An improved SPH scheme for cosmological simulations
Beck, A. M.; Murante, G.; Arth, A.; Remus, R.-S.; Teklu, A. F.; Donnert, J. M. F.; Planelles, S.; Beck, M. C.; Förster, P.; Imgrund, M.; Dolag, K.; Borgani, S.
2016-01-01
We present an implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with improved accuracy for simulations of galaxies and the large-scale structure. In particular, we implement and test a vast majority of SPH improvement in the developer version of GADGET-3. We use the Wendland kernel functions, a particle wake-up time-step limiting mechanism and a time-dependent scheme for artificial viscosity including high-order gradient computation and shear flow limiter. Additionally, we include a novel prescription for time-dependent artificial conduction, which corrects for gravitationally induced pressure gradients and improves the SPH performance in capturing the development of gas-dynamical instabilities. We extensively test our new implementation in a wide range of hydrodynamical standard tests including weak and strong shocks as well as shear flows, turbulent spectra, gas mixing, hydrostatic equilibria and self-gravitating gas clouds. We jointly employ all modifications; however, when necessary we study the performance of individual code modules. We approximate hydrodynamical states more accurately and with significantly less noise than standard GADGET-SPH. Furthermore, the new implementation promotes the mixing of entropy between different fluid phases, also within cosmological simulations. Finally, we study the performance of the hydrodynamical solver in the context of radiative galaxy formation and non-radiative galaxy cluster formation. We find galactic discs to be colder and more extended and galaxy clusters showing entropy cores instead of steadily declining entropy profiles. In summary, we demonstrate that our improved SPH implementation overcomes most of the undesirable limitations of standard GADGET-SPH, thus becoming the core of an efficient code for large cosmological simulations.
Cosmological simulations with TreeSPH
Katz, N; Hernquist, L E; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H; Hernquist, Lars
1995-01-01
We describe numerical methods for incorporating gas dynamics into cosmological simulations and present illustrative applications to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Our evolution code, a version of TreeSPH (Hernquist \\& Katz 1989) generalized to handle comoving coordinates and periodic boundary conditions, combines smoothed--particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with the hierarchical tree method for computing gravitational forces. The Lagrangian hydrodynamics approach and individual time steps for gas particles give the algorithm a large dynamic range, which is essential for studies of galaxy formation in a cosmological context. The code incorporates radiative cooling for an optically thin, primordial composition gas in ionization equilibrium with a user-specified ultraviolet background. We adopt a phenomenological prescription for star formation that gradually turns cold, dense, Jeans-unstable gas into collisionless stars, returning supernova feedback energy to the surrounding medium. In CDM simulations, some...
An improved SPH scheme for cosmological simulations
Beck, A M; Arth, A; Remus, R -S; Teklu, A F; Donnert, J M F; Planelles, S; Beck, M C; Foerster, P; Imgrund, M; Dolag, K; Borgani, S
2015-01-01
We present an implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with improved accuracy for simulations of galaxies and the large-scale structure. In particular, we combine, implement, modify and test a vast majority of SPH improvement techniques in the latest instalment of the GADGET code. We use the Wendland kernel functions, a particle wake-up time-step limiting mechanism and a time-dependent scheme for artificial viscosity, which includes a high-order gradient computation and shear flow limiter. Additionally, we include a novel prescription for time-dependent artificial conduction, which corrects for gravitationally induced pressure gradients and largely improves the SPH performance in capturing the development of gas-dynamical instabilities. We extensively test our new implementation in a wide range of hydrodynamical standard tests including weak and strong shocks as well as shear flows, turbulent spectra, gas mixing, hydrostatic equilibria and self-gravitating gas clouds. We jointly employ all modi...
Thermal conduction in cosmological SPH simulations
Jubelgas, M; Dolag, K
2004-01-01
Thermal conduction in the intracluster medium has been proposed as a possible heating mechanism for offsetting central cooling losses in rich clusters of galaxies. In this study, we introduce a new formalism to model conduction in a diffuse ionised plasma using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and we implement it in the parallel TreePM/SPH-code GADGET-2. We consider only isotropic conduction and assume that magnetic suppression can be described in terms of an effective conductivity, taken as a fixed fraction of the temperature-dependent Spitzer rate. We also account for saturation effects in low-density gas. Our formulation manifestly conserves thermal energy even for individual and adaptive timesteps, and is stable in the presence of small-scale temperature noise. This allows us to evolve the thermal diffusion equation with an explicit time integration scheme along with the ordinary hydrodynamics. We use a series of simple test problems to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our method. We then ...
Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological SPH simulations
Thompson, Robert; Jaacks, Jason; Choi, Jun-Hwan
2013-01-01
It has been shown observationally that star formation (SF) correlates tightly with the presence of molecular hydrogen (H2). Therefore it would be important to investigate its implication on galaxy formation in a cosmological context. In the present work, we track the H2 mass fraction within our cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3 using an equilibrium analytic model by Krumholz et al. This model allows us to regulate the star formation in our simulation by the local abundance of H2 rather than the total cold gas density, and naturally introduce the dependence of star formation on metallicity. We investigate implications of the equilibrium H2-based SF model on galaxy population properties, such as the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), baryon fraction, cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD), galaxy specific SFR, galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF), and Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship. The advantage of our work over the previous ones is having a large sample of simulated gala...
Mergers and star formation in SPH cosmological simulations
Tissera, P B
1999-01-01
The star formation rate history of galactic objects in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are analyzed in relation to their merger histories. The findings suggest that massive mergers produce more efficient starbursts and that, depending on the internal structure of the objects, double starbursts could also occur.
Merlin, Emiliano; Buonomo, Umberto; Grassi, Tommaso; Piovan, Lorenzo; Chiosi, Cesare
2009-01-01
We present EvoL, the new release of the Padova N-body code for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, the basic Tree + SPH code is presented and analysed, together with an overview on the software architectures. EvoL is a flexible parallel Fortran95 code, specifically designed for simulations of cosmological structure formation on cluster, galactic and sub-galactic scales. EvoL is a fully Lagrangian self-adaptive code, based on the classical Oct-tree and on...
Merlin, Emiliano; Grassi, Tommaso; Piovan, Lorenzo; Chiosi, Cesare
2009-01-01
We present EvoL, the new release of the Padova N-body code for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, the basic Tree + SPH code is presented and analysed, together with an overview on the software architectures. EvoL is a flexible parallel Fortran95 code, specifically designed for simulations of cosmological structure formation on cluster, galactic and sub-galactic scales. EvoL is a fully Lagrangian self-adaptive code, based on the classical Oct-tree and on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics algorithm. It includes special features such as adaptive softening lengths with correcting extra-terms, and modern formulations of SPH and artificial viscosity. It is designed to be run in parallel on multiple CPUs to optimize the performance and save computational time. We describe the code in detail, and present the results of a number of standard hydrodynamical tests.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velonà, A. D Romeo; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.;
2013-01-01
We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star......-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided...... groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M * plane...
Chemical evolution using SPH cosmological simulations. I implementation, tests and first results
Mosconi, M B; Lambas, D G; Cora, S A
2000-01-01
We develop a model to implement metal enrichment in a cosmological context based on the hydrodynamical AP3MSPH code described by Tissera, Lambas and Abadi (1997). The star formation model is based on the Schmidt law and has been modified in order to describe the transformation of gas into stars in more detail. The enrichment of the interstellar medium due to supernovae I and II explosions is taken into account by assuming a Salpeter Initial Mass Function and different nucleosynthesis models.The different chemical elements are mixed within the gaseous medium according to the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics technique.We have performed cosmological simulations in a standard Cold Dark Matter scenario and we present results of the analysis of the star formation and chemical properties of the interstellar medium and stellar population of the simulated galactic objects. We have compared the results of the simulations with an implementation of the one-zone Simple Model, finding significant differences in the global met...
SPH Simulation of Hypervelocity Impacts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李金柱; 张庆明; 龙仁容
2004-01-01
The smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is a very important tool to resolve hypervelocity problems. The basic principle of SPH method and how to generate a proper SPH mesh is described. The results of SPH simulations of hypervelocity impacts on thin or thick aluminum plates, performed by using the LS-DYNA 3D computer code, are also reported. The forming process and composition of the debris clouds simulated are identical with the experiment results. It can be concluded that the simulation is reasonable and SPH method is an ideal method for hypervelocity impact simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romeo Velona, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sommer-Larsen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Antonuccio-Delogu, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, v. S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cielo, S., E-mail: aro@oact.inaf.it [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-06-20
We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M{sub *} plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜春艳
2012-01-01
The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation is a powerful tool in studying galaxy formation and evolution. In this review, standard formulation of SPH is summarized. And then the implementation of baryonic physics in cosmological SPH simulations are illustrated, including star formation, galactic wind feedback, AGN feedback, and thermal conduction. uring the past years, much progress has been made on improving the physical modeling in hydro dynamical simulations, by nvoking more sophisticated treatments of star formation, supernovae feedback, AGN feedback and so on. The implementation of these baryonic physics in SPH simulations has helped us a lot in understanding how galaxies form and evolve in the universe. However, due to our limited knowledge of these baryonic physics, these models, are still far from being perfect. Many further studies are therefore needed in future to improve these physical modeling in simulations.%平滑流体动力学(SPH)数值模拟是我们研究星系形成与演化的一个重要工具.先介绍了SPH的基本原理和基本方程,然后以恒星形成、星系风反馈、AGN反馈和热传导为例,介绍了平滑流体动力学数值模拟中的重子物理及实施方法.这些模型在一定程度上都取得了成功,对更好地理解星系的形成和演化起到了促进作用.
SPH simulations of high-speed collisions
Rozehnal, Jakub; Broz, Miroslav
2016-10-01
Our work is devoted to a comparison of: i) asteroid-asteroid collisions occurring at lower velocities (about 5 km/s in the Main Belt), and ii) mutual collisions of asteroids and cometary nuclei usually occurring at significantly higher relative velocities (> 10 km/s).We focus on differences in the propagation of the shock wave, ejection of the fragments and possible differences in the resultingsize-frequency distributions of synthetic asteroid families. We also discuss scaling with respect to the "nominal" target diameter D = 100 km, projectile velocity 3-7 km/s, for which a number of simulations were done so far (Durda et al. 2007, Benavidez et al. 2012).In the latter case of asteroid-comet collisions, we simulate the impacts of brittle or pre-damaged impactors onto solid monolithic targets at high velocities, ranging from 10 to 15 km/s. The purpose of this numerical experiment is to better understand impact processes shaping the early Solar System, namely the primordial asteroid belt during during the (late) heavy bombardment (as a continuation of Broz et al. 2013).For all hydrodynamical simulations we use a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics method (SPH), namely the lagrangian SPH3D code (Benz & Asphaug 1994, 1995). The gravitational interactions between fragments (re-accumulation) is simulated with the Pkdgrav tree-code (Richardson et al. 2000).
Terapixel imaging of cosmological simulations
Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Khandai, Nishikanta; Sargent, Randy; Nourbakhsh, Illah; Dille, Paul; Bartley, Chris; Springel, Volker; Jana, Anirban; Gardner, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
The increasing size of cosmological simulations has led to the need for new visualization techniques. We focus on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamical (SPH) simulations run with the GADGET code and describe methods for visually accessing the entire simulation at full resolution. The simulation snapshots are rastered and processed on supercomputers into images that are ready to be accessed through a web interface (GigaPan). This allows any scientist with a web-browser to interactively explore simulation datasets in both in spatial and temporal dimensions, datasets which in their native format can be hundreds of terabytes in size or more. We present two examples, the first a static terapixel image of the MassiveBlack simulation, a P-GADGET SPH simulation with 65 billion particles, and the second an interactively zoomable animation of a different simulation with more than one thousand frames, each a gigapixel in size. Both are available for public access through the GigaPan web interface. We also make our imaging so...
The structure of the ICM from High Resolution SPH simulations
Yepes, G; Sevilla, R; Gottlöber, S; Müller, V
2004-01-01
We present results from a set of high (512^3 effective resolution), and ultra-high (1024^3) SPH adiabatic cosmological simulations of cluster formation aimed at studying the internal structure of the intracluster medium (ICM). We derive a self-consistent analytical model of the structure of the intracluster medium (ICM). We discuss the radial structure and scaling relations expected from purely gravitational collapse, and show that the choice of a particular halo model can have important consequences on the interpretation of observational data. The validity of the approximations of hydrostatic equilibrium and a polytropic equation of state are checked against results of our simulations. The properties of the ICM are fully specified when a 'universal' profile is assumed for either the dark or the baryonic component. We also show the first results from an unprecedented large-scale simulation of 500 Mpc/h and 2 times 512^3 gas and dark matter particles. This experiment will make possible a detailed study of the ...
Numerical simulation of lava flow using a GPU SPH model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenio Rustico
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method for lava-flow modeling was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA developed by NVIDIA. This resulted in speed-ups of up to two orders of magnitude. The three-dimensional model can simulate lava flow on a real topography with free-surface, non-Newtonian fluids, and with phase change. The entire SPH code has three main components, neighbor list construction, force computation, and integration of the equation of motion, and it is computed on the GPU, fully exploiting the computational power. The simulation speed achieved is one to two orders of magnitude faster than the equivalent central processing unit (CPU code. This GPU implementation of SPH allows high resolution SPH modeling in hours and days, rather than in weeks and months, on inexpensive and readily available hardware.
Numerical simulation of lava flow using a GPU SPH model
Eugenio Rustico; Annamaria Vicari; Giuseppe Bilotta; Alexis Hérault; Ciro Del Negro
2011-01-01
A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method for lava-flow modeling was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA. This resulted in speed-ups of up to two orders of magnitude. The three-dimensional model can simulate lava flow on a real topography with free-surface, non- Newtonian fluids, and with phase change. The entire SPH code has three main components, neighbor list construction, force computation, an...
Temperature Structure of the Intra-Cluster Medium from SPH and AMR simulations
Rasia, Elena; Borgani, Stefano; Nagai, Daisuke; Dolag, Klaus; Avestruz, Camille; Granato, Gian Luigi; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Murante, Giuseppe; Nelson, Kaylea; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia
2014-01-01
Analyses of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters suggest that X-ray masses can be underestimated by 10% to 30%. The largest bias originates by both violation of hydrostatic equilibrium and an additional temperature bias caused by inhomogeneities in the X-ray emitting intra-cluster medium (ICM). To elucidate on this large dispersion among theoretical predictions, we evaluate the degree of temperature structures in cluster sets simulated either with smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) and adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) codes. We find that the SPH simulations produce larger temperature variations connected to the persistence of both substructures and their stripped cold gas. This difference is more evident in no-radiative simulations, while it is reduced in the presence of radiative cooling. We also find that the temperature variation in radiative cluster simulations is generally in agreement with the observed one in the central regions of clusters. Around R_500 the temperature inhomogeneit...
Generating optimal initial conditions for smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We present a new optimal method to set up initial conditions for Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations, which may also be of interest for N-body simulations. This new method is based on weighted Voronoi tesselations (WVTs) and can meet arbitrarily complex spatial resolution requirements. We conduct a comprehensive review of existing SPH setup methods, and outline their advantages, limitations and drawbacks. A serial version of our WVT setup method is publicly available and we give detailed instruction on how to easily implement the new method on top of an existing parallel SPH code.
SPH Simulation of Ballistic Impact on Ceramic Plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chetan Swaroop
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the use of smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH numerical technique to simulate the impact, penetration and perforation of Ceramic plate (Al2O3-99.7% by Lead Round Nose (LRN projectile. The general discussion of the SPH solver is introduced first then AUTODYN 2D simulation of penetration and perforation of ceramic plate. The numerical prediction of the time history of velocity of bullet is investigated for a range of impact velocity between 400m/s to 800m/s and an empirical relation is derived between impact velocity and residual velocity. For this type of problem, the SPH approach can provide significant advantages over more traditional numerical methods.
Fragment Identification and Statistics Method of Hypervelocity Impact SPH Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiaotian; JIA Guanghui; HUANG Hai
2011-01-01
A comprehensive treatment to the fragment identification and statistics for the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation of hypervelocity impact is presented.Based on SPH method, combined with finite element method (FEM), the computation is performed.The fragments are identified by a new pre- and post-processing algorithm and then converted into a binary graph.The number of fragments and the attached SPH particles are determined by counting the quantity of connected domains on the binary graph.The size, velocity vector and mass of each fragment are calculated by the particles' summation and weighted average.The dependence of this method on finite element edge length and simulation terminal time is discussed.An example of tungsten rods impacting steel plates is given for calibration.The computation results match experiments well and demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.
Resolving high Reynolds numbers in SPH simulations of subsonic turbulence
Price, Daniel J
2011-01-01
Accounting for the Reynolds number is critical in numerical simulations of turbulence, particularly for subsonic flow. For Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) with constant artificial viscosity coefficient alpha, it is shown that the effective Reynolds number in the absence of explicit physical viscosity terms scales linearly with the Mach number - compared to mesh schemes, where the effective Reynolds number is largely independent of the flow velocity. As a result, SPH simulations with alpha=1 will have low Reynolds numbers in the subsonic regime compared to mesh codes, which may be insufficient to resolve turbulent flow. This explains the failure of Bauer and Springel (2011, arXiv:1109.4413v1) to find agreement between the moving-mesh code AREPO and the GADGET SPH code on simulations of driven, subsonic (v ~ 0.3 c_s) turbulence appropriate to the intergalactic/intracluster medium, where it was alleged that SPH is somehow fundamentally incapable of producing a Kolmogorov-like turbulent cascade. We show tha...
SPH-based simulation of multi-material asteroid collisions
Maindl, Thomas I; Speith, Roland; Süli, Áron; Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Dvorak, Rudolf
2013-01-01
We give a brief introduction to smoothed particle hydrodynamics methods for continuum mechanics. Specifically, we present our 3D SPH code to simulate and analyze collisions of asteroids consisting of two types of material: basaltic rock and ice. We consider effects like brittle failure, fragmentation, and merging in different impact scenarios. After validating our code against previously published results we present first collision results based on measured values for the Weibull flaw distribution parameters of basalt.
SPH simulations of structures in protoplanetary disks
Demidova, T. V.; Grinin, V. P.
2017-02-01
Using the GADGET-2 code modified by us, we have computed hydrodynamic models of a protoplanetary disk perturbed by a low-mass companion. We have considered the cases of circular and eccentric orbits coplanar with the disk and inclined relative to its midplane. During our simulations we computed the column density of test particles on the line of sight between the central star and observer. On this basis we computed the column density of circumstellar dust by assuming the dust and gas to be well mixed with a mass ratio of 1: 100. To study the influence of the disk orientation relative to the observer on the interstellar extinction, we performed our computations for four inclinations of the line of sight to the disk plane and eight azimuthal directions. The column densities in the circumstellar disk of the central star and the circumbinary disk were computed separately. Our computations have shown that periodic column density oscillations can arise in both inner and circumbinary disks. The amplitude and shape of these oscillations depend on the system's parameters (the orbital eccentricity and inclination, the component mass ratio) and its orientation in space. The results of our simulations can be used to explain the cyclic brightness variations of young UX Ori stars.
Study of galaxy cluster properties from high-resolution SPH simulations
Yepes, G; Gottlöber, S; Müller, V
2003-01-01
We present some of the results of an ongoing collaboration to sudy the dynamical properties of galaxy clusters by means of high resolution adiabatic SPH cosmological simulations. Results from our numerical clusters have been tested against analytical models often used in X-ray observations: $\\beta$ model (isothermal and polytropic) and those based on universal dark matter profiles. We find a universal temperature profile, in agreement with AMR gasdynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. Temperature decreases by a factor 2-3 from the center to virial radius. Therefore, isothermal models (e.g. $\\beta$ model) give a very poor fit to simulated data. Moreover, gas entropy profiles deviate from a power law near the center, which is also in very good agreement with independent AMR simulations. Thus, if future X-ray observations confirm that gas in clusters has an extended isothermal core, then non-adiabatic physics would be required in order to explain it.
The cosmological simulation code GADGET-2
Springel, V
2005-01-01
We discuss the cosmological simulation code GADGET-2, a new massively parallel TreeSPH code, capable of following a collisionless fluid with the N-body method, and an ideal gas by means of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Our implementation of SPH manifestly conserves energy and entropy in regions free of dissipation, while allowing for fully adaptive smoothing lengths. Gravitational forces are computed with a hierarchical multipole expansion, which can optionally be applied in the form of a TreePM algorithm, where only short-range forces are computed with the `tree'-method while long-range forces are determined with Fourier techniques. Time integration is based on a quasi-symplectic scheme where long-range and short-range forces can be integrated with different timesteps. Individual and adaptive short-range timesteps may also be employed. The domain decomposition used in the parallelisation algorithm is based on a space-filling curve, resulting in high flexibility and tree force errors that do not depe...
An improved sink particle algorithm for SPH simulations
Hubber, D. A.; Walch, S.; Whitworth, A. P.
2013-04-01
Numerical simulations of star formation frequently rely on the implementation of sink particles: (a) to avoid expending computational resource on the detailed internal physics of individual collapsing protostars, (b) to derive mass functions, binary statistics and clustering kinematics (and hence to make comparisons with observation), and (c) to model radiative and mechanical feedback; sink particles are also used in other contexts, for example to represent accreting black holes in galactic nuclei. We present a new algorithm for creating and evolving sink particles in smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations, which appears to represent a significant improvement over existing algorithms - particularly in situations where sinks are introduced after the gas has become optically thick to its own cooling radiation and started to heat up by adiabatic compression. (i) It avoids spurious creation of sinks. (ii) It regulates the accretion of matter on to a sink so as to mitigate non-physical perturbations in the vicinity of the sink. (iii) Sinks accrete matter, but the associated angular momentum is transferred back to the surrounding medium. With the new algorithm - and modulo the need to invoke sufficient resolution to capture the physics preceding sink formation - the properties of sinks formed in simulations are essentially independent of the user-defined parameters of sink creation, or the number of SPH particles used.
Computational Simulation of Hypervelocity Penetration Using Adaptive SPH Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIANG Hongfu; MENG Lijun
2006-01-01
The normal hypervelocity impact of an Al-thin plate by an Al-sphere was numerically simulated by using the adaptive smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ASPH) method.In this method,the isotropic smoothing algorithm of standard SPH is replaced with anisotropic smoothing involving ellipsoidal kernels whose axes evolve automatically to follow the mean particle spacing as it varies in time,space,and direction around each particle.Using the ASPH,the anisotropic volume changes under strong shock condition are captured more accurately and clearly.The sophisticated features of meshless and Lagrangian nature inherent in the SPH method are kept for treating large deformations,large inhomogeneities and tracing free surfaces in the extremely transient impact process.A two-dimensional ASPH program is coded with C + +.The developed hydrocode is examined for example problems of hypervelocity impacts of solid materials.The results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with available experimental ones.Good agreement is observed.
Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach
Jachym, P; Köppen, J; Combes, F
2007-01-01
The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Our investigations emphasize the r...
An improved sink particle algorithm for SPH simulations
Hubber, D A; Whitworth, A P
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations of star formation frequently rely on the implementation of sink particles, (a) to avoid expending computational resource on the detailed internal physics of individual collapsing protostars, (b) to derive mass functions, binary statistics and clustering kinematics (and hence to make comparisons with observation), and (c) to model radiative and mechanical feedback; sink particles are also used in other contexts, for example to represent accreting black holes in galactic nuclei. We present a new algorithm for creating and evolving sink particles in SPH simulations, which appears to represent a significant improvement over existing algorithms {\\refrpt -- particularly in situations where sinks are introduced after the gas has become optically thick to its own cooling radiation and started to heat up by adiabatic compression}. (i) It avoids spurious creation of sinks. (ii) It regulates the accretion of matter onto a sink so as to mitigate non-physical perturbations in the vicinity of the sink...
Cosmological simulations using GCMHD+
Barnes, David J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Kinwah
2012-03-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that the intracluster medium is permeated by ? magnetic fields. The origin and evolution of these cosmological magnetic fields is currently not well understood, and so their impact on the dynamics of structure formation is not known. Numerical simulations are required to gain a greater understanding and produce predictions for the next generation of radio telescopes. We present the galactic chemodynamics smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) code (GCMHD+), which is an MHD implementation for the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GCD+. The results of 1D, 2D and 3D tests are presented and the performance of the code is shown relative to the ATHENA grid code. GCMHD+ shows good agreement with the reference solutions produced by ATHENA. The code is then used to simulate the formation of a galaxy cluster with a simple primordial magnetic field embedded in the gas. A homogeneous seed field of 3.5 × 10-11 G is amplified by a factor of 103 during the formation of the cluster. The results show good agreement with the profiles found in other magnetic cluster simulations of similar resolution.
SPH numerical simulation of fluid flow through a porous media
Klapp-Escribano, Jaime; Mayoral-Villa, Estela; Rodriguez-Meza, Mario Alberto; de La Cruz-Sanchez, Eduardo; di G Sigalotti, Leonardo; Inin-Abacus Collaboration; Ivic Collaboration
2013-11-01
We have tested an improved a method for 3D SPH simulations of fluid flow through a porous media using an implementation of this method with the Dual-Physics code. This improvement makes it possible to simulate many particles (of the order of several million) in reasonable computer times because its execution on GPUs processors makes it possible to reduce considerably the simulation cost for large systems. Modifications in the initial configuration have been implemented in order to simulate different arrays and geometries for the porous media. The basic tests were reproduced and the performance was analyzed. Our 3D simulations of fluid flow through a saturated homogeneous porous media shows a discharge velocity proportional to the hydraulic gradient reproducing Darcy's law at small body forces. The results are comparable with values obtained in previous work and published in the literature for simulations of flow through periodic porous media. Our simulations for a non saturated porous media produce adequate qualitative results showing that a non steady state is generated. The relaxation time for these systems were obtained. Work partially supported by Cinvestav-ABACUS, CONACyT grant EDOMEX-2011-C01-165873.
Cosmological Simulations using GCMHD+
Barnes, David J; Wu, Kinwah
2011-01-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that the intra cluster medium is permeated by \\mu G magnetic fields. The origin and evolution of these cosmological magnetic fields is currently not well understood and so their impact on the dynamics of structure formation is not known. Numerical simulations are required to gain a greater understanding and produce predictions for the next generation of radio telescopes. We present the galactic chemodynamics smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) code (GCMHD+), which is an MHD implementation for the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamic code GCD+. The results of 1, 2 and 3 dimensional tests are presented and the performance of the code is shown relative to the ATHENA grid code. GCMHD+ shows good agreement with the reference solutions produced by ATHENA. The code is then used to simulate the formation of a galaxy cluster with a simple primordial magnetic field embedded in the gas. A homogeneous seed field of 10^-11 G is amplified by a factor of 10^3 durin...
Synthetic Observations of the HI Line in SPH-Simulated Spiral Galaxies
Douglas, Kevin A.; Acreman, David; Dobbs, Clare; Brunt, Chris
2009-01-01
Using the radiative transfer code Torus, we produce spectral-line cubes of the predicted HI profile from global SPH simulations of spiral galaxies. Torus grids the SPH galaxy using Adaptive Mesh Refinement, then applies a ray-tracing method to infer the HI profile along the line(s) of sight. The gri
Consistent SPH Simulations of Protostellar Collapse and Fragmentation
Gabbasov, Ruslan; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Cruz, Fidel; Klapp, Jaime; Ramírez-Velasquez, José M.
2017-02-01
We study the consistency and convergence of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) as a function of the interpolation parameters, namely the number of particles N, the number of neighbors n, and the smoothing length h, using simulations of the collapse and fragmentation of protostellar rotating cores. The calculations are made using a modified version of the GADGET-2 code that employs an improved scheme for the artificial viscosity and power-law dependences of n and h on N, as was recently proposed by Zhu et al., which comply with the combined limit N\\to ∞ , h\\to 0, and n\\to ∞ with n/N\\to 0 for full SPH consistency as the domain resolution is increased. We apply this realization to the “standard isothermal test case” in the variant calculated by Burkert & Bodenheimer and the Gaussian cloud model of Boss to investigate the response of the method to adaptive smoothing lengths in the presence of large density and pressure gradients. The degree of consistency is measured by tracking how well the estimates of the consistency integral relations reproduce their continuous counterparts. In particular, C 0 and C 1 particle consistency is demonstrated, meaning that the calculations are close to second-order accuracy. As long as n is increased with N, mass resolution also improves as the minimum resolvable mass {M}\\min ∼ {n}-1. This aspect allows proper calculation of small-scale structures in the flow associated with the formation and instability of protostellar disks around the growing fragments, which are seen to develop a spiral structure and fragment into close binary/multiple systems as supported by recent observations.
