. Ping

    2012-01-01

    While the control mechanisms of incentive contracts have been widely studied, this study attempts to determine the optimal control over a cost-plus percentage contract of a construction project. Cost-plus percentage contract shifts some risk from the contractor to client, thus offering little incentive for the contractor to control costs. The owner requires additional management over the construction project to ensure that only necessary costs are spent. The data are collected through documen...

  12. Attitude Control of a Satellite by using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirelle C. Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article has discussed the development of a three-axis attitude digital controller for an artificial satellite using a digital signal processor. The main motivation of this study is the attitude control system of the satellite Multi-Mission Platform, developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research for application in different sort of missions. The controller design was based on the theory of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, synthesized from the linearized model of the motion of the satellite, i.e., the kinematics and dynamics of attitude. The attitude actuators considered in this study are pairs of cold gas jets powered by a pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. In the first stage of the project development, a system controller for continuous time was studied with the aim of testing the adequacy of the adopted control. The next steps had included an analysis of discretization techniques, the setting time of sampling rate, and the testing of the digital version of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator controller in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. To fulfill the study, the controller was implemented in a digital signal processor, specifically the Blackfin BF537 from Analog Devices, along with the pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. The validation tests used a scheme of co-simulation, where the model of the satellite was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, while the controller and modulator were processed in the digital signal processor with a tool called Processor-In-the-Loop, which acted as a data communication link between both environments.function and required time to achieve a given mission accuracy are determined, and results are provided as illustration.

  13. Low cost SCR lamp driver indicates contents of digital computer registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Silicon Controlled Rectifier /SCR/ lamp driver is adapted for use in integrated circuit digital computers where it indicates the contents of the various registers. The threshold voltage at which visual indication begins is very sharply defined and can be adjusted to suit particular system requirements.

  14. Low-cost and easy producible paper-printed digital microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecken, S. von der; Sánchez, D.; Teunissen, P.; Raat, H.; Ahrens, R.; Guber, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Digital Microfluidics' (DMF) unique ability to freely move, split and mix discrete droplets and to handle magnetic particles in lab-on-chip systems raised its popularity in the last twenty years [1]. However, DMF is not very common outside microfluidic laboratories. While control electronics are

  15. The design of multirate digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    The successive loop closures synthesis method is the only method for multirate (MR) synthesis in common use. A new method for MR synthesis is introduced which requires a gradient-search solution to a constrained optimization problem. Some advantages of this method are that the control laws for all control loops are synthesized simultaneously, taking full advantage of all cross-coupling effects, and that simple, low-order compensator structures are easily accomodated. The algorithm and associated computer program for solving the constrained optimization problem are described. The successive loop closures , optimal control, and constrained optimization synthesis methods are applied to two example design problems. A series of compensator pairs are synthesized for each example problem. The succesive loop closure, optimal control, and constrained optimization synthesis methods are compared, in the context of the two design problems.

  16. Can digital pathology result in cost savings? A financial projection for digital pathology implementation at a large integrated health care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology "slide less" clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. Aim: As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS. Methods: Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1 Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2 avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. Results: When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity

  17. Can digital pathology result in cost savings? A financial projection for digital pathology implementation at a large integrated health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jonhan; Ahlers, Stefan M; Stratman, Curtis; Aridor, Orly; Pantanowitz, Liron; Fine, Jeffrey L; Kuzmishin, John A; Montalto, Michael C; Parwani, Anil V

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology "slide less" clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS). Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1) Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2) avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity impacted by improved pathologist productivity and workload

  18. Digital computer control of a 30-cm mercury ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, C. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The major objective was to define the exact role of an onboard spacecraft computer in the control of ion thrusters. An initial computer control system with accurate high speed capability was designed, programmed, and tested with the computer as the sole control element for an operating ion thruster. The command functions and a code format for a spacecraft digital control system were established. A second computer control system was constructed to operate with these functions and format. A throttle program sequence was established and tested. A two thruster array was tested with these computer control systems and the results reported.

  19. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter...

  20. Optimalization of logistic costs by the controlling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Teplická

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with logistic cost problems, their following, reporting and evaluation in the firm. It gives basic information about possible access of the effective decreasing of the logistic cost by the way of controlling access, or evaluation of Balance Score Card. It indicates short algorithm of logistic costs reporting by the way of controlling.

  1. Optimalization of logistic costs by the controlling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Teplická

    2007-01-01

    Article deals with logistic cost problems, their following, reporting and evaluation in the firm. It gives basic information about possible access of the effective decreasing of the logistic cost by the way of controlling access, or evaluation of Balance Score Card. It indicates short algorithm of logistic costs reporting by the way of controlling.

  2. Digital Control of Bonding Force for Gold Wire Bonding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to digitally control the bonding force of a wire bonder precisely, this paper uses a DC solenoid as a force source, and by controlling the solenoid’s current, which causes the electromagnetic force, we can control the bonding force that capillary applies. The bonding force control system in this paper is composed of PC (Personal Computer and hypogyny MCU (Micro Controller Unit, which communicate using a RS485 interface. The digital value of a given bonding force is given by the PC to the MCU. By comparing the sampling current of the solenoid, and through PID regulation, D/A converter of the digital potentiometer and the solenoid driver circuit, the half-closed loop control system of bonding force is accomplished. Tuning of the PID parameters is accomplished with fuzzy adaptive control theory and simulated by Matlab simulink. The control system is tested by comparing the desired bonding force and the force actually applied and examming the relationship between bonding quality and bonding force.

  3. Digitization Projects: management, metadata and control

    OpenAIRE

    Santamarina de la Varga, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Se ofrece como un manual sencillo para el desarrollo de proyectos de digitalización, contemplando todas las fases del proyecto desde la selección de los títulos hasta el control de calidad. Además incluye una explicación breve pero clara de los diversos metadatos existentes, haciendo hincapié en los METS.

  4. NASA develops new digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This news release reports on the development and testing of a new integrated flight and propulsion automated control system that aerospace engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center have been working on. The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA).

  5. Integrated assurance assessment of a reconfigurable digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, W. G.; Davis, R. M.; Benson, J. W.; Smith, M. K.; Eldredge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated application of reliability, failure effects and system simulator methods in establishing the airworthiness of a flight critical digital flight control system (DFCS) is demonstrated. The emphasis was on the mutual reinforcement of the methods in demonstrating the system safety.

  6. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  7. Digitally Controlled Integrated Electronic Ballast with Dimming and Power Factor Correction Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar-Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a digitally controlled integrated electronic ballast with dimming and power factor correctionfeatures. The control circuit is based on a low-cost PIC16C71 microcontroller where the different strategies for energysaving have been implemented. The ballast is operating in closed loop achieving tight lamp current regulation througha digital Proportional-Integral algorithm. The integrated power stage is based on a frequency-controlled single-switchboost rectifier plus a half-bridge series resonant parallel loaded inverter sharing one power switch. The single-switchboost rectifier works in discontinuous inductor current mode with automatic power factor correction. Detailed analysisof the power stages and experimental results using 42-watt electronic ballast are presented.

  8. Cost Models in Digital Archiving: An overview of Life Cycle Management at the National Library of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Oltmans

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of institutions that are either considering the implementation of a digital archive or already started with an operational digital archive service is increasing. While technological and organisational challenges are well-studied and in few cases even well-defined, the subject of costs often remains untouched, which in many cases prevent organisations from new initiatives. In this paper two leading digital preservation techniques - migration and emulation - will be discussed in terms of life cycle management and associated cost models. Both techniques are studied and considered for implementation at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands.

  9. F-8C digital CCV flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Hauge, J. A.; Hendrick, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A set of digital flight control laws were designed for the NASA F-8C digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The control laws emphasize Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) benefits. Specific pitch axis objectives were improved handling qualities, angle-of-attack limiting, gust alleviation, drag reduction in steady and maneuvering flight, and a capability to fly with reduced static stability. The lateral-directional design objectives were improved Dutch roll damping and turn coordination over a wide range in angle-of-attack. An overall program objective was to explore the use of modern control design methodilogy to achieve these specific CCV benefits. Tests for verifying system integrity, an experimental design for handling qualities evaluation, and recommended flight test investigations were specified.

  10. Image is everything. New York Hospital's institution-wide digital imaging lowers costs and improves care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, G; Sostman, H D

    1998-03-01

    The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Manhattan: a 1,242-licensed bed voluntary non-profit hospital. Conventional imaging technology created expensive logistical problems between the radiology facility and the Greenberg Pavilion, a new 850,000 square foot, 11-floor inpatient tower, located two city blocks away. Use a picture archiving communications system (PACS) to transmit, store and archive digital images. Increased staff efficiencies, improved patient care and reduced costs. "Many years of planning and a full commitment from the staff."

  11. A 20 GHz low noise, low cost receiver for digital satellite communication system, ground terminal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Glen

    1988-01-01

    A 45 month effort for the development of a 20 GHz, low-noise, low-cost receiver for digital, satellite communication system, ground terminal applications is discussed. Six proof-of-concept receivers were built in two lots of three each. Performance was generally consistent between the two lots. Except for overall noise figure, parameters were within or very close to specification. While noise figure was specified as 3.5 dB, typical performance was measured at 3.0 to 5.5 dB, over the full temperature range of minus 30 C to plus 75 C.

  12. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  13. Design of a digital adaptive control system for reentry vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon-Jimenez, J. L.; Montgomery, R. C.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1972-01-01

    The flying qualities of atmospheric reentry vehicles experience considerable variations due to the wide changes in flight conditions characteristic of reentry trajectories. A digital adaptive control system has been designed to modify the vehicle's dynamic characteristics and to provide desired flying qualities for all flight conditions. This adaptive control system consists of a finite-memory identifier which determines the vehicle's unknown parameters, and a gain computer which calculates feedback gains to satisfy flying quality requirements.

  14. An optimal promotion cost control model for a markovian manpower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An optimal promotion cost control model for a markovian manpower system. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A theory concerning the existence of an optimal promotion control strategy for controlling a Markovian ...

  15. Digital frequency control of satellite frequency standards. [Defense Navigation Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    In the Frequency and Time Standard Development Program of the TIMATION System, a new miniaturized rubidium vapor frequency standard has been tested and analyzed for possible use on the TIMATION 3A launch, as part of the Defense Navigation Satellite Development Program. The design and construction of a digital frequency control was required to remotely control this rubidium vapor frequency standard as well as the quartz oscillator in current use. This control must be capable of accepting commands from a satellite telemetry system, verify that the correct commands have been sent and control the frequency to the requirements of the system. Several modifications must be performed to the rubidium vapor frequency standard to allow it to be compatible with the digital frequency control. These include the addition of a varactor to voltage tune the coarse range of the flywheel oscillator, and a modification to supply the C field current externally. The digital frequency control for the rubidium vapor frequency standard has been successfully tested in prototype form.

  16. DIGITAL MOTION CONTROL HARDWARE A SURVEY PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Satya Kumara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Teknik pengaturan motor listrik telah berkembang sangat pesat khususnya sejak dua dekade terakhir. Pengaturan kecepatan dan torsi motor yang presisi dan cepat sudah bisa dicapai, khususnya untuk motor ac yang memiliki karakteristik nonlinier dan terkopling. Teknik estimasi untuk mengurangi sensor fisik juga berkembang sebagai upaya meningkatkan keandalan dari drive. Hal-hal di atasi dimungkinkan karena perkembangan teknologi mikroelektronika dan semikonduktor daya. Perkembangan teknologi mikroelektronika khususnya VSLAmemungkinkan pengimplementasian teknik-teknik pengaturan lanjut untuk menghasilkan sistem pengaturan motor listrik dengan unjuk kerja tinggi dan dengan perangkat keras yang ekonomis. Teknologi semikonduktor daya memungkinkan dihasilkannya konverter statis yang efisien, kompak serta ekonomis. Paper ini mencoba me-review sistem perangkat keras yang tersedia untuk mengimplementasikan pengaturan motor listrik dengan teknik digitalmotion control.

  17. Comparison between different cost devices for digital capture of X-ray films: an image characteristics detection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Antonio José; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Aguirre, Diego Andrés

    2012-02-01

    A common teleradiology practice is digitizing films. The costs of specialized digitizers are very high, that is why there is a trend to use conventional scanners and digital cameras. Statistical clinical studies are required to determine the accuracy of these devices, which are very difficult to carry out. The purpose of this study was to compare three capture devices in terms of their capacity to detect several image characteristics. Spatial resolution, contrast, gray levels, and geometric deformation were compared for a specialized digitizer ICR (US$ 15,000), a conventional scanner UMAX (US$ 1,800), and a digital camera LUMIX (US$ 450, but require an additional support system and a light box for about US$ 400). Test patterns printed in films were used. The results detected gray levels lower than real values for all three devices; acceptable contrast and low geometric deformation with three devices. All three devices are appropriate solutions, but a digital camera requires more operator training and more settings.

  18. Kolmogorov-Chaitin Complexity of Digital Controller Implementations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James F. Whidborne; John McKernan; Da-Wei Gu

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of linear, fixed-point arithmetic digital controllers is investigated from a Kolmogorov-Chaitin perspective. Based on the idea of Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity, practical measures of complexity are developed for state-space realizations, parallel and cascade realizations, and for a newly proposed generalized implicit state-space realization.The complexity of solutions to a restricted complexity controller benchmark problem is investigated using this measure.The results show that from a Kolmogorov-Chaitin viewpoint, higher-order controllers with a shorter word-length may have lower complexity and better performance, than lower-order controllers with longer word-length.

  19. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  20. Quality control in digital mammography: the noise components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, Fernando [Universidade de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Centro de Estudios en Ciencias Radiologicas; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Duran, Maria Paz [Clinica Alemana, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Radiologia; Dantas, Marcelino, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Ubeda, Carlos, E-mail: cubeda@uta.c [Universidade de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Fac. de Ciencias de la Salud

    2011-07-01

    To measure the linearity of the detector and determine the noise components (quantum, electronic and structural noise) that contributed to losing image quality and to determine the signal noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR). This paper describes the results of the implementation of a protocol for quality control in digital mammography performed in two direct digital mammography equipment (Hologic, Selenia) in Santiago of Chile. Shows the results of linearity and noise analysis of the images which establishes the main cause of noise in the image of the mammogram to ensure the quality and optimize procedures. The study evaluated two digital mammography's Selenia, Hologic (DR) from Santiago, Chile. We conducted the assessment of linearity of the detector, the signal noise ratio, contrast noise ratio and was determined the contribution of different noise components (quantum, electronics and structural noise). Used different thicknesses used in clinical practice according to the protocol for quality control in digital mammography of Spanish society of medical physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. The Selenia mammography software was used for the analysis of images and Unfors Xi detector for measuring doses. The mammography detector has a linear performance, the CNR and SNR did not comply with the Protocol for the thicknesses of 60 and 70 mm. The main contribution of the noise corresponds to the quantum noise, therefore it is necessary to adjust and optimize the mammography system. (author)

  1. Improved TDEM formation using fused ladar/digital imagery from a low-cost small UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Bikalpa; Budge, Scott E.

    2017-05-01

    Formation of a Textured Digital Elevation Model (TDEM) has been useful in many applications in the fields of agriculture, disaster response, terrain analysis and more. Use of a low-cost small UAV system with a texel camera (fused lidar/digital imagery) can significantly reduce the cost compared to conventional aircraft-based methods. This paper reports continued work on this problem reported in a previous paper by Bybee and Budge, and reports improvements in performance. A UAV fitted with a texel camera is flown at a fixed height above the terrain and swaths of texel image data of the terrain below is taken continuously. Each texel swath has one or more lines of lidar data surrounded by a narrow strip of EO data. Texel swaths are taken such that there is some overlap from one swath to its adjacent swath. The GPS/IMU fitted on the camera also give coarse knowledge of attitude and position. Using this coarse knowledge and the information from the texel image, the error in the camera position and attitude is reduced which helps in producing an accurate TDEM. This paper reports improvements in the original work by using multiple lines of lidar data per swath. The final results are shown and analyzed for numerical accuracy.

  2. Components of the costs of controlling quality: a transaction cost economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, R A; Mick, S S

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies the components that contribute to a healthcare organization's costs in controlling quality. A central tenet of our argument is that at its core, quality is the result of a series of transactions among members of a diverse network. Transaction cost economics is applied internally to analyze intraorganizational transactions that contribute to quality control, and questions for future research are posed.

  3. The Role of Controlled Vocabularies in Digital Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Clark, P. D.; Neiswender, C.

    2006-12-01

    Over the years, and across projects and disciplines, there is an unfortunate tendency for descriptive terminology to wander. Some of the variation is due to evolution in sensor technology, but some may be due to odd abbreviations, typographical errors on rolling decks, institutional practices, or a momentary inspiration to use a new term. As a consequence, we now face challenges in searching digital collections, and in designing re-usable tools that can be applied to multiple institutions. Practical experience with the SIOExplorer Digital Library of 700 SIO cruises has allowed us to develop techniques to assess variations in metadata values across collections of more than 100,000 digital objects, including datasets, documents and images spanning more than 50 years. The assessment helps to guide the development of controlled vocabularies, which in turn can be used to enable automatic detection of metadata errors, and in some cases automatic correction. Controlled vocabularies are playing an essential role in extending the technology to the collections of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, including cruises, Alvin dives and ROV operations. Examples include the names of chief scientists, port names, operational areas, science themes, image types, sample types, data types, and processing steps. Controlled vocabularies underlie an emerging set of tools that support web user interfaces, large-scale automatic harvesting of metadata and data, project status assessment, workflow management and overall quality control. They are a key resource for user upload code in the IODP Site Survey Data Bank, prompting and enforcing appropriate metadata values for ocean drilling proposal support data. Compared to previous generations of hard-wired code, the access to controlled vocabularies allows a project to evolve with flexibility, and the code to be ported from one project to another. These efforts are supported by a Digital Archiving award from the Library of Congress and

  4. A Low-Power Digitally Controlled Oscillator for All Digital Phase-Locked Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-power and low-jitter 12-bit CMOS digitally controlled oscillator (DCO design is presented. The Low-Power CMOS DCO is designed based on the ring oscillator implemented with Schmitt trigger inverters. The proposed DCO circuit uses control codes of thermometer type to reduce jitters. Performance of the DCO is verified through a novel All Digital Phase-Locked Loop (ADPLL designed with a unique lock-in process by employing a time-to-digital converter, where both the frequency of the reference clock and the delay between DCO_output and DCO_clock is measured. A carefully designed reset process reduces the phase acquisition process to two cycles. The ADPLL was implemented using the 32 nm Predictive Technology Model (PTM at 0.9 V supply voltage, and the simulation results show that the proposed ADPLL achieves 10 and 2 reference cycles of frequency and phase acquisitions, respectively, at 700 MHz with less than 67 ps peak-to-peak jitter. The DCO consumes 2.2 mW at 650 MHz with 0.9 V power supply.

  5. Development of a Digital Control for the Phase Contrast Imaging Alignment Feedback System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M.; Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Phase Contrast Imaging diagnostic is an internal reference interferometer that images density fluctuations on a 32-element linear detector array. Since proper operation of the system requires accurate alignment of a CO2 laser beam on a phase plate, beam motion due to vibrations of the DIII-D vessel need to be compensated up to 1 kHz. The feedback network controlling the steering mirrors currently uses a linear analog controller, but a digital controller can provide improved stability performance and flexibility. A prototype was developed using an Arduino Due, a low-cost microcontroller, to assess performance capabilities. Digital control parameters will be developed based on the measured frequency and phase response of the physical components. Finally, testing of the digital feedback system and the required revisions will be done to achieve successful performance. This upgrade to the linear analog controller is expected to be used routinely on similar diagnostics in fusion devices, especially in view of restricted access to the machine hall. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  6. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  7. Dynamic range control of audio signals by digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    It is often necessary to reduce the dynamic range of musical programs, particularly those comprising orchestral and choral music, for them to be received satisfactorily by listeners to conventional FM and AM broadcasts. With the arrival of DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) a much wider dynamic range will become available for radio broadcasting, although some listeners may prefer to have a signal with a reduced dynamic range. This report describes a digital processor developed by the BBC to control the dynamic range of musical programs in a manner similar to that of a trained Studio Manager. It may be used prior to transmission in conventional broadcasting, replacing limiters or other compression equipment. In DAB, it offers the possibility of providing a dynamic range control signal to be sent to the receiver via an ancillary data channel, simultaneously with the uncompressed audio, giving the listener the option of the full dynamic range or a reduced dynamic range.

  8. Environment and health: Probes and sensors for environment digital control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The idea of studying the environment using New Technologies (NT) came from a MIUR (Ministry of Education of the Italian Government) notice that allocated funds for the realization of innovative school science projects. The "Environment and Health" project uses probes and sensors for digital control of environment (water, air and soil). The working group was composed of 4 Science teachers from 'Liceo Statale G. Mazzini ', under the coordination of teacher Chiara Schettini. The Didactic Section of Naples City of Sciences helped the teachers in developing the project and it organized a refresher course for them on the utilization of digital control sensors. The project connects Environment and Technology because the study of the natural aspects and the analysis of the chemical-physical parameters give students and teachers skills for studying the environment based on the utilization of NT in computing data elaboration. During the practical project, samples of air, water and soil are gathered in different contexts. Sample analysis was done in the school's scientific laboratory with digitally controlled sensors. The data are elaborated with specific software and the results have been written in a booklet and in a computing database. During the first year, the project involved 6 school classes (age of the students 14—15 years), under the coordination of Science teachers. The project aims are: 1) making students more aware about environmental matters 2) achieving basic skills for evaluating air, water and soil quality. 3) achieving strong skills for the utilization of digitally controlled sensors. 4) achieving computing skills for elaborating and presenting data. The project aims to develop a large environmental conscience and the need of a ' good ' environment for defending our health. Moreover it would increase the importance of NT as an instrument of knowledge.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PROCESS OF GRAIN DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berestin N. K.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a study of digital continuous system and optimization of digital control systems. It is shown that the standard in the synthesis of digital systems should provide a continuous system, so first we need to create the desired continuous system and then we could try to get the digital system closer to it

  10. Estimation of multiply digital process control system extractive distillation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to stability analysis of digital control systems associated non-stationary object on the example of the rectification process. Object modeling with cross-connections and the control scheme of the described system, discrete transfer functions in the shift operators. The equations of connection for each output of the closed-loop system. To solve this problem developed an algorithm for estimating the margin of stability of multivariable digital control systems based on the discrete root criterion, comprising the following main stages: obtaining of the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop system for each output; computation of eigenvalues of the system matrix in the state space to determine roots of the characteristic equation and the stability of the system; determination of the stability and margin of stability by the deviation of maximum module of the root from the boundary of the high variability. To obtain the characteristic polynomial of a as discrete models of controllers and channels of IP object-use the transfer function of the first order with transport delay. The simulation was performed at different parameters of the control object, which is characterized by a stable and an unstable state of the system. VA-den analysis of the numerical values of the roots and character of their location on the complex plane, which to you-water that the system is stable or unstable. To confirm the obtained results were calculated and presented dynamic characteristics of the closed-loop system under different conditions, which confirm the initial assessment, the root criterion. To determine the factor stability of multivariable digital systems is proposed to use the deviation of the maximum root of the characteristic equation from the stability boundary. The obtained results apply to the class of symmetric multivariable control objects. The approach to assessing the sustainability of multivariable system regulation can be effectively

  11. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize...

  12. Gender Prespecified Sampling for Cost Control

    OpenAIRE

    Trung Le, Kien; Diop, Abdoulaye; Wittrock, Jill; Al-Emadi, Darwish; Elawad, Elmogiera

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative surveys administered in the Middle East and North Africa typically are conducted using methodological techniques developed from outside the region. Sometimes these best practices require modification for local contexts, and one common—but costly—adaptation is to use teams of male and female interviewers for face-to-face surveys. We address the trade-off between costs and quality by testing a sampling method based on gender matching of interviewers and ...

  13. Real time digital control and controlled structures experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michael J.; Knowles, Gareth J.; Rauch, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs covering the following topics are given: controlled structures technology at Grumman Corporate Research Center, active and passive control technology, experiment plans, and vacuum chamber test experiment objectives and setup.

  14. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  15. Stability Analysis and Controller Synthesis for Digital Single-Loop Voltage-Controlled Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes first the stability of single-loop digital voltage control scheme for the LC-filtered voltage source inverters. It turns out that the phase lag, caused by the time delay of digital control system and by the use of integral controller, can stabilize the voltage loop without...... damping of LC-filter resonance. The stability regions are then identified with alternative voltage controller synthesized. For further widening the stability region, an active damping approach is proposed and co-designed with the voltage controller in the discrete z-domain. Simulations and experimental...

  16. Digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter using TMS320LF2407A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Li Xinglin; Wu Shuifeng

    2008-01-01

    A digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter was proposed. A control system consisting of analogue parts was replaced with a new digital control implemented in a TMS320LF2407A DSP chip. The design and constructional features of the whole digital control were presented. The resources of the DSP chip were efficiently utilized and the circuits are very concise, which can enhance the stability and reliability of welding inverter. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed digital control has the ability to accomplish the excellent pulsed gas metal arc welding process and the merits of the developed digital control are stable welding process, little spatter and perfect weld appearance.

  17. A digital computer propulsion control facility: Description of capabilities and summary of experimental program results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, J. R.; Arpasi, D. J.; Lehtinen, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight weight digital computers are being used today to carry out many of the propulsion system control functions previously delegated exclusively to hydromechanical controllers. An operational digital computer facility for propulsion control mode studies has been used successfully in several experimental programs. This paper describes the system and some of the results concerned with engine control, inlet control, and inlet engine integrated control. Analytical designs for the digital propulsion control modes include both classical and modern/optimal techniques.