Splotch: Visualizing Cosmological Simulations
Dolag, K; Gheller, C; Imboden, S
2008-01-01
We present a light and fast, public available, ray-tracer {\\tt Splotch} software tool which supports the effective visualization of cosmological simulations data. We describe the algorithm it relies on, which is designed in order to deal with point-like data, optimizing the ray-tracing calculation by ordering the particles as a function of their ``depth'' defined as a function of one of the coordinates or other associated parameter. Realistic three-dimensional impressions are reached through a composition of the final color in each pixel properly calculating emission and absorption of individual volume elements. We describe several scientific as well as public applications realized with {\\tt Splotch}. We emphasize how different datasets and configurations lead to remarkable different results in terms of the images and animations. A few of these results are available online.
Testing the accuracy of radiative cooling approximations in SPH simulations
Wilkins, Daniel R
2011-01-01
Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation have stimulated a need to develop fast and robust algorithms for evaluating radiative cooling. Here we undertake a critical evaluation of what is currently a popular method for prescribing cooling in SPH simulations, i.e. the polytropic cooling due originally to Stamatellos et al. This method uses the local density and potential to estimate the column density and optical depth to each particle and then uses these quantities to evaluate an approximate expression for the net radiative cooling. We evaluate the algorithm by considering both spherical and disc-like systems with analytic density and temperature structures. In spherical systems, the total cooling rate computed by the method is within around 20 for the astrophysically relevant case of opacity dominated by ice grains and is correct to within a factor of order unity for a range of opacity laws. In disc geometry, however, the method systematically under-estimates the cooling by a large factor at all heights i...
The formation of entropy cores in non-radiative galaxy cluster simulations: SPH versus AMR
Power, C; Hobbs, A
2013-01-01
Abridged: We simulate a massive galaxy cluster in a LCDM Universe using three different approaches to solving the equations of non-radiative hydrodynamics: `classic' Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH); a novel SPH with a higher order dissipation switch (SPHS); and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We find that SPHS and AMR are in excellent agreement, with both forming a well-defined entropy core that rapidly converges with increasing mass and force resolution. By contrast, SPH exhibits rather different behaviour. At low redshift, entropy decreases systematically with decreasing cluster-centric radius, converging on ever lower central values with increasing resolution. At higher redshift, SPH is in better agreement with SPHS and AMR but shows much poorer numerical convergence. We trace these discrepancies to artificial surface tension in SPH at phase boundaries. At early times, the passage of massive substructures close to the cluster centre stirs and shocks gas to build an entropy core. At later times, artif...
Testing Subhalo Abundance Matching in Cosmological Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations
Simha, Vimal; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D
2010-01-01
Subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) is a technique for populating simulated dark matter distributions with galaxies, assuming a monotonic relation between a galaxy's stellar mass or luminosity and the mass of its parent dark matter halo or subhalo. We examine the accuracy of SHAM in two cosmological SPH simulations, one of which includes momentum-driven winds. The SPH simulations indeed show a nearly monotonic relation between stellar mass and halo mass provided that, for satellite galaxies, we use the mass of the subhalo at the epoch when it became a satellite. In each simulation, the median relation for central and satellite galaxies is nearly identical, though a somewhat larger fraction of satellites are outliers. SHAM-assigned masses (at z=0-2), luminosities (R-band at z=0), or star formation rates (at z=2) have a 68% scatter of 0.09-0.15 dex relative to the true simulation values. When we apply SHAM to the subhalo population of collisionless N-body simulation with the same initial conditions as the SPH run...
A hybrid SPH/N-body method for star cluster simulations
Hubber, D A; Smith, R; Goodwin, S P
2013-01-01
We present a new hybrid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body method for modelling the collisional stellar dynamics of young clusters in a live gas background. By deriving the equations of motion from Lagrangian mechanics we obtain a formally conservative combined SPH/N-body scheme. The SPH gas particles are integrated with a 2nd order Leapfrog, and the stars with a 4th order Hermite scheme. Our new approach is intended to bridge the divide between the detailed, but expensive, full hydrodynamical simulations of star formation, and pure N-body simulations of gas-free star clusters. We have implemented this hybrid approach in the SPH code SEREN (Hubber et al. 2011) and perform a series of simple tests to demonstrate the fidelity of the algorithm and its conservation properties. We investigate and present resolution criteria to adequately resolve the density field and to prevent strong numerical scattering effects. Future developments will include a more sophisticated treatment of binaries.
K2_SPH Method and its Application for 2-D Water Wave Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhenhong Hu; Xing Zheng; Wenyang Duan; Qingwei Ma
2011-01-01
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics(SPH)is a Lagrangian meshless particle method.However,its low accuracy of kernel approximation when particles are distributed disorderly or located near the boundary is an obstacle standing in the way of its wide application.Adopting the Taylor series expansion method and solving the integral equation matrix,the second order kernel approximation method can be obtained,namely K2_SPH,which is discussed in this paper.This method is similar to the Finite Particle Method.With the improvement of kernel approximation,some numerical techniques should be adopted for different types of boundaries,such as a free surface boundary and solid boundary,which are two key numerical techniques of K2_SPH for water wave simulation.This paper gives some numerical results of two dimensional water wave simulations involving standing wave and sloshing tank problems by using K2_SPH.From the comparison of simulation results,the K2 SPH method is more reliable than standard SPH.
Gas cooling in semi-analytic models and SPH simulations: are results consistent?
Saro, A; Borgani, S; Dolag, K
2010-01-01
We present a detailed comparison between the galaxy populations within a massive cluster, as predicted by hydrodynamical SPH simulations and by a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. Both models include gas cooling and a simple prescription of star formation, which consists in transforming instantaneously any cold gas available into stars, while neglecting any source of energy feedback. We find that, in general, galaxy populations from SAMs and SPH have similar statistical properties, in agreement with previous studies. However, when comparing galaxies on an object-by-object basis, we find a number of interesting differences: a) the star formation histories of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from SAM and SPH models differ significantly, with the SPH BCG exhibiting a lower level of star formation activity at low redshift, and a more intense and shorter initial burst of star formation with respect to its SAM counterpart; b) while all stars associated with the BCG were formed in its progenitors i...
SPH Simulation of Acoustic Waves: Effects of Frequency, Sound Pressure, and Particle Spacing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. O. Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Acoustic problems consisting of multiphase systems or with deformable boundaries are difficult to describe using mesh-based methods, while the meshfree, Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method can handle such complicated problems. In this paper, after solving linearized acoustic equations with the standard SPH theory, the feasibility of the SPH method in simulating sound propagation in the time domain is validated. The effects of sound frequency, maximum sound pressure amplitude, and particle spacing on numerical error and time cost are then subsequently discussed based on the sound propagation simulation. The discussion based on a limited range of frequency and sound pressure demonstrates that the rising of sound frequency increases simulation error, and the increase is nonlinear, whereas the rising sound pressure has limited effects on the error. In addition, decreasing the particle spacing reduces the numerical error, while simultaneously increasing the CPU time. The trend of both changes is close to linear on a logarithmic scale.
Numerical simulation of wave impact on a rigid wall using a two--phase compressible SPH method
Rafiee, Ashkan; Dias, Frédéric
2013-01-01
In this paper, an SPH method based on the SPH--ALE formulation is used for modelling two-phase flows with large density ratios and realistic sound speeds. The SPH scheme is further improved to circumvent the tensile instability that may occur in the SPH simulations. The two-phase SPH solver is then used to model a benchmark problem of liquid impact on a rigid wall. The results are compared with an incompressible Level Set solver. Furthermore, a wave impact on a rigid wall with a large entrained air pocket is modelled. The SPH simulation is initialised by the output of a fully non-linear potential flow solver. The pressure distribution, velocity field and impact pressure are then analysed.
Biffi, Veronica
2014-01-01
We study the thermal structure of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in a set of cosmological hydrodynamical cluster simulations performed with an SPH numerical scheme employing an artificial conductivity (AC) term. We explore the effects of this term on the ICM temperature and entropy profiles, thermal distribution, velocity field and expected X-ray emission. We find that in adiabatic runs the artificial conductivity favours (i) the formation of an entropy core, raising and flattening the central entropy profiles, in better agreement with findings from Eulerian codes; and (ii) a systematic reduction of the cold gas component. In fact, the cluster large-scale structure and dynamical state are preserved across different runs, but the improved gas mixing enabled by the AC term strongly increases the stripping rate of gas from the cold clumps moving through the ICM. This in turn reduces the production of turbulence generated by the instabilities which develop because of the interaction between clumps and ambient ICM...
Cosmological Simulations using Grid Middleware
Caniou, Y; Depardon, B; Courtois, H; Teyssier, R
2006-01-01
One way to access the aggregated power of a collection of heterogeneous machines is to use a grid middleware, such as DIET, GridSolve or NINF. It addresses the problem of monitoring the resources, of handling the submissions of jobs and as an example the inherent transfer of input and output data, in place of the user. In this paper we present how to run cosmological simulations using the RAMSES application along with the DIET middleware. We will describe how to write the corresponding DIET client and server. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the DIET middleware. Section 3 describes the RAMSES cosmological software and simulations, and how to interface it with DIET. We show how to write a client and a server in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 presents the experiments realized on Grid'5000, the French Research Grid, and we conclude in Section 6.
Cosmological N-body Simulation
Lake, George
1994-05-01
.90ex> }}} The ``N'' in N-body calculations has doubled every year for the last two decades. To continue this trend, the UW N-body group is working on algorithms for the fast evaluation of gravitational forces on parallel computers and establishing rigorous standards for the computations. In these algorithms, the computational cost per time step is ~ 10(3) pairwise forces per particle. A new adaptive time integrator enables us to perform high quality integrations that are fully temporally and spatially adaptive. SPH--smoothed particle hydrodynamics will be added to simulate the effects of dissipating gas and magnetic fields. The importance of these calculations is two-fold. First, they determine the nonlinear consequences of theories for the structure of the Universe. Second, they are essential for the interpretation of observations. Every galaxy has six coordinates of velocity and position. Observations determine two sky coordinates and a line of sight velocity that bundles universal expansion (distance) together with a random velocity created by the mass distribution. Simulations are needed to determine the underlying structure and masses. The importance of simulations has moved from ex post facto explanation to an integral part of planning large observational programs. I will show why high quality simulations with ``large N'' are essential to accomplish our scientific goals. This year, our simulations have N >~ 10(7) . This is sufficient to tackle some niche problems, but well short of our 5 year goal--simulating The Sloan Digital Sky Survey using a few Billion particles (a Teraflop-year simulation). Extrapolating past trends, we would have to ``wait'' 7 years for this hundred-fold improvement. Like past gains, significant changes in the computational methods are required for these advances. I will describe new algorithms, algorithmic hacks and a dedicated computer to perform Billion particle simulations. Finally, I will describe research that can be enabled by
Numerical Simulation of Interacting Stellar Winds Model Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)
Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Li, P. S.; Kwok, S.
1997-12-01
In the past decade, the Interacting Stellar Winds (ISW) model has been shown to be successful in explaining the formation of planetary nebulae, Wolf-Rayet nebulae, slow novae, and supernovae. Since analytical methods applied to the ISW model have been limited to the spherical symmetric (1D) geometry, numerical methods are necessary for axisymmetric (2D) or arbitrary (3D) geometries, such as the study of formation and evolution of planetary nebulae, and for symbiotic nova outbursts. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm has been developed to study hydrodynamics using the particle method. This algorithm has been applied in many different fields successfully. In this paper, we apply the SPH algorithm using the TREE code to the problem of interacting winds dynamics. We present three simulations: (1) the interaction of two winds in spherical symmetry to demonstrate the validity of the algorithm in dealing with ISW modeling, (2) the formation and evolution of an axisymmetric nebula in the first 500 years, and (3) the interacting-colliding winds caused by a slow nova outburst in a symbiotic system. It is the first time that the SPH algorithm has been applied to an ISW simulation. The SPH algorithm is proved to be an accurate and powerful tool in studying ISW model. This work is supported by NASA's US ISO program and the University of Calgary.
Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Hoeft; S. E. Nuza; S. Gottlöber; R. J. van Weeren; H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen
2011-12-01
Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, identifying shock fronts and applying a parametric model for the radio emission allows us to simulate the formation of radio relics. We analyze a simulated shock front in detail. We find a rather broad Mach number distribution. The Mach number affects strongly the number density of relativistic electrons in the downstream area, hence, the radio luminosity varies significantly across the shock surface. The abundance of radio relics can be modeled with the help of the radio power probability distribution which aims at predicting radio relic number counts. Since the actual electron acceleration efficiency is not known, predictions for the number counts need to be normalized by the observed number of radio relics. For the characteristics of upcoming low frequency surveys we find that about thousand relics are awaiting discovery.
A Modified SPH Method for Dynamic Failure Simulation of Heterogeneous Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. W. Ma
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is applied to simulate the failure process of heterogeneous materials. An elastoplastic damage model based on an extension form of the unified twin shear strength (UTSS criterion is adopted. Polycrystalline modeling is introduced to generate the artificial microstructure of specimen for the dynamic simulation of Brazilian splitting test and uniaxial compression test. The strain rate effect on the predicted dynamic tensile and compressive strength is discussed. The final failure patterns and the dynamic strength increments demonstrate good agreements with experimental results. It is illustrated that the polycrystalline modeling approach combined with the SPH method is promising to simulate more complex failure process of heterogeneous materials.
Machine Learning and Cosmological Simulations
Kamdar, Harshil; Turk, Matthew; Brunner, Robert
2016-01-01
We explore the application of machine learning (ML) to the problem of galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe. Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively evaluating the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on small-scale structure formation. For our analyses, we use both semi-analytical models (Millennium simulation) and N-body + hydrodynamical simulations (Illustris simulation). The ML algorithms are trained on important dark matter halo properties (inputs) and galaxy properties (outputs). The trained models are able to robustly predict the gas mass, stellar mass, black hole mass, star formation rate, $g-r$ color, and stellar metallicity. Moreover, the ML simulated galaxies obey fundamental observational constraints implying that the population of ML predicted galaxies is physically and statistically robust. Next, ML algorithms are trained on an N-body + hydrodynamical simulation and applied to an N-body only simulation (Dark Sky simulation, Illustris Dark), populating this new simulation with galaxies. We can examine how structure formation changes with different cosmological parameters and are able to mimic a full-blown hydrodynamical simulation in a computation time that is orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the set of ML simulated galaxies in Dark Sky obey the same observational constraints, further solidifying ML's place as an intriguing and promising technique in future galaxy formation studies and rapid mock galaxy catalog creation.
Numerical simulation of liquid jet breakup using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)
Pourabdian, Majid; Morad, Mohammad Reza
2016-01-01
In this paper, breakup of liquid jet is simulated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) which is a meshless Lagrangian numerical method. For this aim, flow governing equations are discretized based on SPH method. In this paper, SPHysics open source code has been utilized for numerical solutions. Therefore, the mentioned code has been developed by adding the surface tension effects. The proposed method is then validated using dam break with obstacle problem. Finally, simulation of twodimensional liquid jet flow is carried out and its breakup behavior considering one-phase flow is investigated. Length of liquid breakup in Rayleigh regime is calculated for various flow conditions such as different Reynolds and Weber numbers and the results are validated by an experimental correlation. The whole numerical solutions are accomplished for both Wendland and cubic spline kernel functions and Wendland kernel function gave more accurate results. The results are compared to MPS method for inviscid liquid as well. T...
Evolution of Occupant Survivability Simulation Framework Using FEM-SPH Coupling
2011-08-01
dynamics and detailed soil fracture mechanics simulations in production work do not align. The buried mine problem poses several challenges since...and bulk modulus, the major difference between the DRDC and ESI soil material is the pressure cutoff for tensile fracture . With this parameter SPH...distal parts of the tibia and the fibula are included in one rigid body; each foot is a rigid body; organs are deformable; and skin and flesh are
Comparative Study of Different SPH Schemes on Simulating Violent Water Wave Impact Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑兴; 马庆位; 段文洋
2014-01-01
Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water wave impact simulation especially when free surface breaks or impacts on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for wave impact problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.
Comparative study of different SPH schemes on simulating violent water wave impact flows
Zheng, Xing; Ma, Qing-wei; Duan, Wen-yang
2014-12-01
Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water wave impact simulation especially when free surface breaks or impacts on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for wave impact problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.
SEREN - A new SPH code for star and planet formation simulations
Hubber, D A; McLeod, A; Whitworth, A P
2011-01-01
We present SEREN, a new hybrid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and N-body code designed to simulate astrophysical processes such as star and planet formation. It is written in Fortran 95/2003 and has been parallelised using OpenMP. SEREN is designed in a flexible, modular style, thereby allowing a large number of options to be selected or disabled easily and without compromising performance. SEREN uses the conservative `grad-h' formulation of SPH, but can easily be configured to use traditional SPH or Godunov SPH. Thermal physics is treated either with a barotropic equation of state, or by solving the energy equation and modelling the transport of cooling radiation. A Barnes-Hut tree is used to obtain neighbour lists and compute gravitational accelerations efficiently, and an hierarchical time-stepping scheme is used to reduce the number of computations per timestep. Dense gravitationally bound objects are replaced by sink particles, to allow the simulation to be evolved longer, and to facilitate the identifi...
An improved sink particle algorithm for SPH simulations
Hubber, D. A.; Walch, S.; Whitworth, A. P.
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations of star formation frequently rely on the implementation of sink particles, (a) to avoid expending computational resource on the detailed internal physics of individual collapsing protostars, (b) to derive mass functions, binary statistics and clustering kinematics (and hence to make comparisons with observation), and (c) to model radiative and mechanical feedback; sink particles are also used in other contexts, for example to represent accreting black holes in galactic n...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breddels, Maarten A.; Helmi, Amina [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vera-Ciro, Carlos, E-mail: breddels@astro.rug.nl [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53076 (United States)
2015-12-01
We compare the dark matter halos’ structural parameters derived for four Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies to those of subhalos found in cosmological N-body simulations. We confirm that estimates of the mass at a single fixed radius are fully consistent with the observations. However, when a second structural parameter such as the logarithmic slope of the dark halo density profile measured close to the half-light radius is included in the comparison, we find little to no overlap between the satellites and the subhalos. Typically the right mass subhalos have steeper profiles at these radii than measurements of the dSph suggest. Using energy arguments we explore if it is possible to solve this discrepancy by invoking baryonic effects. Assuming that feedback from supernovae (SNe) can lead to a reshaping of the halos, we compute the required efficiency and find entirely plausible values for a significant fraction of the subhalos and even as low as 0.1%. This implies that care must be taken not to exaggerate the effect of SNe feedback as this could make the halos too shallow. These results could be used to calibrate and possibly constrain feedback recipes in hydrodynamical simulations.
A Comparison of Grid-based and SPH Binary Mass-transfer and Merger Simulations
Motl, Patrick M.; Frank, Juhan; Staff, Jan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Fryer, Christopher L.; Even, Wesley; Diehl, Steven; Tohline, Joel E.
2017-04-01
There is currently a great amount of interest in the outcomes and astrophysical implications of mergers of double degenerate binaries. In a commonly adopted approximation, the components of such binaries are represented by polytropes with an index of n = 3/2. We present detailed comparisons of stellar mass-transfer and merger simulations of polytropic binaries that have been carried out using two very different numerical algorithms—a finite-volume “grid” code and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. We find that there is agreement in both the ultimate outcomes of the evolutions and the intermediate stages if the initial conditions for each code are chosen to match as closely as possible. We find that even with closely matching initial setups, the time it takes to reach a concordant evolution differs between the two codes because the initial depth of contact cannot be matched exactly. There is a general tendency for SPH to yield higher mass transfer rates and faster evolution to the final outcome. We also present comparisons of simulations calculated from two different energy equations: in one series, we assume a polytropic equation of state and in the other series an ideal gas equation of state. In the latter series of simulations, an atmosphere forms around the accretor, which can exchange angular momentum and cause a more rapid loss of orbital angular momentum. In the simulations presented here, the effect of the ideal equation of state is to de-stabilize the binary in both SPH and grid simulations, but the effect is more pronounced in the grid code.
The UV view of multi spin galaxies: insight from SPH simulations
Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Galletta, Giuseppe; Buson, Lucio M
2014-01-01
The UV images of GALEX revealed that ~30% of Early Type Galaxies (ETG) show UV emission indicating a rejuvenation episode. In ETGs with multiple spin components this percentage increases at 50%. We present here the characteristics of this sample and our smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations with chemo-photometric implementation that provide dynamical and morphological information together with the spectral energy distribution (SED) at each evolutionary stage. We show our match of the global properties of two ETGs (e.g. NGC 3626 and NGC 5173). For these galaxies we can trace their evolutionary path.
Parallel peridynamics-SPH simulation of explosion induced soil fragmentation by using OpenMP
Fan, Houfu; Li, Shaofan
2016-06-01
In this work, we use the OpenMP-based shared-memory parallel programming to implement the recently developed coupling method of state-based peridynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PD-SPH), and we then employ the program to simulate dynamic soil fragmentation induced by the explosion of the buried explosives. The paper offers detailed technical description and discussion on the PD-SHP coupling algorithm and how to use the OpenMP shared-memory programming to implement such large-scale computation in a desktop environment, with an example to illustrate the basic computing principle and the parallel algorithm structure. In specific, the paper provides a complete OpenMP parallel algorithm for the PD-SPH scheme with the programming and parallelization details. Numerical examples of soil fragmentation caused by the buried explosives are also presented. Results show that the simulation carried out by the OpenMP parallel code is much faster than that by the corresponding serial computer code.
Simulation of central sloshing experiments with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vorobyev, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.vorobyev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 (Germany); Kriventsev, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.kriventsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 (Germany); Maschek, Werner, E-mail: werner.maschek@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 (Germany)
2011-08-15
Highlights: > Central sloshing experiments are simulated with meshless SPH-based method. > Presence of obstacles and asymmetries on the central peak formation are studied. > The high central peak is observed only in strongly symmetrical geometry. > Results are compared with sloshing simulations by 3D reactor code SIMMER-IV. - Abstract: Liquid sloshing phenomena can be observed whenever a liquid in a container has an unrestrained surface and can be excited. A particular type of sloshing motion can occur during the core meltdown of a liquid metal cooled reactor (LMR) and can lead to a compaction of the fuel in the center of the core possibly resulting in energetic nuclear power excursions. This phenomenon was studied in series of 'centralized sloshing' experiments with a central water column collapsing inside the surrounding cylindrical tank. These experiments provide data for a benchmark exercise for accident analysis codes. To simulate 'centralized sloshing' phenomena, a numerical method should be capable to predict the motion of the free surface of a liquid, wave propagation and reflection from the walls. In this study, a meshless method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for the simulation of a 3D free surface liquid motion has been developed. The proposed method is applied to the simulation of 'centralized sloshing' experiments. Simulation results are compared with the experimental results as well as with results of computations performed with the 3D code SIMMER-IV which is an advanced reactor safety analysis code that implements the traditional mesh-based numerical method. In a series of numerical calculations it is shown that overall motion of the liquid is in a good agreement with experimental observations. Dependence on the initial and geometrical symmetry is studied and compared with experimental data.
Cosmological N -body simulations including radiation perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Jacob; Rampf, Cornelius; Tram, Thomas
2017-01-01
Cosmological $N$-body simulations are the standard tool to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as th......Cosmological $N$-body simulations are the standard tool to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects...
Application of a SPH Coupled FEM Method for Simulation of Trimming of Aluminum Autobody Sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohdal Łukasz
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the applications of mesh-free SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics continuum method to the simulation and analysis of trimming process is presented. In dealing with shearing simulations for example of blanking, piercing or slitting, existing literatures apply finite element method (FEM to analysis of this processes. Presented in this work approach and its application to trimming of aluminum autobody sheet allows for a complex analysis of physical phenomena occurring during the process without significant deterioration in the quality of the finite element mesh during large deformation. This allows for accurate representation of the loss of cohesion of the material under the influence of cutting tools. An analysis of state of stress, strain and fracture mechanisms of the material is presented. In experimental studies, an advanced vision-based technology based on digital image correlation (DIC for monitoring the cutting process is used.
Tremmel, Michael; Governato, Fabio; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Tom; Pontzen, Andrew; Anderson, Lauren
2016-01-01
We present a novel implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation, dynamics, and accretion in the massively parallel tree+SPH code, ChaNGa. This approach improves the modeling of SMBHs in fully cosmological simulations, allowing for a more detailed analysis of SMBH-galaxy co-evolution throughout cosmic time. Our scheme includes novel, physically motivated models for SMBH formation, dynamics and sinking timescales within galaxies, and SMBH accretion of rotationally supported gas. The sub-grid parameters that regulate star formation (SF) and feedback from SMBHs and SNe are optimized against a comprehensive set of z = 0 galaxy scaling relations using a novel, multi-dimensional parameter search. We have incorporated our new SMBH implementation and parameter optimization onto a new set of high resolution, large-scale cosmological simulations called Romulus. We present initial results from our flagship simulation, Romulus25, showing that our SMBH model results in SF efficiency, SMBH masses, and global c...
SPH Simulation of Liquid Scattering from the Edge of a Rotary Atomizer
Izawa, Seiichiro; Ito, Takuya; Shigeta, Masaya; Fukunishi, Yu
2013-11-01
Three-dimensional incompressible SPH method is used to simulate the behavior of liquid scattering from the edge of a rotary atomizer. Rotary atomizers have been widely used for spraying, painting and coating, for instance, in the automobile industry. However, how the spray droplets are formed after leaving the edge of the rotary atomizer is not well understood, because the scale of the phenomenon is very small and the speed of rotation is very fast. The present computational result shows that while the liquid forms a film on the surface of the rotating disk of the atomizer, it quickly deforms into many thin columns after leaving the disk edge, and these columns soon break up into fine droplets which spread out in the radial direction. The size of droplets tends to become smaller with the increase in the disk rotating speed. The results show good agreement with the experimental observations.
Bettoni, Daniela; Rampazzo, Roberto; Marino, Antonina; Galletta, Giuseppe; Buson, Lucio M
2014-01-01
The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) detected ultraviolet emission in about 50% of multi-spin early-type galaxies (ETGs), suggesting the occurrence of a recent rejuvenation episode connected to the formation of these kinematical features. With the aim at investigating the complex evolutionary scenario leading to the formation of counter rotating ETGs (CR-ETGs) we use our Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code with chemo-photometric implementation. We discuss here the UV evolutionary path of two CR-ETGs, NGC 3593 and NGC 5173, concurrently best fitting their global observed properties, i.e., morphology, dynamics, as well as their total B-band absolute magnitude and spectral energy distribution (SED) extended over three orders of magnitude in wavelength. These simulations correspond to our predictions about the target evolution which we follow in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), near-UV (NUV) versus r-band absolute magnitude, as a powerful diagnostic tool to emphasize rejuvenation episodes.
The effects of ionizing radiation on the evolution of SPH-simulated galaxies
Hambrick, David Clay
2010-12-01
Since its beginning some fifteen years ago, the simulation of galaxies using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) codes has become a crucial tool to understand the physics which shapes the evolution of galaxies from their origins in the early Universe to what we observe in the local Universe today. However, one piece of this physics has been relatively understudied: namely, the ionizing radiation---ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray---which is emitted by early stars, supernovae, and the accretion regions of massive black holes (BHs), and which permeates the Universe from the epoch of reionization to the present day. Therefore I perform my own SPH simulations of galaxies to study in detail the influence of this radiation. In the first chapter of this work I find that the UV background used by most simulations to date may not fit observations constraining it at high redshift, and furthermore the details of the UV background at those redshifts, as well as the presence of an X-ray component, can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution, specifically the gas dynamics and the amount and location of star formation. In the second chapter I consider why, even though the dark-matter power spectrum and dark-matter simulations predict a large number of small satellite galaxies, hydrodynamic simulations have typically produced fewer satellites, consistent with observations. Performing simulations with various UV and X-ray backgrounds, I show that the number of small galaxies at the present is dependent primarily on the mean gas temperature at the epoch when low-mass systems form their stars, and this temperature is significantly determined by the ionizing radiation background. In the third and final chapter I leave the ionizing background and turn to X-rays emitted by local active galactic nuclei (AGN)---which are massive, accreting BHs. I perform simulations with this new mode of feedback added to the standard mode (the injection of energy to adjacent gas), and find that the X
Cosmological simulations of multicomponent cold dark matter.
Medvedev, Mikhail V
2014-08-15
The nature of dark matter is unknown. A number of dark matter candidates are quantum flavor-mixed particles but this property has never been accounted for in cosmology. Here we explore this possibility from the first principles via extensive N-body cosmological simulations and demonstrate that the two-component dark matter model agrees with observational data at all scales. Substantial reduction of substructure and flattening of density profiles in the centers of dark matter halos found in simulations can simultaneously resolve several outstanding puzzles of modern cosmology. The model shares the "why now?" fine-tuning caveat pertinent to all self-interacting models. Predictions for direct and indirect detection dark matter experiments are made.
Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, J P; Johnson, S M
2008-03-26
An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Da-ming; XU Ya-nan; LI Ling-ling; LU Hui-jiao; BAI Ling
2011-01-01
With some popular tracking methods for free surface,simulations of several typical examples are carried out under various flow field conditions.The results show that the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics(SPH)method is very suitable in simulating the flow problems with a free surface.A viscous liquid droplet with an initial velocity impacting on a solid surface is simulated based on the SPH method,and the surface tension is considered by searching the free surface particles,the initial impact effect is considered by using the artificial viscosity method,boundary virtual particles and image virtual particles are introduced to deal with the boundary problem,and the boundary defect can be identified quite well.The comparisons of simulated results and experimental photographs show that the SPH method can not only exactly simulate the spreading process and the rebound process of a liquid droplet impacting on a solid surface but also accurately track the free surface particles,simulate the free-surface flow and determine the shape of the free surface due to its particle nature.
Seeding Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations
Taylor, Philip
2014-01-01
We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass -- velocity dispersion relation, and the size -- velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is 10^3Msun, which is orders of magnitude smaller than has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.
X-ray Modeling of \\eta\\ Carinae and WR140 from SPH Simulations
Russell, Christopher M P; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Madura, Thomas I; Owocki, Stanley P
2011-01-01
The colliding wind binary (CWB) systems \\eta\\ Carinae and WR140 provide unique laboratories for X-ray astrophysics. Their wind-wind collisions produce hard X-rays that have been monitored extensively by several X-ray telescopes, including RXTE. To interpret these RXTE X-ray light curves, we model the wind-wind collision using 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. Adiabatic simulations that account for the absorption of X-rays from an assumed point source at the apex of the wind-collision shock cone by the distorted winds can closely match the observed 2-10keV RXTE light curves of both \\eta\\ Car and WR140. This point-source model can also explain the early recovery of \\eta\\ Car's X-ray light curve from the 2009.0 minimum by a factor of 2-4 reduction in the mass loss rate of \\eta\\ Car. Our more recent models relax the point-source approximation and account for the spatially extended emission along the wind-wind interaction shock front. For WR140, the computed X-ray light curve again matches the ...
Simulation of the effect of defence structures on granular flows using SPH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Lachamp
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics numerical method adapted to complex rheology and free surface flow. It has been developed to simulate the local effect of a simple obstacle on a granular flow. We have introduced this specific rheology to the classical formalism of the method and thanks to experimental devices, we were able to validate the results. Two viscosity values have been simultaneously computed to simulate "plugs" and "dead zone" with the same code. First, some experiments have been done on a simple inclined slope to show the accuracy of the numerical results. We have fixed the mass flow rate to see the variations of the flow depth according to the channel slope. Then we put a weir to block the flow and we analysed the dependence between the obstacle height and the length of influence upstream from the obstacle. After having shown that numerical results were consistent, we have studied speed profiles and pressure impact on the structure. Also results with any topography will be presented. This will have a great interest to study real flow over natural topography while using the model for decision help.
High-resolution simulations of clump-clump collisions using SPH with Particle Splitting
Kitsionas, S
2007-01-01
We investigate, by means of numerical simulations, the phenomenology of star formation triggered by low-velocity collisions between low-mass molecular clumps. The simulations are performed using an SPH code which satisfies the Jeans condition by invoking On-the-Fly Particle Splitting. Clumps are modelled as stable truncated (non-singular) isothermal, i.e. Bonnor-Ebert, spheres. Collisions are characterised by M_0 (clump mass), b (offset parameter, i.e. ratio of impact parameter to clump radius), and M (Mach Number, i.e. ratio of collision velocity to effective post-shock sound speed). The gas subscribes to a barotropic equation of state, which is intended to capture (i) the scaling of pre-collision internal velocity dispersion with clump mass, (ii) post-shock radiative cooling, and (iii) adiabatic heating in optically thick protostellar fragments. The efficiency of star formation is found to vary between 10% and 30% in the different collisions studied and it appears to increase with decreasing M_0, and/or dec...
Numerical Simulation of Water Mitigation Effects on Shock Wave with SPH Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MAO Yiming; FANG Qin; ZHANG Yadong; GAO Zhenru
2008-01-01
The water mitigation effect on the propagation of shock wave was investigated numerically.The traditionaf smoothed particle hydrodynamics(SPH)method was modified based on Riemann solution.The comparison of numerical results with the analytical solution indicated that the modified SPH method has more advantages than the traditional SPH method.Using the modified SPH algorithm.a series of one-dimensional planar wave propagation problems were investigated,focusing on the influence of the air-gap between the high-pressure air and water and the thickness of water.The humerical results showed that water mitigation effect is significant.Up to 60%shock wave pressure reduction could be achieved with the existence of water.and the shape of shock wave was also changed greatly.It is seemly that fhe small air-gap between the high-pressure air and water has more influence on water mitigation effect.
Development of a total Lagrangian SPH code for the simulation of solids under dynamioc loading
Reveles, Juan R.
2007-01-01
This thesis makes use of an alternative SPH formulation, the Total Lagrangianf ormulation, to characterised ynamic eventsi n solids and to achieve the proposed objectives outlined in Chapter 1. The structure is as follows: Chapter 1, Introduction, describes the motivation for this research and outlines the objectives and the structure of this thesis. Chapter 2, SPH fundamentals, supplies the standard procedure to generate particle equations and provides a comprehensive summa...
Modeling the Dynamics of Interacting Galaxy Pairs - Testing Identikit Using GADGET SPH Simulations
Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer; Barnes, Joshua E.
2015-01-01
We develop and test an automated technique to model the dynamics of interacting galaxy pairs. We use Identikit (Barnes & Hibbard 2009; Barnes 2011) as a tool for modeling and matching the morphology and kinematics of the interacting pairs of similar-size galaxies. In order to reduce the effect of subjective human interference, we automate the selection of phase-space regions used to match simulations to data, and we explore how selection of these regions affects the random uncertainties of parameters in the best-fit model. In this work, we used an independent set of GADGET SPH simulations as input data, so we determined the systematic bias in the measured encounter parameters based on the known initial conditions of these simulations. We tested both cold gas and young stellar components in the GADGET simulations to explore the effect of choosing HI vs. Hα as the line of sight velocity tracer. We found that we can group the results into tests with good, fair, and poor convergence based on the distribution of parameters of models close enough to the best-fit model. For tests with good and fair convergence, we ruled out large fractions of parameter space and recovered merger stage, eccentricity, viewing angle, and pericentric distance within 2σ of the correct value. All of tests on gaseous component of prograde systems had either good or fair convergence. Retrograde systems and most of tests on young stars had poor convergence and may require constraints from regions other than the tidal tails. In this work we also present WIYN SparsePak IFU data for a few interacting galaxies, and we show the result of applying our method on this data set.
Kinetic AGN Feedback Effects on Cluster Cool Cores Simulated using SPH
Barai, Paramita; Borgani, Stefano; Gaspari, Massimo; Granato, Gian Luigi; Monaco, Pierluigi; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia
2016-01-01
We implement novel numerical models of AGN feedback in the SPH code GADGET-3, where the energy from a supermassive black hole (BH) is coupled to the surrounding gas in the kinetic form. Gas particles lying inside a bi-conical volume around the BH are imparted a one-time velocity (10,000 km/s) increment. We perform hydrodynamical simulations of isolated cluster (total mass 10^14 /h M_sun), which is initially evolved to form a dense cool core, having central T<10^6 K. A BH resides at the cluster center, and ejects energy. The feedback-driven fast wind undergoes shock with the slower-moving gas, which causes the imparted kinetic energy to be thermalized. Bipolar bubble-like outflows form propagating radially outward to a distance of a few 100 kpc. The radial profiles of median gas properties are influenced by BH feedback in the inner regions (r<20-50 kpc). BH kinetic feedback, with a large value of the feedback efficiency, depletes the inner cool gas and reduces the hot gas content, such that the initial c...
Cosmological neutrino simulations at extreme scale
Emberson, J. D.; Yu, Hao-Ran; Inman, Derek; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Yuan, Shuo; Teng, Huan-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Xuelei; Xing, Zhi-Zhong
2017-08-01
Constraining neutrino mass remains an elusive challenge in modern physics. Precision measurements are expected from several upcoming cosmological probes of large-scale structure. Achieving this goal relies on an equal level of precision from theoretical predictions of neutrino clustering. Numerical simulations of the non-linear evolution of cold dark matter and neutrinos play a pivotal role in this process. We incorporate neutrinos into the cosmological N-body code CUBEP3M and discuss the challenges associated with pushing to the extreme scales demanded by the neutrino problem. We highlight code optimizations made to exploit modern high performance computing architectures and present a novel method of data compression that reduces the phase-space particle footprint from 24 bytes in single precision to roughly 9 bytes. We scale the neutrino problem to the Tianhe-2 supercomputer and provide details of our production run, named TianNu, which uses 86% of the machine (13 824 compute nodes). With a total of 2.97 trillion particles, TianNu is currently the world’s largest cosmological N-body simulation and improves upon previous neutrino simulations by two orders of magnitude in scale. We finish with a discussion of the unanticipated computational challenges that were encountered during the TianNu runtime.
Voids in cosmological simulations over cosmic time
Wojtak, Radosław; Abel, Tom
2016-01-01
We study evolution of voids in cosmological simulations using a new method for tracing voids over cosmic time. The method is based on tracking watershed basins (contiguous regions around density minima) of well developed voids at low redshift, on a regular grid of density field. It enables us to construct a robust and continuous mapping between voids at different redshifts, from initial conditions to the present time. We discuss how the new approach eliminates strong spurious effects of numerical origin when voids evolution is traced by matching voids between successive snapshots (by analogy to halo merger trees). We apply the new method to a cosmological simulation of a standard LambdaCDM cosmological model and study evolution of basic properties of typical voids (with effective radii between 6Mpc/h and 20Mpc/h at redshift z=0) such as volumes, shapes, matter density distributions and relative alignments. The final voids at low redshifts appear to retain a significant part of the configuration acquired in in...
Kinetic AGN feedback effects on cluster cool cores simulated using SPH
Barai, Paramita; Murante, Giuseppe; Borgani, Stefano; Gaspari, Massimo; Granato, Gian Luigi; Monaco, Pierluigi; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia
2016-09-01
We implement novel numerical models of AGN feedback in the SPH code GADGET-3, where the energy from a supermassive black hole (BH) is coupled to the surrounding gas in the kinetic form. Gas particles lying inside a bi-conical volume around the BH are imparted a one-time velocity (10 000 km s-1) increment. We perform hydrodynamical simulations of isolated cluster (total mass 1014 h-1 M⊙), which is initially evolved to form a dense cool core, having central T ≤ 106 K. A BH resides at the cluster centre, and ejects energy. The feedback-driven fast wind undergoes shock with the slower moving gas, which causes the imparted kinetic energy to be thermalized. Bipolar bubble-like outflows form propagating radially outward to a distance of a few 100 kpc. The radial profiles of median gas properties are influenced by BH feedback in the inner regions (r < 20-50 kpc). BH kinetic feedback, with a large value of the feedback efficiency, depletes the inner cool gas and reduces the hot gas content, such that the initial cool core of the cluster is heated up within a time 1.9 Gyr, whereby the core median temperature rises to above 107 K, and the central entropy flattens. Our implementation of BH thermal feedback (using the same efficiency as kinetic), within the star formation model, cannot do this heating, where the cool core remains. The inclusion of cold gas accretion in the simulations produces naturally a duty cycle of the AGN with a periodicity of 100 Myr.
Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations
Cora, S A; Tissera, P B; Lambas, D G
2000-01-01
We report first results of an implementation of a chemical model in a cosmological code, based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. We show that chemical SPH simulations are a promising tool to provide clues for the understanding of the chemical properties of galaxies in relation to their formation and evolution in a cosmological framework.
Numerical simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with the Gadget-2 SPH code
Gabbasov, Ruslan F; Suarez-Cansino, Joel; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G
2013-01-01
The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been widely studied and implemented for a large variety of problems, ranging from astrophysics to fluid dynamics and elasticity problems in solids. However, the method is known to have several deficiencies and discrepancies in comparison with traditional mesh-based codes. In particular, there has been a discussion about its ability to reproduce the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in shearing flows. Several authors reported that they were able to reproduce correctly the instability by introducing some improvements to the algorithm. In this contribution, we compare the results of Read et al. (2010) implementation of the SPH algorithm with the original Gadget-2 N-body/SPH code.
Two-Body Relaxation in Cosmological Simulations
Binney, J; Binney, James; Knebe, Alexander
2002-01-01
The importance of two-body relaxation in cosmological simulations is explored with simulations in which there are two species of particles. The cases of mass ratio sqrt(2):1 and 4:1 are investigated. Simulations are run with both a fixed softening length and adaptive softening using the publicly available codes GADGET and MLAPM, respectively. The effects of two-body relaxation are detected in both the density profiles of halos and the mass function of halos. The effects are more pronounced with a fixed softening length, but even in this case they are not so large as to suggest that results obtained with one mass species are significantly affected by two-body relaxation. The simulations that use adaptive softening are slightly less affected by two-body relaxation and produce slightly higher central densities in the largest halos. They run about three times faster than the simulations that use a fixed softening length.
Soleimani, Meisam; Wriggers, Peter; Rath, Henryke; Stiesch, Meike
2016-10-01
In this paper, a 3D computational model has been developed to investigate biofilms in a multi-physics framework using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) based on a continuum approach. Biofilm formation is a complex process in the sense that several physical phenomena are coupled and consequently different time-scales are involved. On one hand, biofilm growth is driven by biological reaction and nutrient diffusion and on the other hand, it is influenced by fluid flow causing biofilm deformation and interface erosion in the context of fluid and deformable solid interaction. The geometrical and numerical complexity arising from these phenomena poses serious complications and challenges in grid-based techniques such as finite element. Here the solution is based on SPH as one of the powerful meshless methods. SPH based computational modeling is quite new in the biological community and the method is uniquely robust in capturing the interface-related processes of biofilm formation such as erosion. The obtained results show a good agreement with experimental and published data which demonstrates that the model is capable of simulating and predicting overall spatial and temporal evolution of biofilm.
A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations
Daverio, David; Mitsou, Ermis
2016-01-01
Fully non-linear cosmological simulations may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking full advantage of the upcoming survey data. We propose a new 3+1 integration scheme which is based on the presence of a perfect fluid (hydro) field, evolves only physical states by construction and passes the robustness test on an FLRW space-time. Although we use General Relativity as an example, the idea behind that scheme is applicable to any generally-covariant modified gravity theory and/or matter content, including a N-body sector.
Cool Core Clusters from Cosmological Simulations
Rasia, E; Murante, G; Planelles, S; Beck, A M; Biffi, V; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Granato, G L; Steinborn, L K; Dolag, K
2015-01-01
We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and AGN feedback and are based on an improved version of the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, our primary diagnostic to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and on the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of cool-core systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of non cool-core systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of...
Voids in cosmological simulations over cosmic time
Wojtak, Radosław; Powell, Devon; Abel, Tom
2016-06-01
We study evolution of voids in cosmological simulations using a new method for tracing voids over cosmic time. The method is based on tracking watershed basins (contiguous regions around density minima) of well-developed voids at low redshift, on a regular grid of density field. It enables us to construct a robust and continuous mapping between voids at different redshifts, from initial conditions to the present time. We discuss how the new approach eliminates strong spurious effects of numerical origin when voids' evolution is traced by matching voids between successive snapshots (by analogy to halo merger trees). We apply the new method to a cosmological simulation of a standard Λ-cold-dark-matter cosmological model and study evolution of basic properties of typical voids (with effective radii 6 h-1 Mpc < Rv < 20 h-1 Mpc at redshift z = 0) such as volumes, shapes, matter density distributions and relative alignments. The final voids at low redshifts appear to retain a significant part of the configuration acquired in initial conditions. Shapes of voids evolve in a collective way which barely modifies the overall distribution of the axial ratios. The evolution appears to have a weak impact on mutual alignments of voids implying that the present state is in large part set up by the primordial density field. We present evolution of dark matter density profiles computed on isodensity surfaces which comply with the actual shapes of voids. Unlike spherical density profiles, this approach enables us to demonstrate development of theoretically predicted bucket-like shape of the final density profiles indicating a wide flat core and a sharp transition to high-density void walls.
Kay, S T; Aghanim, N; Blanchard, A; Liddle, A R; Puget, J L; Sadat, R; Thomas, P A; Kay, Scott T.; Silva, Antonio C. da; Aghanim, Nabila; Blanchard, Alain; Liddle, Andrew R.; Puget, Jean-Loup; Sadat, Rachida; Thomas, Peter A.
2006-01-01
We present results from a study of the X-ray cluster population that forms within the CLEF cosmological hydrodynamics simulation, a large N-body/SPH simulation of the Lambda CDM cosmology with radiative cooling, star formation and feedback. The scaled projected temperature and entropy profiles at z=0 are in good agreement with recent high-quality observations of cool core clusters, suggesting that the simulation grossly follows the processes that structure the intracluster medium (ICM) in these objects. Cool cores are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the simulation at low and high redshift, regardless of a cluster's dynamical state. This is at odds with the observations and so suggests there is still a heating mechanism missing from the simulation. Using a simple, observable measure of the concentration of the ICM, which correlates with the apparent mass deposition rate in the cluster core, we find a large dispersion within regular clusters at low redshift, but this diminishes at higher redshift, where strong "cool...
Initial Conditions for Large Cosmological Simulations
Prunet, S; Aubert, D; Pogosyan, D; Teyssier, R; Gottlöber, S
2008-01-01
This technical paper describes a software package that was designed to produce initial conditions for large cosmological simulations in the context of the Horizon collaboration. These tools generalize E. Bertschinger's Grafic1 software to distributed parallel architectures and offer a flexible alternative to the Grafic2 software for ``zoom'' initial conditions, at the price of large cumulated cpu and memory usage. The codes have been validated up to resolutions of 4096^3 and were used to generate the initial conditions of large hydrodynamical and dark matter simulations. They also provide means to generate constrained realisations for the purpose of generating initial conditions compatible with, e.g. the local group, or the SDSS catalog.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金善勤; 郑兴; 段文洋
2015-01-01
光滑粒子水动力学( SPH)方法对模拟破碎波问题有着良好的适应性. 基于众核架构的GPU计算平台在加速SPH方法方面有着强大的优势. 针对传统SPH方法计算效率低和计算精度差的问题,采用δ-SPH方法对腔内剪切流动、Poiseuille流动、Couette流动问题、孤立波砰击问题进行了模拟,并且提出一种基于粒子对的GPU并行计算方法. 通过比较,得到不同边界处理方法对粘性流场模拟结果的影响规律,并且研究基于粒子对和单个粒子2种不同GPU并行计算方法,对比不同计算方法的精度和CPU时间. 结果表明,采用粒子对的GPU并行方法可以使δ-SPH方法的最大加速比超过10.%The smoothed particle hydrodynamics ( SPH ) method has a good adaptability for the simulation of breaking wave problems.The GPU computing platform based on many-core architecture has a strong advantage in SPH method acceleration.In view of the low efficiency and the accuracy problem of traditional SPH method, this paper puts forward a new GPU parallel computing model based on the particle pair and improvedδ-SPH method for simulating viscosity flows such as lid-drive cavity flow, Poiseuille flow, Couette flow and solitary wave slamming. According to the comparison of different boundary handling methods, their rules on viscous flow simulation are got. Furthermore, two GPU parallel calculation methods which are respectively based on the particle pair and single par-ticle are researched, and their accuracy and CPU time are compared.The results show that the GPU parallel calcu-lation method based on particle pairs makesδ-SPH exceed 10 times of the maximum speed-up ratio.
Numerical Simulation of Shaped Charge Jet Using Multi-Phase SPH Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIANG Hongfu; WANG Kunpeng; GAO Weiran
2008-01-01
Since the jets and detonation gaseous products are separated by sharp interfaces,the traditional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is difficult to avoid the computational instability at interfaces.The multi-phase SPH (MSPH) method was applied to improving the stability,which smoothes the particle density and makes pressure continuous at interfaces.Numerical examples of jet forming process were used to test capability of the MSPH method.The results show that the method remains algorithm stability for large density gradient between the jets and gaseous products and has potential application to both the explosion and the jet problems.The effect of initiation ways of the shaped charge was discussed as well.
Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris
2016-05-01
I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.
Convergence of AMR and SPH simulations - I. Hydrodynamical resolution and convergence tests
Hubber, D A; Goodwin, S P
2013-01-01
We compare the results for a set of hydrodynamical tests performed with the AMR finite volume code, MG and the SPH code, SEREN. The test suite includes shock tube tests, with and without cooling, the non-linear thin-shell instability and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The main conclusions are : (i) the two methods converge in the limit of high resolution and accuracy in most cases. All tests show good agreement when numerical effects (e.g. discontinuities in SPH) are properly treated. (ii) Both methods can capture adiabatic shocks and well-resolved cooling shocks perfectly well with standard prescriptions. However, they both have problems when dealing with under-resolved cooling shocks, or strictly isothermal shocks, at high Mach numbers. The finite volume code only works well at 1st order and even then requires some additional artificial viscosity. SPH requires either a larger value of the artificial viscosity parameter, alpha_AV, or a modified form of the standard artificial viscosity term using the harm...
E pur si muove: Galiliean-invariant cosmological hydrodynamical simulations on a moving mesh
Springel, Volker
2009-01-01
Hydrodynamic cosmological simulations at present usually employ either the Lagrangian SPH technique, or Eulerian hydrodynamics on a Cartesian mesh with adaptive mesh refinement. Both of these methods have disadvantages that negatively impact their accuracy in certain situations. We here propose a novel scheme which largely eliminates these weaknesses. It is based on a moving unstructured mesh defined by the Voronoi tessellation of a set of discrete points. The mesh is used to solve the hyperbolic conservation laws of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach, based on a second-order unsplit Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. The mesh-generating points can in principle be moved arbitrarily. If they are chosen to be stationary, the scheme is equivalent to an ordinary Eulerian method with second order accuracy. If they instead move with the velocity of the local flow, one obtains a Lagrangian formulation of hydrodynamics that does not suffer from the mesh distortion limitations inherent in othe...
Cosmological neutrino simulations at extreme scale
Emberson, J D; Inman, Derek; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Yuan, Shuo; Teng, Huan-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Xuelei; Xing, Zhi-Zhong
2016-01-01
Constraining neutrino mass remains an elusive challenge in modern physics. Precision measurements are expected from several upcoming cosmological probes of large-scale structure. Achieving this goal relies on an equal level of precision from theoretical predictions of neutrino clustering. Numerical simulations of the non-linear evolution of cold dark matter and neutrinos play a pivotal role in this process. We incorporate neutrinos into the cosmological N-body code CUBEP3M and discuss the challenges associated with pushing to the extreme scales demanded by the neutrino problem. We highlight code optimizations made to exploit modern high performance computing architectures and present a novel method of data compression that reduces the phase-space particle footprint from 24 bytes in single precision to roughly 9 bytes. We scale the neutrino problem to the Tianhe-2 supercomputer and provide details of our production run, named TianNu, which uses 86% of the machine (13,824 compute nodes). With a total of 2.97 tr...
SPH Simulations of Volatiles Loss from Icy Satellites During a Late Heavy Bombardment
Movshovitz, N.; Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Owen, J. M.
2013-12-01
in the size range of interest here requires high resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We use a sophisticated, SPH based code developed by one of the authors [9] and run on hundreds of nodes of the UCSC astrophysical computer cluster to achieve the desired resolution. [1] Nimmo, F., & Korycansky, D. G. (2012), Icarus 219(1), 508-510. [2] Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., 2005, Nature 435, 459-461. [3] Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A., 2005, Nature 435, 466-469. [4] Dones, L., & Levison, H. F. (2013), 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference ( 2013 ). [5] Zahnle, K.J., Schenk, P., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., 2003, Icarus 163, 263-289. [6] Kraus, R. G., Senft, L. E., & Stewart, S. T. (2011), Icarus, 214(2), 724-738. [7] Dwyer, C. A., Nimmo, F., Ogihara, M., & Ida, S. (2013), Icarus, 225(1), 390-402. [8] Asphaug, E., & Reufer, A. (2013), Icarus, 223(1), 544-565. [9] Owen, J. M., Villumsen, J. V., Shapiro, P. R., & Martel, H. (1998), ApJ Supp, 116, 155
Simulating cosmologies beyond $\\Lambda$CDM with PINOCCHIO
Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Monaco, Pierluigi; Munari, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano
2016-01-01
We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: $\
COOL CORE CLUSTERS FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Granato, G. L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr.1, D-81679 München (Germany); Ragone-Figueroa, C., E-mail: rasia@oats.inaf.it [Instituto de Astronomá Teórica y Experimental (IATE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientiíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina)
2015-11-01
We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of CC systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of NCC systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of objects, we find that they occur in similar proportions in both simulations and observations. Furthermore, we also find that simulated CC clusters have profiles of iron abundance that are steeper than those of NCC clusters, which is also in agreement with observational results. We show that the capability of our simulations to generate a realistic CC structure in the cluster population is due to AGN feedback and artificial thermal diffusion: their combined action allows us to naturally distribute the energy extracted from super-massive black holes and to compensate for the radiative losses of low-entropy gas with short cooling time residing in the cluster core.
A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heymann Y.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sam- pling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spec- troscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the galactic density curves of the simulations with that of the survey, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology.
Baushev, A N; Campusano, L E; Escala, A; Muñoz, R R; Palma, G A
2016-01-01
Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by (Baushev, 2015). We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. T...
An Archive and Tools for Cosmological Simulations inside the Virtual Observatory
Manzato, P.; Molinaro, M.; Gasparo, F.; Smareglia, R.; Taffoni, G.; Pasian, F.; Gheller, C.; Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; Costa, V.; Grillo, A.; Comparato, M.
2008-08-01
The Italian Theoretical Virtual Observatory (ITVO) is a test-bed project for the inclusion of theoretical data and related tools inside the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA, Hanisch & Quinn, 2003). We started cooperating with the IVOA community to develop standards and tools applicable to the theoretical data obtained from cosmological simulations. The database structure has been created with the main purpose of defining a structure for the cosmological simulations, generic enough to be able to ingest metadata from many types of simulations (N-body, N-body + SPH, Mesh, N-Body + AMR, etc.). The goals are the following: to provide searching criteria through which a single query can get data from different kinds of simulations archives; to develop appropriate IVOA tools to visualize and analyze the data; finally to make possible an easy comparison between theoretical and observational data. VisIVO has been used to find and visualize N-D boxes data, whereas Aladin has been modified to study the 2-D maps and permit the search for simulated galaxy clusters; we have now also generated a code that creates on-the-fly the profiles of ten quantities of the simulated galaxy clusters produced by the Gadget-2 code which can be easily visualized by TOPCAT. All of these tools can be connected to each other using the PLASTIC hub, a software specifically designed to provide interoperability among astronomical VO applications. This project is being developed as part of the VO-Tech/DS4, ITVO and VObs.it projects.
Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory S; Macciò, Andrea V; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W; Wadsley, James
2015-01-01
We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf to Milky Way masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1% of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass vs halo mass relation, and the star formation rate vs stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than t...
Tremmel, M.; Karcher, M.; Governato, F.; Volonteri, M.; Quinn, T. R.; Pontzen, A.; Anderson, L.; Bellovary, J.
2017-09-01
We present a novel implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation, dynamics and accretion in the massively parallel tree+SPH code, ChaNGa. This approach improves the modelling of SMBHs in fully cosmological simulations, allowing for a more detailed analysis of SMBH-galaxy co-evolution throughout cosmic time. Our scheme includes novel, physically motivated models for SMBH formation, dynamics and sinking timescales within galaxies and SMBH accretion of rotationally supported gas. The sub-grid parameters that regulate star formation (SF) and feedback from SMBHs and SNe are optimized against a comprehensive set of z = 0 galaxy scaling relations using a novel, multidimensional parameter search. We have incorporated our new SMBH implementation and parameter optimization into a new set of high-resolution, large-scale cosmological simulations called Romulus. We present initial results from our flagship simulation, Romulus25, showing that our SMBH model results in SF efficiency, SMBH masses and global SF and SMBH accretion histories at high redshift that are consistent with observations. We discuss the importance of SMBH physics in shaping the evolution of massive galaxies and show how SMBH feedback is much more effective at regulating SF compared to SNe feedback in this regime. Further, we show how each aspect of our SMBH model impacts this evolution compared to more common approaches. Finally, we present a science application of this scheme studying the properties and time evolution of an example dual active galactic nucleus system, highlighting how our approach allows simulations to better study galaxy interactions and SMBH mergers in the context of galaxy-BH co-evolution.
Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Nagamine
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.
A 3D Simulation of a Moving Solid in Viscous Free-Surface Flows by Coupling SPH and DEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Chao Qiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a three-dimensional two-way coupled method to simulate moving solids in viscous free-surface flows. The fluid flows are solved by weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH and the displacement and rotation of the solids are calculated using the multisphere discrete element method (DEM allowing for the contact mechanics theories to be used in arbitrarily shaped solids. The fluid and the solid phases are coupled through Newton’s third law of motion. The proposed method does not require a computational mesh, nor does it rely on empirical models to couple the fluid and solid phases. To verify the numerical model, the floating and sinking processes of a rectangular block in a water tank are simulated, and the numerical results are compared with experimental results reported in published literatures. The results indicate that the method presented in this paper is accurate and is capable of modelling fluid-solid interactions with a free-surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaan Hui Pu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD constructed at the Yangtze River, China represents a revolutionary project to battle against the mage-scale flooding problems while improving the local economy at the same time. However, the large-scale fine-size sediment and pollutant material transport caused by the TGD operation are found to be inevitable and long-lasting. In this paper, a multi-fluid Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH model is used to simulate the multi-fluid flows similar to the fine sediment materials transport (in muddy flows and water flow mixing process. The SPH method is a mesh-free particle modeling approach that can treat the free surfaces and multi-interfaces in a straightforward manner. The proposed model is based on the universal multi-fluid flow equations and a unified pressure equation is used to account for the interaction arising from the different fluid components. A Sub-Particle-Scale (SPS turbulence model is included to address the turbulence effect generated during the flow process. The proposed model is used to investigate two cases of multi-fluid flows generated from the polluted flow intrusions into another fluid. The computations are found in good agreement with the practical situations. Sensitivity studies have also been carried out to evaluate the particle spatial resolution and turbulence modeling on the flow simulations. The proposed ISPH model could provide a promising tool to study the practical multi-fluid flows in the TGD operation environment.
Jackson, Karen E.; Fuchs, Yvonne T.
2008-01-01
Simulation of multi-terrain impact has been identified as an important research area for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program on Rotorcraft Crashworthiness. As part of this effort, two vertical drop tests were conducted of a 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section into water. For the first test, the fuselage section was impacted in a baseline configuration without energy absorbers. For the second test, the fuselage section was retrofitted with a composite honeycomb energy absorber. Both tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of 25-ft/s. A detailed finite element model was developed to represent each test article and water impact was simulated using both Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches in LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Analytical predictions were correlated with experimental data for both test configurations. In addition, studies were performed to evaluate the influence of mesh density on test-analysis correlation.
Sivanesapillai, Rakulan; Falkner, Nadine; Hartmaier, Alexander; Steeb, Holger
2016-09-01
We present a conservative smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model to study the flow of multiple, immiscible fluid phases in porous media using direct pore-scale simulations. Particular focus is put on continuously tracking the evolution of interfacial areas, which are considered to be important morphological quantities affecting multiphase transport in porous media. In addition to solving the Navier-Stokes equations, the model accounts for the effects of capillarity at interfaces and contact lines. This is done by means of incorporating the governing interfacial mass and momentum balances using the continuum surface force (CSF) method, thus rendering model calibration routines unnecessary and minimizing the set of constitutive and kinematic assumptions. We address the application of boundary conditions at rigid solid surfaces and study the predictive capability of the model as well as optimal choices for numerical parameters using an extensive model validation procedure. We demonstrate the applicability of the model to simulate multiphase flows involving partial wettability, dynamic effects, large density ratios (up to 1000), large viscosity ratios (up to 100), as well as fragmentation and coalescence of fluid phases. The model is used to study the evolution of fluid-fluid interfacial areas during saturation-controlled primary drainage and main imbibition of heterogeneous pore spaces at low capillary numbers. A variety of pore-scale effects, such as wetting phase entrapment and fragmentation due to snap-off, are observed. Specific fluid-fluid interfacial area is observed to monotonically increase during primary drainage and hysteretic effects are apparent during main imbibition.
Modern Cosmology: Interactive Computer Simulations that use Recent Observational Surveys
Moldenhauer, Jacob; Stone, Keenan; Shuler, Ezekiel
2013-01-01
We present a collection of new, open-source computational tools for numerically modeling recent large-scale observational data sets using modern cosmology theory. Specifically, these tools will allow both students and researchers to constrain the parameter values in competitive cosmological models, thereby discovering both the accelerated expansion of the universe and its composition (e.g., dark matter and dark energy). These programs have several features to help the non-cosmologist build an understanding of cosmological models and their relation to observational data: a built-in collection of several real observational data sets; sliders to vary the values of the parameters that define different cosmological models; real-time plotting of simulated data; and $\\chi^2$ calculations of the goodness of fit for each choice of parameters (theory) and observational data (experiment). The current list of built-in observations includes several recent supernovae Type Ia surveys, baryon acoustic oscillations, the cosmi...
Resolved granular debris-flow simulations with a coupled SPH-DCDEM model
Birjukovs Canelas, Ricardo; Domínguez, José M.; Crespo, Alejandro J. C.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Ferreira, Rui M. L.
2016-04-01
Debris flows represent some of the most relevant phenomena in geomorphological events. Due to the potential destructiveness of such flows, they are the target of a vast amount of research (Takahashi, 2007 and references therein). A complete description of the internal processes of a debris-flow is however still an elusive achievement, explained by the difficulty of accurately measuring important quantities in these flows and developing a comprehensive, generalized theoretical framework capable of describing them. This work addresses the need for a numerical model applicable to granular-fluid mixtures featuring high spatial and temporal resolution, thus capable of resolving the motion of individual particles, including all interparticle contacts. This corresponds to a brute-force approach: by applying simple interaction laws at local scales the macro-scale properties of the flow should be recovered by upscaling. This methodology effectively bypasses the complexity of modelling the intermediate scales by resolving them directly. The only caveat is the need of high performance computing, a demanding but engaging research challenge. The DualSPHysics meshless numerical implementation, based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is expanded with a Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) in order to explicitly solve the fluid and the solid phase. The model numerically solves the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for the liquid phase and Newton's motion equations for solid bodies. The interactions between solids are modelled with classical DEM approaches (Kruggel-Emden et al, 2007). Among other validation tests, an experimental set-up for stony debris flows in a slit check dam is reproduced numerically, where solid material is introduced trough a hopper assuring a constant solid discharge for the considered time interval. With each sediment particle undergoing tens of possible contacts, several thousand time-evolving contacts are efficiently treated
Simulation of aerolian sand transp ort with SPH-FVM coupled metho d%风沙运动问题的SPH-FVM耦合方法数值模拟研究*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈福振; 强洪夫; 高巍然
2014-01-01
To overcome the drawback of discrete particle model (DPM) and Euler-Euler two-fluid model (TFM) in solving gas-solid two phase flow, a new method called SPH-FVM coupled method is presented, and then it is used to simulate aerolian sand transport problems. Based on a pseudo fluid model the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to solve the discrete particle phase by tracing the movement of each individual particle, and the finite volume method (FVM) is used to discretize the continuum flow field on the stationary mesh by capturing fluid characteristics. Two phases are coupled through contributions due to the effects of drag, pressure gradient and volume fraction, and then the coupled framework of SPH-FVM is established. The properties of SPH are redesigned to be suited for the discrete phase named SDPH. The relationship between SPH particles and discrete particles is illustrated, and the SPH discrete equations of pseudo fluid are derived. Saltation processes of sands in aerolian sand transport, sand movement under free-air wind, and creeping processes of dune, are simulated; while the particle trajectories, the distribution characteristics of mean downwind velocity, and the changes of gas velocity under the sand reaction are analyzed. Through comparison with experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the new method is high, and it can also reduce the computational cost. This indicates that the new method can be applied to aerolian sand transport even to other gas-solid multiphase flows.%针对离散颗粒模型和欧拉-欧拉双流体模型在求解气粒两相流动问题中存在的不足，提出了一种新方法--SPH-FVM耦合方法，并应用于风沙运动过程的数值模拟计算。新方法基于拟流体模型，采用光滑粒子流体动力学方法(SPH)对离散颗粒相进行求解，追踪单颗粒运动轨迹，采用有限体积法(FVM)求解连续气体相，捕捉流场特性，两相间通过曳力、压力梯度、体积分数
Kordilla, J.; Shigorina, E.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Pan, W.; Geyer, T.
2015-12-01
Under idealized conditions (smooth surfaces, linear relationship between Bond number and Capillary number of droplets) steady-state flow modes on fracture surfaces have been shown to develop from sliding droplets to rivulets and finally (wavy) film flow, depending on the specified flux. In a recent study we demonstrated the effect of surface roughness on droplet flow in unsaturated wide aperture fractures, however, its effect on other prevailing flow modes is still an open question. The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of complex flow modes on fracture surfaces employing an efficient three-dimensional parallelized SPH model. The model is able to simulate highly intermittent, gravity-driven free-surface flows under dynamic wetting conditions. The effect of surface tension is included via efficient pairwise interaction forces. We validate the model using various analytical and semi-analytical relationships for droplet and complex flow dynamics. To investigate the effect of surface roughness on flow dynamics we construct surfaces with a self-affine fractal geometry and roughness characterized by the Hurst exponent. We demonstrate the effect of surface roughness (on macroscopic scales this can be understood as a tortuosity) on the steady-state distribution of flow modes. Furthermore we show the influence of a wide range of natural wetting conditions (defined by static contact angles) on the final distribution of surface coverage, which is of high importance for matrix-fracture interaction processes.
Andrew, Keith; Taylor, Lisa
2013-01-01
Using survey data and numerical LCDM modeling we establish an optimized fit to the generalized Reduced Void Probability Function, RVPF, of Mikjian used to establish a statistical foundation to any physical process associated with hierarchical clustering. We use a numerical N-body cosmological simulation code, GADGET-2, to investigate the sensitivity of the distribution of voids characterized by the RVPF to a general hierarchical reduced void parameter, a. The void parameter is related to the Levy stability index of the distribution and Fischer critical exponent used in clustering models. We numerically simulate the evolution of the universe from a redshift of z=50 to the current epoch at z=0 in order to generate RVPFs. GADGET-2 is an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics, SPH, code that we ran in MPI parallelizable mode on an HPC Beowulf cluster. The numerical data sets are compared to observational data from the Sloan digital sky Survey, SDSS, CfA, the Deep2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, and the 2dF Survey. We fi...
Cosmological structure formation shocks and cosmic rays in hydrodynamical simulations
Pfrommer, C; Ensslin, T A; Jubelgas, M; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Jubelgas, Martin
2006-01-01
Cosmological shock waves during structure formation not only play a decisive role for the thermalization of gas in virializing structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. We discuss a novel numerical treatment of the physics of cosmic rays in combination with a formalism for identifying and measuring the shock strength on-the-fly during a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population is treated self-consistently in order to assess its dynamical impact on the thermal gas as well as other implications on cosmological observables. Using this formalism, we study the history of the thermalization process in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the Lambda cold dark matter model. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by shocks with high Mach numbers up to 1000, but they play only a minor role in the energy balance of thermalization. However, this finding has important consequences fo...
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte
2016-01-01
Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.
Clues to the 'Magellanic Galaxy' from cosmological simulations
Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cooper, Andrew P.; White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina
2011-01-01
We use cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the orbital history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and its potential association with other satellites of the Milky Way (MW). We search for dynamical analogues to the LMC and find a subhalo that matches the LMC position and velo
Simulating cosmologies beyond ΛCDM with PINOCCHIO
Rizzo, Luca A.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Monaco, Pierluigi; Munari, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano
2017-01-01
We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: νΛCDM. We analyse the halo mass function, halo two-point correlation function and halo power spectrum, showing that PINOCCHIO reproduces the results from simulations with the same level of precision as the original code (~ 5–10%). We demonstrate that the abundance of halos in cosmologies with massless and massive neutrinos from PINOCCHIO matches very well the outcome of simulations, and point out that PINOCCHIO can reproduce the Ων–σ8 degeneracy that affects the halo mass function. We finally show that the clustering properties of the halos from PINOCCHIO matches accurately those from simulations both in real and redshift-space, in the latter case up to k = 0.3 h Mpc‑1. We emphasize that the computational time required by PINOCCHIO to generate mock halo catalogues is orders of magnitude lower than the one needed for N-body simulations. This makes this tool ideal for applications like covariance matrix studies within the standard ΛCDM model but also in cosmologies with massive neutrinos or some modified gravity theories.
Cosmological Simulations of Isotropic Conduction in Galaxy Clusters
Smith, Britton D; Voit, G Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W
2013-01-01
Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of ten galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, but not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the in...
Simulation des propriétés électriques des nanoparticules d’or sphériques.
MENOUAR, Abdessami
2015-01-01
La résonance de plasmon des nanoparticules d’or dépend de nombreux paramètres, qui sont autant de moyens pour moduler le spectre d’absorption. Les paramètres les plus importants sont la forme et la taille des nanoparticules (sphériques, ovales, triangulaires, sous forme de bâtonnets) , ainsi que le milieu (l’air, un liquide, une matrice solide) dans lequel les nanoparticules sont plongées .Dans notre travail on s’est intéressé à la modélisation des nanoparticules d’or sphérique...
Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions: I. Reliable Mock Observations from SPH Simulations
Koepferl, Christine M; Dale, James E; Biscani, Francesco
2016-01-01
Through synthetic observations of a hydrodynamical simulation of an evolving star-forming region, we assess how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurements of properties which trace star formation. Testing and calibrating observational measurements requires synthetic observations which are as realistic as possible. In this part of the paper series (Paper I), we explore different techniques for how to map the distributions of densities and temperatures from the particle-based simulations onto a Voronoi mesh suitable for radiative transfer and consequently explore their accuracy. We further test different ways to set up the radiative transfer in order to produce realistic synthetic observations. We give a detailed description of all methods and ultimately recommend techniques. We have found that the flux around 20 microns is strongly overestimated when blindly coupling the dust radiative transfer temperature with the hydrodynamical gas temperature. We find that when instead assuming a consta...
Rubakov, V A
2014-01-01
In these lectures we first concentrate on the cosmological problems which, hopefully, have to do with the new physics to be probed at the LHC: the nature and origin of dark matter and generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We give several examples showing the LHC cosmological potential. These are WIMPs as cold dark matter, gravitinos as warm dark matter, and electroweak baryogenesis as a mechanism for generating matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the remaining part of the lectures we discuss the cosmological perturbations as a tool for studying the epoch preceeding the conventional hot stage of the cosmological evolution.
Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches
Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac
2016-07-01
We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code ENZO-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body code GADGET-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in GADGET-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ˜ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, GADGET-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than ENZO-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.
Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches.
Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac
2016-07-01
We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code enzo-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body code gadget-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in gadget-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ∼ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, gadget-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than enzo-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.
Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Saghatchi, Roozbeh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid
2016-08-01
This paper studies a two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow past a circular cylinder with in-line oscillation close to a free-surface. The sub-particle scale (SPS) turbulence model of a Lagrangian particle-based smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations together with the continuity equation. The accuracy of numerical code has been verified using two cases consisting of an oscillating cylinder placed in the stationary fluid, and flow over a fixed cylinder close to a free-surface. Simulations are conducted for the Froude number of 0.3, the Reynolds numbers of 40 and 80, various gap ratios for fully-submerged and half-submerge cylinders. The dimensionless frequency and amplitude of oscillating have been chosen as 0.5, 0.8 and 10, 15, respectively. The selection of such a high oscillating frequency causes the flow regime to become turbulent. It is seen that the gap ratio defined as the ratio of cylinder distance from free-surface and its diameter, strongly affects the flow pattern and the magnitude of the drag and lift coefficients. The jet-like flow (the region above the cylinder and beneath the free-surface) creation is discussed in detail and showed that the strength of this jet-like flow is weakened when the gap ratio shrinks. It is seen that by decreasing the gap ratio, the lift and drag coefficients increase and decrease, respectively. It is found that the Reynolds number has an inverse effect on the drag and lift coefficients. Also, it is concluded that by increasing the amplitude of oscillation the drag coefficient increases.
A study of energy transfer during water entry of solids using incompressible SPH simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
PRAPANCH NAIR; GAURAV TOMAR
2017-04-01
Cavity formation during water entry of a solid corresponds to the deceleration experienced by the solid. Several experimental studies in the past have facilitated qualitative understanding of the relation between flow and impact properties and the type of cavity formed. The types of cavities formed are classified primarilybased on the nature of the seal, such as (a) surface seal, (b) deep seal, (c) shallow seal and (d) quasi-static seal. The flow mechanism behind these features and their effects on the speed of the impacting solid require further quantitative understanding. A study of such phenomenon is difficult using the existing CFD techniques owing to the fact that the high density ratios between the two phases, namely water and air, bring in issues with respect to the convergence of the linear system used to solve for the pressure field for a divergence-free velocity field.Based on a free surface modeling method, we present Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) simulations of water entry of two-dimensional solids of different shapes, densities and initial angular momenta.From the velocity field of the fluid and shape of the cavity, we relate the transfer of kinetic energy from the solid to the fluid through different phases of the cavity formation. Finally, we present a three-dimensional simulation of water entry to assert the utility of the method for analysis of real life water entry scenarios.
High-resolution simulations of clump-clump collisions using SPH with particle splitting
Kitsionas, S.; Whitworth, A. P.
2007-06-01
We investigate, by means of numerical simulations, the phenomenology of star formation triggered by low-velocity collisions between low-mass molecular clumps. The simulations are performed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code which satisfies the Jeans condition by invoking on-the-fly particle splitting. Clumps are modelled as stable truncated (non-singular) isothermal, i.e. Bonnor-Ebert, spheres. Collisions are characterized by M0 (clump mass), b (offset parameter, i.e. ratio of impact parameter to clump radius) and (Mach number, i.e. ratio of collision velocity to effective post-shock sound speed). The gas subscribes to a barotropic equation of state, which is intended to capture (i) the scaling of pre-collision internal velocity dispersion with clump mass, (ii) post-shock radiative cooling and (iii) adiabatic heating in optically thick protostellar fragments. The efficiency of star formation is found to vary between 10 and 30 per cent in the different collisions studied and it appears to increase with decreasing M0, and/or decreasing b, and/or increasing . For b compressed layers which fragment into filaments. Protostellar objects then condense out of the filaments and accrete from them. The resulting accretion rates are high, , for the first . The densities in the filaments, , are sufficient that they could be mapped in NH3 or CS line radiation, in nearby star formation regions.
SPH-FEM接触算法在冲击动力学数值计算中的应用%APPLICATION OF SPH-FEM CONTACT ALGORITHM IN IMPACT DYNAMICS SIMULATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张志春; 强洪夫; 高巍然
2011-01-01
Coupling of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Finite Element Method (FEM) can make full use of the superiority of SPH in dealing with large deformation and the high accuracy and efficiency of FEM. This paper calculates the contact between SPH particles and finite elements using meshless particle contact method, and background particles are assigned in the position of FE nodes. The oblique impact between spheral-nosed projectile and steel target and the normal impact between blunt-nosed projectile and steel target are calculated using the SPH-FEM contact algorithm. The fully variable smoothing lengths algorithm is used in SPH and the EBE algorithm is used in FEM. The numerical results of LS-DYNA and the experimental observations validate the accuracy of the SPH-FEM contact algorithm.%为了充分发挥光滑粒子流体动力学方法(Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics,SPH)易于处理大变形以及有限元(Finite Element Method,FEM)计算精度和效率高的优势,论文基于无网格粒子接触算法,在有限元节点处设置背景粒子,通过接触力的方式计算SPH粒子和有限单元之间的接触问题.使用SPH-FEM接触算法分别对球头钢弹斜冲击钢板和平头钢弹正冲击钢板的情况进行了三维数值计算,SPH采用完全变光滑长度算法,FEM采用矩阵向量积的EBE(Element-By-Element)算法.将SPH-FEM接触算法的计算结果与LS-DYNA的计算结果以及实验结果进行了对比验证.
3D sph simulations of giant herbig-haro flows and jet-cloud interactions in star formation regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Describimos algunos resultados recientes de simulaciones tridimensionales con hidrodin amica de part culas suavizadas (SPH de chorros densos con enfriamiento radiativo en regiones de formaci on estelar. Discutimos la estructura y cinem atica de los objetos HH gigantes recientemente detectados y la interacci on de chorros HH con las nubes densas y compactas que los rodean.
Moving Mesh Cosmology: Properties of Gas Disks
Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2011-01-01
We compare the structural properties of galaxies formed in cosmological simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET with those using the moving-mesh code AREPO. Both codes employ identical gravity solvers and the same sub-resolution physics but use very different methods to track the hydrodynamic evolution of gas. This permits us to isolate the effects of the hydro solver on the formation and evolution of galactic disks. In a matching sample of GADGET and AREPO haloes we fit simulated gas disks with exponential profiles. We find that the cold gas disks formed using AREPO have systematically larger disk scale lengths and higher specific angular momenta than their GADGET counterparts. The reason for these differences is rooted in the inaccuracies of the SPH solver and calls for a reassessment of commonly adopted feedback prescriptions in cosmological simulations.
The effects of AGN feedback and SPH formulation on black hole growth in galaxies
Liu, MaoSheng; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu
2016-05-01
We perform simulations of isolated galaxies and major mergers to investigate the effects on black hole (BH) growth due to variations in active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback models and different smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) solvers. In particular we examine density-SPH versus newer pressure-SPH formulation and their significance relative to minor changes in subgrid AGN feedback prescriptions. The aim is to use these idealized simulations to understand the impact of these effects for large cosmological volume simulations where these models are often adopted. In both isolated galaxies and galaxy mergers, we find that star formation histories are largely insensitive to the choice of SPH schemes whilst BH accretion rate can change. This can result in a factor of 2-3 difference in final BH mass for the two hydrodynamic formulations. However, the differences are much smaller than those obtained even with small changes in the subgrid AGN feedback prescription. In particular, depending on the size of the region and the manner in which the AGN energy is deposited, the star formation rate is suppressed by a factor of 2 in isolated galaxies and the star burst completely quenched during the coalescence of two galaxies. The final BH mass differs by over an order of magnitude by changes in AGN feedback model. Our results indicated that any change in the hydrodynamic formulation is likely subdominant to the effects of changing subgrid physics around the BH, although thermodynamic state and morphology of the gas remnant are also sensitive to the change in hydrodynamic solver.
In situ and in-transit analysis of cosmological simulations
Friesen, Brian; Almgren, Ann; Lukić, Zarija; Weber, Gunther; Morozov, Dmitriy; Beckner, Vincent; Day, Marcus
2016-08-01
Modern cosmological simulations have reached the trillion-element scale, rendering data storage and subsequent analysis formidable tasks. To address this circumstance, we present a new MPI-parallel approach for analysis of simulation data while the simulation runs, as an alternative to the traditional workflow consisting of periodically saving large data sets to disk for subsequent `offline' analysis. We demonstrate this approach in the compressible gasdynamics/ N-body code Nyx, a hybrid MPI+OpenMP code based on the BoxLib framework, used for large-scale cosmological simulations. We have enabled on-the-fly workflows in two different ways: one is a straightforward approach consisting of all MPI processes periodically halting the main simulation and analyzing each component of data that they own (` in situ'). The other consists of partitioning processes into disjoint MPI groups, with one performing the simulation and periodically sending data to the other `sidecar' group, which post-processes it while the simulation continues (`in-transit'). The two groups execute their tasks asynchronously, stopping only to synchronize when a new set of simulation data needs to be analyzed. For both the in situ and in-transit approaches, we experiment with two different analysis suites with distinct performance behavior: one which finds dark matter halos in the simulation using merge trees to calculate the mass contained within iso-density contours, and another which calculates probability distribution functions and power spectra of various fields in the simulation. Both are common analysis tasks for cosmology, and both result in summary statistics significantly smaller than the original data set. We study the behavior of each type of analysis in each workflow in order to determine the optimal configuration for the different data analysis algorithms.
Self-Consistent Cosmological Simulations of DGP Braneworld Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Fabian [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics (KICP)
2009-09-01
We perform cosmological N-body simulations of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, by solving the full non-linear equations of motion for the scalar degree of freedom in this model, the brane bending mode. While coupling universally to matter, the brane-bending mode has self-interactions that become important as soon as the density field becomes non-linear. These self-interactions lead to a suppression of the field in high-density environments, and restore gravity to General Relativity. The code uses a multi-grid relaxation scheme to solve the non-linear field equation in the quasi-static approximation. We perform simulations of a flat self-accelerating DGP model without cosmological constant. However, the type of non-linear interactions of the brane-bending mode, which are the focus of this study, are generic to a wide class of braneworld cosmologies. The results of the DGP simulations are compared with standard gravity simulations assuming the same expansion history, and with DGP simulations using the linearized equation for the brane bending mode. This allows us to isolate the effects of the non-linear self-couplings of the field which are noticeable already on quasi-linear scales. We present results on the matter power spectrum and the halo mass function, and discuss the behavior of the brane bending mode within cosmological structure formation. We find that, independently of CMB constraints, the self-accelerating DGP model is strongly constrained by current weak lensing and cluster abundance measurements.
Ševecek, Pavel; Broz, Miroslav; Nesvorny, David; Durda, Daniel D.; Asphaug, Erik; Walsh, Kevin J.; Richardson, Derek C.
2016-10-01
Detailed models of asteroid collisions can yield important constrains for the evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt, but the respective parameter space is large and often unexplored. We thus performed a new set of simulations of asteroidal breakups, i.e. fragmentations of intact targets, subsequent gravitational reaccumulation and formation of small asteroid families, focusing on parent bodies with diameters D = 10 km.Simulations were performed with a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code (Benz & Asphaug 1994), combined with an efficient N-body integrator (Richardson et al. 2000). We assumed a number of projectile sizes, impact velocities and impact angles. The rheology used in the physical model does not include friction nor crushing; this allows for a direct comparison to results of Durda et al. (2007). Resulting size-frequency distributions are significantly different from scaled-down simulations with D = 100 km monolithic targets, although they may be even more different for pre-shattered targets.We derive new parametric relations describing fragment distributions, suitable for Monte-Carlo collisional models. We also characterize velocity fields and angular distributions of fragments, which can be used as initial conditions in N-body simulations of small asteroid families. Finally, we discuss various uncertainties related to SPH simulations.
Cosmological MHD simulations of cluster formation with anisotropic thermal conduction
Ruszkowski, M; Bruggen, M; Parrish, I; Oh, S Peng
2010-01-01
(abridged) The ICM has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially. Using cosmological simulations of the Santa Barbara cluster we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and SKA and future X-ray spectroscopic stu...
Detecting shock waves in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations
Pfrommer, C; Ensslin, T A; Jubelgas, M; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Jubelgas, Martin
2006-01-01
We develop a formalism for the identification and accurate estimation of the strength of structure formation shocks during cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Shocks not only play a decisive role for the thermalization of gas in virialising structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. Our formalism is applicable both to ordinary non-relativistic thermal gas, and to plasmas composed of CRs and thermal gas. To this end, we derive an analytical solution to the one-dimensional Riemann shock tube problem for a composite plasma of CRs and thermal gas. We apply our methods to study the properties of structure formation shocks in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the LCDM model. We find that most of the energy is dissipated in weak internal shocks with Mach numbers M~2 which are predominantly central flow shocks or merger shock waves traversing halo centres. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by external ...
RAMSES-CH: a new chemodynamical code for cosmological simulations
Few, C. G.; Courty, S.; Gibson, B. K.; Kawata, D.; Calura, F.; Teyssier, R.
2012-07-01
We present a new chemodynamical code -RAMSES-CH- for use in simulating the self-consistent evolution of chemical and hydrodynamical properties of galaxies within a fully cosmological framework. We build upon the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, which includes a treatment of self-gravity, hydrodynamics, star formation, radiative cooling and supernova feedback, to trace the dominant isotopes of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe. We include the contribution of Type Ia and Type II supernovae, in addition to low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars, relaxing the instantaneous recycling approximation. The new chemical evolution modules are highly flexible and portable, lending themselves to ready exploration of variations in the underpinning stellar and nuclear physics. We apply RAMSES-CH to the cosmological simulation of a typical L★ galaxy, demonstrating the successful recovery of the basic empirical constraints regarding [α/Fe]-[Fe/H] and Type Ia/II supernova rates.
RAMSES-CH: A New Chemodynamical Code for Cosmological Simulations
Few, C Gareth; Gibson, Brad K; Kawata, Daisuke; Calura, Francesco; Teyssier, Romain
2012-01-01
We present a new chemodynamical code - Ramses-CH - for use in simulating the self-consistent evolution of chemical and hydrodynamical properties of galaxies within a fully cosmological framework. We build upon the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses, which includes a treatment of self-gravity, hydrodynamics, star formation, radiative cooling, and supernovae feedback, to trace the dominant isotopes of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. We include the contribution of Type Ia and II supernovae, in addition to low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars, relaxing the instantaneous recycling approximation. The new chemical evolution modules are highly flexible and portable, lending themselves to ready exploration of variations in the underpining stellar and nuclear physics. We apply Ramses-CH to the cosmological simulation of a typical L\\star galaxy, demonstrating the successful recovery of the basic empirical constraints regarding, [{\\alpha}/Fe]-[Fe/H] and Type Ia/II supernovae rates.