  18. Unpower aerocraft augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at designing the unpower aerocraft attitude control system in a simple and practical way,the guaranteed cost control is adopted.To eliminate the steady-error,a novel tracking control approach-augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is proposed.Firstly,the unpower aerocraft is modeled as a linear system with norm bounded parameter uncertain,then the linear matrix inequality based state feedback gnaranteed cost control law is combined with the augmented state feedback tracking control from a new point of view.The sufficient condition of the existence of the augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is derived and converted to the feasible problem of the linear matrix inequality.Finally,the proposed approach is applied to a specified unpower aerocraft.The six dimensions of freedom simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  19. The effects of lightning on digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Malloy, W. A.; Craft, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Present practices in lightning protection of aircraft deal primarily with the direct effects of lightning, such as structural damage and ignition of fuel vapors. There is increasing evidence of troublesome electromagnetic effects, however, in aircraft employing solid-state microelectronics in critical navigation, instrumentation and control functions. The potential impact of these indirect effects on critical systems such as digital fly by wire (DFBW) flight controls was studied. The results indicate a need for positive steps to be taken during the design of future fly by wire systems to minimize the possibility of hazardous effects from lightning.

  20. Fabrication and test of digital output interface devices for gas turbine electronic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newirth, D. M.; Koenig, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop an innovative digital output interface device, a digital effector with optical feedback of the fuel metering valve position, for future electronic controls for gas turbine engines. A digital effector (on-off solenoids driven directly by on-off signals from a digital electronic controller) with optical position feedback was fabricated, coupled with the fuel metering valve, and tested under simulated engine operating conditions. The testing indicated that a digital effector with optical position feedback is a suitable candidate, with proper development for future digital electronic gas turbine controls. The testing also identified several problem areas which would have to be overcome in a final production configuration.

  1. 60 GHz 5-bit digital controlled phase shifter in a digital 40 nm CMOS technology without ultra-thick metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ying, K.; Matters-Kammerer, M.K.; Harpe, P.; Wang, B.; Liu, B.; Serdijn, W.A.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    A 5-bit digital controlled switch-type passive phase shifter realised in a 40 nm digital CMOS technology without ultra-thick metals for the 60 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band is presented. A patterned shielding with electromagnetic bandgap structure and a stacked metals method to

  2. Speed Digital Control of Brushless DC Motor Using dsPIC Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Băluţă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the digital control of the Brushless DC motor (BLDCM speed. The dsPICDEM MC1 development system (with the dsPIC30F6010A microcontroller and the dsPICDEM MC1L power module, manufactured by Microchip Company, were used. The control program was developed in C programming language. The graphical user interface was realized in LabVIEW 8.6 graphical programming language. For speed control, a digital controller PI type was implemented. Due to digital controller well chosen and well tuned, the system response at speed step variation is very good. Therewith, the experimental results obtained also show a good compensation of disturbance which does not happen in open-loop control.

  3. Flight testing the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) A unique management experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Kock, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The concept for the DEEC had its origin in the early 1970s. At that time it was recognized that the F100 engine performance, operability, reliability, and cost could be substantially improved by replacing the original mechanical/supervisory electronic control system with a full-authority digital control system. By 1978, the engine manufacturer had designed and initiated the procurement of flight-qualified control system hardware. As a precursor to an integrated controls program, a flight evaluation of the DEEC system on the F-15 aircraft was proposed. Questions regarding the management of the DEEC flight evaluation program are discussed along with the program elements, the technical results of the F-15 evaluation, and the impact of the flight evaluation on after-burning turbofan controls technology and its use in and application to military aircraft. The lessons learned through the conduct of the program are discussed.

  4. Direct drive digital servo press with high parallel control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chikara; Yabe, Jun; Endou, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Direct drive digital servo press has been developed as the university-industry joint research and development since 1998. On the basis of this result, 4-axes direct drive digital servo press has been developed and in the market on April of 2002. This servo press is composed of 1 slide supported by 4 ball screws and each axis has linearscale measuring the position of each axis with high accuracy less than μm order level. Each axis is controlled independently by servo motor and feedback system. This system can keep high level parallelism and high accuracy even with high eccentric load. Furthermore the 'full stroke full power' is obtained by using ball screws. Using these features, new various types of press forming and stamping have been obtained by development and production. The new stamping and forming methods are introduced and 'manufacturing' need strategy of press forming with high added value and also the future direction of press forming are also introduced.

  5. Influence of discretization method on the digital control system performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futás József

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of control system can be divided into two steps. First the process or plant have to be convert into mathematical model form, so that its behavior can be analyzed. Then an appropriate controller have to be design in order to get the desired response of the controlled system. In the continuous time domain the system is represented by differential equations. Replacing a continuous system into discrete time form is always an approximation of the continuous system. The different discretization methods give different digital controller performance. The methods presented on the paper are Step Invariant or Zero Order Hold (ZOH Method, Matched Pole-Zero Method, Backward difference Method and Bilinear transformation. The above mentioned discretization methods are used in developing PI position controller of a dc motor. The motor model was converted by the ZOH method. The performances of the different methods are compared and the results are presented.

  6. Digital IIR filters design using differential evolution algorithm with a controllable probabilistic population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wu; Fang, Jian-an; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing; Du, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE) is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controllable probabilistic (CPDE) population size. It considers the convergence speed and the computational cost simultaneously by nonperiodic partial increasing or declining individuals according to fitness diversities. In addition, we discuss as well some important aspects for IIR filter design, such as the cost function value, the influence of (noise) perturbations, the convergence rate and successful percentage, the parameter measurement, etc. As to the simulation result, it shows that the presented algorithm is viable and comparable. Compared with six existing State-of-the-Art algorithms-based digital IIR filter design methods obtained by numerical experiments, CPDE is relatively more promising and competitive.

  7. The cost of creativity: A controle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabner, I.; Speckbacher, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Organizations that rely heavily on employee creativity face a dilemma: the particular nature of creative production calls for a substantial use of formal control, yet such control can undermine employee creativity. We examine this dilemma by analyzing how an organization's reliance on creativity inf

  8. Digital implementation of fractional order PID controller and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhenbin; Wang Zhenlei; Cao Guangyi; Zhu Xinjian

    2005-01-01

    A new discretization scheme is proposed for the design of a fractional order PID controller. In the design of a fractional order controller the interest is mainly focused on the s-domain, but there exists a difficult problem in the s-domain that needs to be solved, i.e. how to calculate fractional derivatives and integrals efficiently and quickly. Our scheme adopts the time domain that is well suited for Z-transform analysis and digital implementation. The main idea of the scheme is based on the definition of Grunwald-Letnicov fractional calculus. In this case some limited terms of the definition are taken so that it is much easier and faster to calculate fractional derivatives and integrals in the time domain or zdomain without loss much of the precision. Its effectiveness is illustrated by discretization of half-order fractional differential and integral operators compared with that of the analytical scheme. An example of designing fractional order digital controllers is included for illustration, in which different fractional order PID controllers are designed for the control of a nonlinear dynamic system containing one of the four different kinds of nonlinear blocks: saturation, deadzone, hysteresis, and relay.

  9. Digitally controlled oscillator design with a variable capacitance XOR gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoj Kumar; Sandeep K. Arya; Sujata Pandey

    2011-01-01

    A digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) using a three-transistor XOR gate as the variable load has been presented.A delay cell using an inverter and a three-transistor XOR gate as the variable capacitance is also proposed.Three-,five- and seven-stage DCO circuits have been designed using the proposed delay cell.The output frequency is controlled digitally with bits applied to the delay cells.The three-bit DCO shows output frequency and power consumption variation in the range of 3.2486-4.0267 GHz and 0.6121-0.3901 mW,respectively,with a change in the control word 1 1 1-000.The five-bit DCO achieves frequency and power of 1.8553-2.3506 GHz and 1.0202-0.6501 mW,respectively,with a change in the control word 11111-00000.Moreover,the seven-bit DCO shows a frequency and power consumption variation of 1.3239-1.6817 GHz and 1.4282-0.9102 m W,respectively,with a varying control word 1111111-0000000.The power consumption and output frequency of the proposed circuits have been compared with earlier reported circuits and the present approaches show significant improvements.

  10. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie071063@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 100049 (China); Zhou, Dongming [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China)

    2015-01-21

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage.

  11. Costs and cost-effectiveness of malaria control interventions - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control and elimination of malaria requires expanded coverage of and access to effective malaria control interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, indoor residual spraying (IRS, intermittent preventive treatment (IPT, diagnostic testing and appropriate treatment. Decisions on how to scale up the coverage of these interventions need to be based on evidence of programme effectiveness, equity and cost-effectiveness. Methods A systematic review of the published literature on the costs and cost-effectiveness of malaria interventions was undertaken. All costs and cost-effectiveness ratios were inflated to 2009 USD to allow comparison of the costs and benefits of several different interventions through various delivery channels, across different geographical regions and from varying costing perspectives. Results Fifty-five studies of the costs and forty three studies of the cost-effectiveness of malaria interventions were identified, 78% of which were undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa, 18% in Asia and 4% in South America. The median financial cost of protecting one person for one year was $2.20 (range $0.88-$9.54 for ITNs, $6.70 (range $2.22-$12.85 for IRS, $0.60 (range $0.48-$1.08 for IPT in infants, $4.03 (range $1.25-$11.80 for IPT in children, and $2.06 (range $0.47-$3.36 for IPT in pregnant women. The median financial cost of diagnosing a case of malaria was $4.32 (range $0.34-$9.34. The median financial cost of treating an episode of uncomplicated malaria was $5.84 (range $2.36-$23.65 and the median financial cost of treating an episode of severe malaria was $30.26 (range $15.64-$137.87. Economies of scale were observed in the implementation of ITNs, IRS and IPT, with lower unit costs reported in studies with larger numbers of beneficiaries. From a provider perspective, the median incremental cost effectiveness ratio per disability adjusted life year averted was $27 (range $8.15-$110 for ITNs, $143 (range $135

  12. Digital Signal Processing and Control for the Study of Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the digital revolution, digital signal processing and control has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering today. It provides practical and powerful tools to model, simulate, analyze, design, measure, and control complex and dynamic systems such as robots and aircrafts. Gene networks are also complex dynamic systems which can be studied via digital signal processing and control. Unlike conventional computational methods, this approach is capable of not only modeling but also controlling gene networks since the experimental environment is mostly digital today. The overall aim of this article is to introduce digital signal processing and control as a useful tool for the study of gene networks.

  13. Digital Signal Processing and Control for the Study of Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-22

    Thanks to the digital revolution, digital signal processing and control has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering today. It provides practical and powerful tools to model, simulate, analyze, design, measure, and control complex and dynamic systems such as robots and aircrafts. Gene networks are also complex dynamic systems which can be studied via digital signal processing and control. Unlike conventional computational methods, this approach is capable of not only modeling but also controlling gene networks since the experimental environment is mostly digital today. The overall aim of this article is to introduce digital signal processing and control as a useful tool for the study of gene networks.

  14. A novel trajectory prediction control for proximate time-optimal digital control DC—DC converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Wang; Ning, Chen; Shen, Xu; Weifeng, Sun; Longxing, Shi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel trajectory prediction method for proximate time-optimal digital control DC—DC converters. The control method provides pre-estimations of the duty ratio in the next several switching cycles, so as to compensate the computational time delay of the control loop and increase the control loop bandwidth, thereby improving the response speed. The experiment results show that the fastest transient response time of the digital DC—DC with the proposed prediction is about 8 μs when the load current changes from 0.6 to 0.1 A.

  15. Propulsion control experience used in the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will integrate the propulsion and flight control systems on an F-15 airplane at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Ames-Dryden has conducted several propulsion control programs that have contributed to the HIDEC program. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) flight evaluation investigated the performance and operability of the F100 engine equipped with a full-authority digital electronic control system. Investigations of nozzle instability, fault detection and accommodation, and augmentor transient capability provided important information for the HIDEC program. The F100 engine model derivative (EMD) was also flown in the F-15 airplane, and airplane performance was significantly improved. A throttle response problem was found and solved with a software fix to the control logic. For the HIDEC program, the F100 EMD engines equipped with DEEC controls will be integrated with the digital flight control system. The control modes to be implemented are an integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine control system mode. The engine control experience that will be used in the HIDEC program is discussed.

  16. Design of Low Noise 16-bit CMOS Digitally Controlled Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new differential delay cell is proposed and 16-bit Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO based on proposed delay cell is designed. The 16-bit DCO consist of 4-stages differential delay cell in ring structure and a digital control scheme has been used to improved noise characteristics. The structure of the DCO utilizes dual delay path techniques to achieve high oscillation frequency and awide tuning range. The DCO circuit has been simulated in SPICE with 0.5μm technology operating with supply voltage of 5V. DCO achieved a controllable frequency range of [1.7324-4.8649] GHz with a tuningrange of 3.1325GHz (≈64%. The measured output noise is -161.2dB/Hz and the total harmonic distortion have been found 75.4865dB with 6666H control word. The phase noise in proposed DCO design is -179.4dB/Hz at a frequency of 1.7324GHz.

  17. Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air Traffic Controller Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air Traffic Controller Performance THESIS...and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-13-M-24 Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air... Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air Traffic Controller Performance Jason G. Russi Technical Sergeant, USAF Approved

  18. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple “pathways,” or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  19. A task-based quality control metric for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki Bloomquist, A. K.; Mainprize, J. G.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    A reader study was conducted to tune the parameters of an observer model used to predict the detectability index (dʹ ) of test objects as a task-based quality control (QC) metric for digital mammography. A simple test phantom was imaged to measure the model parameters, namely, noise power spectrum, modulation transfer function and test-object contrast. These are then used in a non-prewhitening observer model, incorporating an eye-filter and internal noise, to predict dʹ. The model was tuned by measuring dʹ of discs in a four-alternative forced choice reader study. For each disc diameter, dʹ was used to estimate the threshold thicknesses for detectability. Data were obtained for six types of digital mammography systems using varying detector technologies and x-ray spectra. A strong correlation was found between measured and modeled values of dʹ, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.96. Repeated measurements from separate images of the test phantom show an average coefficient of variation in dʹ for different systems between 0.07 and 0.10. Standard deviations in the threshold thickness ranged between 0.001 and 0.017 mm. The model is robust and the results are relatively system independent, suggesting that observer model dʹ shows promise as a cross platform QC metric for digital mammography.

  20. First results from the MAST digital plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, G.J. E-mail: graham.mcardle@ukaea.org.uk; Storrs, J

    2004-06-01

    The mega-amp spherical tokamak (MAST) has operated under a new digital plasma control system [Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 761]. The new system, based on commercially available VME hardware, has replaced most of the old analogue control electronics [Fusion Eng. Des. 56-57 (2001) 749] with algorithms implemented in the control software. General Atomics provided their PCS [B.G. Penaflor, J.R. Ferron, M.L. Walker, A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments, in: Proceedings of the 19th SOFT, vol. 1, Lisbon, Portugal, 1996, p. 965] software infrastructure as a generic framework for a plasma control system. A powerful configuration tool has been developed to generate the MAST-specific code from a set of structured documents written in extensible mark-up language (XML). This enables rapid development of new control algorithms and permits safe re-configuration of the code layout, whilst maintaining the coherence of multiple cross-references. The initial algorithm set emulates the behaviour of the original analogue control hardware where it is sensible to do so, but implements several new plant protection capabilities that were previously too difficult to provide with analogue electronics. Shots previously run with the old system can be converted to run in the new system, thus allowing previous campaigns to be continued without the need to develop new scenarios. During the present engineering break, a new suite of algorithms is being developed to provide plasma boundary reconstruction and control functions that fully exploit the capabilities of the digital system.

  1. Cost and effect of pinning control for network synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Rong; Duan Zhi-Sheng; Chen Guan-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The problem of pinning control for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks is discussed in this paper. A cost function of the controlled network is defined by the feedback gain and the coupling strength of the network. An interesting result is that a lower cost is achieved by using the control scheme of pinning nodes with smaller degrees. Some strict mathematical analyses are presented for achieving a lower cost in the synchronization of different star-shaped various star-shaped networks are performed for verification and illustration.

  2. Digital redesign of anti-wind-up controller for cascaded analog system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y S; Tsai, J S H; Shieh, L S; Moussighi, M M

    2003-01-01

    The cascaded conventional anti-wind-up (CAW) design method for integral controller is discussed. Then, the prediction-based digital redesign methodology is utilized to find the new pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) digital controller for effective digital control of the analog plant with input saturation constraint. The desired digital controller is determined from existing or pre-designed CAW analog controller. The proposed method provides a novel methodology for indirect digital design of a continuous-time unity output-feedback system with a cascaded analog controller as in the case of PID controllers for industrial control processes with the presence of actuator saturations. It enables us to implement an existing or pre-designed cascaded CAW analog controller via a digital controller effectively.

  3. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  4. Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, C; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates a new method for rapid and precise maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic (PV) applications using dithered PWM control. Constraints imposed by efficiency, cost, and component size limit the available PWM resolution of a power converter, and may in turn limit the MPP tracking efficiency of the PV system. In these scenarios, PWM dithering can be used to improve average PWM resolution. In this study, we present a control technique that uses ripple correlation control (RCC) on the dithering ripple, thereby achieving simultaneous fast tracking speed and high tracking accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method solves some of the practical challenges that have to date limited the effectiveness of RCC in solar PV applications. We present a theoretical derivation of the principles behind dithering digital ripple correlation control, as well as experimental results that show excellent tracking speed and accuracy with basic hardware requirements.

  5. Fuzzy logic control strategy for submerged arc automatic welding of digital controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Kuanfang; Huang Shisheng; Zhou Yiqing; Wang Zhenmin

    2008-01-01

    A microcomputer control system based on 80C320 and a switching regulation of wire feeder were designed. A correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was introduced to achieve welding digital and intellectualized control by means of wire feeding speed feedback. The controller has many functions such as keyboard input, light emitting diode (LED) display and real-time intellectualized control of welding process etc. The controlling performance influenced by the coefficient of correction function was discussed. It was concluded by the experiments the relation between the coefftcient of correction function and welding quality, when the coefficient of correction function is great, the dynamic character of controller is better, when the coefficient of correction function is small, the sensitivity character of controller is better. Experimental results also show that digital and fuzzy logic control method enable the improvement of appearance of weld and stability of welding process to be achieved in submerged arc automatic welding.

  6. Data processing workflows from low-cost digital survey to various applications: three case studies of Chinese historic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Cao, Y. K.

    2015-08-01

    The paper focuses on the versatility of data processing workflows ranging from BIM-based survey to structural analysis and reverse modeling. In China nowadays, a large number of historic architecture are in need of restoration, reinforcement and renovation. But the architects are not prepared for the conversion from the booming AEC industry to architectural preservation. As surveyors working with architects in such projects, we have to develop efficient low-cost digital survey workflow robust to various types of architecture, and to process the captured data for architects. Although laser scanning yields high accuracy in architectural heritage documentation and the workflow is quite straightforward, the cost and portability hinder it from being used in projects where budget and efficiency are of prime concern. We integrate Structure from Motion techniques with UAV and total station in data acquisition. The captured data is processed for various purposes illustrated with three case studies: the first one is as-built BIM for a historic building based on registered point clouds according to Ground Control Points; The second one concerns structural analysis for a damaged bridge using Finite Element Analysis software; The last one relates to parametric automated feature extraction from captured point clouds for reverse modeling and fabrication.

  7. Information Warfare Arms Control: Risks and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    legal system and the modern concept of arms control were able to provide for national and international collective security during the Cold War...information warfare presents many challenges that question their viability. The most significant challenges are to the international legal system , which

  8. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns.

  9. Economics of infection control surveillance technology: cost-effective or just cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Jon P; Schweizer, Marin L; McGregor, Jessina C; Perencevich, Eli N

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that informatics tools, such as automated alert and decision support systems, may increase the efficiency and quality of infection control surveillance. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of these tools. We focus on 2 types of economic analyses that have utility in assessing infection control interventions (cost-effectiveness analysis and business-case analysis) and review the available literature on the economics of computerized infection control surveillance systems. Previous studies on the effectiveness of computerized infection control surveillance have been limited to assessments of whether these tools increase the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance over traditional methods. Furthermore, we identified only 2 studies that assessed the costs associated with computerized infection control surveillance. Thus, it remains unknown whether computerized infection control surveillance systems are cost-effective and whether use of these systems improves patient outcomes. The existing data are insufficient to allow for a summary conclusion on the cost-effectiveness of infection control surveillance technology. All future studies of computerized infection control surveillance systems should aim to collect outcomes and economic data to inform decision making and assist hospitals with completing business-cases analyses.

  10. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost in young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rebecca Whitson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost. These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs. Moreover, residual RT mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these ‘mixed’ repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011. In this study, we examine stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We argue that, together with evidence of greater proactive control and more cautious responding for these trials, these findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  11. Anticipatory planning and control of grasp positions and forces for dexterous two-digit manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiushi; Zhang, Wei; Santello, Marco

    2010-07-07

    Dexterous object manipulation requires anticipatory control of digit positions and forces. Despite extensive studies on sensorimotor learning of digit forces, how humans learn to coordinate digit positions and forces has never been addressed. Furthermore, the functional role of anticipatory modulation of digit placement to object properties remains to be investigated. We addressed these questions by asking human subjects (12 females, 12 males) to grasp and lift an inverted T-shaped object using precision grip at constrained or self-chosen locations. The task requirement was to minimize object roll during lift. When digit position was not constrained, subjects could have implemented many equally valid digit position-force coordination patterns. However, choice of digit placement might also have resulted in large trial-to-trial variability of digit position, hence challenging the extent to which the CNS could have relied on sensorimotor memories for anticipatory control of digit forces. We hypothesized that subjects would modulate digit placement for optimal force distribution and digit forces as a function of variable digit positions. All subjects learned to minimize object roll within the first three trials, and the unconstrained device was associated with significantly smaller grip forces but larger variability of digit positions. Importantly, however, digit load force modulation compensated for position variability, thus ensuring consistent object roll minimization on each trial. This indicates that subjects learned object manipulation by integrating sensorimotor memories with sensory feedback about digit positions. These results are discussed in the context of motor equivalence and sensorimotor integration of grasp kinematics and kinetics.

  12. Distributed digital real-time control system for TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.B. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Fasel, D.; Marmillod, P. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A new distributed digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • Data is shared in real-time between all nodes using the reflective memory. • The customised Linux OS allows achieving deterministic and low latency behaviour. • The control algorithm design in Simulink together with the automatic code generation using Embedded Coder allow rapid algorithm development. • Controllers designed outside the TCV environment can be ported easily. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: A new digital feedback control system (named the SCD “Système de Contrôle Distribué”) has been developed, integrated and used successfully to control TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) plasmas. The system is designed to be modular, distributed, and scalable, accommodating hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs. With many more inputs and outputs available than previously possible, it offers the possibility to design advanced control algorithms with better knowledge of the plasma state and to coherently control all TCV actuators, including poloidal field (PF) coils, gas valves, the gyrotron powers and launcher angles of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD) together with diagnostic triggering signals. The system consists of multiple nodes; each is a customised Linux desktop or embedded PC which may have local ADC and DAC cards. Each node is also connected to a memory network (reflective memory) providing a reliable, deterministic method of sharing memory between all nodes. Control algorithms are programmed as block diagrams in Matlab-Simulink providing a powerful environment for modelling and control design. The C code is generated automatically from the Simulink block diagram and compiled, with the Simulink Embedded Coder (SEC, formerly Real-Time Workshop Embedded

  13. Polynomial Digital Control of a Series Equal Liquid Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobála Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays are mainly caused by the time required to transport mass, energy or information, but they can also be caused by processing time or accumulation. Typical examples of such processes are e.g. pumps, liquid storing tanks, distillation columns or some types of chemical reactors. In many cases time-delay is caused by the effect produced by the accumulation of a large number of low-order systems. Several industrial processes have the time-delay effect produced by the accumulation of a great number of low-order systems with the identical dynamic. The dynamic behavior of series these low-order systems is expressed by high-order system. One of possibilities of control of such processes is their approximation by low-order model with time-delay. The paper is focused on the design of the digital polynomial control of a set of equal liquid cylinder atmospheric tanks. The designed control algorithms are realized using the digital Smith Predictor (SP based on polynomial approach – by minimization of the Linear Quadratic (LQ criterion. The LQ criterion was combined with pole assignment.

  14. Selection of sampling rate for digital control of aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P.; Powell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The considerations in selecting the sample rates for digital control of aircrafts are identified and evaluated using the optimal discrete method. A high performance aircraft model which includes a bending mode and wind gusts was studied. The following factors which influence the selection of the sampling rates were identified: (1) the time and roughness response to control inputs; (2) the response to external disturbances; and (3) the sensitivity to variations of parameters. It was found that the time response to a control input and the response to external disturbances limit the selection of the sampling rate. The optimal discrete regulator, the steady state Kalman filter, and the mean response to external disturbances are calculated.

  15. Switch Costs Occur at Lemma Stage When Bilinguals Name Digits: Evidence from Language-Switching and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Xie, Jiushu; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore the locus of switch costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian–Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the analysis that was time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals spoke digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. PMID:27630589

  16. Review of innovations in digital health technology to promote weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have contributed to the obesity epidemic and worsened health by reducing opportunities for physical activity and by the proliferation of inexpensive calorie-dense foods. However, much of the same technology can be used to counter these troublesome trends by fostering the development and maintenance of healthy eating and physical activity habits. In contrast to intensive face-to-face treatments, technology-based interventions also have the potential to reach large numbers of individuals at low cost. The purpose of this review is to discuss studies in which digital technology has been used for behavioral weight control, report on advances in consumer technology that are widely adopted but insufficiently tested, and explore potential future directions for both. Web-based, mobile (eg, smartphone), virtual reality, and gaming technologies are the focus of discussion. The best evidence exists to support the use of digital technology for self-monitoring of weight-related behaviors and outcomes. However, studies are underway that will provide additional, important information regarding how best to apply digital technology for behavioral weight control.