Implementing the DC Mode in Cosmological Simulations with Supercomoving Variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Rudd, Douglas H
2011-06-02
As emphasized by previous studies, proper treatment of the density fluctuation on the fundamental scale of a cosmological simulation volume - the 'DC mode' - is critical for accurate modeling of spatial correlations on scales ~> 10% of simulation box size. We provide further illustration of the effects of the DC mode on the abundance of halos in small boxes and show that it is straightforward to incorporate this mode in cosmological codes that use the 'supercomoving' variables. The equations governing evolution of dark matter and baryons recast with these variables are particularly simple and include the expansion factor, and hence the effect of the DC mode, explicitly only in the Poisson equation.
Cosmological Simulations on a Grid of Computers
Depardon, Benjamin; Desprez, Frédéric; Blaizot, Jérémy; Courtois, Hélène M
2010-01-01
The work presented in this paper aims at restricting the input parameter values of the semi-analytical model used in GALICS and MOMAF, so as to derive which parameters influence the most the results, e.g., star formation, feedback and halo recycling efficiencies, etc. Our approach is to proceed empirically: we run lots of simulations and derive the correct ranges of values. The computation time needed is so large, that we need to run on a grid of computers. Hence, we model GALICS and MOMAF execution time and output files size, and run the simulation using a grid middleware: DIET. All the complexity of accessing resources, scheduling simulations and managing data is harnessed by DIET and hidden behind a web portal accessible to the users.
Cosmological simulations using a static scalar-tensor theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Gonzalez-Morales, A X [Departamento Ingenierias, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880 Lomas de Santa Fe, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Gabbasov, R F [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico)
2007-11-15
We present {lambda}CDM N-body cosmological simulations in the framework of of a static general scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Due to the influence of the non-minimally coupled scalar field, the gravitational potential is modified by a Yukawa type term, yielding a new structure formation dynamics. We present some preliminary results and, in particular, we compute the density and velocity profiles of the most massive group.
Interactive Exploration of Cosmological Dark-Matter Simulation Data.
Scherzinger, Aaron; Brix, Tobias; Drees, Dominik; Volker, Andreas; Radkov, Kiril; Santalidis, Niko; Fieguth, Alexander; Hinrichs, Klaus H
2017-01-01
The winning entry of the 2015 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest, this article describes a visualization tool for cosmological data resulting from dark-matter simulations. The proposed system helps users explore all aspects of the data at once and receive more detailed information about structures of interest at any time. Moreover, novel methods for visualizing and interactively exploring dark-matter halo substructures are proposed.
RAMSES-CH: A New Chemodynamical Code for Cosmological Simulations
Few, C. Gareth; Courty, Stephanie; Gibson, Brad K.; Kawata, Daisuke; Calura, Francesco; Teyssier, Romain
2012-01-01
We present a new chemodynamical code - Ramses-CH - for use in simulating the self-consistent evolution of chemical and hydrodynamical properties of galaxies within a fully cosmological framework. We build upon the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses, which includes a treatment of self-gravity, hydrodynamics, star formation, radiative cooling, and supernovae feedback, to trace the dominant isotopes of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. We include the contribution of Type Ia and II supernovae, in ad...
RAMSES-CH: a new chemodynamical code for cosmological simulations
Few, C. G.; Courty, S.; Gibson, B. K.; Kawata, D; Calura, F.; Teyssier, R.
2012-01-01
We present a new chemodynamical code -RAMSES-CH- for use in simulating the self-consistent evolution of chemical and hydrodynamical properties of galaxies within a fully cosmological framework. We build upon the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, which includes a treatment of self-gravity, hydrodynamics, star formation, radiative cooling and supernova feedback, to trace the dominant isotopes of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe. We include the contribution of Type Ia and Type II supernovae, in ad...
Cosmological simulations of the high-redshift radio universe
Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Windhorst, Rogier A.
2004-01-01
Using self-consistent cosmological simulations of disc galaxy formation, we analyse the 1.4 GHz radio flux from high-redshift progenitors of present-day normal spirals within the context of present-day and planned next-generation observational facilities. We demonstrate that while current radio facilities such as the Very Large Array (VLA) are unlikely to trace these progenitors beyond redshifts z
Cosmological Simulations with Scale-Free Initial Conditions; 1, Adiabatic Hydrodynamics
Owen, J M; Evrard, A E; Hernquist, L E; Katz, N; Weinberg, David H.; Evrard, August E.; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal
1997-01-01
We analyze hierarchical structure formation based on scale-free initial conditions in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, including a baryonic component. We present three independent, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, performed with two different SPH codes (TreeSPH and P3MSPH) at two resolutions. Each simulation is based upon identical initial conditions, which consist of Gaussian distributed initial density fluctuations that have an n=-1 power spectrum. The baryonic material is modeled as an ideal gas subject only to shock heating and adiabatic heating and cooling. The evolution is expected to be self-similar in time, and under certain restrictions we identify the expected scalings for many properties of the distribution of collapsed objects in all three realizations. The distributions of dark matter masses, baryon masses, and mass and emission weighted temperatures scale quite reliably. However, the density estimates in the central regions of these structures are determined by the degree of num...
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-01-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in Eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in Eta Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post processing 3D SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for Eta Car.
Simulating the Nature of Science: Cosmology Distilled
Erickson, Tim
2006-12-01
We will show the latest version of our nature-of-science simulation system, in which students work in groups as researchers to uncover the structure of the (simulated and abstract) universe. They make observations, develop hypotheses, and publish their results. This community of scholars gradually builds up an understanding of their new field of research, as revealed in their journal articles. Along the way, the student-researchers see their hypotheses shattered by new data, and even have to deal with funding issues, since observations are not free. Some teachers are enthusiastic about this as a way to do writing across the curriculum. More important, though, is how experiences like this can help students see how science really works: that it takes teamwork, diverse ideas, and tenacity in addition to plain old smarts. It also helps students distinguish between conjectures that are truly scientific and those that aren't. This work is supported by NSF; we'll show how the system works.
Effects of simulated cosmological magnetic fields on the galaxy population
Marinacci, Federico
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of varying the intensity of the primordial magnetic seed field on the global properties of the galaxy population in ideal MHD cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We vary the seed field in our calculations in a range of values still compatible with the current cosmological upper limits. We show that above a critical intensity of $\\simeq 10^{-9}\\,{\\rm G}$ the additional pressure arising from the field strongly affects the evolution of gaseous structures, leading to a suppression of the cosmic star formation history. The suppression is stronger for larger seed fields, and directly reflects into a lower galaxy number density at fixed stellar mass and a less massive stellar component at fixed virial mass at all mass scales. These signatures may be used, in addition to the existing methods, to derive tighter constraints on primordial magnetic seed field intensities.
Spurious haloes and discreteness-driven relaxation in cosmological simulations
Power, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Obreschkow, D.; Hobbs, A.; Lewis, G. F.
2016-10-01
There is strong evidence that cosmological N-body simulations dominated by warm dark matter (WDM) contain spurious or unphysical haloes, most readily apparent as regularly spaced low-mass haloes strung along filaments. We show that spurious haloes are a feature of traditional N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation models, including WDM and cold dark matter models, in which gravitational collapse proceeds in an initially anisotropic fashion, and arises naturally as a consequence of discreteness-driven relaxation. We demonstrate this using controlled N-body simulations of plane-symmetric collapse and show that spurious haloes are seeded at shell crossing by localized velocity perturbations induced by the discrete nature of the density field, and that their characteristic separation should be approximately the mean inter-particle separation of the N-body simulation, which is fixed by the mass resolution within the volume. Using cosmological N-body simulations in which particles are split into two collisionless components of fixed mass ratio, we find that the spatial distribution of the two components show signatures of discreteness-driven relaxation on both large and small scales. Adopting a spline kernel gravitational softening that is of order the comoving mean inter-particle separation helps to suppress the effect of discreteness-driven relaxation, but cannot eliminate it completely. These results provide further motivation for recent developments of new algorithms, which include, for example, revisions of the traditional N-body approach by means of spatially adaptive anistropric gravitational softenings or explicit solution of the evolution of dark matter in phase space.
Cosmological $N$-body simulations including radiation perturbations
Brandbyge, Jacob; Tram, Thomas; Leclercq, Florent; Fidler, Christian; Hannestad, Steen
2016-01-01
Cosmological $N$-body simulations are the standard tool to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as the coupling between matter and radiation ($\\equiv$ photons and neutrinos). In this paper we investigate novel hybrid simulations which incorporate interactions between radiation and matter to the leading order in General Relativity, whilst evolving the matter dynamics in full non-linearity according to Newtonian theory. Our hybrid simulations come with a relativistic space-time and make it possible to investigate structure formation in a unified framework. In the present work we focus on simulations initialized at $z=99$, and show that the extracted matter power spectrum receives up to $3\\%$ corrections on very large scales through radiation. Our numerical findings compare favourably with linear analytical results from...
Cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized galaxies
Colin, Pedro; Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio
2016-01-01
We introduce a new set of eight Milky Way-sized cosmological simulations performed using the AMR code ART + Hydrodynamics in a LCDM cosmology. The set of zoom-in simulations covers present-day virial masses in the 0.83-1.56 x 10^12 msun range and is carried out with our simple but effective deterministic star formation (SF) and ``explosive' stellar feedback prescriptions. The work is focused on showing the goodness of the simulated set of ``field' Milky Way-sized galaxies. Our results are as follows. (a) The circular velocity curves of our simulated galaxies are nearly flat. (b) Runs ending with a significant disk component, for their stellar masses, have V_max, radius, SF rate, gas fraction, and specific angular momentum values consistent with observations of late-type galaxies. (C) The two most spheroid-dominated galaxies formed in halos with late active merger histories, but other run that ends also as spheroid-dominated, never had major mergers. (d) Our simulations are consistent with the empirical stella...
Cosmological N-body simulations with suppressed variance
Angulo, Raul E.; Pontzen, Andrew
2016-10-01
We present and test a method that dramatically reduces variance arising from the sparse sampling of wavemodes in cosmological simulations. The method uses two simulations which are fixed (the initial Fourier mode amplitudes are fixed to the ensemble average power spectrum) and paired (with initial modes exactly out of phase). We measure the power spectrum, monopole and quadrupole redshift-space correlation functions, halo mass function and reduced bispectrum at z = 1. By these measures, predictions from a fixed pair can be as precise on non-linear scales as an average over 50 traditional simulations. The fixing procedure introduces a non-Gaussian correction to the initial conditions; we give an analytic argument showing why the simulations are still able to predict the mean properties of the Gaussian ensemble. We anticipate that the method will drive down the computational time requirements for accurate large-scale explorations of galaxy bias and clustering statistics, and facilitating the use of numerical simulations in cosmological data interpretation.
低雷诺数流动问题的SPH数值模拟及与FPM方法的比较%SPH simulation of low reynolds number flow and comparison with FPM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周浩; 徐志宏; 唐玲艳; 冉宪文; 汤文辉
2015-01-01
The low Reynolds number flow is simulated with SPH method, the influent of initial smooth length and kernel function on the simulation result is researched. The simulation of classic Poiseuille flow and Couette flow show that SPH was an ideal method to model low Reynolds number flow, furthermore, the precision and efficiency of the computation of SPH and FPM are compared.%采用SPH方法对低雷诺数流动问题进行了数值模拟，讨论了初始光滑长度以及核函数影响域大小对结果的影响。典型Poiseuille流和Couette流的模拟结果表明， SPH方法能够很好地模拟低雷诺数流动。并比较了SPH方法和FPM方法的精度和计算效率。
Vittorio, Nicola
2017-01-01
Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.
Numerical Simulation of Water Movement after Gate by Using SPH Method%闸后水流运动的SPH法数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李俊娜; 李捷; 郭艳
2012-01-01
在对光滑离子流体动力学（SPH）法的基本原理、核函数及控制方程离散格式、边界处理方法等进行介绍的基础上建立了数值水槽模型,成功模拟了闸门开启后水流的界面变形、界面破碎、气泡的生成及溃灭,以及涌浪的生成过程。结果表明SPH法能够捕捉到流体的飞溅及融合现象,适于模拟具有瞬时极大变形等水流运动。%The basic principles of SPH method for smooth ion fluid dynamics,nuclear function and discrete forms of governing equations as well as boundary treating methods are introduced here.Then the numerical flume model is established accordingly,and the water interface deformation,screen breaking,bubble formation and collapse after opening the gate,as well as the swell generation process are simulated successfully.The results show that the fluid splash and fusion phenomena could be captured by using SPH method,and the method is suitable for the transient simulation with the great water movement and deformation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王建明; 裴信超; 樊现行; 刘伟; 曹雁超
2013-01-01
为消除有限元法（ finite element method， FEM）处理切屑分离及大变形问题的局限，使用光滑粒子流体动力学法（ smooth particle hydrodynamics， SPH）耦合FEM模拟此类问题。工件使用SPH建模，弹丸使用FEM建模，二者通过接触算法实现耦合，通过仿真实验研究锐边弹丸在不同入射条件下撞击工件时，弹丸的翻转效应对工件表面弹坑深度、切屑堆积高度的影响。结果表明：当前倾角较大时，弹丸向前翻转，对工件表面产生碾压作用，形成尖锐的弹坑，切屑堆积在弹坑前部边缘不与工件分离；当前倾角较小时，弹丸向后翻转，对工件表面产生铲削作用，切屑与工件分离，弹坑横截面光滑而平缓。通过与相关实验及理论数据的比较，验证了仿真模型及结果的正确性，为锐边弹丸侵蚀工件表面的仿真研究提供新的手段。%The smoothed particle hydrodynamics ( SPH) method coupled FEM was applied to eliminate the limitations of finite element method ( FEM) dealing with the chip separation and large deformation of the work piece.The SPH parti-cles were used to model the work piece and the FEM was applied to discrete the angular particle, which were coupled by using the contact algorithm.The influence of particle rotating effects on the crater depths and chips pile-up heights was studied under different simulation incidence conditions.The results showed that the particle would rotate forward when its rake angle bacame large enough.The angular crater would be formed and chips would pile up at the edge of the cra-ter without separating from the work piece.On the other hand, the particle would rotate backward when its rake angle was small.A shallow and smoothed crater would be formed and chips would separate from the work piece.The simula-tion model and results were validated by the existing theoretical and experimental data, which could provide an effective simulation
Brooks, A M; Booth, C M; Willman, B; Gardner, J P; Wadsley, J; Stinson, G; Quinn, T
2006-01-01
We examine the origin and evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies using high resolution cosmological SPH + N-Body simulations that include a physically motivated description of the effects of supernovae feedback and subsequent metal enrichment. Our simulations allow us to distinguish between two possible sources that contribute to both the origin of the mass-metallicity relationship and to the low chemical yield observed in low galaxy masses: 1) metal loss due to gas outflow, or 2) inefficient star formation at the lowest galaxy masses. Our simulated galaxies are in excellent agreement with the observed M-Z relationship, both at z=0 and z=2. We find that gas mass loss becomes increasingly important at decreasing galaxy masses for our simulations, This mass loss results in a low effective yield for our lowest mass galaxies in good agreement with observational results. By considering all the gas that has ever belonged to a galaxy (back to z=3), we find the metallicity is unchanged from...
How well do cosmological simulations reproduce individual-halo properties?
Trenti, M; Hallman, E J; Skillman, S W; Shull, J M
2010-01-01
Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation often rely on prescriptions for star formation and feedback that depend on halo properties such as halo mass, central over-density, and virial temperature. In this paper we address the convergence of individual halo properties, based on their number of particles N, focusing in particular on the mass of halos near the resolution limit of a simulation. While it has been established that the halo mass function is sampled on average down to N~30 particles, we show that individual halo properties exhibit significant scatter, and some systematic biases, as one approaches the resolution limit. We carry out a series of cosmological simulations using the Gadget2 and Enzo codes with N_p=64^3 to N_p=1024^3 total particles, keeping the same large-scale structure in the simulation box. We consider boxes from l_{box} = 8 Mpc/h to l_{box} = 512 Mpc/h to probe different halo masses and formation redshifts. We cross-identify dark matter halos in boxes at different resolutions and m...
Cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxies with cosmic ray feedback
Chen, Jingjing; Bryan, Greg L.; Salem, Munier
2016-08-01
We perform zoom-in cosmological simulations of a suite of dwarf galaxies, examining the impact of cosmic rays (CRs) generated by supernovae, including the effect of diffusion. We first look at the effect of varying the uncertain CR parameters by repeatedly simulating a single galaxy. Then we fix the comic ray model and simulate five dwarf systems with virial masses range from 8 to 30 × 1010 M⊙. We find that including CR feedback (with diffusion) consistently leads to disc-dominated systems with relatively flat rotation curves and constant star formation rates. In contrast, our purely thermal feedback case results in a hot stellar system and bursty star formation. The CR simulations very well match the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but have a lower gas fraction than in real systems. We also find that the dark matter cores of the CR feedback galaxies are cuspy, while the purely thermal feedback case results in a substantial core.
Cosmological Simulations of Dwarf Galaxies with Cosmic Ray Feedback
Chen, Jingjing; Salem, Munier
2016-01-01
We perform zoom-in cosmological simulations of a suite of dwarf galaxies, examining the impact of cosmic-rays generated by supernovae, including the effect of diffusion. We first look at the effect of varying the uncertain cosmic ray parameters by repeatedly simulating a single galaxy. Then we fix the comic ray model and simulate five dwarf systems with virial masses range from 8-30 $\\times 10^{10}$ Msun. We find that including cosmic ray feedback (with diffusion) consistently leads to disk dominated systems with relatively flat rotation curves and constant star formation rates. In contrast, our purely thermal feedback case results in a hot stellar system and bursty star formation. The CR simulations very well match the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but have a lower gas fraction than in real systems. We also find that the dark matter cores of the CR feedback galaxies are cuspy, while the purely thermal feedback case results in a substantial core.
Cosmological Structure Formation Shocks and Cosmic Rays in Hydrodynamical Simulations
Pfrommer, C.; Springel, V.; Enβlin, T. A.; Jubelgas, M.
Cosmological shock waves during structure formation not only play a decisive role for the thermalization of gas in virializing structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. We discuss a novel numerical treatment of the physics of cosmic rays in combination with a formalism for identifying and measuring the shock strength on-the-fly during a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population is treated self-consistently in order to assess its dynamical impact on the thermal gas as well as other implications on cosmological observables. Using this formalism, we study the history of the thermalization process in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the Lambda cold dark matter model. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by shocks with high Mach numbers up to 1000, but they play only a minor role in the energy balance of thermalization. However, this finding has important consequences for our understanding of the spatial distribution of CRs in the large-scale structure. In high resolution simulations of galaxy clusters, we find a low contribution of the averaged CR pressure, due to the small acceleration efficiency of lower Mach numbers of flow shocks inside halos and the softer adiabatic index of CRs. These effects disfavour CRs when a composite of thermal gas and CRs is adiabatically compressed. However, within cool core regions, the CR pressure reaches equipartition with the thermal pressure leading, to a lower effective adiabatic index and thus to an enhanced compressibility of the central intracluster medium. This effect increases the central density and pressure of the cluster, and thus the resulting X-ray emission and the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux decrement. The integrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, however, is only slightly changed.
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suryadeep Ray
2004-09-01
We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.
Adaptive Techniques for Clustered N-Body Cosmological Simulations
Menon, Harshitha; Zheng, Gengbin; Jetley, Pritish; Kale, Laxmikant; Quinn, Thomas; Governato, Fabio
2014-01-01
ChaNGa is an N-body cosmology simulation application implemented using Charm++. In this paper, we present the parallel design of ChaNGa and address many challenges arising due to the high dynamic ranges of clustered datasets. We focus on optimizations based on adaptive techniques for scaling to more than 128K cores. We demonstrate strong scaling on up to 512K cores of Blue Waters evolving 12 and 24 billion particles. We also show strong scaling of highly clustered datasets on up to 128K cores.
Cosmological Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation with Cmbeasy
Müller, C M
2004-01-01
We introduce a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation and data analysis package for the cosmological computation package Cmbeasy. We have taken special care in implementing an adaptive step algorithm for the Markov Chain Monte Carlo in order to improve convergence. Data analysis routines are provided which allow to test models of the Universe against up-to-date measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Supernovae Ia and Large Scale Structure. The observational data is provided with the software for convenient usage. The package is publicly available as part of the Cmbeasy software at www.cmbeasy.org.
Examining subgrid models of supermassive black holes in cosmological simulation
Sutter, P M
2010-01-01
While supermassive black holes (SMBHs) play an important role in galaxy and cluster evolution, at present they can only be included in large-scale cosmological simulation via subgrid techniques. However, these subgrid models have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Using a newly-developed fast, parallel spherical overdensity halo finder built into the simulation code FLASH, we perform a suite of dark matter-only cosmological simulations to study the effects of subgrid model choice on relations between SMBH mass and dark matter halo mass and velocity dispersion. We examine three aspects of SMBH subgrid models: the choice of initial black hole seed mass, the test for merging two black holes, and the frequency of applying the subgrid model. We also examine the role that merging can play in determining the relations, ignoring the complicating effects of SMBH-driven accretion and feedback. We find that the choice of subgrid model can dramatically affect the black hole merger rate, the cosmic SMBH mass densit...
The New Horizon Run Cosmological N-Body Simulations
Kim, Juhan; Rossi, Graziano; Lee, Sang Min; Gott, J Richard
2011-01-01
We present two large cosmological N-body simulations, called Horizon Run 2 (HR2) and Horizon Run 3 (HR3), made using 6000^3 = 216 billions and 7210^3 = 374 billion particles, spanning a volume of (7.200 Gpc/h)^3 and (10.815 Gpc/h)^3, respectively. These simulations improve on our previous Horizon Run 1 (HR1) up to a factor of 4.4 in volume, and range from 2600 to over 8800 times the volume of the Millennium Run. In addition, they achieve a considerably finer mass resolution, down to 1.25x10^11 M_sun/h, allowing to resolve galaxy-size halos with mean particle separations of 1.2 Mpc/h and 1.5 Mpc/h, respectively. We have measured the power spectrum, correlation function, mass function and basic halo properties with percent level accuracy, and verified that they correctly reproduce the LCDM theoretical expectations, in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. Our unprecedentedly large-volume N-body simulations can be used for a variety of studies in cosmology and astrophysics, ranging from large-scal...
Self-Consistent Modeling of Reionization in Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
Oñorbe, Jose; Lukić, Zarija
2016-01-01
The ultraviolet background (UVB) emitted by quasars and galaxies governs the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM), regulates the formation of high-redshift galaxies, and is thus a key quantity for modeling cosmic reionization. The vast majority of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations implement the UVB via a set of spatially uniform photoionization and photoheating rates derived from UVB synthesis models. We show that simulations using canonical UVB rates reionize, and perhaps more importantly, spuriously heat the IGM, much earlier z ~ 15 than they should. This problem arises because at z > 6, where observational constraints are non-existent, the UVB amplitude is far too high. We introduce a new methodology to remedy this issue, and generate self-consistent photoionization and photoheating rates to model any chosen reionization history. Following this approach, we run a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of different reionization scenarios, and explore the impact of the timing of ...
Evolution of the gas kinematics of galaxies in cosmological simulations
De Rossi, Maria E
2013-01-01
We studied the evolution of the gas kinematics of galaxies by performing hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological scenario. We paid special attention to the origin of the scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation and the features which could be associated with mergers and interactions. We extended the study by De Rossi et al. (2010) and analysed their whole simulated sample which includes both, gas disc-dominated and spheroid-dominated systems. We found that mergers and interactions can affect the rotation curves directly or indirectly inducing a scatter in the Tully-Fisher Relation larger than the simulated evolution since z=3. In agreement with previous works, kinematical indicators which combine the rotation velocity and dispersion velocity in their definitions lead to a tighter relation. In addition, when we estimated the rotation velocity at the maximum of the rotation curve, we obtained the best proxy for the potential well regardless of morphology.
Modelling neutral hydrogen in galaxies using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
Duffy, Alan R; Battye, Richard A; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Schaye, Joop
2011-01-01
The characterisation of the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of high-redshift galaxies is a major observational challenge that will be addressed over the coming years with a new generation of radio telescopes. We investigate this important issue by considering the states of hydrogen across a range of structures within high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Additionally, our simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of our results to numerical resolution and to sub-grid baryonic physics (especially feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei). We find that the most significant uncertainty in modelling the neutral hydrogen distribution arises from our need to model a self-shielding correction in moderate density regions. Future simulations incorporating radiative transfer schemes will be vital to improve on our empirical self-shielding threshold. Irrespective of the exact nature of the threshold we find that while the atomic hydrogen mass function evolves only mildly fro...
A divergence-cleaning scheme for cosmological SPMHD simulations
Stasyszyn, F A; Beck, A M
2012-01-01
In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the magnetic field is evolved by the induction equation and coupled to the gas dynamics by the Lorentz force. We perform numerical smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (Spmhd) simulations and study the influence of a numerical magnetic divergence. For instabilities arising from divergence B related errors, we find the hyperbolic/parabolic cleaning scheme suggested by Dedner et al. 2002 to give good results and prevent numerical artifacts from growing. Additionally, we demonstrate that certain current Spmhd implementations of magnetic field regularizations give rise to unphysical instabilities in long-time simulations. We also find this effect when employing Euler potentials (divergenceless by definition), which are not able to follow the winding-up process of magnetic field lines properly. Furthermore, we present cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation at extremely high resolution including the evolution of magnetic fields. We show synthetic Faraday rotation maps ...
Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Britton; O' Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Skillman, Samuel W., E-mail: smit1685@msu.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
2013-12-01
Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐国宾; 王永鹏; 高仕赵; 刘昉
2011-01-01
Based on the basic principle of smoothed particle hydrodynamics ( SPH ) method, the paper gave 2 - D SPH Fortran program to make numerical simulations for Poiseuille flow and Couette flow which are Laminar Flow between two parallel flat plates after a comprehensive consideration of several kinds of settings on solution conditions. Compared SPH with theoretical analysis solution and simulation results which use Flow-3D numerical simulation software, this paper discovers that they are very anastomosis. The results realized a verification for the SPH mathematical model and 2 - D SPH Fortran program, supplied theoretical support and laid a good foundation for the use and development of SPH in the future.%基于SPH方法的基本原理,综合考虑了对各种定解条件的设置,用Fortran语言独立编写了一套用于模拟两平行平板间层流的SPH二维计算程序,并应用于泊肃叶流和库埃特流的数值模拟之中,将模拟结果与理论解析解和通过Flow -3D软件数值模拟得到的数值结果进行对比,分析表明三种方法得到的计算结果非常吻合,从而实现了对SPH数学模型和SPH计算程序的验证,为SPH方法的进一步发展和广泛应用奠定了一定的基础.
Disk galaxies with broken luminosity profiles from cosmological simulations
Martínez-Serrano, Francisco J; Doménech-Moral, Mariola; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa
2009-01-01
We simulate the cosmological formation of three disk galaxies using the zoom-in technique and including a detailed treatment of chemical evolution and cooling. The resulting galaxies have a rather high disk-to-total ratio for a cosmological simulation and thin stellar disks. They present a break in the luminosity profile at 3.0 +- 0.5 disk scale lengths, while showing an exponential mass profile without any apparent breaks, in line with recent observational results. Since the stellar mass profile is exponential, only differences in the stellar populations can be the cause of the luminosity break. Although we find a cutoff for the star formation rate imposed by a density threshold in our star formation model, it does not coincide with the luminosity break and is located at 4.3 +- 0.4 disk scale lengths, with star formation going on between both radii. The color profiles and the age profiles are "U-shaped", with the minimum for both profiles located approximately at the break radius. The SFR to stellar mass rat...
A robust shell element in meshfree SPH method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fu-Ren Ming; A-Man Zhang; Xue-Yan Cao
2013-01-01
With the incorporation of total Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method equation and moving least square (MLS) function,the traditional SPH method is improved regarding the stability and consistency.Based on Mindlin-Ressiner plate theory,the SPH method simulating dynamic behavior via one layer of particles is applied to plate's mid-plane,i.e.,a SPH shell model is constructed.Finally,through comparative analyses on the dynamic response of square,stiffened shells and cylindrical shells under various strong impact loads with common finite element software,the feasibility,validity and numerical accuracy of the SPH shell method are verified.Consequently,further researches on SPH shell may well pave the way towards solving problems involving dynamic plastic damage,tearing or even crushing.
Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos
Banerjee, Arka
2016-01-01
We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.
Improving Initial Conditions for Cosmological $N$-Body Simulations
Garrison, Lehman H; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V; Pinto, Philip A
2016-01-01
In cosmological $N$-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete "macroparticles" suppresses the growth of structure. This effect occurs even on scales many times larger than the particle spacing; for example, modes above $k_{\\rm Nyquist}/4$ inherit a 1 to 3% error in the matter power spectrum at $z=1$. Particle linear theory (PLT) (Marcos et al. 2006) analytically describes this effect for particle lattices and reveals that the continuum growing modes are not the proper lattice growing modes, which excites transient power. We develop initial conditions with the correct growing modes and additionally rescale these modes to account for growth suppression. We also introduce a scheme for computing second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) from direct force calculations without using Fourier transforms. We test rescaling and our 2LPT by comparing the $z=1$ haloes and power spectra with those of an oversampled reference simulation. The combination of rescaling and 2LPT achieves 1% accur...
Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological Simulations
Richardson, Mark L A; Gray, William J
2013-01-01
The early Universe hosted a large population of small dark matter `minihalos' that were too small to cool and form stars on their own. These existed as static objects around larger galaxies until acted upon by some outside influence. Outflows, which have been observed around a variety of galaxies, can provide this influence in such a way as to collapse, rather than disperse the minihalo gas. Gray & Scannapieco performed an investigation in which idealized spherically-symmetric minihalos were struck by enriched outflows. Here we perform high-resolution cosmological simulations that form realistic minihalos, which we then extract to perform a large suite of simulations of outflow-minihalo interactions including non-equilibrium chemical reactions. In all models, the shocked minihalo forms molecules through non-equilibrium reactions, and then cools to form dense chemically homogenous clumps of star-forming gas. The formation of these high-redshift clusters will be observable with the next generation of telesc...
Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation with cosmic rays
Salem, Munier; Hummels, Cameron
2014-01-01
We investigate the dynamical impact of cosmic rays in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation using adaptive-mesh refinement simulations of a $10^{12}$ solar mass halo. In agreement with previous work, a run with only our standard thermal energy feedback model results in a massive spheroid and unrealistically peaked rotation curves. However, the addition of a simple two-fluid model for cosmic rays drastically changes the morphology of the forming disk. We include an isotropic diffusive term and a source term tied to star formation due to (unresolved) supernova-driven shocks. Over a wide range of diffusion coefficients, the CRs generate thin, extended disks with a significantly more realistic (although still not flat) rotation curve. We find that the diffusion of CRs is key to this process, as they escape dense star forming clumps and drive outflows within the more diffuse ISM.
Viscosity in cosmological simulations of clusters of galaxies
Br"uggen, M
2005-01-01
The physics of the intracluster medium, in particular the values for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity are largely unknown and subject to an ongoing debate. Here, we study the effect of viscosity on the thermal state of the intracluster medium using three-dimensional cosmological simulations of structure formation. It is shown that viscosity, provided it is not too far off from the unmagnetised Spitzer value, has a significant effect on cluster profiles. In particular, it aids in heating the cool cores of clusters. The central cooling time of the most massive clusters in our simulation is increased by more than an order of magnitude. In large clusters, viscous heating may help to establish an entropy floor and to prevent a cooling catastrophe.
Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W.; Wadsley, James
2015-11-01
We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 5 × 109 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 2 × 1012 M⊙) masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1 per cent of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass versus halo mass relation, and the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than the Milky Way.
Extensible, Reusable, and Reproducible Computing: A Case Study of PySPH
Ramachandran, Prabhu
2016-10-01
In this work, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique is considered as an example of a typical computational research area. PySPH is an open source framework for SPH computations. PySPH is designed to be easy to use. The framework allows a user to implement an entire simulation in pure Python. It is designed to make it easy for scientists to reuse their code and extend the work of others. These important features allow PySPH to facilitate reproducible computational research. Based on the experience with PySPH, general recommendations are suggested for other computational researchers.
Ignat'ev, Yurii
2016-01-01
On the basis of qualitative analysis of the system of differential equations of the standard cosmological model it is shown that in the case of zero cosmological constant this system has a stable center corresponding to zero values of potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has an oscillating character and changes from $-2$ (braking), to $+1$ (acceleration). Average value of the cosmological acceleration is negative and is equal to $-1/2$. Oscillations of the cosmological acceleration happen on the background of rapidly falling Hubble constant. In the case of nonzero value of the cosmological constant depending on its value there are possible three various qualitative behavior typ...
Magnetic fields in cosmological simulations of disk galaxies
Pakmor, R; Springel, V
2013-01-01
Observationally, magnetic fields reach equipartition with thermal energy and cosmic rays in the interstellar medium of disk galaxies such as the Milky Way. However, thus far cosmological simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxies have usually neglected magnetic fields. We employ the moving-mesh code \\textsc{Arepo} to follow for the first time the formation and evolution of a Milky Way-like disk galaxy in its full cosmological context while taking into account magnetic fields. We find that a prescribed tiny magnetic seed field grows exponentially by a small-scale dynamo until it saturates around $z=4$ with a magnetic energy of about $10\\%$ of the kinetic energy in the center of the galaxy's main progenitor halo. By $z=2$, a well-defined gaseous disk forms in which the magnetic field is further amplified by differential rotation, until it saturates at an average field strength of $\\sim 6 \\mu \\mathrm{G}$ in the disk plane. In this phase, the magnetic field is transformed from a chaotic small-scale fi...
Diverse Structural Evolution at z > 1 in Cosmologically Simulated Galaxies
Snyder, Gregory F; Moody, Christopher; Peth, Michael; Freeman, Peter; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai
2014-01-01
From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 10^10 M_sun contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 10^10 M_sun. We analyze a cosmological major merger at z~1.5 and find that the newly proposed MID morphology diagnostics trace later stages while G-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is less than 100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.
Simulations of structure formation in interacting dark energy cosmologies
Baldi, Marco
2009-01-01
The evidence in favor of a dark energy component dominating the Universe, and driving its presently accelerated expansion, has progressively grown during the last decade of cosmological observations. If this dark energy is given by a dynamic scalar field, it may also have a direct interaction with other matter fields in the Universe, in particular with cold dark matter. Such interaction would imprint new features on the cosmological background evolution as well as on the growth of cosmic structure, like an additional long-range fifth-force between massive particles, or a variation in time of the dark matter particle mass. We review here the implementation of these new physical effects in the N-body code GADGET-2, and we discuss the outcomes of a series of high-resolution N-body simulations for a selected family of interacting dark energy models, as already presented in Baldi et al. [20]. We interestingly find, in contrast with previous claims, that the inner overdensity of dark matter halos decreases in these...
Improving initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations
Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.
2016-10-01
In cosmological N-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete `macroparticles' suppresses the growth of structure, such that simulations no longer reproduce linear theory on small scales near kNyquist. Marcos et al. demonstrate that this is due to sparse sampling of modes near kNyquist and that the often-assumed continuum growing modes are not proper growing modes of the particle system. We develop initial conditions (ICs) that respect the particle linear theory growing modes and then rescale the mode amplitudes to account for growth suppression. These ICs also allow us to take advantage of our very accurate N-body code ABACUS to implement second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) in configuration space. The combination of 2LPT and rescaling improves the accuracy of the late-time power spectra, halo mass functions, and halo clustering. In particular, we achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the power spectrum down to kNyquist, versus kNyquist/4 without rescaling or kNyquist/13 without 2LPT, relative to an oversampled reference simulation. We anticipate that our 2LPT will be useful for large simulations where fast Fourier transforms are expensive and that rescaling will be useful for suites of medium-resolution simulations used in cosmic emulators and galaxy survey mock catalogues. Code to generate ICs is available at https://github.com/lgarrison/zeldovich-PLT.
Density estimators in particle hydrodynamics - DTFE versus regular SPH
Pelupessy, FI; Schaap, WE; van de Weygaert, R
2003-01-01
We present the results of a study comparing density maps reconstructed by the Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimator (DTFE) and by regular SPH kernel-based techniques. The density maps are constructed from the outcome of an SPH particle hydrodynamics simulation of a multiphase interstellar medium. Th
Machine Learning and Cosmological Simulations II: Hydrodynamical Simulations
Kamdar, Harshil M; Brunner, Robert J
2015-01-01
We extend a machine learning (ML) framework presented previously to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe using N-body + hydrodynamical simulations. In this work, we show that ML is a promising technique to study galaxy formation in the backdrop of a hydrodynamical simulation. We use the Illustris Simulation to train and test various sophisticated machine learning algorithms. By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties and no merger history, our model predicts the gas mass, stellar mass, black hole mass, star formation rate, $g-r$ color, and stellar metallicity fairly robustly. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon a solid hydrodynamical simulation. The promising reproduction of the listed galaxy properties demonstrably place ML as a promising and a significantly more computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation. We find that ML mimics a full-blown hydro...
Machine learning and cosmological simulations - II. Hydrodynamical simulations
Kamdar, Harshil M.; Turk, Matthew J.; Brunner, Robert J.
2016-04-01
We extend a machine learning (ML) framework presented previously to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe using N-body + hydrodynamical simulations. In this work, we show that ML is a promising technique to study galaxy formation in the backdrop of a hydrodynamical simulation. We use the Illustris simulation to train and test various sophisticated ML algorithms. By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties and no merger history, our model predicts the gas mass, stellar mass, black hole mass, star formation rate, g - r colour, and stellar metallicity fairly robustly. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon a solid hydrodynamical simulation. The promising reproduction of the listed galaxy properties demonstrably place ML as a promising and a significantly more computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation. We find that ML mimics a full-blown hydrodynamical simulation surprisingly well in a computation time of mere minutes. The population of galaxies simulated by ML, while not numerically identical to Illustris, is statistically robust and physically consistent with Illustris galaxies and follows the same fundamental observational constraints. ML offers an intriguing and promising technique to create quick mock galaxy catalogues in the future.
Creating mock catalogues of stellar haloes from cosmological simulations
Lowing, Ben; Kennedy, Rachel; Cooper, Andrew; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun
2014-01-01
We present a new technique for creating mock catalogues of the individual stars that make up the accreted component of stellar haloes in cosmological simulations and show how the catalogues can be used to test and interpret observational data. The catalogues are constructed from a combination of methods. A semi-analytic galaxy formation model is used to calculate the star formation history in haloes in an N-body simulation and dark matter particles are tagged with this stellar mass. The tags are converted into individual stars using a stellar population synthesis model to obtain the number density and evolutionary stage of the stars, together with a phase-space sampling method that distributes the stars while ensuring that the phase-space structure of the original N-body simulation is maintained. A set of catalogues based on the Aquarius simulations of Milky Way mass haloes have been created and made publicly available on a website. Two example applications are discussed that demonstrate the power and flexibi...
Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes from Cosmological Simulations
Filloux, Ch; Pacheco, J A de Freitas; Silk, J
2009-01-01
The correlations between the mass of supermassive black holes and properties of their host galaxies are investigated through cosmological simulations. Black holes grow from seeds of 100 solar masses inserted into density peaks present in the redshift range 12-15. Seeds grow essentially by accreting matter from a nuclear disk and also by coalescences resulting from merger episodes. At z=0, our simulations reproduce the black hole mass function and the correlations of the black hole mass both with stellar velocity dispersion and host dark halo mass. Moreover, the evolution of the black hole mass density derived from the present simulations agrees with that derived from the bolometric luminosity function of quasars, indicating that the average accretion history of seeds is adequately reproduced . However, our simulations are unable to form black holes with masses above $10^9 M_{\\odot}$ at $z\\sim 6$, whose existence is inferred from the bright quasars detected by the Sloan survey in this redshift range.
Properties of HI discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations
Marinacci, Federico; Grand, Robert J. J.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Gómez, Facundo A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.
2017-01-01
We analyse the properties of the HI gas distribution in the Auriga project, a set of magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO and a physics model for galaxy formation that succeeds in forming realistic late-type galaxies in the 30 Milky Way-sized haloes simulated in this project. We use a simple approach to estimate the neutral hydrogen fraction in our simulation set, which treats low-density and star-forming gas separately, and we explore two different prescriptions to subtract the contribution of molecular hydrogen from the total HI content. The HI gas in the vast majority of the systems forms extended discs although more disturbed morphologies are present. Notwithstanding the general good agreement with observed HI properties - such as radial profiles and the mass-diameter relation - the Auriga galaxies are systematically larger and more gas-rich than typical nearby galaxies. Interestingly, the amount of HI gas outside the disc plane correlates with the star formation rate, consistent with a picture where most of this extra-planar HI gas originates from a fountain-like flow. Our findings are robust with respect to the different assumptions adopted for computing the molecular hydrogen fraction and do not vary significantly over a wide range of numerical resolution. The HI modelling introduced in this paper can be used in future work to build artificial interferometric HI data cubes, allowing an even closer comparison of the gas dynamics in simulated galaxies with observations.
Through Thick and Thin - HI Absorption in Cosmological Simulations
Altay, Gabriel; Schaye, Joop; Crighton, Neil H M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla
2010-01-01
We investigate the column density distribution function of neutral hydrogen at redshift z = 3 using a cosmological simulation of galaxy formation from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project. The base simulation includes gravity, hydrodynamics, star formation, supernovae feedback, stellar winds, chemodynamics, and element-by-element cooling in the presence of a uniform UV background. Self-shielding and formation of molecular hydrogen are treated in post-processing, without introducing any free parameters, using an accurate reverse ray-tracing algorithm and an empirical relation between gas pressure and molecular mass fraction. The simulation reproduces the observed z = 3 abundance of Ly-A forest, Lyman Limit and Damped Ly-A HI absorption systems probed by quasar sight lines over ten orders of magnitude in column density. Self-shielding flattens the column density distribution for NHI > 10^18 cm-2, while the conversion to fully neutral gas and conversion of HI to H2 steepen it around column densiti...
Moving mesh cosmology: the hydrodynamics of galaxy formation
Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2011-01-01
We present a detailed comparison between the well-known SPH code GADGET and the new moving-mesh code AREPO on a number of hydrodynamical test problems. Through a variety of numerical experiments we establish a clear link between test problems and systematic numerical effects seen in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. Our tests demonstrate deficiencies of the SPH method in several sectors. These accuracy problems not only manifest themselves in idealized hydrodynamical tests, but also propagate to more realistic simulation setups of galaxy formation, ultimately affecting gas properties in the full cosmological framework, as highlighted in papers by Vogelsberger et al. (2011) and Keres et al. (2011). We find that an inadequate treatment of fluid instabilities in GADGET suppresses entropy generation by mixing, underestimates vorticity generation in curved shocks and prevents efficient gas stripping from infalling substructures. In idealized tests of inside-out disk formation, the convergence rate of g...
Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies in cosmological simulations
Yajima, Hidenobu; Thompson, Robert; Choi, Jun-Hwan
2013-01-01
Recent observations have indicated the existence of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, the dust properties in them are still unknown. Here we present theoretical constraints on dust properties in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3 by post-processing a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with radiative transfer calculations. We calculate the dust extinction in 2800 dark matter halos using the metallicity information of individual gas particles in our simulation. We use only bright galaxies with rest-frame UV magnitude M_1700 < -20 mag, and study the dust size, dust-to-metal mass ratio, and dust composition. From the comparison of calculated color excess between B and V-band (i.e., E(B-V)) and the observations, we constrain the typical dust size, and show that the best-fitting dust grain size is ~ 0.05 micron, which is consistent with the results of theoretical dust models for Type-II supernova. Our simulation with the dust extinction effect can naturally reproduce the observed rest...
On effects of resolution in dissipationless cosmological simulations
Knebe, A; Gottlöber, S; Klypin, A A; Knebe, Alexander; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly
2000-01-01
We present a study of numerical effects in dissipationless cosmological simulations. The numerical effects are evaluated and studied by comparing results of a series of 64^3-particle simulations of varying force resolution and number of time steps, performed using three different N-body techniques: the Particle Mesh (PM), the adaptive P3M (AP3M) code, and the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code. This study can therefore be interesting both as an analysis of numerical effects and as a systematic comparison of different codes. We find that the AP3M and the ART codes produce similar results, given that convergence is reached within the code type. We also find that numerical effects may affect the high-resolution simulations in ways that have not been discussed before. In particular, our study revealed the presence of two-body scattering, effects of which can be greatly amplified by inaccuracies of time integration. This process appears to affect the correlation function of matter, mass function and inner density...
Properties of HI discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations
Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Gómez, Facundo; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon
2016-01-01
We analyse the properties of the HI gas distribution in the Auriga project, a set of magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO and a physics model for galaxy formation that succeeds in forming realistic late-type galaxies in the 30 Milky Way-sized haloes simulated in this project. We use a simple approach to estimate the neutral hydrogen fraction in our simulation set, which treats low-density and star-forming gas separately, and we explore two different prescriptions to subtract the contribution of molecular hydrogen from the total HI content. The HI gas in the vast majority of the systems forms extended discs although more disturbed morphologies are present. Notwithstanding the general good agreement with observed HI properties -- such as radial profiles and the mass-diameter relation -- the Auriga galaxies are systematically larger and more gas-rich than typical nearby galaxies. Interestingly, the amount of HI gas outside the disc plane correlates with the star ...
Properties of Cosmological Filaments extracted from Eulerian Simulations
Gheller, Claudio; Favre, Jean; Brüggen, Marcus
2015-01-01
Using a new parallel algorithm implemented within the VisIt framework, we analysed large cosmological grid simulations to study the properties of baryons in filaments. The procedure allows us to build large catalogues with up to $\\sim 3 \\cdot 10^4$ filaments per simulated volume and to investigate the properties of cosmic filaments for very large volumes at high resolution (up to $300^3 ~\\rm Mpc^3$ simulated with $2048^3$ cells). We determined scaling relations for the mass, volume, length and temperature of filaments and compared them to those of galaxy clusters. The longest filaments have a total length of about $200 ~\\rm Mpc$ with a mass of several $10^{15} M_{\\odot}$. We also investigated the effects of different gas physics. Radiative cooling significantly modifies the thermal properties of the warm-hot-intergalactic medium of filaments, mainly by lowering their mean temperature via line cooling. On the other hand, powerful feedback from active galactic nuclei in surrounding halos can heat up the gas in ...
Hydrodynamical Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Disk Galaxies
Gibson, Brad K; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Teyssier, Romain; House, Elisa L; Brook, Chris B; Kawata, Daisuke
2008-01-01
To date, fully cosmological hydrodynamic disk simulations to redshift zero have only been undertaken with particle-based codes, such as GADGET, Gasoline, or GCD+. In light of the (supposed) limitations of traditional implementations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), or at the very least, their respective idiosyncrasies, it is important to explore complementary approaches to the SPH paradigm to galaxy formation. We present the first high-resolution cosmological disk simulations to redshift zero using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)-based hydrodynamical code, in this case, RAMSES. We analyse the temporal and spatial evolution of the simulated stellar disks' vertical heating, velocity ellipsoids, stellar populations, vertical and radial abundance gradients (gas and stars), assembly/infall histories, warps/lopsideness, disk edges/truncations (gas and stars), ISM physics implementations, and compare and contrast these properties with our sample of cosmological SPH disks, generated with GCD+. These prelim...
Clementel, N; Kruip, C J H; Icke, V; Gull, T R
2014-01-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in $\\eta$ Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in $\\eta$ Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidde...
A High Throughput Workflow Environment for Cosmological Simulations
Erickson, Brandon M S; Evrard, August E; Becker, Matthew R; Busha, Michael T; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Wechsler, Risa H
2012-01-01
The next generation of wide-area sky surveys offer the power to place extremely precise constraints on cosmological parameters and to test the source of cosmic acceleration. These observational programs will employ multiple techniques based on a variety of statistical signatures of galaxies and large-scale structure. These techniques have sources of systematic error that need to be understood at the percent-level in order to fully leverage the power of next-generation catalogs. Simulations of large-scale structure provide the means to characterize these uncertainties. We are using XSEDE resources to produce multiple synthetic sky surveys of galaxies and large-scale structure in support of science analysis for the Dark Energy Survey. In order to scale up our production to the level of fifty 10^10-particle simulations, we are working to embed production control within the Apache Airavata workflow environment. We explain our methods and report how the workflow has reduced production time by 40% compared to manua...
The Neutral Hydrogen Content of Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Kollmeier, Juna A; Weinberg, David H
2013-01-01
We examine the global HI properties of galaxies in quarter-billion particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on how our main adjustable physical process, galactic outflows, impacts HI content. In addition to the three outflow models considered in our earlier papers, we present a new one (ezw) motivated by high resolution interstellar medium simulations, in which the scalings of wind speeds and mass loading factors follow those expected for momentum-driven outflows for larger galaxies, and energy-driven outflows for dwarfs (sigma<75 km/s). To obtain predicted HI masses, we employ a simple but effective local correction for particle self-shielding, as well as an observationally-constrained transition from neutral to molecular hydrogen. We find that our ezw model produces an HI mass function whose shape agrees well with observations from the ALFALFA survey, having a low mass end slope of -1.3, while other models agree less well. Outflows critically govern the HI content in low-mass galaxies, wi...
Stellar feedback from HMXBs in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
Artale, M C; Pellizza, L J
2015-01-01
We explored the role of X-ray binaries composed by a black hole and a massive stellar companion (BHXs) as sources of kinetic feedback by using hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Following previous results, our BHX model selects low metal-poor stars ($Z = [0,10^{-4}]$) as possible progenitors. The model that better reproduces observations assumes that a $\\sim 20\\%$ fraction of low-metallicity black holes are in binary systems which produce BHXs. These sources are estimated to deposit $\\sim 10^{52}$ erg of kinetic energy per event. With these parameters and in the simulated volume, we find that the energy injected by BHXs represents $\\sim 30\\%$ of the total energy released by SNII and BHX events at redshift $z\\sim7$ and then decreases rapidly as baryons get chemically enriched. Haloes with virial masses smaller than $\\sim 10^{10} \\,M_{\\odot}$ (or $T_{\\rm vir} \\lesssim 10^5 $ K) are the most directly affected ones by BHX feedback. These haloes host galaxies with stellar masses in the range $10^7 - 10^8$ M$...
Clues to the "Magellanic Galaxy" from Cosmological Simulations
Sales, Laura V; Cooper, Andrew P; White, Simon D M; Frenk, Carlos S; Helmi, Amina
2011-01-01
We use cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the orbital history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and its potential association with other satellites of the Milky Way (MW). We search for dynamical analogs to the LMC and find a subhalo that matches the LMC position and velocity at either of its two most recent pericentric passages. This suggests that the LMC is not necessarily on its first approach to the MW, provided that the virial mass of the Milky Way is M_200 ~1.8e12 M_sun. The simulation results yield specific predictions for the position and velocity of systems associated with the LMC prior to infall. If on first approach, most should lie close to the LMC because the Galactic tidal field has not yet had enough time to disperse them. If on second approach, the list of potential associates increases substantially. Interestingly, our analysis rules out an LMC association for Draco and Ursa Minor, two of the dwarf spheroidals suggested by Lynden-Bell & Lynden-Bell to form part o...
Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy
Rahimi, Awat; Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.; Kiessling, Alina
2011-08-01
We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three-dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [α/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [α/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.
Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy
Rahimi, Awat; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Brook, Chris B; Gibson, Brad K; Kiessling, Alina
2011-01-01
We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate (SFR) at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [alpha/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [alpha/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.
Black Hole Growth from Cosmological N-body Simulations
Micic, Miroslav; Sigurdsson, Steinn
2008-01-01
(Abridged) We use high resolution cosmological N-body simulations to study the growth of intermediate to supermassive black holes from redshift 49 to zero. We track the growth of black holes from the seeds of population III stars to black holes in the range of 10^3 < M < 10^7 Msun -- not quasars, but rather IMBH to low-mass SMBHs. These lower mass black holes are the primary observable for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The large-scale dynamics of the black holes are followed accurately within the simulation down to scales of 1 kpc; thereafter, we follow the merger analytically from the last dynamical friction phase to black hole coalescence. We find that the merger rate of these black holes is R~25 per year between 8 < z < 11 and R = 10 per year at z=3. Before the merger occurs the incoming IMBH may be observed with a next generation of X-ray telescopes as a ULX source with a rate of about ~ 3 - 7 per year for 1 < z < 5. We develop an analytic prescription that captures the ...
Modelling discontinuities and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in SPH
Price, Daniel J
2007-01-01
In this paper we discuss the treatment of discontinuities in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. In particular we discuss the difference between integral and differential representations of the fluid equations in an SPH context and how this relates to the formulation of dissipative terms for the capture of shocks and other discontinuities. This has important implications for many problems, in particular related to recently highlighted problems related to treating Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities across contact discontinuities in SPH. We highlight in this paper that the ``fundamental differences'' between SPH and grid based methods suggested by Agertz et al. (2007) are actually more like ``fundamental similarities'' relating to the fact that both types of method require an appropriate treatment of all flow discontinuities. The specific problems pointed out by Agertz et al. are shown to be related in particular to the treatment of contact discontinuities in SPH which can be cured by the simple appl...
Multi-Scale Initial Conditions For Cosmological Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahn, Oliver; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /HITS, Heidelberg
2011-11-04
We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10{sup -4} for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.
Numerical techniques for large cosmological N-body simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M.; Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.
1985-02-01
We describe and compare techniques for carrying out large N-body simulations of the gravitational evolution of clustering in the fundamental cube of an infinite periodic universe. In particular, we consider both particle mesh (PM) codes and P/sup 3/M codes in which a higher resolution force is obtained by direct summation of contributions from neighboring particles. We discuss the mesh-induced anisotropies in the forces calculated by these schemes, and the extent to which they can model the desired 1/r/sup 2/ particle-particle interaction. We also consider how transformation of the time variable can improve the efficiency with which the equations of motion are integrated. We present tests of the accuracy with which the resulting schemes conserve energy and are able to follow individual particle trajectories. We have implemented an algorithm which allows initial conditions to be set up to model any desired spectrum of linear growing mode density fluctuations. A number of tests demonstrate the power of this algorithm and delineate the conditions under which it is effective. We carry out several test simulations using a variety of techniques in order to show how the results are affected by dynamic range limitations in the force calculations, by boundary effects, by residual artificialities in the initial conditions, and by the number of particles employed. For most purposes cosmological simulations are limited by the resolution of their force calculation rather than by the number of particles they can employ. For this reason, while PM codes are quite adequate to study the evolution of structure on large scale, P/sup 3/M methods are to be preferred, in spite of their greater cost and complexity, whenever the evolution of small-scale structure is important.
The Milky Way system in LCDM cosmological simulations
Guo, Qi; Frenk, Carlos; Helly, John; Hellwing, Wojciech
2015-01-01
We apply a semi-analytic galaxy formation model to two high resolution cosmological N-body simulations to investigate analogues of the Milky Way system. We select these according to observed properties of the Milky Way rather than by halo mass as in most previous work. For disk-dominated central galaxies with stellar mass (5--7) x 10d10Msun, the median host halo mass is 1.4 x 10d12Msun, with 1 sigma dispersion in the range [0.86, 3.1] x 10d12Msun, consistent with dynamical measurements of the Milky Way halo mass. For any given halo mass, the probability of hosting a Milky Way system is low, with a maximum of ~20% in haloes of mass ~10d12Msun. The model reproduces the V-band luminosity function and radial profile of the bright (MV 30 km/s. Our model predicts that around half of the dark matter subhaloes with Vmax > 20 km/s host satellites fainter than MV = -9 and so may be missing from existing surveys.
Time Evolution of Galaxy Scaling Relations in Cosmological Simulations
Taylor, Philip
2016-01-01
We predict the evolution of galaxy scaling relationships from cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, that reproduce the scaling relations of present-day galaxies. Although we do not assume co-evolution between galaxies and black holes a priori, we are able to reproduce the black hole mass--velocity dispersion relation. This relation does not evolve, and black holes actually grow along the relation from significantly less massive seeds than have previously been used. AGN feedback does not very much affect the chemical evolution of our galaxies. In our predictions, the stellar mass--metallicity relation does not change its shape, but the metallicity significantly increases from $z\\sim2$ to $z\\sim1$, while the gas-phase mass-metallicity relation does change shape, having a steeper slope at higher redshifts ($z\\lesssim3$). Furthermore, AGN feedback is required to reproduce observations of the most massive galaxies at $z\\lesssim1$, specifically their positions on the star formation main sequence and galaxy mass...
Galactic Winds in Cosmological Simulations of the Circumgalactic Medium
Barai, Paramita; Borgani, Stefano; Tescari, Edoardo; Tornatore, Luca; Dolag, Klaus; Killedar, Madhura; Monaco, Pierluigi; D'Odorico, Valentina; Cristiani, Stefano
2012-01-01
(Abridged) We explore new observationally-constrained sub-resolution models of galactic outflows and investigate their impact on the circumgalactic medium (CGM) over redshifts z = 2 - 4. We perform cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, including star formation, chemical enrichment, and four cases of SNe-driven outflows: no wind (NW), an energy-driven constant velocity wind (CW), a radially varying wind (RVWa) where the outflow velocity has a positive correlation with galactocentric distance (r), and a RVW with additional dependence on halo mass (RVWb). Overall, we find that the outflows expel metal-enriched gas away from galaxies, significantly quench star formation, and enrich the CGM. At z = 2, the radial profiles of gas properties around galaxy centers are most sensitive to the choice of the wind model for halo masses (10^9 - 10^11) M_sun. We infer that the RVWb model is similar to the NW case, except that it substantially enriches the CGM: the carbon metallicity (Z_C) is 10 times higher in RVWb than in N...
Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation
Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2016-01-01
We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a LCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log Mstr /M < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs to weak bars to strongly barred systems (= 20%). Bars in these systems develop after redshift = 1.3, on timescales that depend sen- sitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, = 10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitation- ally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the halos they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90%...
How Galaxies Become Red: Insights from Cosmological Simulations
Cen, Renyue
2013-01-01
An analysis of more than 3000 galaxies resolved at better than 114pc/h at z=0.62 in a LAOZI cosmological adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulation is performed and insights gained on quenching and color migration. The vast majority of red galaxies are found to be within three virial radii of a larger galaxy, at the onset of quenching. We shall thus call this mechanism ``environment quenching", which encompasses satellite quenching. Two physical processes are largely responsible: ram-pressure stripping first disconnects the galaxy from the cold gas supply on large scales, followed by a longer period of cold gas starvation taking place in high velocity dispersion environment, during the early part of which the existing dense cold gas in the central region (=<10kpc) is consumed by in situ star formation. Quenching is found to be more efficient but not faster, on average, in denser environment. Throughout quenching galaxies follow nearly vertical tracks in the color-stellar-mass diagram. In contrast, in...
EMMA: an AMR cosmological simulation code with radiative transfer
Aubert, Dominique; Ocvirk, Pierre
2015-01-01
EMMA is a cosmological simulation code aimed at investigating the reionization epoch. It handles simultaneously collisionless and gas dynamics, as well as radiative transfer physics using a moment-based description with the M1 approximation. Field quantities are stored and computed on an adaptive 3D mesh and the spatial resolution can be dynamically modified based on physically-motivated criteria. Physical processes can be coupled at all spatial and temporal scales. We also introduce a new and optional approximation to handle radiation : the light is transported at the resolution of the non-refined grid and only once the dynamics have been fully updated, whereas thermo-chemical processes are still tracked on the refined elements. Such an approximation reduces the overheads induced by the treatment of radiation physics. A suite of standard tests are presented and passed by EMMA, providing a validation for its future use in studies of the reionization epoch. The code is parallel and is able to use graphics proc...
N-body simulations of coupled dark energy cosmologies
Baldi, Marco; Robbers, Georg; Springel, Volker
2008-01-01
If the accelerated expansion of the Universe at the present epoch is driven by a dark energy scalar field, there may well be a non-trivial coupling between the dark energy and the cold dark matter (CDM) fluid. Such interactions give rise to new features in cosmological structure growth, like an additional long-range attractive force between CDM particles, or variations of the dark matter particle mass with time. We have implemented these effects in the N-body code GADGET-2 and present results of a series of high-resolution N-body simulations where the dark energy component is directly interacting with the cold dark matter. As a consequence of the new physics, CDM and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the nonlinear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of CDM halos are less concentrated...
Cosmological Shocks in Eulerian Simulations: Main Properties and Cosmic Rays Acceleration
Vazza, F; Gheller, C
2008-01-01
Aims: morpholgies, number and energy distributions of Cosmological Shock Waves from a set of ENZO cosmological simulations are produced, along with a study of the connection with Cosmic Rays processes in different environments. Method: we perform cosmological simulations with the public release of the PPM code ENZO, adopt a simple and physically motivated numerical setup to follow the evolution of cosmic structures at the resolution of 125kpc per cell, and characterise shocks with a new post processing scheme. Results: we estimate the efficency of the acceleration of Cosmic Ray particles and present the first comparison of our results with existing limits from observations of galaxy clusters.
2HOT: An Improved Parallel Hashed Oct-Tree N-Body Algorithm for Cosmological Simulation
Warren, Michael S.
2014-01-01
We report on improvements made over the past two decades to our adaptive treecode N-body method (HOT). A mathematical and computational approach to the cosmological N-body problem is described, with performance and scalability measured up to 256k (218) processors. We present error analysis and scientific application results from a series of more than ten 69 billion (40963) particle cosmological simulations, accounting for 4×1020 floating point operations. These results include the first simul...
Liu, Gui-Rong; Wang, Gangyu; Peng, Qing; de, Suvranu
2015-06-01
HMX is a widely used high explosive. Hugoniot curve is a valuable tool for analyzing the equations of state, and is of importance for all energetic materials including HMX. The Hugoniot curves serve as one of the key character in continuum modeling of high explosives. It can be obtained from experimental measurements, and recently also from computational studies. In this study, the Hugoniot curve of HMX is calculated using a multi-scale shock technique via Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, where the reactive force field ReaxFF is obtained from Quantum Mechanics calculations and tailored for HMX. It is found that our MD Hugoniot curve of HMX from the optimized ReaxFF potential agree well with experiments. The MD Hugoniot curve of HMX is also incorporated in our in-house Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code for the modeling of the macro-scale explosive behaviors of HMX explosives and HMX cased in a 3D cylinder. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous financial support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant HDTRA1-13-1-0025.
A modified SPH approach for fluids with large density differences
Ott, F; Ott, Frank; Schnetter, Erik
2003-01-01
We introduce a modified SPH approach that is based on discretising the particle density instead of the mass density. This approach makes it possible to use SPH particles with very different masses to simulate multi-phase flows with large differences in mass density between the phases. We test our formulation with a simple advection problem, with sound waves encountering a density discontinuity, and with shock tubes containing an interface between air and Diesel oil. For all examined problems where particles have different masses, the new formulation yields better results than standard SPH, even in the case of a single-phase flow.
Spurious Small-Scale Structure & Discreteness-Driven Relaxation in Cosmological Simulations
Power, Chris; Obreschkow, Danail; Hobbs, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F
2016-01-01
There is strong evidence that cosmological N-body simulations dominated by Warm Dark Matter (WDM) contain spurious or unphysical haloes, most readily apparent as regularly spaced low-mass haloes strung along filaments. We show that spurious haloes are a feature of traditional N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation models, including WDM and Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models, in which gravitational collapse proceeds in an initially anisotropic fashion, and arises naturally as a consequence of discreteness-driven relaxation. We demonstrate this using controlled N-body simulations of plane-symmetric collapse and show that spurious haloes are seeded at shell crossing by localised velocity perturbations induced by the discrete nature of the density field, and that their characteristic separation should be approximately the mean inter-particle separation of the N-body simulation, which is fixed by the mass resolution within the volume. Using cosmological N-body simulations in which particles are split in...
2HOT: An Improved Parallel Hashed Oct-Tree N-Body Algorithm for Cosmological Simulation
Warren, Michael S.
2013-01-01
We report on improvements made over the past two decades to our adaptive treecode N-body method (HOT). A mathematical and computational approach to the cosmological N-body problem is described, with performance and scalability measured up to 256k ($2^{18}$) processors. We present error analysis and scientific application results from a series of more than ten 69 billion ($4096^3$) particle cosmological simulations, accounting for $4 \\times 10^{20}$ floating point operations. These results inc...
基于SPH方法的自由表面流动模拟%Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Flow Based on SPH
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张攀; 袁向丽
2007-01-01
分析了光滑粒子流体动力学 (SPH--Smoothed particle hydrodynamics) 方法的理论基础及边界条件的处理,并给出了该方法自由表面运动的算例,与商业CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)软件的VOF(Volume of Fluid)模型的计算结果进行了比较.结果表明,SPH 方法模拟复杂自由表面流动具有较好的效果.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨刚; 傅奕轲; 郑建民; 胡德安
2016-01-01
In order to solve the distorted mesh problem caused by large deformation in simulation of linear shaped charge jets with the traditional mesh-based method,the self made code of SPH method was applied to simulate the formation process of linear shaped charge jets and their subsequent penetration process in metal plates.The SPH method implemented here was taken as an alternative method for numerical study of linear shaped charge jets.Firstly,the numerical model of linear shaped charge jets based on tests was constructed and simulated with SPH method.The formation process of linear shaped charge jets was simulated successfully with SPH method.Comparing numerical results with experiment data,it was shown that the error of jet head velocity is less than 10%.Then,the models of linear shaped charge jets with different liners but the same charge mass,liner mass and width of charge cross section were built. Through numerical simulation,the forming characteristics of linear shaped charge jets,and the time histories of cutting width and penetrated depth of target metal plates were obtained.The laws of formation and subsequent penetration process of linear shaped charge jets with different liners obtained here provided a reference for designing linear shaped charge jets.%为了解决传统基于网格的数值方法在模拟线性聚能射流问题时因大变形而导致网格畸变使计算难以进行的问题，通过自编程实现的光滑粒子法（SPH）对不同药型罩线性聚能装药射流形成及其侵彻金属靶板的过程开展了数值模拟研究，所实现的算法可以为线性聚能射流数值模拟研究提供新途径。所开展的研究首先基于已有的线性聚能射流试验模型进行模拟分析，采用 SPH 方法有效实现了线性聚能射流的形成过程，数值模拟获得的射流头部速度与试验比对误差在10％以内。然后建立了装药质量、药型罩质量和装药横截面宽度相同的前提下不同
A density-adaptive SPH method with kernel gradient correction for modeling explosive welding
Liu, M. B.; Zhang, Z. L.; Feng, D. L.
2017-05-01
Explosive welding involves processes like the detonation of explosive, impact of metal structures and strong fluid-structure interaction, while the whole process of explosive welding has not been well modeled before. In this paper, a novel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model is developed to simulate explosive welding. In the SPH model, a kernel gradient correction algorithm is used to achieve better computational accuracy. A density adapting technique which can effectively treat large density ratio is also proposed. The developed SPH model is firstly validated by simulating a benchmark problem of one-dimensional TNT detonation and an impact welding problem. The SPH model is then successfully applied to simulate the whole process of explosive welding. It is demonstrated that the presented SPH method can capture typical physics in explosive welding including explosion wave, welding surface morphology, jet flow and acceleration of the flyer plate. The welding angle obtained from the SPH simulation agrees well with that from a kinematic analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金善勤; 郑兴; 段文洋
2015-01-01
光滑粒子水动力学（ SPH）方法对模拟破碎波问题有着良好的适应性。基于众核架构的GPU计算平台在加速SPH方法方面有着强大的优势。针对传统SPH方法计算效率低和计算精度差的问题，采用δ⁃SPH方法对腔内剪切流动、Poiseuille流动、Couette流动问题、孤立波砰击问题进行了模拟，并且提出一种基于粒子对的GPU并行计算方法。通过比较，得到不同边界处理方法对粘性流场模拟结果的影响规律，并且研究基于粒子对和单个粒子2种不同GPU并行计算方法，对比不同计算方法的精度和CPU时间。结果表明，采用粒子对的GPU并行方法可以使δ⁃SPH方法的最大加速比超过10。%The smoothed particle hydrodynamics ( SPH) method has a good adaptability for the simulation of breaking wave problems. The GPU computing platform based on many⁃core architecture has a strong advantage in SPH method acceleration. In view of the low efficiency and the accuracy problem of traditional SPH method, this paper puts forward a new GPU parallel computing model based on the particle pair and improvedδ⁃SPH method for simulating viscosity flows such as lid⁃drive cavity flow, Poiseuille flow, Couette flow and solitary wave slamming. According to the comparison of different boundary handling methods, their rules on viscous flow simulation are got. Furthermore, two GPU parallel calculation methods which are respectively based on the particle pair and single par⁃ticle are researched, and their accuracy and CPU time are compared. The results show that the GPU parallel calcu⁃lation method based on particle pairs makesδ⁃SPH exceed 10 times of the maximum speed⁃up ratio.
The Impact of Simulations in Cosmology and Galaxy Formation A summary of the Workshop NOVICOSMO 2008
Salucci, Paolo; Frenk, Carlos; Moscardini, Lauro; Viel, Matteo
2008-01-01
In the study of the process of cosmic structure formation numerical simulations are crucial tools to interface observational data to theoretical models and to investigate issues otherwise unexplored. Enormous advances have been achieved in the last years thanks to the availability of sophisticated codes, now allowing to tackle the problem of cosmic structure formation and subsequent evolution by covering larger and larger dynamical ranges. Moreover, computational cosmology is the ideal interpretative framework for the overwhelming amount of new data from extragalactic surveys and from large sample of individual objects. The Workshop Novicosmo 2008 "The Impact of Simulations in Cosmology and Galaxy Formation' held in SISSA was aimed at providing the state-of-the-art on the latest numerical simulations in Cosmology and in Galaxy Formation. Particular emphasis was given to the implementation of new physical processes in simulation codes, to the comparison between different codes and numerical schemes and how to ...
Initial Conditions for Accurate N-Body Simulations of Massive Neutrino Cosmologies
Zennaro, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Guzzo, Luigi
2016-01-01
The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterises these models. In this work we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1% accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to nonlinear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmolog...
2HOT: An Improved Parallel Hashed Oct-Tree N-Body Algorithm for Cosmological Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael S. Warren
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We report on improvements made over the past two decades to our adaptive treecode N-body method (HOT. A mathematical and computational approach to the cosmological N-body problem is described, with performance and scalability measured up to 256k (218 processors. We present error analysis and scientific application results from a series of more than ten 69 billion (40963 particle cosmological simulations, accounting for 4×1020 floating point operations. These results include the first simulations using the new constraints on the standard model of cosmology from the Planck satellite. Our simulations set a new standard for accuracy and scientific throughput, while meeting or exceeding the computational efficiency of the latest generation of hybrid TreePM N-body methods.
2HOT: An Improved Parallel Hashed Oct-Tree N-Body Algorithm for Cosmological Simulation
Warren, Michael S
2013-01-01
We report on improvements made over the past two decades to our adaptive treecode N-body method (HOT). A mathematical and computational approach to the cosmological N-body problem is described, with performance and scalability measured up to 256k ($2^{18}$) processors. We present error analysis and scientific application results from a series of more than ten 69 billion ($4096^3$) particle cosmological simulations, accounting for $4 \\times 10^{20}$ floating point operations. These results include the first simulations using the new constraints on the standard model of cosmology from the Planck satellite. Our simulations set a new standard for accuracy and scientific throughput, while meeting or exceeding the computational efficiency of the latest generation of hybrid TreePM N-body methods.
Stasyszyn, F; Dolag, K; Beck, R; Donnert, J
2010-01-01
Using cosmological MHD simulations of the magnetic field in galaxy clusters and filaments we evaluate the possibility to infer the magnetic field strength in filaments by measuring cross-correlation functions between Faraday Rotation Measures (RM) and the galaxy density field. We also test the reliability of recent estimates considering the problem of data quality and Galactic foreground (GF) removal in current datasets. Besides the two self-consistent simulations of cosmological magnetic fields based on primordial seed fields and galactic outflows analyzed here, we also explore a larger range of models scaling up the resulting magnetic fields of one of the simulations. We find that, if an unnormalized estimator for the cross-correlation functions and a GF removal procedure is used, the detectability of the cosmological signal is only possible for future instruments (e.g. SKA and ASKAP). However, mapping of the observed RM signal to the underlying magnetization of the Universe (both in space and time) is an e...
Moving mesh cosmology: tracing cosmological gas accretion
Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; 10.1093/mnras/sts595
2013-01-01
We investigate the nature of gas accretion onto haloes and galaxies at z=2 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations run with the moving mesh code AREPO. Implementing a Monte Carlo tracer particle scheme to determine the origin and thermodynamic history of accreting gas, we make quantitative comparisons to an otherwise identical simulation run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3. Contrasting these two numerical approaches, we find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas in haloes above 10^10.5 solar masses. In agreement with previous work, GADGET simulations show a cold fraction near unity for galaxies forming in massive haloes, implying that only a small percentage of accreted gas heats to an appreciable fraction of the virial temperature during accretion. The same galaxies in AREPO show a much lower cold fraction, <20% in haloes above 10^11 solar masses. This results from a hot gas accretion rate which, at this same halo mass, is an order o...
The formation of disc galaxies in high resolution moving-mesh cosmological simulations
Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker
2013-01-01
We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of eight Milky Way-sized haloes that have been previously studied with dark matter only in the Aquarius project. For the first time, we employ the moving-mesh code AREPO in zoom simulations combined with a new comprehensive model for galaxy formation physics designed for large cosmological simulations. Our simulations form in most of the eight haloes strongly disc-dominated systems with realistic rotation curves, close to exponential surface density profiles, a stellar-mass to halo-mass ratio that matches expectations from abundance matching techniques, and galaxy sizes and ages consistent with expectations from large galaxy surveys in the local Universe. There is no evidence for any dark matter core formation in our simulations, even so they include repeated baryonic outflows by supernova-driven winds and black hole quasar feedback. The simulations significantly improve upon the results obtained for the same objects in some of the earlier work based on the S...
The ν2GC simulations: Quantifying the dark side of the universe in the Planck cosmology
Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Enoki, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro; Oogi, Taira
2015-08-01
We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the ΛCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained with the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12 h-1 Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20 × 108 h-1 M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1 h-1 Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billion particles in a box of 70 h-1 Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44 × 106 h-1 M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate-fitting functions for the Planck cosmology. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semianalytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be publicly available in the near future.
Comparing Simulations of AGN Feedback
Richardson, Mark L A; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Thacker, Robert J; Dubois, Yohan; Wurster, James; Silk, Joseph
2016-01-01
We perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological zoom simulations of a region around a forming galaxy cluster, comparing the ability of the methods to handle successively more complex baryonic physics. In the simplest, non-radiative case, the two methods are in good agreement with each other, but the SPH simulations generate central cores with slightly lower entropies and virial shocks at slightly larger radii, consistent with what has been seen in previous studies. The inclusion of radiative cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback leads to much larger differences between the two methods. Most dramatically, at z=5, rapid cooling in the AMR case moves the accretion shock well within the virial radius, while this shock remains near the virial radius in the SPH case, due to excess heating, coupled with poorer capturing of the shock width. On the other hand, the addition of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the simulations results in much better ag...
The MultiDark Database: Release of the Bolshoi and MultiDark Cosmological Simulations
Riebe, Kristin; Enke, Harry; Forero-Romero, Jaime; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly; Lemson, Gerard; Prada, Francisco; Primack, Joel R; Steinmetz, Matthias; Turchaninov, Victor
2011-01-01
We present the online MultiDark Database -- a Virtual Observatory-oriented, relational database for hosting various cosmological simulations. The data is accessible via an SQL (Structured Query Language) query interface, which also allows users to directly pose scientific questions, as shown in a number of examples in this paper. Further examples for the usage of the database are given in its extensive online documentation. The database is based on the same technology as the Millennium Database, a fact that will greatly facilitate the usage of both suites of cosmological simulations. The first release of the MultiDark Database hosts two 8.6 billion particle cosmological N-body simulations: the Bolshoi (250/h Mpc simulation box, 1/h kpc resolution) and MultiDark Run1 simulation (MDR1, or BigBolshoi, 1000/h Mpc simulation box, 7/h kpc resolution). The extraction methods for halos/subhalos from the raw simulation data, and how this data is structured in the database are explained in this paper. With the first da...
The BAHAMAS project: Calibrated hydrodynamical simulations for large-scale structure cosmology
McCarthy, Ian G; Bird, Simeon; Brun, Amandine M C Le
2016-01-01
The evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter is sensitive to a variety of fundamental parameters that characterise the dark matter, dark energy, and other aspects of our cosmological framework. Since the majority of the mass density is in the form of dark matter that cannot be directly observed, to do cosmology with large-scale structure one must use observable (baryonic) quantities that trace the underlying matter distribution in a (hopefully) predictable way. However, recent numerical studies have demonstrated that the mapping between observable and total mass, as well as the total mass itself, are sensitive to unresolved feedback processes associated with galaxy formation, motivating explicit calibration of the feedback efficiencies. Here we construct a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations (called BAHAMAS, for BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Systems) where subgrid models of stellar and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feedback have been calibrated to reproduce the present...
Qualitative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Equations of the Standard Cosmological Model
Ignat'ev, Yurii
2016-01-01
On the basis of qualitative theory of differential equations it is shown that dynamic system based on the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations with regard to Friedman Universe has a stable center corresponding to zero values of scalar potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has a microscopic oscillating character ($T\\sim 2\\pi mt$), while macroscopic value of the cosmological acceleration varies from $+1$ at inflation stage after which if decreases fast to $-1/2$ (non-relativistic stage), and then slowly tends to $-1$ (ultrarelativistic stage).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
强洪夫; 刘虎; 韩亚伟; 陈福振
2013-01-01
As the free surface and large deformation problem in first atomization were both challenges to traditional grid based method,the first atomization characteristics of gelled propellant using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method was investigated. The computational models were simplified from the doublet like-on-like impinging jet injector. The particle number of each computational model was controlled at level of 105. As the shear rate during the impinging process was high,gelled propellant was treated as high viscous Newtonian fluid. The influences of velocity, impinging angle and viscosity were investigated. The simulation results show an agreement with analysis and experiment, which proves that SPH is an efficient method to solve the first atomization problem.%一次雾化中存在传统网格法难以解决的自由表面、大变形等问题,本文将光滑粒子流体动力学(SPH)方法探索性地应用于凝胶推进剂一次雾化仿真研究.模型粒子数保持在105左右,在高剪切速率下,将凝胶推进剂看作高粘度牛顿流体,研究了撞击速度、撞击角度以及凝胶推进剂物性参数对雾化效果的影响,仿真结果与实验结论基本一致.
Geometrical on-the-fly shock detection in SPH
Beck, Alexander M; Donnert, Julius M F
2015-01-01
We present an on-the-fly geometrical approach for shock detection and Mach number calculation in simulations employing smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We utilize pressure gradients to select shock candidates and define up- and downstream positions. We obtain hydrodynamical states in the up- and downstream regimes with a series of normal and inverted kernel weightings parallel and perpendicular to the shock normals. Our on-the-fly geometrical Mach detector incorporates well within the SPH formalism and has low computational cost. We implement our Mach detector into the simulation code GADGET and alongside many SPH improvements. We test our shock finder in a sequence of shock-tube tests with successively increasing Mach numbers exceeding by far the typical values inside galaxy clusters. For the all shocks, we resolve the shocks well and the correct Mach numbers are assigned. An application to a strong magnetized shock-tube gives stable results in full magnetohydrodynamic set-ups. We simulate a merger of ...
GodunovSPH with shear viscosity: implementation and tests
Cha, Seung-Hoon; Wood, Matt A.
2016-05-01
The acceleration and energy dissipation terms due to the shear viscosity have been implemented and tested in GodunovSPH. The double summation method has been employed to avoid the well-known numerical noise of the second derivative in particle based codes. The plane Couette flow with various initial and boundary conditions have been used as tests, and the numerical and analytical results show a good agreement. Not only the viscosity-only calculation, but the full hydrodynamics simulations have been performed, and they show expected results as well. The very low kinematic viscosity simulations show a turbulent pattern when the Reynolds number exceeds ˜102. The critical value of the Reynolds number at the transition point of the laminar and turbulent flows coincides with the previous works approximately. A smoothed dynamic viscosity has been suggested to describe the individual kinematic viscosity of particles. The infinitely extended Couette flow which has two layers of different viscosities has been simulated to check the smoothed dynamic viscosity, and the result agrees well with the analytic solution. In order to compare the standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and GodunovSPH, the two layers test has been performed again with a density contrast. GodunovSPH shows less dispersion than the standard SPH, but there is no significant difference in the results. The results of the viscous ring evolution has also been presented as well, and the numerical results agrees with the analytic solution.
An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows
Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.
Zooming in on major mergers: dense, starbursting gas in cosmological simulations
Sparre, Martin; Springel, Volker
2016-11-01
We introduce the `Illustris zoom simulation project', which allows the study of selected galaxies forming in the Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology with a 40 times better mass resolution than in the parent large-scale hydrodynamical Illustris simulation. We here focus on the starburst properties of the gas in four cosmological simulations of major mergers. The galaxies in our high-resolution zoom runs exhibit a bursty mode of star formation with gas consumption time-scales 10 times shorter than for the normal star formation mode. The strong bursts are only present in the simulations with the highest resolution, hinting that a too low resolution is the reason why the original Illustris simulation showed a dearth of starburst galaxies. Very pronounced bursts of star formation occur in two out of four major mergers we study. The high star formation rates, the short gas consumption time-scales and the morphology of these systems strongly resemble observed nuclear starbursts. This is the first time that a sample of major mergers is studied through self-consistent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations instead of using isolated galaxy models setup on a collision course. We also study the orbits of the colliding galaxies and find that the starbursting gas preferentially appears in head-on mergers with very high collision velocities. Encounters with large impact parameters do typically not lead to the formation of starbursting gas.
Comparisons of Cosmological MHD Galaxy Cluster Simulations to Radio Observations
Xu, Hao; Murgia, Matteo; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L; Cen, Renyue; Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele
2012-01-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are $\\mu$G magnetic fields permeating the intra-cluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic VLA observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al. (2010, 2011), we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both $|RM|$ and the dispersion of RM (...
SPOKES: an End-to-End Simulation Facility for Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys
Nord, B; Refregier, A; Gamper, La; Gamper, Lu; Hambrecht, B; Chang, C; Forero-Romero, J E; Serrano, S; Cunha, C; Coles, O; Nicola, A; Busha, M; Bauer, A; Saunders, W; Jouvel, S; Kirk, D; Wechsler, R
2016-01-01
The nature of dark matter, dark energy and large-scale gravity pose some of the most pressing questions in cosmology today. These fundamental questions require highly precise measurements, and a number of wide-field spectroscopic survey instruments are being designed to meet this requirement. A key component in these experiments is the development of a simulation tool to forecast science performance, define requirement flow-downs, optimize implementation, demonstrate feasibility, and prepare for exploitation. We present SPOKES (SPectrOscopic KEn Simulation), an end-to-end simulation facility for spectroscopic cosmological surveys designed to address this challenge. SPOKES is based on an integrated infrastructure, modular function organization, coherent data handling and fast data access. These key features allow reproducibility of pipeline runs, enable ease of use and provide flexibility to update functions within the pipeline. The cyclic nature of the pipeline offers the possibility to make the science outpu...
Evolution of cosmic filaments and of their galaxy population from MHD cosmological simulations
Gheller, Claudio; Brueggen, Marcus; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Hopkins, Andrew; Liske, Jochen
2016-01-01
Despite containing about a half of the total matter in the Universe, at most wavelengths the filamentary structure of the cosmic web is difficult to observe. In this work, we use large unigrid cosmological simulations to investigate how the geometrical, thermodynamical and magnetic properties of cosmological filaments vary with mass and redshift (z $\\leq 1$). We find that the average temperature, length, volume and magnetic field of filaments are tightly log-log correlated with the underlying total gravitational mass. This reflects the role of self-gravity in shaping their properties and enables statistical predictions of their observational properties based on their mass. We also focus on the properties of the simulated population of galaxy-sized halos within filaments, and compare their properties to the results obtained from the spectroscopic GAMA survey. Simulated and observed filaments with the same length are found to contain an equal number of galaxies, with very similar distribution of halo masses. Th...
Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations
Gaite, Jose
2013-01-01
Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos, it is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.
Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Gaite
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.
Light-Cone Effect of Radiation Fields in Cosmological Radiative Transfer Simulations
Ahn, Kyungjin
2015-01-01
We present a novel method to implement time-delayed propagation of radiation fields in cosmological radiative transfer simulations. Time-delayed propagation of radiation fields requires construction of retarded-time fields by tracking the location and lifetime of radiation sources along the corresponding light-cones. Cosmological radiative transfer simulations have, until now, ignored this "light-cone effect" or implemented ray-tracing methods that are computationally demanding. We show that radiative transfer calculation of the time-delayed fields can be easily achieved in numerical simulations when periodic boundary conditions are used, by calculating the time-discretized retarded-time Green's function using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and convolving it with the source distribution. We also present a direct application of this method to the long-range radiation field of Lyman-Werner band photons, which is important in the high-redshift astrophysics with first stars.
Narayanan, Desika
2014-10-01
As the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, Submillimeter Galaxies at z 2-4 are key players in galaxy evolution. Since their discovery, SMGs have received significant attention from HST in characterizing their physical morphology, stellar masses, and star formation histories. Unfortunately, these physical constraints have been difficult for theorists to reconcile with galaxy formation simulations. Previous generations of simulations have all either {a} neglected baryons; {b} neglected radiative transfer {and connecting to observations}; or {c} neglected cosmological conditions. Here, we propose to conduct the first ever cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Submillimeter Galaxy formation that couple with bona fide 3D dust radiative transfer calculations. These ultra-high resolution simulations {parsec-scale} will be the first to resolve the sites of dust obscuration, the cosmic growth history of SMGs, and their evolutionary destiny. Our proposal has two principle goals: {1} Develop the first ever model for SMG formation from cosmological simulations that include both baryons and dust radiative transfer; {2} Capitalize on our parsec-scale resolution to understand the connection between the physical properties of star-forming regions in high-z starbursts, and recent IMF constraints from present-epoch massive galaxies.
The MultiDark Database: Release of the Bolshoi and MultiDark cosmological simulations
Riebe, K.; Partl, A. M.; Enke, H.; Forero-Romero, J.; Gottlöber, S.; Klypin, A.; Lemson, G.; Prada, F.; Primack, J. R.; Steinmetz, M.; Turchaninov, V.