  17. 7 CFR 1219.52 - Control of administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS... Board shall implement a system of cost controls based on normally accepted business practices to:...

  18. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  19. Control DHT maintenance costs with session heterogeneity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Fu-tai; WU Zeng-de; ZHANG Liang; MA Fan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The maintaining overheads of Distributed Hash Table (DHT) topology have recently received considerable attention.This paper presents a novel SHT (Session Heterogeneity Topology) model, in which DHT is reconstructed with session heterogeneity. SHT clusters nodes by means of session heterogeneity among nodes and selects the stable nodes as the participants of DHT. With an evolving process, this model gradually makes DHT stable and reliable. Therefore the high maintaining overheads for DHT are effectively controlled. Simulation with real traces of session distribution showed that the maintaining overheads are reduced dramatically and that the data availability is greatly improved.

  20. Control and costs of management; Mejora de la logistica inversa, control y costes de gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ramos, M.

    2002-07-01

    Companies are being forced to set up Reverse Supply Chains because of environmental regulations or consumer pressures. Reverse Supply Chain is the series of activities required to retrieve a used product from a customer and either dispose of it or reuse it. And for a growing number of manufacturers, in industries ranging from packaging to computer. Reverse Supply Chains are becoming an essential part of business. Pricewaterhouse Coopers ? Spain, as an organization with clients in multiple industries and governments we are acutely aware of the potential impact that Reverse Supply chain have, both in the results and in the competitive positioning of our clients. It can help to boost benefits, reducing purchasing costs and reducing inventory, cut cycle times along the value reverse chain, control and reduce risks of discontinuity in supply to recycled. Ultimately, the Reverse Supply Chain can be deployed to integrate, manufacturers, distributors, marketers, recycles and customers,and governments thanks to the latest developments in e-business. We understand the challenges and opportunities that are inherent in Reverse Supply Chain Management in our country both for global and local businesses. (Author)

  1. Preliminary Cost Estimates of Pollution Control Technologies for Geothermal Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, R.; Houser, G.; Richard, G.; Cotter, J.; Weller, P.; Pulaski, E.

    1979-10-01

    This is the first report from the EPA estimating the cost of technology for mitigating pollution that might arise from geothermal power systems. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an initial step towards the establishment of regulatory standards for the geothermal industry by preparing a document entitled Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development. This report supports that document by providing pollution control cost information. The objective of this report is to provide preliminary cost estimates for air and water pollution treatment and disposal technologies applicable for geothermal energy conversion systems. Cost estimates include both annualized capital investment and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for various levels of environmental requirements. [DJE-2005

  2. Minimizing communication cost among distributed controllers in software defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Elbreiki, Walid; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm to increase the flexibility of today's network by promising for a programmable network. The fundamental idea behind this new architecture is to simplify network complexity by decoupling control plane and data plane of the network devices, and by making the control plane centralized. Recently controllers have distributed to solve the problem of single point of failure, and to increase scalability and flexibility during workload distribution. Even though, controllers are flexible and scalable to accommodate more number of network switches, yet the problem of intercommunication cost between distributed controllers is still challenging issue in the Software Defined Network environment. This paper, aims to fill the gap by proposing a new mechanism, which minimizes intercommunication cost with graph partitioning algorithm, an NP hard problem. The methodology proposed in this paper is, swapping of network elements between controller domains to minimize communication cost by calculating communication gain. The swapping of elements minimizes inter and intra communication cost among network domains. We validate our work with the OMNeT++ simulation environment tool. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism minimizes the inter domain communication cost among controllers compared to traditional distributed controllers.

  3. A feedback control system for high-fidelity digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Steve C C; Fobel, Ryan; Kumar, Paresh; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2011-02-07

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a technique in which discrete droplets are manipulated by applying electrical fields to an array of electrodes. In an ideal DMF system, each application of driving potential would cause a targeted droplet to move onto an energized electrode (i.e., perfect fidelity between driving voltage and actuation); however, in real systems, droplets are sometimes observed to resist movement onto particular electrodes. Here, we implement a sensing and feedback control system in which all droplet movements are monitored, such that when a movement failure is observed, additional driving voltages can be applied until the droplet completes the desired operation. The new system was evaluated for a series of liquids including water, methanol, and cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum, and feedback control was observed to result in dramatic improvements in droplet actuation fidelity and velocity. The utility of the new system was validated by implementing an enzyme kinetics assay with continuous mixing. The new platform for digital microfluidics is simple and inexpensive and thus should be useful for scientists and engineers who are developing automated analysis platforms.

  4. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-09-18

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  5. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  6. THE COST CONTROL BY APPLYING THE TARGET COSTING METHOD IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MĂRGINEAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economic spectrum considered on a slightly increasing trend in the general aspects of the national economy, feels increasingly the need for a development in the cost management issue. One of the modern methods of cost calculation that can fill this gap in the Romanian business practice in management accounting is the target costing method. The overall objective of this case study is to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of this method in the cost controlling activity, widely used in the field of managerial accounting practice in the developed economies. The financial accounting and the managerial accounting converge in terms of ultimate interest for the company, i.e. value creation and performance increase in a sustainable way. After performing the case study with real financial data, we conclude that the target costing method is applicable and particularly useful in the construction industry and the results may provide support for decision-makers.

  7. Low cost digital electronics for isotope analysis with microcalorimeters - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Hennig

    2006-09-11

    The overall goal of the Phase I research was to demonstrate that the digital readout electronics and filter algorithms developed by XIA for use with HPGe detectors can be adapted to high precision, cryogenic gamma detectors (microcalorimeters) and not only match the current state of the art in terms of energy resolution, but do so at a significantly reduced cost. This would make it economically feasible to instrument large arrays of microcalorimeters and would also allow automation of the setup, calibration and operation of large numbers of channels through software. We expected, and have demonstrated, that this approach would further allow much higher count rates than the optimum filter algorithms currently used. In particular, in measurements with a microcalorimeter at LLNL, the adapted Pixie-16 spectrometer achieved an energy resolution of 0.062%, significantly better than the targeted resolution of 0.1% in the Phase I proposal and easily matching resolutions obtained with LLNL readout electronics and optimum filtering (0.066%). The theoretical maximum output count rate for the filter settings used to achieve this resolution is about 120cps. If the filter is adjusted for maximum throughput with an energy resolution of 0.1% or better, rates of 260cps are possible. This is 20-50 times higher than the maximum count rates of about 5cps with optimum filters for this detector. While microcalorimeter measurements were limited to count rates of ~1.3cps due to the strength of available sources, pulser measurements demonstrated that measured energy resolutions were independent of counting rate to output counting rates well in excess of 200cps or more.. We also developed a preliminary hardware design of a spectrometer module, consisting of a digital processing core and several input options that can be implemented on daughter boards. Depending upon the daughter board, the total parts cost per channel ranged between $12 and $27, resulting in projected product prices of $80

  8. Control and monitoring of doses to patients in a team of digital mammography; Control y seguimiento de las dosis a pacientes en un equipo de mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulla Otero, M.; Torres Cabrera, R.; Hernando Gonzalez, I.

    2013-07-01

    In recent years is widespread use of imaging devices digital mammography. One of the advantages associated with this scanning is the ability to access a large amount of information contained in the headwaters of own digital images. The exploitation of this information allows the calculation of doses received by patients. This paper describes the methodology employed for this purpose and are presented the results of the control and monitoring of doses given in a digital mammography equipment. (Author)

  9. Digitally Controlled Converter with Dynamic Change of Control Law and Power Throughput

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Nielsen, Nils

    2003-01-01

    the control algorithm is a thermal monitoring scheme used for assessment of safe converter power throughput. An added benefit of this thermal monitoring is the possibility of software implemented analytic redundancy, which improves system fault resilience. Finally, reliability issues concerning......With the continuous development of faster and cheaper microprocessors the field of applications for digital control is constantly expanding. Based on this trend the paper at hand describes the analysis and implementation of multiple control laws within the same controller. Also, implemented within...... the substitution of analog controllers with their digital counterparts are considered. The outline of the paper is divided into two segments – the first being an experimental analysis of the timing behavior by means of code optimization – the second being an examination of the dynamics of incorporating two control...

  10. The cost of approximate controllability for semilinear heat equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqing YAN; Yi ZHAO; Yu HUANG

    2009-01-01

    We consider the semilinear heat equation with globally Lipschitz non-linearity involving gradient terms in a bounded domain of Rn.In this paper,we obtain explicit bounds of the cost of approximate controllability,i.e.,of the minimal norm of a control needed to control the system approximately.The methods we used combine global Carleman estimates,the variational approach to approximate controllability and Schauder's fixed point theorem.

  11. Digital controller for hybrid filter in HVDC based on approximate inverse system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ling; ZHAO Dong-yuan; CHEN Jian-ye; WANG Zan-ji

    2006-01-01

    In order to eliminate the characteristic harmonics in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems and to simplify the analog controller structure,this paper proposes a new digital controller by adopting an approximate inverse system control strategy according to the frequency response characteristic of the hybrid power filter.The proposed digital controller is implemented with a TMS320C32 DSP,including a series of parallel digital band-pass filters,phase shifters and amplifiers.The results of both simulations based on PSCAD and experiments on a 30 kVA HVDC system prove that the proposed digital control system is stable and efficient for eliminating the harmonics.

  12. Space Shuttle Main Engine control system. [hydraulic actuator with digital control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, P. F.; Searle, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine is a reusable, high-performance rocket engine being developed by the Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell International to satisfy the operational requirements of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle. The design incorporates a hydraulically actuated, closed-loop servosystem controlled and monitored by a programmable electronic digital controller. The controller accepts vehicle commands for the various engine operational phases, positions the appropriate valves, monitors the engine for the required performance precisions and conditions, and provides redundancy management.

  13. Cost effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control programmes: participatory versus vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baly, A; Toledo, M E; Boelaert, M; Reyes, A; Vanlerberghe, V; Ceballos, E; Carvajal, M; Maso, R; La Rosa, M; Denis, O; Van der Stuyft, P

    2007-06-01

    We conducted an economic appraisal of two strategies for Aedes aegypti control: a vertical versus a community-based approach. Costs were calculated for the period 2000-2002 in three pilot areas of Santiago de Cuba where a community intervention was implemented and compared with three control areas with routine vertical programme activities. Reduction in A. aegypti foci was chosen as the measure of effectiveness. The pre-intervention number of foci (614 vs. 632) and economical costs for vector control (US$243746 vs. US$263486) were comparable in the intervention and control areas. During the intervention period (2001-2002), a 13% decrease in recurrent costs for the health system was observed. Within the control areas, these recurrent relative costs remained stable. The number of A. aegypti foci in the pilot areas and the control areas fell by 459 and 467, respectively. The community-based approach was more cost effective from a health system perspective (US$964 vs. US$1406 per focus) as well as from society perspective (US$1508 vs. US$1767 per focus).

  14. Using oblique digital photography for alluvial sandbar monitoring and low-cost change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusso, Robert B.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of alluvial sandbars is a longstanding management interest along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Resource managers are interested in both the long-term trend in sandbar condition and the short-term response to management actions, such as intentional controlled floods released from Glen Canyon Dam. Long-term monitoring is accomplished at a range of scales, by a combination of annual topographic survey at selected sites, daily collection of images from those sites using novel, autonomously operating, digital camera systems (hereafter referred to as 'remote cameras'), and quadrennial remote sensing of sandbars canyonwide. In this paper, we present results from the remote camera images for daily changes in sandbar topography.

  15. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Mackenzie, A; Honey, I D

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm(-1) ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10(-5) mm(2) (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm(-1), with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm(-1), while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm(-1) for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and

  16. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  17. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  18. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  19. Digital Pulse Modulation Amplifier (PMA) systems based on PEDEC control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    The paper extends previous research and presents a suite of novel high efficiency digital PMA topologies based on Pulse Edge Delay Error Correction (PEDEC). The practical results are very encouraging, showing that digital modulator performance is maintained throughout the subsequent power convers...... conversion. The topologies are believed to be the first implemented digital PMA systems including effective power stage error correction....

  20. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  1. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials. PMID:27386460

  2. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials.

  3. Highly Flexible Multimode Digital Signal Processing Systems Using Adaptable Components and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinu Vijay; Lach, John

    2006-12-01

    Multimode systems have emerged as an area- and power-efficient platform for implementing multiple timewise mutually exclusive digital signal processing (DSP) applications in a single hardware space. This paper presents a design methodology for integrating flexible components and controllers into primarily fixed logic multimode DSP systems, thereby increasing their overall efficiency and implementation capabilities. The components are built using a technique called small-scale reconfigurability (SSR) that provides the necessary flexibility for both intermode and intramode reconfigurabilities, without the penalties associated with general-purpose reconfigurable logic. Using this methodology, area and power consumption are reduced beyond what is provided by current multimode systems, without sacrificing performance. The results show an average of 7% reduction in datapath component area, 26% reduction in register area, 36% reduction in interconnect MUX cost, and 68% reduction in the number of controller signals, with an average 38% increase in component utilization for a set of benchmark 32-bit DSP applications.

  4. Highly Flexible Multimode Digital Signal Processing Systems Using Adaptable Components and Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinu Vijay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimode systems have emerged as an area- and power-efficient platform for implementing multiple timewise mutually exclusive digital signal processing (DSP applications in a single hardware space. This paper presents a design methodology for integrating flexible components and controllers into primarily fixed logic multimode DSP systems, thereby increasing their overall efficiency and implementation capabilities. The components are built using a technique called small-scale reconfigurability (SSR that provides the necessary flexibility for both intermode and intramode reconfigurabilities, without the penalties associated with general-purpose reconfigurable logic. Using this methodology, area and power consumption are reduced beyond what is provided by current multimode systems, without sacrificing performance. The results show an average of 7% reduction in datapath component area, 26% reduction in register area, 36% reduction in interconnect MUX cost, and 68% reduction in the number of controller signals, with an average 38% increase in component utilization for a set of benchmark 32-bit DSP applications.

  5. All Digital Wide Range Msar Controlled Duty-Cycle Corrector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sindhuja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A clock with 50% duty cycle is very significant in many applications such as DDR-SDRAMs and double sampling analog-to-digital converters. This crisp presents a Modified Successive Approximation Register (MSAR controlled duty cycle corrector (DCC, to attain 50% duty cycle correction. Here MSAR adopts a binary search method to compress lock time while maintaining tight synchronization between effort and production clocks. The MSAR-DCC circuit has been implemented in a 0.18- µm CMOS process which corrects the duty rate within 5 cycles which has a closed loop characteristics. The measured power dissipation and area occupation are 5581nW and 0.033mm2 respectively.

  6. Digitally controlled droplet microfluidic system based on electrophoretic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Do Jin; Yoo, Byeong Sun; Ahn, Myung Mo; Moon, Dustin; Kang, In Seok

    2012-11-01

    Most researches on direct charging and the subsequent manipulation of a charged droplet were focused on an on-demand sorting in microchannel where carrier fluid transports droplets. Only recently, an individual actuation of a droplet without microchannel and carrier fluid was tried. However, in the previous work, the system size was too large and the actuation voltage was too high (1.5 kV), which limits the applicability of the technology to mobile use. Therefore, in the current research, we have developed a miniaturized digital microfluidic system based on the electrophoresis of a charged droplet (ECD). By using a pin header socket for an array of electrodes, much smaller microfluidic system can be made from simple fabrication process with low cost. A full two dimensional manipulation (0.4 cm/s) of a droplet (300 nL) suspended in silicone oil (6 cSt) and multiple droplet actuation have been performed with reasonable actuation voltage (300 V). By multiple droplet actuation and coalescence, a practical biochemical application also has been demonstrated. We hope the current droplet manipulation method (ECD) can be a good alternative or complimentary technology to the conventional ones and therefore contributes to the development of droplet microfluidics. This work has been supported by BK21 program of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) of Korea.

  7. Simple digital PWM and PSM controlled DC-DC boost converter for luminance-regulated WLED driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; GUO Shu-xu; CHANG Yu-chun; ZHU Shun-dong; WANG Shuai

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a control strategy based on simple digital pulse-width modulation (DPWM) and pulse-skip modulation (PSM) for a DC-DC boost converter, to drive a luminance-regulated white light emitting diodes (WLEDs). The presented control strategy not only retains most of the advantages and flexibilities of traditional digital PWM, but also reduces complexity and cost. Based on analyzing the principle of the presented control strategy, the white light emitting diode (WLED) driver is designed and simulated using the 0.6 (m CMOS process. Simulation results of the boost converter show that the power efficiency is above 76% for a full load, with a peak efficiency of 88% when supply voltage varies from 2.7 V to 5.5 V. The control strategy overcomes low efficiency for PWM mode with light load.

  8. Comparison of State-of-the-Art Digital Control and Analogue Control for High Bandwidth Point of Load Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of state-of-the-art digital and analogue control for a Buck converter with synchronous rectification. The digital control scheme is based on a digital self-oscillating modulator that allows the sampling frequency to be higher than the switching...... frequency of the converter. Voltage mode control is used in both the analogue and digital control schemes. The experimental results show that it is possible to design a digitally controlled Buck converter that has the same performance as can be achieved using commercially available analogue control ICs....... The performance of the analogue system can however be increased by using a separate operational amplifier as error amplifier. Thus analogue control is still the best option if high control bandwidth and fast transient response to load steps are important design parameters....

  9. VPLS Based Quality and Cost Control for Tennessee Eastman Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 王海清; 李平

    2005-01-01

    Product quality and operation cost control obtain increasing emphases in modern chemical system engineering. To improve the fault detection power of the partial least square (PLS) method for quality control, a new QRPV statistic is proposed in terms of the VP (variable importance in projection) indices of monitored process variables, which is significantly advanced over and different from the conventional Q statistic. QRPV is calculated only by the residuals of the remarkable process variables (RPVs). Therefore, it is the dominant relation between quality and RPV not all process variables (as in the case of the conventional PLS) that is monitored by this new VP-PLS (VPLS) method. The combination of QRPV and T2 statistics is applied to the quality and cost control of the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process, and weak faults can be detected as quickly as possible. Consequently, the product quality of TE process is guaranteed and operation costs are reduced.

  10. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Toole, Holly; Richey, John A.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement) and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice) to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation. PMID:28515705

  11. Relevant Costs for Decision in an Effective Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is considered a leading concept in the sense of coordination, planning, control and automation, in order to produce the synthesis necessary in decision making. The purpose of article is to highlight the link between a dynamic accounting system and an effective controlling system. The research method used is based on the idea that the cost analysis in an efficient controlling system involves obtaining accounting information from within the entity which management then uses in decision making. In conclusion, we emphasize that an effective controlling system must provide managers the tools to meet their informational needs.

  12. Multiagent-based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled DC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent based distributed control is proposed for DC microgrid to minimize the operation cost. The power of each distributed generator (DG) is dispatched in a distributed manner in a multiagent system by means of voltage scheduling. Every DG unit is taken as an agent......, and they share the load corresponding to the operation cost of all the units in the system with only communication with direct neighbors through incremental cost consensus. The power regulation according to the power reference generated by consensus is implemented through voltage scheduling in local primary...

  13. A low-cost, scalable, current-sensing digital headstage for high channel count μECoG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpis, Michael; Insanally, Michele; Zou, Jialin; Elsharif, Ashraf; Ghomashchi, Ali; Sertac Artan, N; Froemke, Robert C; Viventi, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    High channel count electrode arrays allow for the monitoring of large-scale neural activity at high spatial resolution. Implantable arrays featuring many recording sites require compact, high bandwidth front-end electronics. In the present study, we investigated the use of a small, light weight, and low cost digital current-sensing integrated circuit for acquiring cortical surface signals from a 61-channel micro-electrocorticographic (μECoG) array. We recorded both acute and chronic μECoG signal from rat auditory cortex using our novel digital current-sensing headstage. For direct comparison, separate recordings were made in the same anesthetized preparations using an analog voltage headstage. A model of electrode impedance explained the transformation between current- and voltage-sensed signals, and was used to reconstruct cortical potential. We evaluated the digital headstage using several metrics of the baseline and response signals. The digital current headstage recorded neural signal with similar spatiotemporal statistics and auditory frequency tuning compared to the voltage signal. The signal-to-noise ratio of auditory evoked responses (AERs) was significantly stronger in the current signal. Stimulus decoding based on true and reconstructed voltage signals were not significantly different. Recordings from an implanted system showed AERs that were detectable and decodable for 52 d. The reconstruction filter mitigated the thermal current noise of the electrode impedance and enhanced overall SNR. We developed and validated a novel approach to headstage acquisition that used current-input circuits to independently digitize 61 channels of μECoG measurements of the cortical field. These low-cost circuits, intended to measure photo-currents in digital imaging, not only provided a signal representing the local cortical field with virtually the same sensitivity and specificity as a traditional voltage headstage but also resulted in a small, light headstage that can

  14. A low-cost, scalable, current-sensing digital headstage for high channel count μECoG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpis, Michael; Insanally, Michele; Zou, Jialin; Elsharif, Ashraf; Ghomashchi, Ali; Sertac Artan, N.; Froemke, Robert C.; Viventi, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Objective. High channel count electrode arrays allow for the monitoring of large-scale neural activity at high spatial resolution. Implantable arrays featuring many recording sites require compact, high bandwidth front-end electronics. In the present study, we investigated the use of a small, light weight, and low cost digital current-sensing integrated circuit for acquiring cortical surface signals from a 61-channel micro-electrocorticographic (μECoG) array. Approach. We recorded both acute and chronic μECoG signal from rat auditory cortex using our novel digital current-sensing headstage. For direct comparison, separate recordings were made in the same anesthetized preparations using an analog voltage headstage. A model of electrode impedance explained the transformation between current- and voltage-sensed signals, and was used to reconstruct cortical potential. We evaluated the digital headstage using several metrics of the baseline and response signals. Main results. The digital current headstage recorded neural signal with similar spatiotemporal statistics and auditory frequency tuning compared to the voltage signal. The signal-to-noise ratio of auditory evoked responses (AERs) was significantly stronger in the current signal. Stimulus decoding based on true and reconstructed voltage signals were not significantly different. Recordings from an implanted system showed AERs that were detectable and decodable for 52 d. The reconstruction filter mitigated the thermal current noise of the electrode impedance and enhanced overall SNR. Significance. We developed and validated a novel approach to headstage acquisition that used current-input circuits to independently digitize 61 channels of μECoG measurements of the cortical field. These low-cost circuits, intended to measure photo-currents in digital imaging, not only provided a signal representing the local cortical field with virtually the same sensitivity and specificity as a traditional voltage headstage but

  15. The Digital Motion Control System for the Submillimeter Array Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, T R; Kimberk, R; Leiker, P S; Patel, N A; Blundell, R; Christensen, R D; Diven, A R; Maute, J; Plante, R J; Riddle, P; Young, K H

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the digital servo and motion control system for the 6-meter diameter parabolic antennas of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The system is divided into three nested layers operating at a different, appropriate bandwidth. (1) A rack-mounted, real-time Unix system runs the position loop which reads the high resolution azimuth and elevation encoders and sends velocity and acceleration commands at 100 Hz to a custom-designed servo control board (SCB). (2) The microcontroller-based SCB reads the motor axis tachometers and implements the velocity loop by sending torque commands to the motor amplifiers at 558 Hz. (3) The motor amplifiers implement the torque loop by monitoring and sending current to the three-phase brushless drive motors at 20 kHz. The velocity loop uses a traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm, while the position loop uses only a proportional term and implements a command shaper based on the Gauss error functi...

  16. Simple, portable, and low-cost microscope based on off-axis digital holography using two spherical waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujie; Liu, Yunhui; Lau, Tak Kit

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we present a highly compact and low-cost holographic microscope which is especially suitable for observing transparent samples with certain specific supports such as microchannels. This microscope employs only an inexpensive laser diode, a dual precision round aperture, and a digital light sensor. The total cost of the system except for the digital sensor is less than 400 US dollars, and a hand-held system can be made based on our setup. Besides the simple, cheap, and compact setup, this system can capture the off-axis interference pattern of two spherical waves and reconstruct the quantitative phase profile along with the amplitude image of the observed sample with the twin image eliminated in real time. Experimental results show that the resolution of our system is better than 2 μm, and the 3D structure of blood cells can be retrieved.

  17. Clear federal strategy is emerging for cost control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, T

    1979-02-01

    The author states that the purpose of governmental cost containment initiatives is to gain control over hospital capital expenditures, utilization, payment and quality assurance. He suggests that the costs of hospital operation should be completely re-examined stating that the reform of the hospital payment system is emerging as the energizing factor which will stimulate proper allocation of capital resources and effective utilization and quality assurance. O'Hare outlines the potential of the federal strategy. Recent legislation (PL 93-641 and PL 95-142) has mandated that hospital financial and statistical data be made available to federal agencies. He concludes that a dominant federal role in cost containment strategy threatens to abolish individual differences between institutions and their ability to be responsive to local needs. The author urges hospital leadership to take a more active position in implementing a cost containment strategy.

  18. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  19. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

    2012-09-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  20. The system of account and control of logistics costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    Full Text Available The process of organization of civil engineering provides the delivery of construction materials, equipment to the civil engineering objects in the required quantities at the specified time. Effective tool for solving this problem is logistics. The basic components of logistics costs, which occupy the largest share in the sum of all logistics costs, are transportation costs and storage costs. The civil engineering industry is very promising for the use of outsourcing. The main part of works on providing material and technical resources in most cases is transferred to the outsourcing of other companies, including the group of companies forming the holding. In large holding companies the chain of movement of materials, goods and productions: purchase of materials and goods, completion materials, production structures, storage, movement, transportation, etc. may include several companies belonging in holding. The goods can be moved from one warehouse to another, with or without change of the owner of goods. Each company is obliged to show each movement of goods in their financial accounting. During the goods’ movement within a group of companies from one storage to another, from one owner to another, the total costs of the goods rise. Sales within a group of companies lead, as a rule, to a gain by one of the companies and the logistic expenses of another company. Selling to a consumer provides a profit to the seller company. Therefore, the problem of adequate allocation of logistics expenses and profits between separate legal entity and the task of continuous accounting and control of logistics costs and earnings in large companies, is vital. The automated system for accounting and controlling of logistics costs is suggested. The developed system allows controlling logistics costs of refining, storage and transportation for each ton, pieces, linear or square meters of the shipped cargoes. The System is based on complex algorithms of distribution

  1. Pharmaceuticals: pharmaceutical cost controls--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Melicia; Varma, Priya

    2005-12-31

    The enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90) gave states the option of offering pharmaceutical benefits within their Medicaid programs. But the law placed restrictions on states' flexibility to control what prescriptions they would cover and required the states to reimburse outpatient prescription drugs from manufacturers that signed rebate agreements with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Forty-nine states--Arizona is excluded, based on its program structure--and the District of Columbia currently offer prescription drug coverage under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. During the past four years, states all over the country have been plagued with revenue shortfalls in their state Medicaid budgets. While the fiscal situation improved for most states in the 2004 legislative session, many states still face budget pressures in 2005. Compounding existing budget pressures are threats from the Bush Administration to shift increased costs of the Medicaid program on to the states. All things considered, the economic pressure of funding Medicaid is at the top of legislative agendas in 2005. As in previous years, states are attempting to reduce costs to their Medicaid programs by seeking savings in their pharmaceutical programs. Prescription drug costs are highly attributed as a contributing factor to the fiscal climate of state Medicaid programs. Currently, prescription drug spending outpaces that of every other category of health care and drug prices are rising faster than inflation. In response, states are instituting a variety of pharmaceutical cost control measures such as creating preferred drug lists (PDLs), negotiating supplemental rebates, forming bulk purchasing pools, promoting generic drug substitution and implementing price controls. As prescription drug cost containment tools have gained acceptance and momentum, they continue to be controversial. This issue brief explores the debate, history, methodology, utilization

  2. Cost versus control: Understanding ownership through outsourcing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Christina Marsh; Warren, Patrick L

    2016-07-01

    For-profit hospitals in California contract out services much more intensely than either private nonprofit or public hospitals. To explain why, we build a model in which the outsourcing decision is a trade-off between cost and control. Since nonprofit firms are more restricted in how they consume net revenues, they experience more rapidly diminishing value of a dollar saved, and they are less attracted to a low-cost but low-control outsourcing opportunity than a for-profit firm is. This difference is exaggerated in services where the benefits of controlling the details of production are particularly important but minimized when a fixed-cost shock raises the marginal value of a dollar of cost savings. We test these predictions in a panel of California hospitals, finding evidence for each and that the set of services that private non-profits are particularly interested in controlling (physician-intensive services) is very different from those than public hospitals are particularly interested in (labor-intensive services). These results suggest that a model of public or nonprofit make-or-buy decisions should be more than a simple relabeling of a model derived in the for-profit context.

  3. Research on optimal guaranteed cost control of flexible spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingchao; Cai Peng

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the modeling and control problems of the flexible spacecraft.First,the state observer is designed to estimate the vibration mode on the basis of free vibration models.Then,an optimal guaranteed cost controller is proposed to stabilize system attitude and damp the vibration of the flexible beam at the same time.Numerical simulation examples show the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.

  4. Digital control of grid connected converters for distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjellnes, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Pulse width modulated converters are becoming increasingly popular as their cost decreases and power rating increases. The new trend of small scale power producers, often using renewable energy sources, has created new demands for delivery of energy to the grid. A major advantage of the pulse width modulated converter is the ability to control the output voltage at any point in the voltage period. This enables rapid response to load changes and non-linear loads. In addition it can shape the voltage in response to the output current to create an outward appearance of a source impedance. This is called a virtual impedance. This thesis presents a controller for a voltage controlled three phase pulse width modulated converter. This controller enables operation in standalone mode, in parallel with other converters in a micro grid, and in parallel with a strong main grid. A time varying virtual impedance is presented which mainly attenuates reactive currents. A method of investigating the overall impedance including the virtual impedance is presented. New net standards have been introduced, requiring the converter to operate even during severe dips in the grid voltage. Experiments are presented verifying the operation of the controller during voltage dips. (Author). 37 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Learning in the Digital Age: Control or Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In October 2011, 200 state school officers and legislators gathered at a hotel in San Francisco to learn how to "revolutionize" learning by "personalizing" instruction. The occasion was former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush's second annual National Summit on Education Reform. The topic was digital learning. The vision of digitally managed curriculum and…

  6. Learning in the Digital Age: Control or Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In October 2011, 200 state school officers and legislators gathered at a hotel in San Francisco to learn how to "revolutionize" learning by "personalizing" instruction. The occasion was former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush's second annual National Summit on Education Reform. The topic was digital learning. The vision of digitally managed curriculum and…

  7. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  8. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-Ⅵ and sub-Ⅵ source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article.

  9. Fuzzy maintenance costs of a wind turbine pitch control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation maintenance costs for the case of the pitch controls system of wind farms turbines. Previous investigations have estimated these costs as (traditional “crisp” values, simply ignoring the uncertainty nature of data and information available. This paper purposes an extended version of the estimation model by making use of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The results alert decision-makers to consequent uncertainty of the estimations along with their overall level, thus improving the information given to the mainte-nance support system.

  10. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  12. Descripción de los sistemas de control digital de procesos

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Mora Villate

    2010-01-01

    Este articulo se ocupa de exponer a grandes rasgos las funciones que cumplen los computadores aplicados al control de procesos Industriales, así como de presentar las principales configuraciones de los sistemas de control digital de procesos.

  13. Mars Digital Image Model 2.1 Control Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, B. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Duxbury, T. C.; Lee, E. M.; Sucharski, R.; Cook, D.

    2003-01-01

    USGS is currently preparing a new version of its global Mars digital image mosaic, which will be known as MDIM 2.1. As part of this process we are completing a new photogrammetric solution of the global Mars control network. This is an improved version of the network established earlier by RAND and USGS personnel, as partially described previously. MDIM 2.1 will have many improvements over earlier Viking Orbiter (VO) global mosaics. Geometrically, it will be an orthoimage product, draped on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) derived topography, thus accounting properly for the commonly oblique VO imagery. Through the network being described here it will be tied to the newly defined IAU/IAG 2000 Mars coordinate system via ties to MOLA data. Thus, MDIM 2.1 will provide complete global orthorectified imagery coverage of Mars at the resolution of 1/256 deg of MDIM 2.0, and be compatible with MOLA and other products produced in the current coordinate system.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Oliveira Filho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

  15. Digit Position and Forces Covary during Anticipatory Control of Whole-Hand Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marneweck, Michelle; Lee-Miller, Trevor; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives on anticipatory planning of object manipulation have traditionally been informed by studies that have investigated kinematics (hand shaping and digit position) and kinetics (forces) in isolation. This poses limitations on our understanding of the integration of such domains, which have recently been shown to be strongly interdependent. Specifically, recent studies revealed strong covariation of digit position and load force during the loading phase of two-digit grasping. Here, we determined whether such digit force-position covariation is a general feature of grasping. We investigated the coordination of digit position and forces during five-digit whole-hand manipulation of an object with a variable mass distribution. Subjects were instructed to prevent object roll during the lift. As found in precision grasping, there was strong trial-to-trial covariation of digit position and force. This suggests that the natural variation of digit position that is compensated for by trial-to-trial variation in digit forces is a fundamental feature of grasp control, and not only specific to precision grasp. However, a main difference with precision grasping was that modulation of digit position to the object's mass distribution was driven predominantly by the thumb, with little to no modulation of finger position. Modulation of thumb position rather than fingers is likely due to its greater range of motion and therefore adaptability to object properties. Our results underscore the flexibility of the central nervous system in implementing a range of solutions along the digit force-to-position continuum for dexterous manipulation.

  16. Digit forces bias sensorimotor transformations underlying control of fingertip position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Daisuke; Kappers, Astrid M L; Santello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to modulate digit forces as a function of position despite changes in digit placement that might occur from trial to trial or when changing grip type for object manipulation. Although this phenomenon is likely to rely on sensing the position of the digits relative to each other and the object, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To address this question, we asked subjects (n = 30) to match perceived vertical distance between the center of pressure (CoP) of the thumb and index finger pads (dy ) of the right hand ("reference" hand) using the same hand ("test" hand). The digits of reference hand were passively placed collinearly (dy = 0 mm). Subjects were then asked to exert different combinations of normal and tangential digit forces (Fn and Ftan , respectively) using the reference hand and then match the memorized dy using the test hand. The reference hand exerted Ftan of thumb and index finger in either same or opposite direction. We hypothesized that, when the tangential forces of the digits are produced in opposite directions, matching error (1) would be biased toward the directions of the tangential forces; and (2) would be greater when the remembered relative contact points are matched with negligible digit force production. For the test hand, digit forces were either negligible (0.5-1 N, 0 ± 0.25 N; Experiment 1) or the same as those exerted by the reference hand (Experiment 2).Matching error was biased towards the direction of digit tangential forces: thumb CoP was placed higher than the index finger CoP when thumb and index finger Ftan were directed upward and downward, respectively, and vice versa (p < 0.001). However, matching error was not dependent on whether the reference and test hand exerted similar or different forces. We propose that the expected sensory consequence of motor commands for tangential forces in opposite directions overrides estimation of fingertip position through haptic sensory feedback.

  17. Digit forces bias sensorimotor transformations underlying control of fingertip position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eShibata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to modulate digit forces as a function of position despite changes in digit placement that might occur from trial to trial or when changing grip type for object manipulation. Although this phenomenon is likely to rely on sensing the position of the digits relative to each other and the object, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To address this question, we asked subjects (n = 30 to match perceived vertical distance between the center of pressure (CoP of the thumb and index finger pads (dy of the right hand (reference hand using the same hand (test hand. The digits of reference hand were passively placed collinearly (dy = 0 mm. Subjects were then asked to exert different combinations of normal and tangential digit forces (Fn and Ftan, respectively using the reference hand and then match the memorized dy using the test hand. The reference hand exerted Ftan of thumb and index finger in either same or opposite direction. We hypothesized that, when the tangential forces of the digits are produced in opposite directions, matching error (1 would be biased toward the directions of the tangential forces, and (2 would be greater when the remembered relative contact points are matched with negligible digit force production. For the test hand, digit forces were either negligible (0.5-1 N, 0 ± 0.25 N; Experiment 1 or the same as those exerted by the reference hand (Experiment 2. Matching error was biased towards the direction of digit tangential forces: thumb CoP was placed higher than the index finger CoP when thumb and index finger Ftan were directed upward and downward, respectively, and vice versa (p < 0.001. However, matching error was not dependent on whether the reference and test hand exerted similar or different forces. We propose that the expected sensory consequence of motor commands for tangential forces in opposite directions overrides estimation of fingertip position through haptic sensory feedback.

  18. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics. [with adaptable analog/digital design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, spacecraft changes, etc., through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost-effective manner. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs. The success of this effort resulted in the concept being selected for the Mariner/Jupiter/Saturn 1977 spacecraft application.

  19. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics. [with adaptable analog/digital design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, spacecraft changes, etc., through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost-effective manner. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs. The success of this effort resulted in the concept being selected for the Mariner/Jupiter/Saturn 1977 spacecraft application.

  20. Large dynamic range digital nanodot gradients of biomolecules made by low-cost nanocontact printing for cell haptotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricoult, Sébastien G; Pla-Roca, Mateu; Safavieh, Roozbeh; Lopez-Ayon, G Monserratt; Grütter, Peter; Kennedy, Timothy E; Juncker, David

    2013-10-11

    A novel method is introduced for ultrahigh throughput and ultralow cost patterning of biomolecules with nanometer resolution and novel 2D digital nanodot gradients (DNGs) with mathematically defined slopes are created. The technique is based on lift-off nanocontact printing while using high-resolution photopolymer stamps that are rapidly produced at a low cost through double replication from Si originals. Printed patterns with 100 nm features are shown. DNGs with varying spacing between the dots and a record dynamic range of 4400 are produced; 64 unique DNGs, each with hundreds of thousands of dots, are inked and printed in 5.5 min. The adhesive response and haptotaxis of C2C12 myoblast cells on DNGs demonstrated their biofunctionality. The great flexibility in pattern design, the massive parallel ability, the ultra low cost, and the extreme ease of polymer lift-off nanocontact printing will facilitate its use for various biological and medical applications.

  1. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn't a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections.

  2. Vote Centers as a Strategy to Control Election Administration Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Folz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising costs of election administration in an era of fiscal stress have motivated some local officials to test the feasibility of ideas for reducing election costs while enhancing voter convenience and perhaps even increasing voter turnout. One such pilot project in a suburban community in the South involved replacing precinct-based voting on election day with a vote center that all voters could use regardless of their precinct of residence. A comparison of election costs across two municipal elections showed that replacing precinct-based voting with an election day vote center resulted in substantial cost savings. While there was no statistical difference in voter turnout in municipal elections held before and after implementation of the pilot project, voters were highly satisfied with the convenience of the vote center as well as other aspects of their voting experience. The findings suggest that an election day vote center can be a viable strategy to control election costs and enhance voters’ perceptions of the convenience of voting.

  3. Fixed and flexible formularies as cost-control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider the prevalent types of fixed and flexible formularies, the general economic principles on which they are based and the evidence for their effectiveness in controlling rising drug expenditures. The principal-agent relationship and economic model underlying the various types of formularies are described. The principal-agent model describes a relationship where there is an asymmetry of information between two parties involved in a particular task. As a result of this asymmetry of information, the party with less information (the principal) allows the party with more information (the agent) to make decisions about that task or activity for them. In the case of formularies and cost-control, the principal is the payer. Depending on the incentives offered by the formulary, the agent can alternately be the prescriber, dispenser or patient. The success of a formulary type to control costs is dependent on two main factors. First, the payer (the principal) must identify the agent for whom it is reasonable to create incentives that incorporate the financial risks associated with use of the drugs. Second, the payer must develop a structure that best aligns the principal and agent objectives. The principal-agent framework serves as the vehicle through which the authors examine five major types of formularies (i.e., closed, best available price, reference-based pricing, tiered and open formularies) and their inherent incentives and limitations. The evidence for their effectiveness as cost-control mechanisms is reviewed and the system factors that can affect formulary success will be discussed. Finally, the authors' observations are summarized and interpreted, and suggested implications for future use of formularies in controlling the costs of pharmaceutical use are offered.

  4. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  5. Complete Low-Cost Implementation of a Teleoperated Control System for a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanoid robotics is a field of a great research interest nowadays. This work implements a low-cost teleoperated system to control a humanoid robot, as a first step for further development and study of human motion and walking. A human suit is built, consisting of 8 sensors, 6 resistive linear potentiometers on the lower extremities and 2 digital accelerometers for the arms. The goal is to replicate the suit movements in a small humanoid robot. The data from the sensors is wirelessly transmitted via two ZigBee RF configurable modules installed on each device: the robot and the suit. Replicating the suit movements requires a robot stability control module to prevent falling down while executing different actions involving knees flexion. This is carried out via a feedback control system with an accelerometer placed on the robot’s back. The measurement from this sensor is filtered using Kalman. In addition, a two input fuzzy algorithm controlling five servo motors regulates the robot balance. The humanoid robot is controlled by a medium capacity processor and a low computational cost is achieved for executing the different algorithms. Both hardware and software of the system are based on open platforms. The successful experiments carried out validate the implementation of the proposed teleoperated system.

  6. Complete low-cost implementation of a teleoperated control system for a humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Andrés; Yebes, J Javier; Arroyo, Roberto; Bergasa, Luis M; Barea, Rafael; López, Elena

    2013-01-24

    Humanoid robotics is a field of a great research interest nowadays. This work implements a low-cost teleoperated system to control a humanoid robot, as a first step for further development and study of human motion and walking. A human suit is built, consisting of 8 sensors, 6 resistive linear potentiometers on the lower extremities and 2 digital accelerometers for the arms. The goal is to replicate the suit movements in a small humanoid robot. The data from the sensors is wirelessly transmitted via two ZigBee RF configurable modules installed on each device: the robot and the suit. Replicating the suit movements requires a robot stability control module to prevent falling down while executing different actions involving knees flexion. This is carried out via a feedback control system with an accelerometer placed on the robot's back. The measurement from this sensor is filtered using Kalman. In addition, a two input fuzzy algorithm controlling five servo motors regulates the robot balance. The humanoid robot is controlled by a medium capacity processor and a low computational cost is achieved for executing the different algorithms. Both hardware and software of the system are based on open platforms. The successful experiments carried out validate the implementation of the proposed teleoperated system.

  7. Cost of Dengue Vector Control Activities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packierisamy, P Raviwharmman; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Dahlui, Maznah; Inbaraj, Jonathan; Balan, Venugopalan K; Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever, an arbovirus disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has recently spread rapidly, especially in the tropical countries of the Americas and Asia-Pacific regions. It is endemic in Malaysia, with an annual average of 37,937 reported dengue cases from 2007 to 2012. This study measured the overall economic impact of dengue in Malaysia, and estimated the costs of dengue prevention. In 2010, Malaysia spent US$73.5 million or 0.03% of the country's GDP on its National Dengue Vector Control Program. This spending represented US$1,591 per reported dengue case and US$2.68 per capita population. Most (92.2%) of this spending occurred in districts, primarily for fogging. A previous paper estimated the annual cost of dengue illness in the country at US$102.2 million. Thus, the inclusion of preventive activities increases the substantial estimated cost of dengue to US$175.7 million, or 72% above illness costs alone. If innovative technologies for dengue vector control prove efficacious, and a dengue vaccine was introduced, substantial existing spending could be rechanneled to fund them.

  8. GUARANTEED COST CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS-TIME UNCERTAIN SINGULAR SYSTEM WITH BOTH STATE AND INPUT DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for a continuous-time uncertain singular system with state and control delays, and a given quadratic cost function is studied in this paper. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller are derived based on the linear inequality (LMI) approach. A parameterized characterization of the guaranteed cost laws is given in terms of the feasible solutions to a certain LMI, and the cost function of guaranteed cost controller exists an upper bound.

  9. Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system. [analog controllers with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    The analog controllers of the annular suspension pointing system are designed for control of the chi, phi sub 1, and phi sub 2 bandwidth dynamics through decoupling and pole placement. Since it is virtually impossible to find an equivalent bandwidth of the overall system and establish a general eigenvalue requirement for the system, the subsystem dynamics are decoupled through state feedback and the poles are placed simultaneously to realize the desired bandwidths for the three system components. Decoupling and pole placement are also used to design the closed-loop digital system through approximation.

  10. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  11. Multiagent based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled AC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Microgrid, as a promising technology to integrate renewable energy resources in the distribution system, is gaining increasing research interests recently. Although many previous works have been done based on the droop control in a microgrid, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power...... sharing based on the power rating. With various types of distributed generator (DG) units in the system, factors that closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost and efficiencies of the generator should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system....... In this paper, a multiagent based distributed method is proposed to minimize operation cost of the AC microgrid. Each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using proposed frequency scheduling method. Optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm...

  12. Prediction of Digital Resource Cost in the University Library%高校图书馆数字资源的成本预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凯波

    2013-01-01

    The digital resource cost in the university library including purchase cost and use cost, and the cost prediction can provide a reference for the construction of digital resources in a university library. The Markov model and grey prediction model are combined to discuss a scientific prediction method about digital resource cost in the university.%高校图书馆数字资源成本主要包括购置成本与使用成本,将马尔可夫模型与灰色预测模型相结合,对成本进行科学预测,可以为高校图书馆数字资源建设提供决策参考。

  13. Digital control of laser modes with an intra-cavity spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline a simple laser cavity which produces customised on-demand digitally controlled laser modes by replacing the end-mirror of the cavity with an electrically addressed reflective phase-only spatial light modulator as a digital...

  14. Low-cost digital image processing on a university mainframe computer. [considerations in selecting and/or designing instructional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. H. L.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using university mainframe computers in digital image processing instruction are listed. Aspects to be considered when designing software for this purpose include not only two general audience, but also the capabilities of the system regarding the size of the image/subimage, preprocessing and enhancement functions, geometric correction and registration techniques; classification strategy, classification algorithm, multitemporal analysis, and ancilliary data and geographic information systems. The user/software/hardware interaction as well as acquisition and operating costs must also be considered.

  15. Discussion on software aging management of nuclear power plant safety digital control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huihui; Gu, Pengfei; Tang, Jianzhong; Chen, Weihua; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Managing the aging of digital control systems ensures that nuclear power plant systems are in adequate safety margins during their life cycles. Software is a core component in the execution of control logic and differs between digital and analog control systems. The hardware aging management for the digital control system is similar to that for the analog system, which has matured over decades of study. However, software aging management is still in the exploratory stage. Software aging evaluation is critical given the higher reliability and safety requirements of nuclear power plants. To ensure effective inputs for reliability assessment, this paper provides the required software aging information during the life cycle. Moreover, the software aging management scheme for safety digital control system is proposed on the basis of collected aging information.

  16. Low-cost digital impedance meter for the detection of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, C J; Clavin, O E; Spinelli, J C; Valentinuzzi, M E; Gallo, B V

    1988-10-01

    The digital impedance meter is a microprocessor-based instrument able to detect, quantify and identify micro-organisms. The equipment makes use of the bipolar technique of measuring the impedance modulus of six cells containing inoculated culture broth. It performs temperature compensation automatically. Growth curves are stored in memory as time course events and can be displayed on any suitable device.

  17. INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEM OF PULSED MAG WELDING INVERTER BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A fuzzy logic intelligent control system of pulsed MAG welding inverter based on digital signal processor (DSP) is proposed to obtain the consistency of arc length in pulsed MAG welding. The proposed control system combines the merits of intelligent control with DSP digital control. The fuzzy logic intelligent control system designed is a typical two-input-single-output structure, and regards the error and the change in error of peak arc voltage as two inputs and the background time as single output. The fuzzy logic intelligent control system is realized in a look-up table (LUT) method by using MATLAB based fuzzy logic toolbox, and the implement of LUT method based on DSP is also discussed. The pulsed MAG welding experimental results demonstrate that the developed fuzzy logic intelligent control system based on DSP has strong arc length controlling ability to accomplish the stable pulsed MAG welding process and controls pulsed MAG welding inverter digitally and intelligently.

  18. Coordination between digit forces and positions: interactions between anticipatory and feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Humans adjust digit forces to compensate for trial-to-trial variability in digit placement during object manipulation, but the underlying control mechanisms remain to be determined. We hypothesized that such digit position/force coordination was achieved by both visually guided feed-forward planning and haptic-based feedback control. The question arises about the time course of the interaction between these two mechanisms. This was tested with a task in which subjects generated torque (± 70 N·mm) on a virtual object to control a cursor moving to target positions to catch a falling ball, using a virtual reality environment and haptic devices. The width of the virtual object was varied between large (L) and small (S). These object widths result in significantly different horizontal digit relative positions and require different digit forces to exert the same task torque. After training, subjects were tested with random sequences of L and S widths with or without visual information about object width. We found that visual cues allowed subjects to plan manipulation forces before contact. In contrast, when visual cues were not available to predict digit positions, subjects implemented a "default" digit force plan that was corrected after digit contact to eventually accomplish the task. The time course of digit forces revealed that force development was delayed in the absence of visual cues. Specifically, the appropriate digit force adjustments were made 250-300 ms after initial object contact. This result supports our hypothesis and further reveals that haptic feedback alone is sufficient to implement digit force-position coordination.

  19. 基于ABC的物流成本控制分析%Based Costing Analysis of the logistics cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振华; 黎芸

    2012-01-01

    The logistics cost management cost control is the core of the enterprises to obtain cost leadership. Therefore, the cost of control methods applied science of logistics enterprises in China is very important to analyze the cost. Through the management of logistics cost in China to analyze the situation and focus on the application of activity-based costing on the cost of logistics enterprises in China to control, while costing detail the meaning and application of computational procedures and the feasibility and costing advantage, the establishment of a logistics cost model for operating cost control. Costing by cost control under the concept of innovation, combined with activity-based costing and cost control theory, introduced activity-based costing in the application of logistics cost control, cost control, building a new business model, designed to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises.%成本控制是物流成本管理的核心,是企业取得成本领先的保证。所以应用科学的成本控制方法对我国企业的物流成本进行分析显得十分重要。通过对我国企业物流成本管理的现状进行分析,并重点介绍如何应用作业成本法对我国企业的物流成本进行控制,详细阐述作业成本法的内涵及其计算程序和运用作业成本法的可行性和优势,建立了物流成本的作业成本控制模型。同时介绍了作业成本法在物流成本控制中的应用,旨在增强企业竞争力。

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country.

  1. Design and assessment of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled, prosthetic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polisiero M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Polisiero,1 Paolo Bifulco,1 Annalisa Liccardo,2 Mario Cesarelli,1 Maria Romano,1 Gaetano D Gargiulo,3 Alistair L McEwan,3 Massimo D'Apuzzo2 1Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Abstract: The study reported here explored the design and realization of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled hand prosthesis for amputees living in developing countries. The developed prosthesis is composed of a light aluminum structure with opposing fingers connected to a DC motor that imparts only the movement of grasp. Problems associated with surface electromyographic signal acquisition and processing, motor control, and evaluation of grasp force were addressed, with the goal of minimizing cost and ensuring easy assembly. Simple analog front ends amplify and condition the electromyographic signals registered from two antagonist muscles by surface electrodes. Analog signals are sampled at 1 kHz and processed by a microcontroller that drives the motor with a supply voltage proportional to the muscular contraction, performing the opening and closing of the opposing fingers. Reliable measurements of the level of muscle contractions were obtained by specific digital processing: real-time operators implementing the root mean square value, mean absolute value, standard deviation, and mean absolute differential value were compared in terms of efficiency to estimate the EMG envelope, computational load, and time delay. The mean absolute value operator was adopted at a time window of 64 milliseconds. A suitable calibration procedure was proposed to overcome problems associated with the wide variation of electromyograph amplitude and background noise depending on the specific patient's muscles selected. A pulse-width modulated signal

  2. Design and Experimental Study on Digital Speed Control System of a Diesel Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Zhe Song

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a kind of digital embedded controller for the diesel generator. Some digital circuit such as single chip microprocessor have been used in the system, therefore it can control the diesel more efficiently and accurately. Based on the theory analysis, a circuit card used in the control system has been developed by means of development tools, such as Altium10, PCB99 and Multisim. Besides, the control program corresponding to PID control algorithm has been used. The experiment results show that the controller is work well in the plateau low-temperature environment and normal environment. We are sure that our embedded controller offers a wide scope of application in the field of digital controllers in the diesel generator industry.

  3. DC servo motor control using digital signal processors; Digital keisoku seigyo. 6. DSP wo mochiita DC servo motor seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. [Max Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-15

    A digital control development effort is introduced, citing a case of DSP (digital signal processor)-aided DC servo motor control for the flat head type pen plotter. In a real plotter, a complicated nonlinear problem will arise because the natural frequency varies dependent upon the pen position. For the inhibition of such vibration which occurs during acceleration and deceleration, nonlinear elements have to be taken into consideration at the designing stage. In this report, the effort is focused on motor axis control only, and the DC servo control problem is solved as a linear problem. A DSP board type DS1102 of the dSPACE Corporation is named for this work. Using this board, the C code is automatically generated out of a control block constructed through SIMULINK, and a real-time test is conducted after downloading the code to the DSP processor. Since the quantity of DC servo motor rotation is quantized in an encoder, the result would contain much error and cause instability in the control if the quantity as obtained was subjected to differential calculus. Such being the case, velocity data for the control in this report are acquired by use of an observer. (NEDO)

  4. Digital acquisition and wavelength control of seed laser for space-based Lidar applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposes to establish the feasibility of using a space qualifiable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital controller to autonomously...

  5. Remote Control Techniques to the Digital Storage Oscilloscope by GPIB and VISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faquan Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some techniques of controlling remotely the digital storage oscilloscope were proposed including VISA, VXIplug&play drivers, TVC and IVI-COM drivers. By means of GPIB and VISA, several application development environments could be used to develop remote control techniques to the digital storage oscilloscope. The programming language of Visual C++ was used to develop software. With the help of VISA and the dynamic link library, remote control to the digital storage oscilloscope through network was completed. All operations to the digital storage oscilloscope including parameters setup, data acquisition, waveform acquisition and storage, data processing were implemented in a remote place. The results show that the techniques of remote control are convenient and efficient and fit for experiments of scientific research and practical projects.

  6. Simplified Key Management for Digital Access Control of Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-02

    in a physical/analog form or a broadcast form into a universal, digital form (this process is called ripping ) for location- or time-shifting. This...2006. [5] Wijering, Jeroen, “W3C Web TV: Adaptive Streaming & Content Protection”, Long Tail Community Blog, Feb 2011. [6] Kundar, D., and Karthik

  7. Collaborative Corrections with Spelling Control: Digital Resources and Peer Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekaite, Asta

    2009-01-01

    The present study has explored how pairs of students deployed digital tools (spelling software) as resources in spontaneously occurring corrections of spelling errors. Drawing on the sociocultural theory of learning and ethnomethodological (Conversation Analytic) insights into social interaction, it has identified a range of consistent practices…

  8. Digital Control Analysis and Design of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsing Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems.

  9. Digital control analysis and design of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jen-Hsing; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2015-03-13

    Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR)/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems.

  10. Digitally Controllable Current Amplifier and Current Conveyors in Practical Application of Controllable Frequency Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Josef; Jerabek, Jan; Langhammer, Lukas; Sotner, Roman; Dvorak, Jan; Panek, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the simulations results in comparison with the measured results of the practical realization of the multifunctional second order frequency filter with a Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier (DACA) and two Dual-Output Controllable Current Conveyors (CCCII +/-). This filter is designed for use in current mode. The filter was designed of the single input multiple outputs (SIMO) type, therefore it has only one input and three outputs with individual filtering functions. DACA element used in a newly proposed circuit is present in form of an integrated chip and the current conveyors are implemented using the Universal Current Conveyor (UCC) chip with designation UCC-N1B. Proposed frequency filter enables independent control of the pole frequency using parameters of two current conveyors and also independent control of the quality factor by change of a current gain of DACA.

  11. Digital control of high-frequency switched-mode power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Luca; Mattavelli, Paolo; Zane, Regan

    This book is focused on the fundamental aspects of analysis, modeling and design of digital control loops around high-frequency switched-mode power converters in a systematic and rigorous manner Comprehensive treatment of digital control theory for power converters Verilog and VHDL sample codes are provided Enables readers to successfully analyze, model, design, and implement voltage, current, or multi-loop digital feedback loops around switched-mode power converters Practical examples are used throughout the book to illustrate applications of the techniques developed Matlab examples are also

  12. Digitally-controlled PC-interfaced Boost Converter for Educational Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes implementation of a simple digital PID control algorithm for a boost converter using a cheap fixed-point 8-bit microcontroller. Serial communication to a PC server program is established for easier downloading of compensator parameters and current and voltage waveform...... acquisition. At the end, client program is presented which uses TCP/IP connection for operating the digitally controlled boost converter over Internet. The aim of this cheap and flexible PC-interfaced boost converter bench is predominantly educational, to allow students to synthesize different digital...

  13. The Design of Digital Servo-Position Control System Based on LM629

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The paper is concerned with the digital design of the system of servo-position control for medium-low power DC motor.The paper will be focused on the digitization design of the system.Principle of PWM will be given first in this paper.According to the theory of PWM rules and the knowledge of computer control technology,the paper will design the digital servo-position system that has a good characteristic of stability and dynamic response.

  14. Some Aspects Regarding the Use of Digital Signal Controllers in Electrical Drivers for Stepper Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil Toma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper are presented and compared two practical implementation of unipolar stepper drives for didactical destination, one with 8 bit microcontroller and one with 16 bits digital signal controller. In the second part, a practical implementation of micro stepping drive for bipolar motor with a 16 bits digital signal controller designed for switching mode power supply. A physical prototype was realized and some experimental measurements are presented.

  15. Design Centering and Yield Optimisation of MMIC’s with Off-Chip Digital Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Centurelli, F.; Luzzi, R; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new methodology to perform yield-oriented design of MMIC’s in III-V technologies is proposed. A digital control of MMIC bias, based on process parameters estimation by on-chip auxiliary circuits, allows yield enhancement. The design centering approach and a distance-dependent correlated statistical model of HEMT devices are used to design the external controller. The design of a MMIC for optical digital systems has highlighted significant yield improvement with respect to pre...

  16. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  17. Development of Low-Cost Current Controlled Stimulator for Paraplegics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizan Masdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A spinal cord injury (SCI has a severe impact on human life in general as well as on the physical status and condition. The use of electrical signals to restore the function of paralyzed muscles is called functional electrical stimulation (FES. FES is a promising way to restore mobility to SCI by applying low-level electrical current to the paralyzed muscles so as to enhance that person’s ability to function and live independently. However, due to the limited number of commercially available FES assisted exerciser systems and their rather high cost, the conventional devices are unaffordable for most peoples. It is also inconvenient because of wired based system that creates a limitation in performing exercise. Thus, this project is concerned with the development of low-cost current controlled stimulator mainly for the paraplegic subjects. The developed device is based on a microcontroller, wireless based system using Zigbee module, voltage-to-current converter circuit and should produce proper monopolar and bipolar current pulses, pulse trains, arbitrary current waveforms, and a trigger output for FES applications. This device has been developed as in the new technique of the stimulator development with low cost and one of the contributing factors in Rehabilitation Engineering for patients with SCI.

  18. A professional and cost effective digital video editing and image storage system for the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollato, A; Perrini, P; Benedetto, N; Di Lorenzo, N

    2007-06-01

    We propose an easy-to-construct digital video editing system ideal to produce video documentation and still images. A digital video editing system applicable to many video sources in the operating room is described in detail. The proposed system has proved easy to use and permits one to obtain videography quickly and easily. Mixing different streams of video input from all the devices in use in the operating room, the application of filters and effects produces a final, professional end-product. Recording on a DVD provides an inexpensive, portable and easy-to-use medium to store or re-edit or tape at a later time. From stored videography it is easy to extract high-quality, still images useful for teaching, presentations and publications. In conclusion digital videography and still photography can easily be recorded by the proposed system, producing high-quality video recording. The use of firewire ports provides good compatibility with next-generation hardware and software. The high standard of quality makes the proposed system one of the lowest priced products available today.

  19. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Jens; Ackermann, Joerg; Uffmann, Dirk; Aderhold, Jochen

    1996-09-01

    There is an increasing demand from automotive, aircraft and space industry for reliable high temperature resistant electronics. Circuits with reliable functionality up to temperatures of 250 degree(s)C would be sufficient for most of these applications. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of these circuits. Commercially available digital standard cell libraries and operational amplifiers are normally specified for operation up to a maximum temperature of 125 degree(s)C. Hence, the purpose of this work was the design and characterization of digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degree(s)C using a low-cost 1.0 micrometers epi-CMOS process. Several design measures were applied to the cells in order to further improve latch-up resistivity and to limit leakage currents, respectively. The transfer curves of all digital cells for all input signal combinations have been recorded in the temperature range from 30 to 250 degree(s)C. Significant results are very low temperature shifts of the noise margins and of the switching point, respectively. Furthermore, the low (0 V) and high (5 V) levels are reached exactly over the entire temperature range. Outstanding characteristics of the operational amplifier comprise low open-loop gain temperature drift as well as low offset and offset temperature drift, respectively. The open-loop gain was greater than 83 dB at room temperature with a drift of less than 0.02 dB/ degree(s)C. The offset voltage amounted to -1 mV at room temperature and 1 mV at 250 degree(s)C, respectively. The long-term behavior of these cells is currently under investigation.

  20. Positioning of Screw Holes Group Based on Digital Camera and Digital Control Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenhao; LI Jiansong; YAN Li; SU Guozhong; YUAN Xiuxiao; ZHONG Shengzhang; JI Huiming

    2004-01-01

    Positioning of screw holes is an important production procedure for steel construction connecting with bolts. In this paper, a new production method is presented, in which the digital camera is used for taking pictures of screw holes and other techniques are advanced. This paper also indicates that the pixels of CCD chip in photogrammetry should be chosen as all geometric units in an image, such as interior elements and all kinds of distortions. The measure can also simplify the camera calibration for determining the size of non-square pixel.

  1. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Qixin Zhu; Kaihong Lu; Guangming Xie; Yonghong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the mode...

  2. A satellite digital controller or 'play that PID tune again, Sam'. [Position, Integral, Derivative feedback control algorithm for design strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.

  3. REDUCING COSTS OF TAX COMPLIANCE AND INVESTMENTS IN PUBLIC SYSTEM OF DIGITAL BOOKKEEPING – SPED – IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Sampaio de Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Public System of Digital Bookkeeping – SPED was developed with the intention of further integration between the tax administrations themselves, then between them and the taxpayers, through the use of technology and, consequently, socioeconomic data standard, in a single environment, raising the tax collection efficiency and reducing the costs of administration and compliance. This article intends to contribute to the analysis of public investments directed to the establishment and maintenance of the project, effectively resulted in a reduction in the costs of tax compliance, temporary and permanent. Survey method was used as a non-random mechanism for data collection, with a developed questionnaire containing 22 questions based on the prediction model regulatory impact developed and applied by the Australian Taxation Office – ATO in your country, adapted to identify cost reduction compliance related to three specific organizational aspects: People, Technology and Procurement of Consulting Services. The questionnaire was emailed to 20 people with executive position or managers directly involved in the project in SPED size businesses and distinct segment. Responded to the survey 20 of the 20 companies. The data collected were analyzed through descriptive and exploratory, in the latter case using the cluster analysis. The survey approach has met both the qualitative and the quantitative research. The results indicate that the SPED caused an increase in compliance costs temporary and permanent, mainly due to the implementation strategy defined and applied solely by the public administration. The analysis also allowed evidence that even if public investments directed to the implementation and maintenance of SPED are not comparatively similar to private investments directed to the same end, it shows a tendency to shift costs of administration for compliance costs for taxpayers.

  4. A generic framework for cost estimation and cost control in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, I.F.; Brinke, ten E.; Streppel, A.H.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, cost estimation was performed after the design process, though most opportunities of cost reduction have already passed. Therefore, it is advantageous to be able to estimate the product costs early in the product development cycle. By changing the way cost estimation is dealt with, it

  5. A generic framework for cost estimation and cost control in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters-Weustink, Ilanit F.; ten Brinke, E.; Streppel, A.H.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, cost estimation was performed after the design process, though most opportunities of cost reduction have already passed. Therefore, it is advantageous to be able to estimate the product costs early in the product development cycle. By changing the way cost estimation is dealt with, it

  6. Low-to-Medium Power Single Chip Digital Controlled DC-DC Regulator for Point-of-Load Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Philippe C. (Inventor); Bakkaloglu, Bertan (Inventor); Vermeire, Bert (Inventor); Liu, Tao (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A DC-DC converter for generating a DC output voltage includes: a digitally controlled pulse width modulator (DPWM) for controlling a switching power stage to supply a varying voltage to an inductor; and a digital voltage feedback circuit for controlling the DPWM in accordance with a feedback voltage corresponding to the DC output voltage, the digital voltage feedback circuit including: a first voltage controlled oscillator for converting the feedback voltage into a first frequency signal and to supply the first frequency signal to a first frequency discriminator; a second voltage controlled oscillator for converting a reference voltage into a second frequency signal and to supply the second frequency signal to a second frequency discriminator; a digital comparator for comparing digital outputs of the first and second frequency discriminators and for outputting a digital feedback signal; and a controller for controlling the DPWM in accordance with the digital feedback signal.

  7. Design and Implementation of Digital Linear Control Systems on Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bednara

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of large linear control systems requires a high amount of digital signal processing. Here, we show that reconfigurable hardware allows the design of fast yet flexible control systems. After discussing the basic concepts for the design and implementation of digital controllers for mechatronic systems, a new general and automated design flow starting from a system of differential equations to application-specific hardware implementation is presented. The advances of reconfigurable hardware as a target technology for linear controllers is discussed. In a case study, we compare the new hardware approach for implementing linear controllers with a software implementation.

  8. Status of a digital integrated propulsion/flight control system for the YF-12 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reukauf, P. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Holzman, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center is engaged in a program with the YF-12 airplane to study the control of interactions between the airplane and the propulsion system. The existing analog air data computer, autothrottle, autopilot, and inlet control system are to be converted to digital systems by using a general purpose airborne computer and interface unit. First, the existing control laws will be programmed in the digital computer and flight tested. Then new control laws are to be derived from a dynamic propulsion model and a total force and moment aerodynamic model to integrate the systems. These control laws are to be verified in a real time simulation and flight tested.

  9. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  10. Test and control computer user's guide for a digital beam former test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert E.; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A Digital Beam Former Test System was developed to determine the effects of noise, interferers and distortions, and digital implementations of beam forming as applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 2 (TDRS 2) architectures. The investigation of digital beam forming with application to TDRS 2 architectures, as described in TDRS 2 advanced concept design studies, was conducted by the NASA/Lewis Research Center for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. A Test and Control Computer (TCC) was used as the main controlling element of the digital Beam Former Test System. The Test and Control Computer User's Guide for a Digital Beam Former Test System provides an organized description of the Digital Beam Former Test System commands. It is written for users who wish to conduct tests of the Digital Beam forming Test processor using the TCC. The document describes the function, use, and syntax of the TCC commands available to the user while summarizing and demonstrating the use of the commands wtihin DOS batch files.

  11. Tremor suppression using functional electrical stimulation: a comparison between digital and analog controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, D M; Cameron, T; Prochazka, A; Gauthier, M J

    1999-09-01

    In this study, we compared digital and analog versions of a functional electrical stimulator designed to suppress tremor. The device was based on a closed-loop control system designed to attenuate movements in the tremor frequency range, without significantly affecting slower, voluntary movements. Testing of the digital filter was done on three patients with Parkinsonian tremor and the results compared to those of a functional electrical stimulation device based on an analog filter evaluated in a previous study. Additional testing of both the analog and digital filters was done on three subjects with no neurological impairment performing tremor-like movements and slow voluntary movements. We found that the digital controller provided a mean attenuation of 84%, compared to 65% for the analog controller.

  12. Digital TV-echelle spectrograph for simultaneous multielemental analysis using microcomputer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1980-12-01

    A digital TV-echelle spectrograph with microcomputer control was developed for simultaneous multielemental analysis. The optical system is a commercially available unit originally equipped for film and photomultiplier (single element) readout. The film port was adapted for the intensifier camera. The camera output is digitized and stored in a microcomputer-controlled, 512 x 512 x 12 bit memory and image processor. Multiple spectra over the range of 200 to 800 nm are recorded in a single exposure. Spectra lasting from nanoseconds to seconds are digitized and stored in 0.033 s and displayed on a TV monitor. An inexpensive microcomputer controls the exposure, reads and displays the intensity of predetermined spectral lines, and calculates wavelengths of unknown lines. The digital addresses of unknown lines are determined by superimposing a cursor on the TV display. The microcomputer also writes into memory wavelength fiducial marks for alignment of the TV camera.

  13. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  14. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  15. Is the Control of Applied Digital Forces During Natural Five-digit Grasping Affected by Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Tsun; Jou, I-Ming; Lin, Chien-Ju; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2015-07-01

    The impaired sensory function of the hand induced by carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is known to disturb dexterous manipulations. However, force control during daily grasping configuration among the five digits has not been a prominent focus of study. Because grasping is so important to normal function and use of a hand, it is important to understand how sensory changes in CTS affect the digit force of natural grasp. We therefore examined the altered patterns of digit forces applied during natural five-digit grasping in patients with CTS and compared them with those seen in control subjects without CTS. We hypothesized that the patients with CTS will grasp by applying larger forces with lowered pair correlations and more force variability of the involved digits than the control subjects. Specifically, we asked: (1) Is there a difference between patients with CTS and control subjects in applied force by digits during lift-hold-lower task? (2) Is there a difference in force correlation coefficient of the digit pairs? (3) Are there force variability differences during the holding phase? We evaluated 15 female patients with CTS and 15 control subjects matched for age, gender, and hand dominance. The applied radial forces (Fr) of the five digits were recorded by respective force transducers on a cylinder simulator during the lift-hold-lower task with natural grasping. The movement phases of the task were determined by a video-based motion capture system. The applied forces of the thumb in patients with CTS (7 ± 0.8 N; 95% CI, 7.2-7.4 N) versus control subjects (5 ± 0.8 N; 95% CI, 5.1-5.3 N) and the index finger in patients with CTS (3 ± 0.3 N; 95% CI, 3.2-3.3 N) versus control subjects (2 ± 0.3 N; 95% CI, 2.2-2.3 N) observed throughout most of the task were larger in the CTS group (p ranges 0.035-0.050 for thumb and 0.016-0.050 for index finger). In addition, the applied force of the middle finger in patients with CTS (1 ± 0.1 N; 95% CI, 1.3-1.4

  16. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  17. Open-source, low-cost, high-reliability solutions for digital imaging systems: example of a "dicom router".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, R; Abeni, F; Buglione, M; Peveri, A; Barbera, F; Tonoli, S; Fratta, P; Magrini, S M

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate a case where acquisition of digital imaging know-how by a modern radiotherapy division has helped to solve a technical problem while allowing substantial savings through the use of free and open-source resources. The problem was related to the necessity to route, with complex policies, the images produced by different digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) sources within the department or in other divisions and/or hospitals. The problem was solved by using completely free, well-tested and stable technologies (PHP, Apache, MySQL, DCMTK OFFIS, Red Hat Linux 9A and Linux Fedora Core 4) and low-cost hardware to contain costs. In the development, we also considered integration of the routed images with the existing electronic clinical records. The system developed, called the dicom router, implemented two kinds of routing: manual and automatic, both oriented to link the images acquired with the existing electronic clinical records. System stability was enhanced in a second phase by using a low-cost hardware redundancy solution. The system has now been operating for 1 year and has proved the value of the technologies used. The need to operate with more than one provider creates a series of integration issues, so that it becomes economically appealing to acquire internally the knowledge needed to interact more precisely with providers of big information technology (IT) solutions. This need is well catered for by open-source technologies, which are well documented and available to everyone. By using them, in-house IT technicians are able to implement valuable technical solutions for small-to medium-sized informatization problems, which would otherwise remain unsolved except with great economic efforts.

  18. Digit Position and Forces Covary During Anticipatory Control of Whole-Hand Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Marneweck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical perspectives on anticipatory planning of object manipulation have traditionally been informed by studies that have investigated kinematics (hand shaping and digit position and kinetics (forces in isolation. This poses limitations on our understanding of the integration of such domains, which have recently been shown to be strongly interdependent. Specifically, recent studies revealed strong covariation of digit position and load force during the loading phase of two-digit grasping. Here we determined whether such digit force-position covariation is a general feature of grasping. We investigated the coordination of digit position and forces during five-digit whole-hand manipulation of an object with a variable mass distribution. Subjects were instructed to prevent object roll during the lift. As found in precision grasping, there was strong trial-to-trial covariation of digit position and force. This suggests that the natural variation of digit position that is compensated for by trial-to-trial variation in digit forces is a fundamental feature of grasp control, and not only specific to precision grasp. However, a main difference with precision grasping was that modulation of digit position to the object’s mass distribution was driven predominantly by the thumb, with little to no modulation of finger position. Modulation of thumb position rather than fingers is likely due to its greater range of motion and therefore adaptability to object properties. Our results underscore the flexibility of the central nervous system in implementing a range of solutions along the digit force-to-position continuum for dexterous manipulation.

  19. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  20. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  1. Inverse heat transfer problem in digital temperature control in plate fin and tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Dawid; Sury, Adam

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a steady-state inverse heat transfer problem for plate-fin and tube heat exchangers. The objective of the process control is to adjust the number of fan revolutions per minute so that the water temperature at the heat exchanger outlet is equal to a preset value. Two control techniques were developed. The first is based on the presented mathematical model of the heat exchanger while the second is a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. The first procedure is very stable. The digital PID controller becomes unstable if the water volumetric flow rate changes significantly. The developed techniques were implemented in digital control system of the water exit temperature in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger. The measured exit temperature of the water was very close to the set value of the temperature if the first method was used. The experiments showed that the PID controller works also well but becomes frequently unstable.

  2. A Nonlinear Digital Control Solution for a DC/DC Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minshao

    2002-01-01

    A digital Nonlinear Proportional-Integral-Derivative (NPID) control algorithm was proposed to control a 1-kW, PWM, DC/DC, switching power converter. The NPID methodology is introduced and a practical hardware control solution is obtained. The design of the controller was completed using Matlab (trademark) Simulink, while the hardware-in-the-loop testing was performed using both the dSPACE (trademark) rapid prototyping system, and a stand-alone Texas Instruments (trademark) Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based system. The final Nonlinear digital control algorithm was implemented and tested using the ED408043-1 Westinghouse DC-DC switching power converter. The NPID test results are discussed and compared to the results of a standard Proportional-Integral (PI) controller.

  3. Backup control airstart performance on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The air start capability of a backup control (BUC) was tested for a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equipped F100 engine, which was installed in an F-15 aircraft. Two air start schedules were tested. Using the group 1 start schedule, based on a 40 sec timer, an air speed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40 and 25% BUC mode spooldown airstarts. If core rotor speed (N2) was less than 40% a stall would occur when the start bleed closed, 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted air starts were successful with the group 1 start schedule. For the group 2 schedule, the time between pressurization and start bleed closure ranged between 50 sec and 72 sec. Idle rps was lower than the desired 65% for air starts at higher altitudes and lower air speeds.

  4. A quality control system for digital elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Kokkendorf, Simon; Flatman, Andrew; Nielsen, Thorbjørn; Rosenkranz, Brigitte; Keller, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    In connection with the introduction of a new version of the Danish national coverage Digital Elevation Model (DK-DEM), the Danish Geodata Agency has developed a comprehensive quality control (QC) and metadata production (MP) system for LiDAR point cloud data. The architecture of the system reflects its origin in a national mapping organization where raw data deliveries are typically outsourced to external suppliers. It also reflects a design decision of aiming at, whenever conceivable, doing full spatial coverage tests, rather than scattered sample checks. Hence, the QC procedure is split in two phases: A reception phase and an acceptance phase. The primary aim of the reception phase is to do a quick assessment of things that can typically go wrong, and which are relatively simple to check: Data coverage, data density, strip adjustment. If a data delivery passes the reception phase, the QC continues with the acceptance phase, which checks five different aspects of the point cloud data: Vertical accuracy Vertical precision Horizontal accuracy Horizontal precision Point classification correctness The vertical descriptors are comparatively simple to measure: The vertical accuracy is checked by direct comparison with previously surveyed patches. The vertical precision is derived from the observed variance on well defined flat surface patches. These patches are automatically derived from the road centerlines registered in FOT, the official Danish map data base. The horizontal descriptors are less straightforward to measure, since potential reference material for direct comparison is typically expected to be less accurate than the LiDAR data. The solution selected is to compare photogrammetrically derived roof centerlines from FOT with LiDAR derived roof centerlines. These are constructed by taking the 3D Hough transform of a point cloud patch defined by the photogrammetrical roof polygon. The LiDAR derived roof centerline is then the intersection line of the two primary

  5. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena, E-mail: elena.salvagnini@uzleuven.be [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Marshall, Nicholas W. [Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Methods: The default “OPDOSE” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (T{sub t}) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., T{sub t} ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (T{sub t}), calculated detectability (d′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. Results: The default OPDOSE AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d′), respectively

  6. Compensation Tuning of Analog and Digital Controllers for First Order Plus Time Delay Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miluše VÍTEČKOVÁ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the simple compensation tuning of analog and digital PI and PID controllers for the first order plus time delay plants. The described method makes controller tuning possible so that the control process is non-oscillatory without an overshoot for all input variables. The use is shown in the example.

  7. Efficiency and hardware comparison of analog control-based and digital control-based 70 W two-stage power factor corrector and DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling...... is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD....

  8. Development of the HIDEC inlet integration mode. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, J. D.; Nobbs, S. G.; Stewart, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) development program conducted at NASA-Ames/Dryden will use an F-15 test aircraft for flight demonstration. An account is presently given of the HIDEC Inlet Integration mode's design concept, control law, and test aircraft implementation, with a view to its performance benefits. The enhancement of performance is a function of the use of Digital Electronic Engine Control corrected engine airflow computations to improve the scheduling of inlet ramp positions in real time; excess thrust can thereby be increased by 13 percent at Mach 2.3 and 40,000 ft. Aircraft supportability is also improved through the obviation of inlet controllers.

  9. Description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, C. T.; Groom, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    A description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory model is presented. The AMCD is a momentum exchange device which is under development as an advanced control effector for spacecraft attitude control systems. The digital computer simulation of this device incorporates the following models: six degree of freedom rigid body dynamics; rim warp; controller dynamics; nonlinear distributed element axial bearings; as well as power driver and power supply current limits. An annotated FORTRAN IV source code listing of the computer program is included.

  10. Design and assessment of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled, prosthetic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisiero, Massimo; Bifulco, Paolo; Liccardo, Annalisa; Cesarelli, Mario; Romano, Maria; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; McEwan, Alistair L; D’Apuzzo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here explored the design and realization of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled hand prosthesis for amputees living in developing countries. The developed prosthesis is composed of a light aluminum structure with opposing fingers connected to a DC motor that imparts only the movement of grasp. Problems associated with surface electromyographic signal acquisition and processing, motor control, and evaluation of grasp force were addressed, with the goal of minimizing cost and ensuring easy assembly. Simple analog front ends amplify and condition the electromyographic signals registered from two antagonist muscles by surface electrodes. Analog signals are sampled at 1 kHz and processed by a microcontroller that drives the motor with a supply voltage proportional to the muscular contraction, performing the opening and closing of the opposing fingers. Reliable measurements of the level of muscle contractions were obtained by specific digital processing: real-time operators implementing the root mean square value, mean absolute value, standard deviation, and mean absolute differential value were compared in terms of efficiency to estimate the EMG envelope, computational load, and time delay. The mean absolute value operator was adopted at a time window of 64 milliseconds. A suitable calibration procedure was proposed to overcome problems associated with the wide variation of electromyograph amplitude and background noise depending on the specific patient’s muscles selected. A pulse-width modulated signal drives the DC motor, allowing closing and opening of the prosthesis. The relationship between the motor-driver signal and the actual hand-grasp force developed by the prosthesis was measured using a hand-held grip dynamometer. The resulting force was proportional to current for moderate values of current and then saturated. The motor torque, and, in turn, the force elicited, can be measured by sensing the current absorbed by the motor

  11. Design and assessment of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled, prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisiero, Massimo; Bifulco, Paolo; Liccardo, Annalisa; Cesarelli, Mario; Romano, Maria; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; McEwan, Alistair L; D'Apuzzo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here explored the design and realization of a low-cost, electromyographically controlled hand prosthesis for amputees living in developing countries. The developed prosthesis is composed of a light aluminum structure with opposing fingers connected to a DC motor that imparts only the movement of grasp. Problems associated with surface electromyographic signal acquisition and processing, motor control, and evaluation of grasp force were addressed, with the goal of minimizing cost and ensuring easy assembly. Simple analog front ends amplify and condition the electromyographic signals registered from two antagonist muscles by surface electrodes. Analog signals are sampled at 1 kHz and processed by a microcontroller that drives the motor with a supply voltage proportional to the muscular contraction, performing the opening and closing of the opposing fingers. Reliable measurements of the level of muscle contractions were obtained by specific digital processing: real-time operators implementing the root mean square value, mean absolute value, standard deviation, and mean absolute differential value were compared in terms of efficiency to estimate the EMG envelope, computational load, and time delay. The mean absolute value operator was adopted at a time window of 64 milliseconds. A suitable calibration procedure was proposed to overcome problems associated with the wide variation of electromyograph amplitude and background noise depending on the specific patient's muscles selected. A pulse-width modulated signal drives the DC motor, allowing closing and opening of the prosthesis. The relationship between the motor-driver signal and the actual hand-grasp force developed by the prosthesis was measured using a hand-held grip dynamometer. The resulting force was proportional to current for moderate values of current and then saturated. The motor torque, and, in turn, the force elicited, can be measured by sensing the current absorbed by the motor

  12. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A communications system and method are provided for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is converted into digital signals and transmitted to the controller. Network device interfaces associated with different data channels can coordinate communications with the other interfaces based on either a transition in a command message sent by the bus controller or a synchronous clock signal.

  13. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  14. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  15. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  16. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  17. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  18. Digital-computer normal shock position and restart control of a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric mixed-compression inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, G. H.; Cole, G. L.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Digital computer control of a mixed-compression inlet is discussed. The inlet was terminated with a choked orifice at the compressor face station to dynamically simulate a turbojet engine. Inlet diffuser exit airflow disturbances were used. A digital version of a previously tested analog control system was used for both normal shock and restart control. Digital computer algorithms were derived using z-transform and finite difference methods. Using a sample rate of 1000 samples per second, the digital normal shock and restart controls essentially duplicated the inlet analog computer control results. At a sample rate of 100 samples per second, the control system performed adequately but was less stable.

  19. Desing And Implementation Of A Digitally Controlled Compact Speed Driver For Travelling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Altan Gencer

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a compact size digitally controlled speed driver for travelling wave ultrasonic motor was designed and implemented. Although the driver system is light in weight, simple, small in size, it is possible to enter speed and direction digitally as well as tracking the real motor speed, voltage and current on an LCD. The implemented system was tested in a laboratory for different speed and load cases and obtained results are presented.

  20. Desing And Implementation Of A Digitally Controlled Compact Speed Driver For Travelling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Gencer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact size digitally controlled speed driver for travelling wave ultrasonic motor was designed and implemented. Although the driver system is light in weight, simple, small in size, it is possible to enter speed and direction digitally as well as tracking the real motor speed, voltage and current on an LCD. The implemented system was tested in a laboratory for different speed and load cases and obtained results are presented.

  1. Report on Disclosure Issues Related to the Use of Copy Control and Digital Rights Management Technologies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 115

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report analyses the disclosure issues raised by technically-imposed restrictions on the use of digital content. It focuses on the application of copy control and digital rights management technologies in three areas: copy-protected CDs; online music, and DVD regional coding. In each of these areas, the report examines the kinds of…

  2. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. A control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions is discussed. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption was accomplished by using the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. It is found that the measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.

  3. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. This paper discusses a control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption has been accomplished by making use of the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. The measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.

  4. Digital diffraction analysis enables low-cost molecular diagnostics on a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyungsoon; Castro, Cesar M; Shao, Huilin; Liong, Monty; Song, Jun; Pathania, Divya; Fexon, Lioubov; Min, Changwook; Avila-Wallace, Maria; Zurkiya, Omar; Rho, Junsung; Magaoay, Brady; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Pivovarov, Misha; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2015-05-05

    The widespread distribution of smartphones, with their integrated sensors and communication capabilities, makes them an ideal platform for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis, especially in resource-limited settings. Molecular diagnostics, however, have been difficult to implement in smartphones. We herein report a diffraction-based approach that enables molecular and cellular diagnostics. The D3 (digital diffraction diagnosis) system uses microbeads to generate unique diffraction patterns which can be acquired by smartphones and processed by a remote server. We applied the D3 platform to screen for precancerous or cancerous cells in cervical specimens and to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. The D3 assay generated readouts within 45 min and showed excellent agreement with gold-standard pathology or HPV testing, respectively. This approach could have favorable global health applications where medical access is limited or when pathology bottlenecks challenge prompt diagnostic readouts.

  5. Apparatus for externally controlled closed-loop feedback digital epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, D.; Sharp, J.W.

    1996-07-30

    A method and apparatus for digital epitaxy are disclosed. The apparatus includes a pulsed gas delivery assembly that supplies gaseous material to a substrate to form an adsorption layer of the gaseous material on the substrate. Structure is provided for measuring the isothermal desorption spectrum of the growth surface to monitor the active sites which are available for adsorption. The vacuum chamber housing the substrate facilitates evacuation of the gaseous material from the area adjacent the substrate following exposure. In use, digital epitaxy is achieved by exposing a substrate to a pulse of gaseous material to form an adsorption layer of the material on the substrate. The active sites on the substrate are monitored during the formation of the adsorption layer to determine if all the active sites have been filled. Once the active sites have been filled on the growth surface of the substrate, the pulse of gaseous material is terminated. The unreacted portion of the gas pulse is evacuated by continuous pumping. Subsequently, a second pulse is applied when availability of active sites is determined by studying the isothermal desorption spectrum. These steps are repeated until a thin film of sufficient thickness is produced. 5 figs.

  6. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavric, Uros; Vidmar, Matjaz; Chase, Brian; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs, uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high performance, low cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96 channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In the paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  7. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main LINACs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavric, Uros [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, 60510 Batavia, IL (United States)], E-mail: mavric@fnal.gov; Chase, Brian [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, 60510 Batavia, IL (United States); Vidmar, Matjaz [Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-08-21

    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high-performance, low-cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96-channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In this paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  8. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. METHODS: Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. FINDINGS: (1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. INTERPRETATION: Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  9. Discharge of thoracic patients on portable digital suction: Is it cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Dawn; Pullinger, Diane; Loggos, Spiros; Kumari, Nelam; Lengyel, Emma; Morgan, Ian; Yiu, Patrick; Nandi, Jayanta; Luckraz, Heyman

    2015-09-01

    A portable suction drainage device for patients undergoing thoracic surgical procedures was introduced into our service in January 2010. Patients who met strict discharge criteria were allowed to continue their treatment at home with the device. They were monitored in a designated follow-up clinic. Data were collected to identify the impact of this service in relation to the duration of follow-up required, bed-days saved, and potential cost/benefits. All patients who underwent a thoracic procedure from March 2012 to April 2014 and required suction postoperatively for air leak were included in the study. Patients were identified as suitable according to the discharge criteria. Data regarding patient demographics were collected prospectively on the thoracic database, and data on the drainage device were logged in a specific data sheet. Visits to the follow-up clinic were also recorded. During the study period, 50 patients stayed a total 1125 days on the portable suction system. Twenty were discharged home, equating to 772 bed-days saved (GBP 270,000 cost-saving). Clinic attendance totalled 162 visits (GBP 24,300 cost reimbursement for attendance). Six (30%) patients were readmitted on 9 occasions due to device malfunction or inability to cope at home. Careful identification of patients suitable for discharge with a portable suction device achieved a significant cost-saving and freed hospital beds, thus allowing increased surgical activity. Patients were also able to be cared for within their home environment and maintain their quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Digital controller for a Baum folding machine. [providing automatic counting and machine shutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, W. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital controller for controlling the operation of a folding machine enables automatic folding of a desired number of sheets responsive to entry of that number into a selector. The controller includes three decade counter stages for corresponding rows of units, tens and hundreds push buttons. Each stage including a decimal-to-BCD encoder, a buffer register, and a digital or binary counter. The BCD representation of the selected count for each digit is loaded into the respective decade down counters. Pulses generated by a sensor and associated circuitry are used to decrease the count in the decade counters. When the content of the decade counter reaches either 0 or 1, a solenoid control valve is actuated which interrupts operation of the machine. A repeat switch, when actuated, prevents clearing of the buffer registers so that multiple groups of the same number of sheets can be folded without reentering the number into the selector.

  11. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  12. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 孙辉; 马振洋

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design.

  13. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    Research within digital fluid power (DFP) transmissions is receiving an increased attention as an alternative to conventional transmission technologies. The use of DFP displacement machines entail a need for applicable control algorithms. However, the design and analysis of controllers...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  14. PMSM Control System Based on Digital Signal Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the high power density of PMSM, designed the corresponding drive controller to improve the servo efficiency of PMSM servo system. According to the theory of math model of PMSM under the dq coordinate system, applied id = 0 vector control method as a PMSM control strategy, established PMSM controller model based on vector control. Taking DSP TMS320F2812 as controller core, built a power-driven circuit, control circuit and the main detection protection circuit. The algorithm of control program was completed on the hardware platform to present its software processes. The simulation results show that: the control system response is fast, can track the given speed and position quickly and accurately. The speed fluctuation, overshoot and steady state error are very small. The designed controller is reasonable, which has better dynamic and static characteristics, and be benefit to improve the efficiency of PMSM servo system.

  15. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  16. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas

  17. Digital building blocks for controlling random waves based on supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices including waveguides, couplers, and multiplexers have been demonstrated for broadband responses in momentum or frequency domains, collective switching of multimodes remains a challenge, due to the difficulty in imposing consistent dynamics on all eigenmodes. Here we overcome this limitation by realizing digital switching of spatially random waves, based on supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves at the 'off' state. Building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wavefronts and a P\\"oschl-Teller pair for multi-level switching which implements the fuzzy membership function. Our results establishing global phase matching c...

  18. Simple Digital Control of a Two-Stage PFC Converter Using DSPIC30F Microprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    and built for 70W rated output power. Average current mode control for boost converter and current programmed control for forward converter are implemented on a dsPIC30F1010. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used to drive the switching MOSFETs. Results show that digital solutions with ds...

  19. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. Descripción de los sistemas de control digital de procesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Mora Villate

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo se ocupa de exponer a grandes rasgos las funciones que cumplen los computadores aplicados al control de procesos Industriales, así como de presentar las principales configuraciones de los sistemas de control digital de procesos.

  1. Digitally Controlled Offline Converter with Galvanic Isolation Based on an 8-bit Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an offline AC/DC converter with digital control and galvanic isolation that can be implemented using cheap commercially available components. An ATMEL ATTiny26 8-bit microcontroller is used to control the converter. The microcontroller is placed on the secondary side...

  2. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  3. Quantifying the entropic cost of cellular growth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Daniele; Capuani, Fabrizio; De Martino, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Viewing the ways a living cell can organize its metabolism as the phase space of a physical system, regulation can be seen as the ability to reduce the entropy of that space by selecting specific cellular configurations that are, in some sense, optimal. Here we quantify the amount of regulation required to control a cell's growth rate by a maximum-entropy approach to the space of underlying metabolic phenotypes, where a configuration corresponds to a metabolic flux pattern as described by genome-scale models. We link the mean growth rate achieved by a population of cells to the minimal amount of metabolic regulation needed to achieve it through a phase diagram that highlights how growth suppression can be as costly (in regulatory terms) as growth enhancement. Moreover, we provide an interpretation of the inverse temperature β controlling maximum-entropy distributions based on the underlying growth dynamics. Specifically, we show that the asymptotic value of β for a cell population can be expected to depend on (i) the carrying capacity of the environment, (ii) the initial size of the colony, and (iii) the probability distribution from which the inoculum was sampled. Results obtained for E. coli and human cells are found to be remarkably consistent with empirical evidence.

  4. Digital viscosity controller for fossil power plants; Controlador digital de viscosidad para plantas termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista B, Amberto; Ocampo P, Carlos; Gutierrez A, Ruben; Madinaveitia V, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Upon the need of increasing the efficiency of the existing fossil power plants in Mexico, the Instrumentation and Control Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) designed and built a viscosity controller to enhance the fuel oil heating process. The system strategy, that allows the control either by temperature or viscosity considers, as an important element, the changing characteristics of the supplied fuels. The equipment that is utilized forms apart of the line Acquisition and Control System (ACS) developed at the same Institute, that has been successfully applied in other systems. [Espanol] Ante la necesidad de aumentar la eficiencia de las plantas termoelectricas existentes en Mexico, el Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), diseno y construyo un controlador de viscosidad para mejorar el proceso de calentamiento del aceite combustible. La estrategia del sistema, que permite controlar ya sea por viscosidad o por temperatura, considera como elemento importante las caracteristicas cambiantes de los combustibles suministrados. El equipo que se utiliza forma parte de la linea SAC (sistema de adquisicion y control), desarrollada en el mismo Instituto, que se ha aplicado satisfactoriamente en otros sistemas.

  5. NASA's advanced control law program for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Langley Research Center's role in investigating and promoting advanced control laws for possible flight experimentation and also provides a brief description of the Phase II DFBW F-8 aircraft and its control system. Some of the advanced control law study objectives and guidelines are discussed, and some mathematical models which are useful in the control analysis problem are provided.

  6. Low-cost digital image processing at the University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in remote sensing at the University of Oklahoma involves two separate approaches and is dependent upon initial preprocessing of a LANDSAT computer compatible tape using software developed for an IBM 370/158 computer. In-house generated preprocessing algorithms permits students or researchers to select a subset of a LANDSAT scene for subsequent analysis using either general purpose statistical packages or color graphic image processing software developed for Apple II microcomputers. Procedures for preprocessing the data and image analysis using either of the two approaches for low-cost LANDSAT data processing are described.

  7. Design, implementation and analysis of fully digital 1-D controllable multiscroll chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper introduces the fully digital implementation of a 1-D multiscroll chaos generator based on a staircase nonlinearity in the 3rd-order jerk system using the Euler approximation. For the first time, digital design is exploited to provide real-time controllability of (i) number of scrolls, (ii) position in 1-D space, (iii) Euler step size and (iv) system parameter. The effect of variations in these fields on the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is analyzed. The system is implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized on an Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA, exhibiting area utilization less than 3.5% and high performance with experimentally verified throughput up to 3.33 Gbits/s. This fully digital system enables applications in modulation schemes and chaos-based cryptosystems without analog to digital conversion. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Results and Insights on the Impact of Smoke on Digital Instrumentation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nowlen, S. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-01-31

    Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital instrumentation and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The major effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents (through circuit bridging across contacts and leads) and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This report summarizes two previous reports and presents new results from conformal coating, memory chip, and hard drive tests. The report describes practices for mitigation of smoke damage through digital system design, fire barriers, ventilation, fire suppressants, and post fire procedures.

  9. Guaranteed cost control of uncertain system with input time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡乃平; 唐功友

    2003-01-01

    For the uncertain continuous-time systems with input time-delay that widely exist in the production processes, we can get the existent conditions for the guaranteed cost control of these systems by using the Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequalities theory and quadratic cost criterion. We can achieve the guaranteed cost control of this system by solving a matrix inequality. A state feed back guaranteed cost control law can be constructed by solving certain parameter-dependent Riccati matrix equation.

  10. Evaluation of the weekly quality control of a digital mammography machine; Evaluacion del control de calidad semanal de un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo Pain, E.; Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Urena Llinares, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M. A.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Castro Ramirez, I.; Gonzalez Aquino, P.; Aguirre Huelga, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    In the new edition of the PCCRD (2011) has been established as weekly quality control testing for digital mammography equipment the analysis of artifacts from the team and defective items in the DR, the constancy of the functioning of the CAE, the accuracy of the thickness determined by the compression system, constancy in the uniformity and quality of the image. The objective of the study is to evaluate data collected during the first year of operation of the equipment. (Author)

  11. Efficiency and hardware comparison of analog control-based and digital control-based 70 W two-stage power factor corrector and DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling is d...... is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD.......A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling...

  12. A Digital Control Algorithm for Magnetic Suspension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Thomas C.

    1996-01-01

    An ongoing program exists to investigate and develop magnetic suspension technologies and modelling techniques at NASA Langley Research Center. Presently, there is a laboratory-scale large air-gap suspension system capable of five degree-of-freedom (DOF) control that is operational and a six DOF system that is under development. Those systems levitate a cylindrical element containing a permanent magnet core above a planar array of electromagnets, which are used for levitation and control purposes. In order to evaluate various control approaches with those systems, the Generic Real-Time State-Space Controller (GRTSSC) software package was developed. That control software package allows the user to implement multiple control methods and allows for varied input/output commands. The development of the control algorithm is presented. The desired functionality of the software is discussed, including the ability to inject noise on sensor inputs and/or actuator outputs. Various limitations, common issues, and trade-offs are discussed including data format precision; the drawbacks of using either Direct Memory Access (DMA), interrupts, or program control techniques for data acquisition; and platform dependent concerns related to the portability of the software, such as memory addressing formats. Efforts to minimize overall controller loop-rate and a comparison of achievable controller sample rates are discussed. The implementation of a modular code structure is presented. The format for the controller input data file and the noise information file is presented. Controller input vector information is available for post-processing by mathematical analysis software such as MATLAB1.

  13. Digital power factor control and reactive power regulation for grid-connected photovoltaic inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaine, L. [Power Electronics Systems Group, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Olias, E.; Quintero, J. [Power Electronics Systems Group, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Haddadi, M. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-01-15

    The overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to the grid depends on the efficiency of direct current (DC) of the solar modules to alternate current (AC) inverter conversion. The requirements for inverter connection include: maximum power point, high efficiency, control power injected into the grid, high power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid. An approach to power factor control and reactive power regulation for PV systems connected to the grid using field programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. According to the grid demands; both the injected active and reactive powers are controlled. In this paper, a new digital control strategy for a single-phase inverter is carried out. This control strategy is based on the phase shift between the inverter output voltage and the grid voltage, and the digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) patterns, in order to control the power factor for a wide range of the inverter output current and consequently the control and the regulation of the reactive power will be achieved. The advantage of the proposed control strategy is its implementation around simple digital circuits. In this work, a simulation study of this strategy has been realized using Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. In order to validate its performance, this control has been implemented in a FPGA. Experimental tests have been carried out demonstrating the viability of this control in order to control the power factor and the injected power into the grid. (author)

  14. Digital motion control for Ontario Power Generation's universal delivery machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.W. [GE Canada Nuclear Products, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: David.Murray@cdnnuc.ge.com; Roberts, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Inc., Inspection Services Div., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: anthony.roberts@ontariopowergeneration.com

    2003-07-01

    The Universal Delivery Machine (UDM) has thirteen axes of motion with a variety of precision positioning requirements designed to deliver reactor channel maintenance tooling into the CANDU fuel channels. These axes of motion provide the UDM with the capability to home and lock to the fuel channels, remove and replace the closure and shield plugs, advance, retract and rotate rams for fuel removal and for the deployment of the inspection and maintenance tooling. This paper describes the digital motion control system used on UDM. It will review the benefits of a digital motion control system while looking at the drive components used on the UDM. (author)

  15. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...... results on a laboratory setup are given to verify the proposed control scheme....

  16. Sistema Digital de Bajo Coste para la Monitorización de la Calidad de Energía Eléctrica Low-Cost Digital System for Power Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L Afonso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el desarrollo de un sistema digital de bajo coste utilizado para la monitorización de la calidad de energía eléctrica. El sistema está compuesto por sensores de efecto Hall de tensión y corriente, una tarjeta de adquisición de datos estándar y un ordenador personal vulgar. Las aplicaciones de software han sido desarrolladas en un entorno de programación gráfica (LabVIEW™. Varios parámetros, relacionados con la calidad de energía eléctrica y gerencia de la energía, pueden ser analizados por 4 diferentes aplicaciones: “Scope and THD”, “Events PQ”, “Classical Values” y “p-q Theory”. La información capturada pude ser visualizada en tablas y/o gráficos. También es posible generar informes en formato HTML y Word. En formato HTML, los informes pueden ser enviados directamente a una impresora, pueden ser usados en otras aplicaciones de Windows o pueden se consultados por Internet utilizando un navegador Web.This paper describes the development of a low-cost digital system used for power quality monitoring. The system uses voltage and current Hall sensors, a standard data acquisition board, and has its processing system based on LabVIEW™, running on a regular Personal Computer. Several parameters related to power quality can be analyzed through 4 different applications: “Scope and THD”, “Events PQ”, “Classical Values” and “p-q Theory”. The acquired information can be visualized in tables and/or in charts. It is also possible to generate reports in HTML format. In this format, the reports can be sent directly to a printer, can be embedded in other software applications, or can be accessed through Internet, using a web browser.

  17. A Digitalized Gyroscope System Based on a Modified Adaptive Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the possibility of applying the adaptive control algorithm to Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyroscopes. Through comparing the gyroscope working conditions with the reference model, the adaptive control method can provide online estimation of the key parameters and the proper control strategy for the system. The digital second-order oscillators in the reference model are substituted for two phase locked loops (PLLs to achieve a more steady amplitude and frequency control. The adaptive law is modified to satisfy the condition of unequal coupling stiffness and coupling damping coefficient. The rotation mode of the gyroscope system is considered in our work and a rotation elimination section is added to the digitalized system. Before implementing the algorithm in the hardware platform, different simulations are conducted to ensure the algorithm can meet the requirement of the angular rate sensor, and some of the key adaptive law coefficients are optimized. The coupling components are detected and suppressed respectively and Lyapunov criterion is applied to prove the stability of the system. The modified adaptive control algorithm is verified in a set of digitalized gyroscope system, the control system is realized in digital domain, with the application of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. Key structure parameters are measured and compared with the estimation results, which validated that the algorithm is feasible in the setup. Extra gyroscopes are used in repeated experiments to prove the commonality of the algorithm.

  18. A Digitalized Gyroscope System Based on a Modified Adaptive Control Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Hu, Yiwei; Ni, Peizhen

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the possibility of applying the adaptive control algorithm to Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyroscopes. Through comparing the gyroscope working conditions with the reference model, the adaptive control method can provide online estimation of the key parameters and the proper control strategy for the system. The digital second-order oscillators in the reference model are substituted for two phase locked loops (PLLs) to achieve a more steady amplitude and frequency control. The adaptive law is modified to satisfy the condition of unequal coupling stiffness and coupling damping coefficient. The rotation mode of the gyroscope system is considered in our work and a rotation elimination section is added to the digitalized system. Before implementing the algorithm in the hardware platform, different simulations are conducted to ensure the algorithm can meet the requirement of the angular rate sensor, and some of the key adaptive law coefficients are optimized. The coupling components are detected and suppressed respectively and Lyapunov criterion is applied to prove the stability of the system. The modified adaptive control algorithm is verified in a set of digitalized gyroscope system, the control system is realized in digital domain, with the application of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Key structure parameters are measured and compared with the estimation results, which validated that the algorithm is feasible in the setup. Extra gyroscopes are used in repeated experiments to prove the commonality of the algorithm.

  19. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of national program for control of blindness in Jorhat district, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Nasrin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the cost of different components of the national program for control of blindness (NPCB) and assess the cost effectiveness of this program. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in Jorhat District of Assam, India from July 2009 to June 2010 for assessing the cost effectiveness of the NPCB. Four broad categories of cost inputs, that is, capital costs, recurrent costs, prime/variable costs, and fixed costs were considered. The cost incurred by the provider was taken as the actual cost of delivery of different component of services to the patients, which was calculated from the costs of labor, material, and capital costs using the time utilization pattern recommended by WHO. Result: The District Blindness Control Society, Jorhat had spent 58.93% of total expense on fixed heads of which 65.86% had been spent for cataract surgery. The medical care cost was found to be Indian rupee (INR) 425 for intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE), INR 675 for extracapsular cataract extraction + intraocular lens (ECCE + IOL) and INR 225 for refractive error correction. The patient-wise provider cost was estimated to be INR 519 for ICCE, INR 769 for ECCE + IOL implantation and INR 319 for spectacle correction of refractive error. Conclusion: National program for control of blindness is a cost effective means of controlling and treating blindness. PMID:26283841

  20. Control Loops for the J-PARC RCS Digital Low-Level RF Control

    CERN Document Server

    Schnase, Alexander; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Takagi, Akira; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    The low-level radiofrequency control for the Rapic Cycling Synchrotron of J-PARC is based on digital signal processing. This system controls the acceleration voltages of 12 magnetic alloy loaded cavities. To achive a short overall delay, mandatory for stable loop operation, the data-processing is based on distributed arithmetics in FPGA. Due to the broadband characteristic of the acceleration cavities, no tuning loop is needed. To handle the large beam current, the RF system operates simultaneously with dual harmonics (h=2) and (h=4). The stability of the amplitude loops is limited by the delay of the FIR filters used after downconversion. The phase loop offers several operation modes to define the phase relation of (h=2) and (h=4) between the longitudinal beam signal and the vector-sum of the cavity voltages. Besides the FIR filters, we provide cascaded CIC filters with smoothly varying coefficients. Such a filter tracks the revolution frequency and has a substantially shorter delay, thereby increasing the s...

  1. Competitive pricing and the challenge of cost control in medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulam, Robert F; Feldman, Roger D; Dowd, Bryan E

    2011-08-01

    The Medicare program faces a serious challenge: it must find ways to control costs but must do so through a system of congressional oversight that necessarily limits its choices. We look at one approach to prudent purchasing - competitive pricing - that Medicare has attempted many times and in various ways since the beginning of the program, and in all but one case unsuccessfully due to the politics of provider opposition working through Congress and the courts. We look at some related efforts to change Medicare pricing to explore when the program has been successful in making dramatic changes in how it pays for health care. A set of recommendations emerges for ways to respond to the impediments of law and politics that have obstructed change to more efficient payment methods. Except in unusual cases, competitive pricing threatens too many stakeholders in too many ways for key political actors to support it. But an unusual case may arise in the coming Medicare fiscal crisis, a crisis related in part to the prices Medicare pays. At that point, competitive pricing may look less like a problem and more like a solution coming at a time when the system badly needs one.

  2. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for Digital Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Kwon, Park In; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses general approaches and results of real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing for power electronics controllers. Many different types of power electronic controllers can be tested by connecting them to a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for closed-loop HIL testing....... In this paper, two HIL digital controller tests are presented as application examples of the low-level signal interface in the closed-loop tests of power electronic controllers. In the HIL tests, the power system and the power electronics hardware are modeled in the RTDS. The required control functions....... Results of the HIL tests and hardware validations are presented to illustrate the real-time HIL testing method for power electronics controllers....

  3. Development of a digital automatic control law for steep glideslope capture and flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A longitudinal digital guidance and control law for steep glideslopes using MLS (Microwave Landing System) data is developed for CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law covers the final approach phases of glideslope capture, glideslope tracking, and flare to touchdown for automatic landings under adverse weather conditions. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process MLS and body-mounted accelerometer data to form estimates of flight path errors and wind velocities including wind shear. The flight path error estimates and wind estimates are used for feedback in generating control surface commands. Results of a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the guidance and control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  4. User attitudes in analyzing digital slides in a quality control test bed: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Mea, Vincenzo; Demichelis, Francesca; Viel, Federico; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto

    2006-05-01

    The pathologist examines suitably stained glass slides through a bright field microscope in order to render histopathological or cytological diagnosis by looking at tissues and cells. Glass slides serve as a permanent record of the patient disease. Over the course of a patient's treatment slides may need to be reviewed at other institutions before treatment can commence. Due to their fragile nature a transportable permanent digital facsimile of the glass slide would be ideal. A digital slide is a set of digital images representing the whole slide normally used by the pathologist, or a significant part of it; it is usually made by a large amount of images, up to thousands, which makes its management difficult. The present paper provides a description of the requirements needed to reproduce glass slides and of the available technological equipment, then the features of the two systems we implemented on different hardware are described, together with those of the digital slide viewer. The viewer was evaluated in two experimental test phases, during which user behaviour and diagnostic reports were measured. Digital slides used in the two experiments were acquired with either system. Possible applications of digital slides are then discussed, including undergraduate and professional education, quality control, and image analysis on full samples as well as on tissue microarrays.

  5. Guidelines for cost control and analysis of cost-type research and development contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbers, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The cost information which should be obtained from a contractor(s) on a major, cost type research and development contract(s), and the analyses and effective use of these data are discussed. Specific type(s) of information which should be required, methods for analyzing such information, and methods for effectively using the results of such analyses to enhance NASA contract and project management are included. The material presented is based primarily on the principal methods which have been effectively used in the management of major cost type research and development contracts.

  6. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled AC Microgrids Using Multiagent-Based Distributed Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microgrids are attracting increasing research interest as promising technologies to integrate renewable energy resources into the distribution system. Although many works have been done on droop control applied to microgrids, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based...... on the power rating of the power converters. With various primary source for the distributed generator (DG), factors that are closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost of the generators and losses should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper......, a multiagent-based distributed method is proposed to minimize the operation cost in AC microgrids. In the microgrid, each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using a novel power regulation method based on frequency scheduling. An optimal power command is obtained through carefully...

  7. Structural-parametric synthesis of the digital robust flight control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.A. Тунік

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to the synthesis of the digital controller for a system with stochastic disturbances and incomplete measurements of the state vector. Then parametric robust optimization of obtained system is conducted to achieve stabilization and acceptable performance for nominal and parametrically disturbed plants using the same controller. Research is performed at the example of the small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight control system.

  8. Design, Digital Control, and Simulation of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Feshara, Hazem; Elharony, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soliman

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents simulation and digital control of a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) generation system. The technique used for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic power is sliding mode (SM) control. Control of power extraction from DC link capacitor is presented. Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter is utilized to deliver power to utility grid. Simulation is performed using PLECS standalone software package and simulation results are shown. Comp...

  9. Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies for tuberculosis control in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Floyd (Katherine); C. Dye; R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and health effects of tuberculosis control interventions in Africa and South East Asia in the context of the millennium development goals. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model. SETTING: Analyses undertaken

  10. The B-747 flight control system maintenance and reliability data base for cost effectiveness tradeoff studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Primary and automatic flight controls are combined for a total flight control reliability and maintenance cost data base using information from two previous reports and additional cost data gathered from a major airline. A comparison of the current B-747 flight control system effects on reliability and operating cost with that of a B-747 designed for an active control wing load alleviation system is provided.

  11. Swedish COBECOS Pilot Study. Costs and Benefits of Control Strategies in selected Swedish fisheries. Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Designing control and enforcement strategies in the fisheries sector to ensure compliance with existing rules is intricate and often hampered by costs. The EU Sixth Framework Programme Project “Costs and benefits of Control Strategies” (COBECOS; https://cobecos.jrc.ec.europa.eu) tackled this impediment to successful fisheries control and enforcement schemes by developing computer based modelling approaches which help to optimise the cost/benefit ratio of envisioned control/enforcement stra...

  12. A tunable Butterworth low-pass filter with digitally controlled DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 6th-order tunable Butterworth low-pass active filter with Digitally Controlled Differential Difference Current Conveyor (DDCC. This active filter is synthesized using the systematic method of voltage-mode linear transformation (VMLT which enables the filter use fewer active components, grounded capacitors and grounded resistors to avoid the parasitical effects. The bandwidth of the filter can be tuned by digital switches to adjust the output current of the DDCC. The specifications of the filter are based on 3G standard, and the filter is controlled by 8-bits digital signals. The tunable bandwidth of the filter is from 12 KHz to 2.6 MHz. The filter chip layout is realized by TSMC 0.18 um CMOS 1P6M mixed-mode technology. The supply voltage is 1.8V and the power consumption is 3.6 mW.

  13. An Embedded EPICS IOC for Digital Power Supply Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1 Introduction The BRIF upgrading project includes several different types of accelerators. Inter-accelerator data exchange yields a common network data format requirement for their control system. EPICS system, as it

  14. A low-cost digital holographic imager for calibration and validation of cloud microphysics remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Murray W.; Reid, Iain M.

    2016-10-01

    Clouds cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface and therefore play a crucial rule in governing both the climate system and the hydrological cycle. The microphysical properties of clouds such as the cloud particle size distribution, shape distribution and spatial homogeneity contribute significantly to the net radiative effect of clouds and these properties must therefore be measured and understood to determine the exact contribution of clouds to the climate system. Significant discrepancies are observed between meteorological models and observations, particularly in polar regions that are most sensitive to changes in climate, suggesting a lack of understanding of these complex microphysical processes. Remote sensing techniques such as polarimetric LIDAR and radar allow microphysical cloud measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution however these instruments must be calibrated and validated by direct in situ measurements. To this end a low cost, light weight holographic imaging device has been developed and experimentally tested that is suitable for deployment on a weather balloon or tower structure to significantly increase the availability of in situ microphysics retrievals.

  15. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, ten Erik

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information a

  16. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information

  17. Digital controlling system to the set of high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewski, Marian; Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    In the paper is described the concept and architecture of the multi-channel control system for set of high-power LEDs. The broadband source of radiation for prototype illuminator is dedicated to the investigation of Low Level Laser Therapy procedures. The general scheme of the system, detailed schemes, control algorithm and its implementation description in FPGA structure is presented. The temperature conditions and the opportunity to work with a microcomputer are characterized.

  18. A novel analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiaofeng; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun

    2011-01-01

    An analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control (AGC) circuit with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit for a direct-conversion receiver is presented. The AGC is analog/digital reconfigurable in order to be compatible with different baseband chips. What's more, a novel DC offset cancellation (DCOC) circuit with an HPCF (high pass cutoff frequency) less than 10 kHz is proposed. The AGC is fabricated by a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Under analog control mode, the AGC achieves a 70 dB dynamic range with a 3 dB-bandwidth larger than 60 MHz. Under digital control mode, through a 5-bit digital control word, the AGC shows a 64 dB gain control range by 2 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.3 dB. The DC offset cancellation circuits can suppress the output DC offset voltage to be less than 1.5 mV, while the offset voltage of 40 mV is introduced into the input. The overall power consumption is less than 3.5 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  19. Incremental costs associated with physician and pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Brooks, John M; Ardery, Gail; Newman, Dana; Carter, Barry L

    2012-08-01

    To compare costs associated with a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention with costs of usual care. Cost analysis using health care utilization and outcome data from two prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trials. Eleven community-based medical offices. A total of 496 patients with hypertension; 244 were in the usual care (control) group and 252 were in the intervention group. To compare the costs, we combined cost data from the two trials. Total costs included costs of provider time, laboratory tests, and antihypertensive drugs. Provider time was calculated based on an online survey of intervention pharmacists and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Cost parameters were taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for average wage rates, the Medicare laboratory fee schedule, and a publicly available Web site for drug prices. Total costs were adjusted for patient characteristics. Adjusted total costs were $774.90 in the intervention group and $445.75 in the control group (difference $329.16, pcosts between the two groups ranged from $224.27-515.56. The intervention cost required to have one additional patient achieve blood pressure control within 6 months was $1338.05, determined by the difference in costs divided by the difference in hypertension control rates between the groups ($329.16/24.6%). The cost over 6 months to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure 1 mm Hg was $36.25 and $94.32, respectively. The physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention increased not only blood pressure control but also the cost of care. Additional research, such as a cost-benefit or a cost-minimization analysis, is needed to assess whether financial savings related to reduced morbidity and mortality achieved from better blood pressure control outweigh the cost of the intervention. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of online positive psychology: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Majo, Cristina; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Haverman, Merel; Walburg, J.A.; Riper, Heleen; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As yet, no evidence is available about the cost-effectiveness of positive psychological interventions. When offered via the Internet, these interventions may be particularly cost-effective, because they are highly scalable and do not rely on scant resources such as therapists’ time. Alongside a rand

  1. Anticipatory modulation of digit placement for grasp control is affected by Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R Lukos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful object manipulation relies on the ability to form and retrieve sensorimotor memories of digit forces and positions used in previous object lifts. Past studies of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD have revealed that the basal ganglia play a crucial role in the acquisition and/or retrieval of sensorimotor memories for grasp control. Whereas it is known that PD impairs anticipatory control of digit forces during grasp, learning deficits associated with the planning of digit placement have yet to be explored. This question is motivated by recent work in healthy subjects revealing that anticipatory control of digit placement plays a crucial role for successful manipulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We asked ten PD patients off medication and ten age-matched controls to reach, grasp and lift an object whose center of mass (CM was on the left, right or center. The only task requirement was to minimize object roll during lift. The CM remained the same across consecutive trials (blocked condition or was altered from trial to trial (random condition. We hypothesized that impairment of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits in PD patients would reduce their ability to anticipate digit placement appropriate to the CM location. Consequently, we predicted that PD patients would exhibit similar digit placement in the blocked vs. random conditions and produce larger peak object rolls than that of control subjects. In the blocked condition, PD patients exhibited significantly weaker modulation of fingertip contact points to CM location and larger object roll than controls (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Nevertheless, both controls and PD patients minimized object roll more in the blocked than in the random condition (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that, even though PD patients may have a residual ability of anticipatory control of digit contact points and forces, they fail to implement a

  2. Controlling for quality in the hospital cost function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kathleen; Stefos, Theodore

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the cost and quality of hospital care from the perspective of applied microeconomics. It addresses both theoretical and practical complexities entailed in incorporating hospital quality into the estimation of hospital cost functions. That literature is extended with an empirical analysis that examines the use of 15 Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) as measures of hospital quality. A total operating cost function is estimated on 2,848 observations from five states drawn from the period 2001 to 2007. In general, findings indicate that the PSIs are successful in capturing variation in hospital cost due to adverse patient safety events. Measures that rely on the aggregate number of adverse events summed over PSIs are found to be superior to risk-adjusted rates for individual PSIs. The marginal cost of an adverse event is estimated to be $22,413. The results contribute to a growing business case for inpatient safety in hospital services.

  3. POSITION CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin GENÇER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDC have been used widely high performance control systems which are depended on to development of power electronic and control technology. In these motors to fed commutated supply, the control of position without oscilation has been required. In this study, position control of BLDC with digital signal processing has been implemented by a proportional-derivative (PD controller because of its simple structure. It has been seen that the controller which is proposed from simulation and experimental studies, has a quick dynamic responce with nonoscillation.

  4. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled AC Microgrids Using Multiagent-Based Distributed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chendan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, microgrids are attracting increasing research interest as promising technologies to integrate renewable energy resources into the distribution system. Although many works have been done on droop control applied to microgrids, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based on the power rating of the power converters. With various primary source for the distributed generator (DG, factors that are closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost of the generators and losses should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed method is proposed to minimize the operation cost in AC microgrids. In the microgrid, each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using a novel power regulation method based on frequency scheduling. An optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm by using sparse communication links only among neighbouring agents. Experimental results for different cases verified that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the operation cost.

  5. Human African trypanosomiasis prevention, treatment and control costs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Joshua O; Sutherland, C Simone; Woods, Geordie; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    The control and eventual elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) requires the expansion of current control and surveillance activities. A systematic review of the published literature on the costs of HAT prevention, treatment, and control, in addition to the economic burden, was conducted. All studies that contained primary or secondary data on costs of prevention, treatment and control were considered, resulting in the inclusion of 42 papers. The geographically focal nature of the disease and a lack of standardization in the cost data limit the usefulness of the available information for making generalizations across diverse settings. More recent information on the costs of treatment and control interventions for HAT is needed to provide accurate information for analyses and planning. The cost information contained herein can be used to inform rational decision making in control and elimination programs, and to assess potential synergies with existing vector-borne disease control programs, but programs would benefit significantly from new cost data collection.

  6. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller a via network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. In one embodiment, the bus controller transmits messages to the network device interface containing a plurality of bits having a value defined by a transition between first and second states in the bits. The network device interface determines timing of the data sequence of the message and uses the determined timing to communicate with the bus controller.

  7. Singular perturbations and time scales in the design of digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Desineni S.; Price, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of application of the methodology of Singular Perturbations and Time Scales (SPATS) to the control of digital flight systems. A block diagonalization method is described to decouple a full order, two time (slow and fast) scale, discrete control system into reduced order slow and fast subsystems. Basic properties and numerical aspects of the method are discussed. A composite, closed-loop, suboptimal control system is constructed as the sum of the slow and fast optimal feedback controls. The application of this technique to an aircraft model shows close agreement between the exact solutions and the decoupled (or composite) solutions. The main advantage of the method is the considerable reduction in the overall computational requirements for the evaluation of optimal guidance and control laws. The significance of the results is that it can be used for real time, onboard simulation. A brief survey is also presented of digital flight systems.

  8. Vectored Thrust Digital Flight Control for Crew Escape. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    no. 24. Lecrique, J., A. Rault, M. Tessier and J.L. Testud (1978), - "Multivariable Regulation of a Thermal Power Plant Steam Generator," presented...and Extended Kalman Observers," presented at the Conf. Decision and Control, San Diego, CA. Testud , J.L. (1977), Commande Numerique Multivariable du

  9. Multivariable Linear Digital Control via State Space Output Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    relies upon only the most elementary principles of linear systems theory and hence is characterized by its conceptual and computational simplicity. 2...algebra and linear systems theory . As a result, the control technique discussed is characterized by its conceptual and practical simplicity. 19

  10. Optimal digital control of a Stirling cycle cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, J.; Feeley, P.; Langford, G.

    1990-01-01

    This short paper describes work in progress on the conceptual design of a control system for a cryogenic cooler intended for use aboard spacecraft. The cooler will produce 5 watts of cooling at 65 K and will be used to support experiments associated with the following: earth observation; atmospheric measurements; infrared, x-ray, and gamma-ray astronomy; and magnetic field characterization. The cooler has been designed and constructed for NASA/GSFC by Philips Laboratories and is described in detail. The cooler has a number of unique design features intended to enhance long life and maintenance free operation in space including use of the high efficiency Stirling thermodynamic refrigeration cycle, linear magnetic motors, clearance-seals, and magnetic bearings. The proposed control system design is based on optimal control theory and is targeted for custom integrated circuit implementation. The resulting control system will meet the following mission requirements: efficiency, reliability, optimal thermodynamic, electrical, and mechanical performance; freedom from operator intervention; light weight; and small size.

  11. Analyzing and Seeking Minimum Test Instruction Set of Digital Signal Processor for Motor Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严伟; 曹家麟; 龚幼民

    2005-01-01

    The relativity of instructions of motor control digital signal processor (MCDSP) in the design is analyzed. A method for obtaining a minimum instruction set in place of the complete instruction set during generation of testing procedures is given in terms of the processor presentation matrix between micro-operators and instructions of MCDSP.

  12. Low power digitally controlled oscillator designs with a novel 3-transistor XNOR gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Arya, Sandeep K.; Pandey, Sujata

    2012-03-01

    Digital controlled oscillators (DCOs) are the core of all digital phase locked loop (ADPLL) circuits. Here, DCO structures with reduced hardware and power consumption having full digital control have been proposed. Three different DCO architectures have been proposed based on ring based topology. Three, four and five bit controlled DCO with NMOS, PMOS and NMOS & PMOS transistor switching networks are presented. A three-transistor XNOR gate has been used as the inverter which is used as the delay cell. Delay has been controlled digitally with a switch network of NMOS and PMOS transistors. The three bit DCO with one NMOS network shows frequency variations of 1.6141-1.8790 GHz with power consumption variations 251.9224-276.8591 μW. The four bit DCO with one NMOS network shows frequency variation of 1.6229-1.8868 GHz with varying power consumption of 251.9225-278.0740 μW. A six bit DCO with one NMOS switching network gave an output frequency of 1.7237-1.8962 GHz with power consumption of 251.928-278.998 μW. Output frequency and power consumption results for 4 & 6 bit DCO circuits with one PMOS and NMOS & PMOS switching network have also been presented. The phase noise parameter with an offset frequency of 1 MHz has also been reported for the proposed circuits. Comparisons with earlier reported circuits have been made and the present approach shows advantages over previous circuits.

  13. Low power digitally controlled oscillator designs with a novel 3-transistor XNOR gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoj Kumar; Sandeep K. Arya; Sujata Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Digital controlled oscillators (DCOs) are the core of all digital phase locked loop (ADPLL) circuits.Here,DCO structures with reduced hardware and power consumption having full digital control have been proposed.Three different DCO architectures have been proposed based on ring based topology.Three,four and five bit controlled DCO with NMOS,PMOS and NMOS & PMOS transistor switching networks are presented.A threetransistor XNOR gate has been used as the inverter which is used as the delay cell.Delay has been controlled digitally with a switch network of NMOS and PMOS transistors.The three bit DCO with one NMOS network shows frequency variations of 1.6141-1.8790 GHz with power consumption variations 251.9224-276.8591 μW.The four bit DCO with one NMOS network shows frequency variation of 1.6229-1.8868 GHz with varying power consumption of 251.9225-278.0740μW.A six bit DCO with one NMOS switching network gave an output frequency of 1.7237-1.8962 GHz with power consumption of 251.928-278.998μW.Output frequency and power consumption results for 4 & 6 bit DCO circuits with one PMOS and NMOS & PMOS switching network have also been presented.The phase noise parameter with an offset frequency of 1 MHz has also been reported for the proposed circuits.Comparisons with earlier reported circuits have been made and the present approach shows advantages over previous circuits.

  14. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Schweitzer, K.J.; Janszen, E.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage

  15. An Educational Laboratory for Digital Control and Rapid Prototyping of Power Electronic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Saeedifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new educational power electronics laboratory that was developed primarily to reinforce experimentally the fundamental concepts presented in a power electronics course. The developed laboratory combines theoretical design, simulation studies, digital control, fabrication, and verification of power-electronic circuits based on…

  16. High resolution millimeter wave digitally controlled oscillator with reconfigurable distributed metal capacitor passive resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, W.; Long, J.R.; Staszewski, B.

    2014-01-01

    A novel and useful millimeter-wave digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) that achieve a tuning range greater than 10% and fine frequency resolution less than 1 MHz. Switched metal capacitors are distributed across a passive resonator for tuning the oscillation frequency. To obtain sub-MHz frequency

  17. Development of Digital Control for High Power Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the development of digital control system for high power permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to yield good speed regulation, low current harmonic, and stable output speed. The design of controller is conducted by digitizing the mathematical model of PMSM using impulse invariance technique. The predicted current estimator, which is insensitive to motor feedback currents, is proposed to function under stationary frame for harmonic current suppression. In the AC/DC power converter, mathematical model and dc-link voltage limit of the three-phase switch-mode rectifier are derived. In addition, a current controller under synchronous frame is introduced to reduce the current harmonics and increase the power factor on the input side. A digital control system for 75 kW PMSM is realized with digital signal processor (R5F5630EDDFP. Experimental results indicate that the total harmonic distortion of current is reduced from 4.1% to 2.8% for 50 kW output power by the proposed predicted current estimator technique.

  18. Mobile source emission control cost-effectiveness: Issues, uncertainties, and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    1994-12-01

    Emissions from mobile sources undoubtedly contribute to US urban air pollution problems. Consequently, mobile source control measures, ranging from vehicle emission standards to reducing vehicle travel, have been adopted or proposed to help attain air quality standards. To rank various mobile source control measures, various government agencies and private organizations calculate cost-effectiveness in dollars per ton of emissions reduced. Arguments for or against certain control measures are often made on the basis of the calculated cost-effectiveness. Yet, different studies may yield significantly different cost-effectiveness results, because of the various methodologies used and assumptions regarding the values of costs and emission reductions. Because of the methodological differences, the cost-effectiveness results may not be comparable between studies. Use of incomparable cost-effectiveness results may result in adoption of ineffective control measures. This paper first discusses some important methodological issues involved in cost-effectiveness calculation for mobile sources and proposes appropriate, systematic methods for dealing with these issues. Various studies have been completed recently to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mobile source emission control measures. These studies resulted in wide variations in the cost-effectiveness for same control measures. Methodological assumptions used in each study are presented and, based on the proposed methods for cost-effectiveness calculation, adjustments are applied to the original estimates in each study to correct inappropriate methodological assumptions and to make the studies comparable. Finally, mobile source control measures are ranked on the basis of the adjusted cost-effectiveness estimates.

  19. Cost control for real estate development projects in ChinaPart 1:Literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏煦

    2014-01-01

    The background and purpose, and the current situation of the cost control theory of real estate development project are disscussed in the paper. Problems of cost control for real estate development projects in China are analyzed and summarized. According to the real estate development project cost control problems and related factors, a cost control index system of real estate development enterprise, and a cost control factors index system of real estate projects are constructed respectively. Cost control in the five stages of a real estate development project is introduced and summarized respectively. The five stages include:the investment decision-making, planning and design stage, the bidding phase, project implementation stage, and rental or sale.

  20. Digital control of high performance aircraft using adaptive estimation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landingham, H. F.; Moose, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive signal processing algorithm is joined with gain-scheduling for controlling the dynamics of high performance aircraft. A technique is presented for a reduced-order model (the longitudinal dynamics) of a high performance STOL aircraft. The actual controller views the nonlinear behavior of the aircraft as equivalent to a randomly switching sequence of linear models taken from a preliminary piecewise-linear fit of the system nonlinearities. The adaptive nature of the estimator is necessary to select the proper sequence of linear models along the flight trajectory. Nonlinear behavior is approximated by effective switching of the linear models at random times, with durations reflecting aircraft motion in response to pilot commands.

  1. A digital energy control system for the LEAR electron cooler

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Fritz; Molinari, G; Ramos, U

    1993-01-01

    A feedback control system has been developed to correct any energy errors that may occur when operating the electron cooler on LEAR. Drifts and, above all, the space charge effects are the main sources of error. Error cancellation must be compatible with the pulsed mode of operation of the electron cooler so that the beam must be stabilized at the right energy before the end of the corresponding flat top is reached.

  2. Research on cost control and management in high voltage transmission line construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    Enterprises. The cost control is of vital importance to the construction enterprises. It is the key to the profitability of the transmission line project, which is related to the survival and development of the electric power construction enterprises. Due to the long construction line, complex and changeable construction terrain as well as large construction costs of transmission line, it is difficult for us to take accurate and effective cost control on the project implementation of entire transmission line. Therefore, the cost control of transmission line project is a complicated and arduous task. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the cost control scheme of transmission line project by a more scientific and efficient way. Based on the characteristics of the construction project of the transmission line project, this paper analyzes the construction cost structure of the transmission line project and the current cost control problem of the transmission line project, and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of studying the cost control scheme of the transmission line project more accurately. In this way, the dynamic cycle cost control process including plan, implementation, feedback, correction, modification and re-implement is achieved to realize the accurate and effective cost control of entire electric power transmission line project.

  3. LIBROS DE TEXTO Y CONTROL DEL CURRICULUM EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA SOCIEDAD DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez Rodríguez

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los libros de texto - tanto en formato impreso como digital - manifiestan una presencia muy notable en los sistemas educativos actuales. En este artículo pretendemos analizar las razones que, en plena era digital, justifican la hegemonía de este recurso y su notable contribución en los procesos de control del currriculum. Presentaremos los resultados de algunas investigaciones recientes relacionadas con los libros de texto digitales y podremos constatar si se han producido cambios significativos en relación con su significado, interpretación y uso en la escuela.

  4. Strain and displacement controls by fibre bragg grating and digital image correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    the test based on measurements performed directly on the test specimen. In this paper, fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are used to control a test. The FBG sensors offer the possibility of measuring strains inside the specimen, while the DIC system measures strains...... and displacement on the surface of the specimen. In this paper, a three-point bending test is used to demonstrate the functionality of a control loop, where the FBG and DIC signals are used as control channels. The FBG strain control was capable of controlling the test within an error tolerance of 20 μm m-1...

  5. Resolution of digital servo control system using single-bit digital signal processing; 1 bit digital shingo shori wo mochiita seigyo no bunkaino to johoryo ni tsuite no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Oka, K.; Higuchi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    The application of single-bit digital signal processing to mechanical control system has already been proposed by the authors. Multi-bit A/D converter has been improved to the high level. But it is difficult to make more high resolution A/D by latest semiconductor technologies. There is single-bit digital signal which is generated by a delta-sigma modulator. Single-bit digital signal has small quantized error around low frequency. Then with this single-bit digital signal processing, high resolution on controlling such a narrow band width mechanical system will be realized. In this paper, resolution of analog, multi-bit and single-bit control systems are estimated with simulation. According to simulations` results, single-bit control system has higher resolution than multi-bit system in the condition of equal bit rate. 5 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Design concepts for a nuclear digital instrumentation and control system platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, T. C.; Chen, C. K.; Chen, P. J.; Shyu, S. S.; Lee, C. L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, No. 1000 Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 Taiwan (China); Hsieh, S. F., E-mail: tcou@iner.gov.t [Electronics Group, Formosa Plastics Co., 100 Sue-Guan Road, Jen-Wu Hsiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this paper is to present the development results of the nuclear instrumentation and control system in Taiwan. As the Taiwan nuclear power plants age, the need to consider upgrading of both their safety and non-safety-related instrumentation and control systems becomes more urgent. Meanwhile, the digital instrumentation and control system that is based on current fast evolving electronic and information technologies are difficult to maintain effectively. Therefore, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was made a decision to promote the Taiwan Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System project to collaborate with domestic electronic industry to establish self-reliant capabilities on the design, manufacturing, and application of nuclear instrumentation and control systems with newer technology. In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control, safety-oriented quality control is required. In order to establish a generic qualified digital platform, the world-wide licensing experience should be considered in the licensing process. This paper describes the qualification and certification tools by IEC 61508 for design and development of safety related equipment and explains the basis for many decisions made while performing the digital upgrade. (Author)

  7. PSB LLRF renovation: Initial beam tests of the new digital beam control system

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME; Butterworth, A; Findlay, A; Pedersen, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    The beam control renovation project for CERN’s PS Booster (PSB) was started in autumn 2008. Its aim is to equip all four PSB rings with modern digital beam control systems, characterised by fully-PPM parameters and complete remote control. Additionally, all intermediate and input/output signals are to be remotely acquired in a digital way and in full PPM fashion, and displayed via the Oasis application program. The same digital technology concepts have already been successfully applied to the LEIR beam control system, which has acted as a pilot project for the whole PS Complex renovation project. This new technology allows a very flexible performance and can improve the system maintainability by becoming the standard for the PS Complex beam controls. This note details the first step in the PSB consolidation project, namely the beam control prototype tests carried out on PSB ring 4 in October and November 2008. Both C02 and C04 RF system have been successfully controlled; bunch splitting and extraction synch...

  8. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lau, Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  9. Ultra-Portable Smartphone Controlled Integrated Digital Microfluidic System in a 3D-Printed Modular Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yafia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Portable sensors and biomedical devices are influenced by the recent advances in microfluidics technologies, compact fabrication techniques, improved detection limits and enhanced analysis capabilities. This paper reports the development of an integrated ultraportable, low-cost, and modular digital microfluidic (DMF system and its successful integration with a smartphone used as a high-level controller and post processing station. Low power and cost effective electronic circuits are designed to generate the high voltages required for DMF operations in both open and closed configurations (from 100 to 800 V. The smartphone in turn commands a microcontroller that manipulate the voltage signals required for droplet actuation in the DMF chip and communicates wirelessly with the microcontroller via Bluetooth module. Moreover, the smartphone acts as a detection and image analysis station with an attached microscopic lens. The holder assembly is fabricated using three-dimensional (3D printing technology to facilitate rapid prototyping. The holder features a modular design that enables convenient attachment/detachment of a variety of DMF chips to/from an electrical busbar. The electrical circuits, controller and communication system are designed to minimize the power consumption in order to run the device on small lithium ion batteries. Successful controlled DMF operations and a basic colorimetric assay using the smartphone are demonstrated.

  10. NSLS-II Digital RF Controller Logic and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holub, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gao, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kulpin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marques, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Oliva, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rose, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Towne, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) accelerator consists of the Storage Ring, the Booster Ring and Linac along with their associated cavities. Given the number, types and variety of functions of these cavities, we sought to limit the logic development effort by reuse of parameterized code on one hardware platform. Currently there are six controllers installed in the NSLS-II system. There are two in the Storage ring, two in the Booster ring, one in the Linac and one in the Master Oscillator Distribution system.

  11. A Mixed-Reality Environment for Digital Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz-Dietrich Wuttke

    2006-01-01

    Learning the design of control systems requires not only deep theoretical but also practical experience that can be get in laboratory work. Goal of the projects “JGIFT†and “FIPS†- created by members of the Institute of Theoretical and Technical Computer Science of the Technical University of Ilmenau - is to examine and implement new techniques for a development and training system based on Finite State Machines (FSM). In our contribution we would like to present means and ...

  12. Collective interaction by design collective controllers for social navigation on digital photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Mortensen, Morten Boye;

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to attract attention to the possibilities for designing for collaborative control and social negotiation in everyday interaction design. This work is starts out from the interaction model of collective interaction, which is a model depicting strong social connection between people...... interacting on a shared digital material with a shared goal. We adopt a research through design approach where we develop an exemplar collective interaction prototype for collective exploration of digital photos in the home and we evaluate the prototype in use. The exemplar prototype and experiences from...... trial use serves to refine the collective interaction model and identify qualities and shortcommings of collective interaction applications. In this way we wish to point to a design space, which can lead to new interaction techniques and -designs supporting shared social experiences around digital...

  13. Tangible Cooperative Gestures: Improving Control and Initiative in Digital Photo Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise van den Hoven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on co-present digital photo sharing on a notebook and investigates how this could be supported. While analyzing the current digital photo sharing situation we noticed that there was a high threshold for visitors to take control of the personal computer of the photo owner, resulting in inequity of participation. It was assumed that visitors would have the opportunity to interact with the notebook more freely if this threshold was lowered by distributing the user interface and creating a more public, instead of personal, interaction space. This, in turn, could make them feel more involved and in control during a session, creating a more enjoyable experience. To test these assumptions a design prototype was created that stimulates participants to use tangible artifacts for cooperative gestures, a promising direction for the future of HCI. The situation with the cooperative gestures was compared with the regular digital photo sharing situation, which makes use of a keyboard. In dyads, visitors felt more involved and in control in the design prototype cooperative gestures condition (especially during storytelling, resulting in a more enjoyable digital photo sharing experience.

  14. Software Development for Digital Control of WDW Series Testing Machine and Measurement of KIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴; 马杭; 程昌钧

    2005-01-01

    Software has been developed for digital control of WDW series testing machine and the measurement of fracture toughness by modularized design. Development of the software makes use of multi-thread and serial communication techniques, which can accurately control the testing machine and measure the fracture toughness in real-time. Three-point bending specimens were used in the measurement. The software operates stably and reliably, expanding the function of WDW series testing machine.

  15. Robust Pole Assignment of Digital Control System with Output Multirate Sampled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Multirate digital control system is a periodically time-variant (PTV)system in its essence. It has many “super capability”, such as obtaining arbitrarily-large gain-margin,simultaneous stabilization, strong stabilization, decentralized control, etc. Utilizing freedom aroused from the multirate sampling of system output, this paper assigns poles of the closedloop system robustly, and so improves the resistance of the system to perturbation.

  16. Family involvement, internal control and agency costs – Evidences from China's listed family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the agency costs of 314 family firms listed on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange in China. The results show that agency costs of family firms increase significantly with the enhancement of family's ownership and the separation of ownership and control, while family involvement in management can reduce the agency costs. By including the variable proxying internal control and the interaction term between internal control and family involvement in the empirical model, we still find that the effects of family involvement on agency costs are contingent on the quality of internal control.

  17. Direct digital simulation of power semiconductor-controlled electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnassy, H. M.

    1981-06-01

    Generalized computer programming techniques for simulating power semiconductor-controlled electric machines in coil-variable representation are presented. These techniques are developed primarily for implementation in large scale general purpose computer-aided design and analysis (CADA) circuit programs. To demonstrate the validity of the developed techniques, a coil-variable model of a brushless synchronous generator with an ac exciter and rotating rectifiers was constructed. The performance of the control system (thyristor voltage regulator) is represented by a transfer function block diagram model. The CADA circuit program used is the recently developed SUPER SCEPTRE program. The model is validated using the design data and test results of a 60 kVA brushless generator. Numerous computer simulation cases are presented including the steady state and transient conditions. Brushless generator performance under diode failure faults (opened-diode, shorted-diode) is simulated. The effects of the external faults, at the main generator terminals, on the main generator, as well as its excitation system currents, are simulated.

  18. Digital control systems training on a distance learning platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIECHA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new training technologies development based on approach to distance learning website, implemented in the laboratory of a Traffic Engineering study branch at Faculty of Transport. The discussed computing interface allows students complete knowledge of traffic controllers’ architecture and machine language programming fundamentals. These training facilities are available at home; at their remote terminal. The training resources consist of electronic / computer based training; guidebooks and software units. The laboratory provides the students with an interface entering into simulation packages and programming interfaces, supporting the web training facilities. The courseware complexity selection is one of the most difficult factors in intelligent training unit’s development. The dynamically configured application provides the user with his individually set structure of the training resources. The trainee controls the application structure and complexity, from the time he started. For simplifying the training process and studying activities, several unifications were provided. The introduced ideas need various standardisations, simplifying the e-learning units’ development and application control processes [8], [9]. Further training facilities development concerns virtual laboratory environment organisation in laboratories of Transport Faculty.

  19. Development of Alarm System link Drawing for Operation Support for APR1400 Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.

  20. Optimal guaranteed cost control for fuzzy descriptor systems with time-varying delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Weihua; Zhang Huaguang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the delay-independent rule, the problem of optimal guaranteed cost control for a class of Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy descriptor systems with time-varying delay is studied. A linear quadratic cost function is considered as the performance index of the closed-loop system. Sufficient conditions for the existence of guaranteed cost controllers via state feedback are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the design of an optimal guaranteed cost controller can be reduced to a convex optimization problem. It is shown that the designed controller not only guarantees the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop fuzzy descriptor delay system, but also provides an optimized upper bound of the guaranteed cost. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the perfect performance of the optimal guaranteed cost controller.

  1. A Mixed-Reality Environment for Digital Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Dietrich Wuttke

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning the design of control systems requires not only deep theoretical but also practical experience that can be get in laboratory work. Goal of the projects “JGIFT” and “FIPS” - created by members of the Institute of Theoretical and Technical Computer Science of the Technical University of Ilmenau - is to examine and implement new techniques for a development and training system based on Finite State Machines (FSM. In our contribution we would like to present means and methods required for providing this tool set web wide for a large user base and independent from the operating system.

  2. Modeling of a Multiple Digital Automatic Gain Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingdian; LU Xiuhong; ZHANG Li

    2008-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) has been used in many applications. The key features of AGC, including a steady state output and static/dynamic timing response, depend mainly on key parameters such as the reference and the filter coefficients. A simple model developed to describe AGC systems based on several simple assumptions shows that AGC always converges to the reference and that the timing constant depends on the filter coefficients. Measures are given to prevent oscillations and limit cycle effects. The simple AGC system is adapted to a multiple AGC system for a TV tuner in a much more efficient model. Simulations using the C language are 16 times faster than those with MATLAB, and 10 times faster than those with a mixed register transfer level (RTL)-simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) model.

  3. Mixed H2/H∞ Optimal Guaranteed Cost Control of Uncertain Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuodingChen; MayingYang; LiYu

    2004-01-01

    The mixed H2/H∞ guaranteed cost control problem via state feedback control laws is considered in this paper for linear systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainty. Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of guaranteed cost controllers whihc guarantee not only a prespecified H∞ disturbance attenuation level on one controlled output for all admissible parameter uncertainties, but also the worst-case H2 performance index on the other controlled output to be no more than a specified bound. Furthermore, a convex optimization problem is formulated to design an optimal H2/H∞ guaranteed cost controller.

  4. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is China's leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world's largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs.The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35-84 y over 2015-2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015 were considered cost-effective. Treating hypertensive adults with prior

  5. Welfare cost of childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    the Danish Civil Registration System. Welfare costs included outpatient services, inpatient admissions, and emergency room visits based on the Danish National Patient Registry and information from the primary health-care sector based on data from the Danish Ministry of Health. This allowed the total health-care...... cost of epilepsy to be estimated. The use and costs of drugs were based on data from the Danish Medicines Agency. The frequencies of visits to outpatient clinics and hospitalizations and costs from primary sectors were based on data obtained from the National Patient Registry. RESULTS: Children...... with epilepsy had higher welfare costs than controls. The highest cost was found one year after diagnosis, with higher costs up to 10years after diagnosis compared with controls. Children aged 0-5years incurred greater health-care costs than those aged 6-20years. CONCLUSION: Epilepsy has major socioeconomic...

  6. Real-Time Discrete Adaptive Control of Robot Arm Based on Digital Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A discrete model reference adaptive controller of robot arm is obtained by integrating the reduced dynamic model of robot, model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and digital signal processing (DSP) computer system into an electromechanical system. With the DSP computer system, the control signal of each joint of the robot arm can be processed in real time and independently. The simulation and experiment results show that with the control strategy, the robot achieved a good trajectory following precision, a good decoupling performance and a high real-time adaptivity.

  7. Simulink-aided Design and Implementation of Sensorless BLDC Motor Digital Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A. A.; Tsvetkov, Y. N.; Chistov, V. B.; Nyrkov, A. P.; Sokolov, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the process of creating of brushless direct current motor’s digital control system. The target motor has no speed sensor, so back-EMF method is used for commutation control. Authors show how to model the control system in MatLab/Simulink and to test it onboard STM32F4 microcontroller.This technology allows to create the most flexible system, which will control possible with a personal computer by communication lines. It is possible to examine the signals in the circuit of the actuator without any external measuring instruments - testers, oscilloscopes, etc. - and output waveforms and measured values of signals directly on the host PC.

  8. Simulation of Digital Control Computer of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue Yan; Li, Shu; Li, Qing [China Nuclear Power Operation Technology Co., Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Based on analyzing DCC (Digital Control Computer) instruction sets, memory map, display controllers and I/O system, virtual machine of DCC (abbr. VM DCC) has been developed. The executive and control programs, same as running on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) unit's DCC, can run on the VM DCC smoothly and get same control results. Dual VM DCC system has been successfully applied in NPP FSS(Full Scope Simulator) training. It not only improves FSS's fidelity but also makes maintaining easier.

  9. Control of a PWM Rectifier with Extended Functions in a Signal Digital Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Núñez–Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the application of a digital signal processor (DSP for the control of a three–phase PWM rectifier for industrial applications, to which are extended their functions to have capacity to compensate voltage sags. The study stands out the advantages that the DSP offers to control, based on the system transformation from fix reference frame to synchronous reference frame (D–Q theory and classical controllers. The analysis of the system is presented, as well as simulation and experimental results to validate the operation of the DSP as system element controller.

  10. Digital command and control (C2) in electromagnetic battlespace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ekrem

    2013-06-01

    Military operations are executed in an increasingly complex electromagnetic environment. Over the last decade, All nations focused on improving their signal intelligence capabilities which has significantly improved intelligence support to EW. Today, there are many evolving facets of electromagnetic battlespace that include not only Electronic Attack (EA) but also improved situational awareness via information sharing and optimal positioning of Electronic Support (ES) systems.The aim is to use EW resources more intelligently in the battlespace and, by extension, improve their effectiveness. Another benefit is to provide tactical commanders with a timelier and accurate Common Operational Picture (COP) of the electromagnetic battlespace. In this study, the importance of controlling EM spectrum will be explained. The platforms and weapon systems which are used and being planned to use in the future for EM environment will be expressed. The main purpose is to help the planners who will execute the EW plan regarding to EM spectrum. The alghoritma can give planners to dynamic COP with effected sectors from enemy's EA platforms and systems. So that, planners can transmit it to friendly platforms at the same time. In addition, they can get the all needed informations related to enemy. In this way planners can easily send a message to friendly EA platforms to change the sector in order to affect the enemy. For all these reasons, it should have authority to give an order to friendly platforms about changing sector and frequency as well.

  11. Analysis, design, and experimental evaluation of power calculation in digital droop-controlled parallel microgrid inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ming-zhi; Chen, Min; Jin, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Parallel operation of distributed generation is an important topic for microgrids, which can provide a highly reliable electric supply service and good power quality to end customers when the utility is unavailable. However, there is a well-known limitation: the power sharing accuracy between...... distributed generators in a parallel operation. Frequency and voltage droop is a well-established control method for improving power sharing performance. In this method, the active and reactive power calculations are used to adjust the frequency and amplitude of the output voltage. This paper describes...... the digital implementation of a droop method, and analyzes the influence of power calculation on droop method performance. According to the analysis, the performance of droop control in a digital control system is limited by the accuracy and speed of the power calculation method. We propose an improved power...

  12. Multiple-function multi-input/multi-output digital control and on-line analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.

    1992-01-01

    The design and capabilities of two digital controller systems for aeroelastic wind-tunnel models are described. The first allowed control of flutter while performing roll maneuvers with wing load control as well as coordinating the acquisition, storage, and transfer of data for on-line analysis. This system, which employs several digital signal multi-processor (DSP) boards programmed in high-level software languages, is housed in a SUN Workstation environment. A second DCS provides a measure of wind-tunnel safety by functioning as a trip system during testing in the case of high model dynamic response or in case the first DCS fails. The second DCS uses National Instruments LabVIEW Software and Hardware within a Macintosh environment.

  13. A reconstructed digit by transplantation of a second toe for control of an electromechanical prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong Wei; Hu, Tian Pei

    2002-01-01

    The treatment options for the loss of an entire human hand and part of the forearm are currently limited to the transplantation of toe(s) to the amputation stump or a Krukenberg's bifurcation hand, and using a cosmetic or functional prosthesis. The functional prosthetic hand, such as the prevailing myoelectrically controlled prosthetic hand, has an action accuracy that is affected by many factors. The acceptance rate of the three planes freedom myoelectronic hand by the patients was 46-90% because of poor function caused by the weakness of signal and strong external interference. In this report, the left second toe was transplanted to the patient's forearm amputation stump. Mandates from the brain are relayed by the action of this reconstructed digit, to control a special designed multidimension freedom electronic prosthetic hand. After rehabilitation and adaptation training, the correct recognition rate of the electronic prosthetic hand controlled by this reconstructed digit is a remarkable 100%.

  14. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  15. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million, respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million, $23 million (Rs 1,230 million and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million, respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  16. Digital station control technology with system bus in RWE's transmission network; Digitale Stationsleittechnik mit Systembus im RWE-Transportnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, Kai [Siemens Energy Automation, Dortmund (Germany). RWE Transportnetzprojekte; Friedrich, Wolfgang [Helmut Mauell GmbH, Velbert (Germany); Krueger, Roland; Ruemenapp, Peter [RWE Westfalen Weser Ems Netzservice GmbH (Germany). Bereich Grundsatzplanung Sekundaertechnik

    2009-10-15

    As early as the 1990s RWE began equipping its transmission network stations with digital station control technology, this involving control station linkage and a proprietary station bus. Ten years later, however, a market analysis taking account of the costs and the technical possibilities found that the use of a standardised RWE-profile station bus in accordance with 60870-5-104 offers substantial advantages. Integration tests followed to determine how this might be implemented. The experiences gained in these tests will go into the development of a migration concept for the introduction of IEC 61850 in transmission network stations.

  17. Digital redesign of the control system for the Robotics Research Corporation model K-1607 robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The analog control system for positioning each link of the Robotics Research Corporation Model K-1607 robot manipulator was redesigned for computer control. In order to accomplish the redesign, a linearized model of the dynamic behavior of the robot was developed. The parameters of the model were determined by examination of the input-output data collected in closed-loop operation of the analog control system. The robot manipulator possesses seven degrees of freedom in its motion. The analog control system installed by the manufacturer of the robot attempts to control the positioning of each link without feedback from other links. Constraints on the design of a digital control system include: the robot cannot be disassembled for measurement of parameters; the digital control system must not include filtering operations if possible, because of lack of computer capability; and criteria of goodness of control system performing is lacking. The resulting design employs sampled-data position and velocity feedback. The criteria of the design permits the control system gain margin and phase margin, measured at the same frequencies, to be the same as that provided by the analog control system.

  18. H2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Colmenares

    2000-01-01

    guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  19. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  20. Study of modeling and simulation of full digital controlled PMIG/MAG welding system based on Matlab/Simulink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟明; 刘嘉; 苏建中; 殷树言; 马德

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated simulation model for full digital controlled PMIG/MAG welding system with Matlab/Simulink, and it consists of power inverter, digital control system and dynamic arc-load model. An integrated simulation study was done for full digital PMIG/MAG welding, and a method of connecting dynamic arc-load model to the system with controlled current source was presented, in addition, the simulation results were utilized to study the issues of digital control PMIG/MAG welding in this paper. The experimental results validated the developed simulation model, and this simulation study can be applied in implementation of the full digital PMIG/MAG welding and analysis of system dynamic process.