2013-08-01
We present the online {MultiDark Database} - a Virtual Observatory-oriented, relational database for hosting various cosmological simulations. The data is accessible via an SQL (Structured Query Language) query interface, which also allows users to directly pose scientific questions, as shown in a number of examples in this paper. Further examples for the usage of the database are given in its extensive online documentation. The database is based on the same technology as the Millennium Database, a fact that will greatly facilitate the usage of both suites of cosmological simulations. The first release of the {MultiDark Database} hosts two 8.6 billion particle cosmological N-body simulations: the Bolshoi (250 h-1 Mpc simulation box, 1 h-1 kpc resolution) and MultiDark Run1 simulation (MDR1, or BigBolshoi, 1000 h-1 Mpc simulation box, 7 h-1 kpc resolution). The extraction methods for halos/subhalos from the raw simulation data, and how this data is structured in the database are explained in this paper. With the first data release, users get full access to halo/subhalo catalogs, various profiles of the halos at redshifts z=0-15, and raw dark matter data for one time-step of the Bolshoi and four time-steps of the MultiDark simulation. Later releases will also include galaxy mock catalogs and additional merger trees for both simulations as well as new large volume simulations with high resolution. This project is further proof of the viability to store and present complex data using relational database technology. We encourage other simulators to publish their results in a similar manner.
Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH
Tricco, Terrence S
2012-01-01
We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.
COMPARISONS OF COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER SIMULATIONS TO RADIO OBSERVATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Govoni, Federica; Murgia, Matteo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Poggio dei Pini, Strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Norman, Michael L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cen Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele, E-mail: hao_xu@lanl.gov, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: dccollins@lanl.gov, E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu, E-mail: fgovoni@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: matteo@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: lferetti@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: ggiovann@ira.inaf.it [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P.Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)
2012-11-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are {mu}G magnetic fields permeating the intracluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic Very Large Array observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday rotation measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al., we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both |RM| and the dispersion of RM ({sigma}{sub RM}), are consistent at a first order with the radial distribution from observations. The correlations between the {sigma}{sub RM} and X-ray surface brightness from simulations are in a broad agreement with the observations, although there is an indication that the simulated clusters could be slightly overdense and less magnetized with respect to those in the observed sample. In addition, the simulated radio halos agree with the observed correlations between the radio power versus the cluster X-ray luminosity and between the radio power versus the radio halo size. These studies show that the cluster-wide magnetic fields that originate from AGNs and are then amplified by the ICM turbulence match observations of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters.
Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain
2012-03-01
We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion
FleCSPH - a parallel and distributed SPH implementation based on the FleCSI framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2017-06-20
FleCSPH is a multi-physics compact application that exercises FleCSI parallel data structures for tree-based particle methods. In particular, FleCSPH implements a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) solver for the solution of Lagrangian problems in astrophysics and cosmology. FleCSPH includes support for gravitational forces using the fast multipole method (FMM).
Initial conditions for accurate N-body simulations of massive neutrino cosmologies
Zennaro, M.; Bel, J.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Carbone, C.; Sefusatti, E.; Guzzo, L.
2017-04-01
The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterizes these models. In this work, we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1 per cent accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to non-linear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies adopted in previous works. We then take advantage of the flexibility of this approach to rescale the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift, in order to be as consistent as possible with the dynamics of the N-body code and the approximations it assumes. We implement our method in a public code (REPS rescaled power spectra for initial conditions with massive neutrinos https://github.com/matteozennaro/reps) providing the initial displacements and velocities for cold dark matter and neutrino particles that will allow accurate, i.e. 1 per cent level, numerical simulations for this cosmological scenario.
Off The Beaten Path: Modeling the Dynamics of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations
Tremmel, Michael J.; Governato, Fabio; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Thomas R.
2015-01-01
Cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. However, the limited resolution of these simulations presents unique challenges to successfully modeling black hole dynamics. We present a novel, physically motivated method for improving the dynamics of black holes in cosmological simulations, by accounting for the unresolved dynamical friction that SMBHs feel from stars and dark matter. We show how this approach, which naturally scales with resolution, is a major step forward compared to more commonly used 'advection' models that often assume SMBHs sink very rapidly toward the center of their host galaxies. Here, we demonstrate that our method is able to prevent numerical heating of SMBHs while allowing for realistic dynamics.Our implementation will allow us to more realistically model SMBH dynamics, accretion, and mergers in cosmological simulations, giving us the ability to better understand how SMBHs grow with their host galaxies. This also provides an opportunity for more detailed studies of SMBHs in dwarf galaxies, which can give crucial insight into constraining black hole seed formation models.
Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations
L'Huillier, Benjamin; Kim, Juhan
2014-01-01
Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the influence of the initial conditions, namely the pre-initial configuration (preIC), the order of the Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT), and the initial redshift, on the statistics associated with the large scale structures of the universe such as the halo mass function, the density power spectrum, and the maximal extent of the large scale structures. We find that glass or grid pre-initial conditions give similar results at $z\\lesssim 2$. However, the initial excess of power in the glass initial conditions yields a subtle di...
Stickley, Nathaniel R; Masters, Daniel; de Putter, Roland; Doré, Olivier; Bock, Jamie
2016-01-01
Highly accurate models of the galaxy population over cosmological volumes are necessary in order to predict the performance of upcoming cosmological missions. We present a data-driven model of the galaxy population constrained by deep 0.1-8 $\\rm \\mu m$ imaging and spectroscopic data in the COSMOS survey, with the immediate goal of simulating the spectroscopic redshift performance of the proposed SPHEREx mission. SPHEREx will obtain over the full-sky $R\\sim41$ spectrophotometry at moderate spatial resolution ($\\sim6"$) over the wavelength range 0.75-4.18 $\\rm \\mu m$ and $R\\sim135$ over the wavelength range 4.18-5 $\\rm \\mu m$. We show that our simulation accurately reproduces a range of known galaxy properties, encapsulating the full complexity of the galaxy population and enables realistic, full end-to-end simulations to predict mission performance. Finally, we discuss potential applications of the simulation framework to future cosmology missions and give a description of released data products.
PKDGRAV3: Beyond Trillion Particle Cosmological Simulations for the Next Era of Galaxy Surveys
Potter, Douglas; Teyssier, Romain
2016-01-01
We report on the successful completion of a 2 trillion particle cosmological simulation to z=0 run on the Piz Daint supercomputer (CSCS, Switzerland), using 4000+ GPU nodes for a little less than 80h of wall-clock time or 350,000 node hours. Using multiple benchmarks and performance measurements on the US Oak Ridge National Laboratory Titan supercomputer, we demonstrate that our code PKDGRAV3, delivers, to our knowledge, the fastest time-to-solution for large-scale cosmological N-body simulations. This was made possible by using the Fast Multipole Method in conjunction with individual and adaptive particle time steps, both deployed efficiently (and for the first time) on supercomputers with GPU-accelerated nodes. The very low memory footprint of PKDGRAV3 allowed us to run the first ever benchmark with 8 trillion particles on Titan, and to achieve perfect scaling up to 18000 nodes and a peak performance of 10 Pflops.
Cosmological particle-in-cell simulations with ultra-light axion dark matter
Veltmaat, Jan
2016-01-01
We study cosmological structure formation with ultra-light axion dark matter (or "fuzzy dark matter", FDM) using a particle-mesh scheme to account for the quantum pressure arising in the Madelung formulation of the Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations. Sub-percent level energy conservation and correct linear behavior are demonstrated. Whereas the code gives rise to the same core-halo profiles as direct simulations of the Schr\\"odinger equation, it does not reproduce the detailed interference patterns at the resolution used here. In cosmological simulations with FDM inital conditions, we find a maximum relative difference of O($10\\%$) in the power spectrum near the quantum Jeans length compared to using a standard N-body code with identical initial conditions. This shows that the effect of quantum pressure during nonlinear structure formation cannot be neglected for precision constraints on a dark matter component consisting of ultra-light axions.
Cosmological particle-in-cell simulations with ultralight axion dark matter
Veltmaat, Jan; Niemeyer, Jens C.
2016-12-01
We study cosmological structure formation with ultralight axion dark matter, or "fuzzy dark matter" (FDM), using a particle-mesh scheme to account for the quantum pressure arising in the Madelung formulation of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. Subpercent-level energy conservation and correct linear behavior are demonstrated. Whereas the code gives rise to the same core-halo profiles as direct simulations of the Schrödinger equation, it does not reproduce the detailed interference patterns. In cosmological simulations with FDM initial conditions, we find a maximum relative difference of O(10%) in the power spectrum near the quantum Jeans length compared to using a standard N -body code with identical initial conditions. This shows that the effect of quantum pressure during nonlinear structure formation cannot be neglected for precision constraints on a dark matter component consisting of ultralight axions.
Direct cosmological simulations of the growth of black holes and galaxies
Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Sijacki, Debora
2007-01-01
We investigate the coupled formation and evolution of galaxies and their embedded supermassive black holes using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations of cosmological structure formation. For the first time, we self-consistently follow the dark matter dynamics, radiative gas cooling, star formation, as well as black hole growth and associated feedback processes, starting directly from initial conditions appropriate for the LambdaCDM cosmology. Our modeling of the black hole physics is based on an approach we have developed in simulations of isolated galaxy mergers. Here we examine: (i) the predicted global history of black hole mass assembly (ii) the evolution of the local black hole-host mass correlations and (iii) the conditions that allow rapid growth of the first quasars, and the properties of their hosts and descendants today. We find a total black hole mass density in good agreement with observational estimates. The black hole accretion rate density peaks at lower redshift and evolves more strongly ...
Investigating the outcomes of SPH models of catastrophic destruction
Dell'Oro, A.; Cellino, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Tanga, P.
Smooth particle hydro-dynamics (SPH) codes have proved able to simulate satisfactorily the shattering processes in high-energy collisions among asteroids, reproducing the major observational evidences. In particular, SPH models reproduce fairly well the size distributions of the members of some asteroid families. A considerable difference between SPH models and Semi-Empirical Models (SEM) is that in the former the asteroids are ground up into very small fragments, the size of which is limited by the resolution of the code. Moreover, the subsequent ballistic dynamical evolution, driven by their mutual gravitational attraction, would result in a significant re-accumulation into many bodies. On the contrary, ejection velocity fields predicted by SEM allow the reaccumulation into very few bodies, sometimes only the largest remnant. This difference is a critical issue for the interpretation of the observational data in order to understand the physics of the catastrophic destruction process, and the physical characteristics of the asteroids themselves. We present a new analysis of some SPH velocity fields aiming to shed light on the intrinsic differences between SPH models and SEMs.
Fast Generation of Ensembles of Cosmological N-Body Simulations via Mode-Resampling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, M D; Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Szapudi, I
2011-02-14
We present an algorithm for quickly generating multiple realizations of N-body simulations to be used, for example, for cosmological parameter estimation from surveys of large-scale structure. Our algorithm uses a new method to resample the large-scale (Gaussian-distributed) Fourier modes in a periodic N-body simulation box in a manner that properly accounts for the nonlinear mode-coupling between large and small scales. We find that our method for adding new large-scale mode realizations recovers the nonlinear power spectrum to sub-percent accuracy on scales larger than about half the Nyquist frequency of the simulation box. Using 20 N-body simulations, we obtain a power spectrum covariance matrix estimate that matches the estimator from Takahashi et al. (from 5000 simulations) with < 20% errors in all matrix elements. Comparing the rates of convergence, we determine that our algorithm requires {approx}8 times fewer simulations to achieve a given error tolerance in estimates of the power spectrum covariance matrix. The degree of success of our algorithm indicates that we understand the main physical processes that give rise to the correlations in the matter power spectrum. Namely, the large-scale Fourier modes modulate both the degree of structure growth through the variation in the effective local matter density and also the spatial frequency of small-scale perturbations through large-scale displacements. We expect our algorithm to be useful for noise modeling when constraining cosmological parameters from weak lensing (cosmic shear) and galaxy surveys, rescaling summary statistics of N-body simulations for new cosmological parameter values, and any applications where the influence of Fourier modes larger than the simulation size must be accounted for.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE VISCOELASTIC FLOWS FOR PTT MODEL BY THE SPH METHOD%PTT黏弹性流体的光滑粒子动力学方法模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨波; 欧阳洁; 蒋涛; 许晓阳
2011-01-01
运用光滑粒子流体动力学（smoothed particle hydrodynamics，SPH）方法对基于PHan—Thien—Tanner（PTT）模型的黏弹性流动进行了数值模拟．首先，利用SPH方法模拟了基于PTT模型的平板Poiseuille流，通过与文献结果的比较，验证了SPH方法模拟黏弹性流动的准确性和有效性；随后，基于PTT模型对黏弹性自由表面流一液滴碰撞问题进行了SPH模拟，研究了PTT模型中拉伸参数对碰撞过程的影响．为了解决张力不稳定问题，采用简化的人工应力公式．数值结果表明，SPH方法可%The smoothed particle hydrodynamics （SPH） method is applied to simulate the viscoelastic flows governed by the PHan-Thien-Tanner （PTT） constitutive equation. First of all, the validity of the SPH method for viscoelastic flows is verified by comparing the numerical solution of a PTT fluid in the planar Poiseuille flow with those in literatures. And then, a viscoelastic free surface flow is simulated to consider about a drop of a PTT fluid impacting a rigid plate. Furthermore, the effect of the elongational parameter is investigated. The results show the flexibility of the SPH method for viscoelastic free surface problems. In particular, a simplified artificial stress is adopted to resolve the problem of the tensile instability. Numerical results obtained are in good agreement with those simulated by other mesh-based methods.
Zoomed cosmological simulations of Milky Way sized halos in f(R)-gravity
Arnold, Christian; Puchwein, Ewald
2016-01-01
We investigate the impact of f(R) modified gravity on the internal properties of Milky Way sized dark matter halos in a set of cosmological zoom simulations of seven halos from the Aquarius suite, carried out with our code MG-GADGET in the Hu & Sawicki f(R) model. Also, we calculate the fifth forces in ideal NFW-halos as well as in our cosmological simulations and compare them against analytic model predictions for the fifth force inside spherical objects. We find that these theoretical predictions match the forces in the ideal halos very well, whereas their applicability is somewhat limited for realistic cosmological halos. Our simulations show that f(R) gravity significantly affects the dark matter density profile of Milky Way sized objects as well as their circular velocities. In unscreened regions, the velocity dispersions are increased by up to 40% with respect to LCDM for viable f(R) models. This difference is larger than reported in previous works. The Solar circle is fully screened in $f_{R0} = -1...
Zoomed cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes in f(R) gravity
Arnold, Christian; Springel, Volker; Puchwein, Ewald
2016-10-01
We investigate the impact of f(R) modified gravity on the internal properties of Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes in a set of cosmological zoom simulations of seven haloes from the Aquarius suite, carried out with our code MG-GADGET in the Hu & Sawicki f(R) model. Also, we calculate the fifth forces in ideal NFW-haloes as well as in our cosmological simulations and compare them against analytic model predictions for the fifth force inside spherical objects. We find that these theoretical predictions match the forces in the ideal haloes very well, whereas their applicability is somewhat limited for realistic cosmological haloes. Our simulations show that f(R) gravity significantly affects the dark matter density profile of Milky Way-sized objects as well as their circular velocities. In unscreened regions, the velocity dispersions are increased by up to 40 per cent with respect to ΛCDM for viable f(R) models. This difference is larger than reported in previous works. The Solar circle is fully screened in bar{f}_{R0} = -10^{-6} models for Milky Way-sized haloes, while this location is unscreened for slightly less massive objects. Within the scope of our limited halo sample size, we do not find a clear dependence of the concentration parameter of dark matter haloes on bar{f}_{R0}.
On the Origin of Cores in Simulated Galaxy Clusters
Mitchell, N L; Bower, R G; Theuns, T; Crain, R A
2008-01-01
(Abridged) The thermal state of the intracluster medium results from a competition between gas cooling and heating. The heating comes from two distinct sources: gravitational heating from the collapse of the dark matter halo and thermal input from galaxy/black hole formation. However, a long standing problem has been that cosmological simulations based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and Eulerian mesh codes predict different results even when cooling and galaxy/black hole heating are switched off. Clusters formed in SPH simulations show near powerlaw entropy profiles, while those formed in mesh simulations develop a core and do not allow gas to reach such low entropies. Since the cooling rate is closely connected to the minimum entropy of the gas, the differences are of potentially key importance. In this paper, we investigate the origin of this discrepancy. By comparing simulations run using the GADGET-2 SPH code and the FLASH adaptive Eulerian mesh code, we show that the discrepancy arises during t...
基于SPH方法的瞬态粘弹性流体的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flows Using SPH Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨波; 欧阳洁
2010-01-01
运用SPH(Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics)方法模拟基于Oldroyd-B模型的平面突然起动Couette流,通过数值解与解析解的比较,验证SPH方法模拟瞬态粘弹性流动的准确性;且对基于Oldroyd-B模型的方腔驱动流进行SPH模拟.采用一种新的固壁边界处理方法,有效地防止了粒子穿透,提高数值计算的准确性.用数值算例验证SPH方法对粘弹性流体模拟的有效性和稳定性.
Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH
Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.
2016-09-01
We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.
Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH
Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.
2017-01-01
We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.
Modeling the galaxy/light-mass connection with cosmological simulations
Tasitsiomi, A
2006-01-01
I review some results on the galaxy/light-mass connection obtained by dissipationless simulations in combination with a simple, non-parametric model to connect halo circular velocity to the luminosity of the galaxy they would host. I focus on the galaxy-mass correlation and mass-to-light ratios obtained from galaxy up to cluster scales. The predictions of this simple scheme are shown to be in very good agreement with SDSS observations.
Machine Learning and Cosmological Simulations I: Semi-Analytical Models
Kamdar, Harshil M.; Turk, Matthew J.; Brunner, Robert J.
2015-01-01
We present a new exploratory framework to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe by using machine learning (ML). Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively analyzing the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on galaxies in the backdrop of semi-analytical models (SAMs). We use the influential Millennium Simulation and the corresponding Munich SAM to train and test various so...
Building Merger Trees from Cosmological N-body Simulations
Tweed, D; Blaizot, J; Colombi, S; Slyz, A
2009-01-01
Although a fair amount of work has been devoted to growing Monte-Carlo merger trees which resemble those built from an N-body simulation, comparatively little effort has been invested in quantifying the caveats one necessarily encounters when one extracts trees directly from such a simulation. To somewhat revert the tide, this paper seeks to provide its reader with a comprehensive study of the problems one faces when following this route. The first step to building merger histories of dark matter haloes and their subhaloes is to identify these structures in each of the time outputs (snapshots) produced by the simulation. Even though we discuss a particular implementation of such an algorithm (called AdaptaHOP) in this paper, we believe that our results do not depend on the exact details of the implementation but extend to most if not all (sub)structure finders. To illustrate this point, we compare AdaptaHOP s results to the standard Friend- Of-Friend algorithm (FOF), widely utilized in the astrophysical commu...
Evolution of dwarf galaxies simulated in the cosmological LCDM scenario
Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colin, Pedro; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valenzuela, Octavio
2014-03-01
We present results from numerical simulations of low-mass galaxies with the aim to explore the way their stellar masses are assembled. We analyze how the mass assembly histories of the parent halo determine the growth of their host galaxy and its implications on the current paradigm of formation and evolution of low-mass structures in the LCDM scenario. We have found that low-mass galaxies simulated in this scenario assemble their stellar masses following roughly the dark matter halo assembly, which seems to be in tension with the downsizing trend suggested by current observational inferences. We show that there is no more room to increase the strength of feedback from astrophysical processes in order to deviate strongly the stellar mass assembly from the dark halo one, as has been recently invoked to solve some of the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarf galaxies. Alejandro González acknowledges finacial support from UNAM, Fundacion UNAM, and the APS to attend this meeting.
Simulating Our Cosmological Neighborhood: Mock Catalogs for Velocity Analysis
Kolatt, Tsafrir; Dekel, Avishai; Ganon, Galit; Willick, Jeffrey
1995-01-01
We describe the construction of an N-body simulation that mimics the true velocity and mass-density fields in a box of side 256\\hmpc about the Local Group , and the production of mock catalogs that mimic in detail current catalogs of redshifts and peculiar velocities. Our main purpose is to provide a tool for developing and testing reconstruction methods, but the different components of the method can be used on their own in other applications. The initial conditions are based on the IRAS 1.2...
Numerical techniques for large cosmological N-body simulations
Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.
1985-01-01
Techniques for carrying out large N-body simulations of the gravitational evolution of clustering in the fundamental cube of an infinite periodic universe are described and compared. The accuracy of the forces derived from several commonly used particle mesh schemes is examined, showing how submesh resolution can be achieved by including short-range forces between particles by direct summation techniques. The time integration of the equations of motion is discussed, and the accuracy of the codes for various choices of 'time' variable and time step is tested by considering energy conservation as well as by direct analysis of particle trajectories. Methods for generating initial particle positions and velocities corresponding to a growing mode representation of a specified power spectrum of linear density fluctuations are described. The effects of force resolution are studied and different simulation schemes are compared. An algorithm is implemented for generating initial conditions by varying the number of particles, the initial amplitude of density fluctuations, and the initial peculiar velocity field.
The BAHAMAS project: calibrated hydrodynamical simulations for large-scale structure cosmology
McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Bird, Simeon; Le Brun, Amandine M. C.
2017-03-01
The evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter is sensitive to a variety of fundamental parameters that characterize the dark matter, dark energy, and other aspects of our cosmological framework. Since the majority of the mass density is in the form of dark matter that cannot be directly observed, to do cosmology with large-scale structure, one must use observable (baryonic) quantities that trace the underlying matter distribution in a (hopefully) predictable way. However, recent numerical studies have demonstrated that the mapping between observable and total mass, as well as the total mass itself, are sensitive to unresolved feedback processes associated with galaxy formation, motivating explicit calibration of the feedback efficiencies. Here, we construct a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations (called BAHAMAS, for BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Systems), where subgrid models of stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback have been calibrated to reproduce the present-day galaxy stellar mass function and the hot gas mass fractions of groups and clusters in order to ensure the effects of feedback on the overall matter distribution are broadly correct. We show that the calibrated simulations reproduce an unprecedentedly wide range of properties of massive systems, including the various observed mappings between galaxies, hot gas, total mass, and black holes, and represent a significant advance in our ability to mitigate the primary systematic uncertainty in most present large-scale structure tests.
Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P
2013-01-01
We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...
Cosmology with AGN dust time lags-simulating the new VEILS survey
Hönig, S. F.; Watson, D.; Kishimoto, M.; Gandhi, P.; Goad, M.; Horne, K.; Shankar, F.; Banerji, M.; Boulderstone, B.; Jarvis, M.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.
2017-01-01
The time lag between optical and near-infrared continuum emission in active galactic nuclei (AGN) shows a tight correlation with luminosity and has been proposed as a standardizable candle for cosmology. In this paper, we explore the use of these AGN hot-dust time lags for cosmological model fitting under the constraints of the new VISTA Extragalactic Infrared Legacy Survey (VEILS). This new survey will target a 9 deg2 field observed in J and Ks band with a 14-d cadence and will run for 3 yr. The same area will be covered simultaneously in the optical griz bands by the Dark Energy Survey, providing complementary time-domain optical data. We perform realistic simulations of the survey setup, showing that we expect to recover dust time lags for about 450 objects out of a total of 1350 optical type 1 AGN, spanning a redshift range of 0.1 4.
Cosmology with AGN dust time lags -- Simulating the new VEILS survey
Hönig, S F; Kishimoto, M; Gandhi, P; Goad, M; Horne, K; Shankar, F; Banerji, M; Boulderstone, B; Jarvis, M; Smith, M; Sullivan, M
2016-01-01
The time lag between optical and near-infrared continuum emission in active galactic nuclei (AGN) shows a tight correlation with luminosity and has been proposed as a standardisable candle for cosmology. In this paper, we explore the use of these AGN hot-dust time lags for cosmological model fitting under the constraints of the new VISTA Extragalactic Infrared Legacy Survey VEILS. This new survey will target a 9 deg^2 field observed in J- and Ks-band with a 14-day cadence and will run for three years. The same area will be covered simultaneously in the optical griz bands by the Dark Energy Survey, providing complementary time-domain optical data. We perform realistic simulations of the survey setup, showing that we expect to recover dust time lags for about 450 objects out of a total of 1350 optical type 1 AGN, spanning a redshift range of 0.1 4.
A physical model for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation
Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Torrey, Paul; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; ),
2013-01-01
We present a new comprehensive model of the physics of galaxy formation designed for large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation using the moving mesh code AREPO. Our model includes primordial and metal line cooling with self-shielding corrections, stellar evolution and feedback processes, gas recycling, chemical enrichment, a novel subgrid model for the metal loading of outflows, black hole (BH) seeding, BH growth and merging procedures, quasar- and radio-mode feedback, and a prescription for radiative electro-magnetic (EM) feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Stellar feedback is realised through kinetic outflows. The scaling of the mass loading of galactic winds can be set to be either energy or momentum driven, or a mixture of both. The metal mass loading of outflows can be adjusted independently of the wind mass loading. This is required to simultaneously reproduce the stellar mass content of low mass haloes and their gas oxygen abundances. Radiative EM AGN feedback is implemented...
SWIFT: task-based hydrodynamics and gravity for cosmological simulations
Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Gonnet, Pedro
2015-01-01
Simulations of galaxy formation follow the gravitational and hydrodynamical interactions between gas, stars and dark matter through cosmic time. The huge dynamic range of such calculations severely limits strong scaling behaviour of the community codes in use, with load-imbalance, cache inefficiencies and poor vectorisation limiting performance. The new swift code exploits task-based parallelism designed for many-core compute nodes interacting via MPI using asynchronous communication to improve speed and scaling. A graph-based domain decomposition schedules interdependent tasks over available resources. Strong scaling tests on realistic particle distributions yield excellent parallel efficiency, and efficient cache usage provides a large speed-up compared to current codes even on a single core. SWIFT is designed to be easy to use by shielding the astronomer from computational details such as the construction of the tasks or MPI communication. The techniques and algorithms used in SWIFT may benefit other compu...
Constraints on Physical Properties of z~6 Galaxies Using Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Finlator, K; Oppenheimer, B
2006-01-01
We introduce SPOC, a new code for constraining the physical properties of observed galaxies through a Bayesian likelihood comparison with galaxies drawn from simulations. SPOC inputs an object's photometry and outputs probability distributions of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), age, metallicity, dust extinction, and redshift (if none is given) for that galaxy. We apply SPOC, employing model galaxies drawn from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, to Abell 2218 KESR (z~6.7) and five other z>5.5 galaxies for which published rest-frame ultraviolet and optical measurements are available. We compare the outcome of using our simulated galaxies' star formation histories (SFHs) versus using simple one-parameter SFHs such as constant, exponentially-decaying, and rising (a new form we introduce motivated by typical SFHs seen in our simulated galaxies). We show that simulated galaxies match these observations at least as well as simple SFHs, with similar favored values obtained for the intrinsic physical para...
Pawlik, Andreas H; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla
2015-01-01
We present a suite of cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the assembly of galaxies driving the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z >~ 6. The simulations account for the hydrodynamical feedback from photoionization heating and the explosion of massive stars as supernovae (SNe). Our reference simulation, which was carried out in a box of size 25 comoving Mpc/h using 2 x 512^3 particles, produces a reasonable reionization history and matches the observed UV luminosity function of galaxies. Simulations with different box sizes and resolutions are used to investigate numerical convergence, and simulations in which either SNe or photoionization heating or both are turned off, are used to investigate the role of feedback from star formation. Ionizing radiation is treated using accurate radiative transfer at the high spatially adaptive resolution at which the hydrodynamics is carried out. SN feedback strongly reduces the star formation rates (SFRs) over nearly the full mass range of s...
Simulating our cosmological neighborhood mock catalogs for velocity analysis
Kolatt, T S; Ganon, G; Willick, J; Kolatt, Tsafrir; Dekel, Avishai; Ganon, Galit; Willick, Jeffrey
1995-01-01
We describe the construction of an N-body simulation that mimics the true velocity and mass-density fields in a box of side 256\\hmpc about the Local Group , and the production of mock catalogs that mimic in detail current catalogs of redshifts and peculiar velocities. Our main purpose is to provide a tool for developing and testing reconstruction methods, but the different components of the method can be used on their own in other applications. The initial conditions are based on the IRAS 1.2Jy redshift survey, assuming that galaxies trace mass and \\Omega=1. A density field smoothed is recovered from the redshift survey, using quasi-linear theory and a power-preserving filter. The corresponding potential field is traced back to the linear regime using the Zel'dovich-Bernoulli equation. Small-scale power is added by means of constrained realization to mimic fluctuations on galactic scales. The gravitating system is evolved forward in time with a PM code of 2\\hmpc resolution. The result reproduces the real dyna...
The nature of compact groups of galaxies from cosmological simulations
Mamon, G A
2009-01-01
The nature of compact groups (CGs) of galaxies, apparently so dense that the galaxies often overlap, is still a subject of debate: Are CGs roughly as dense in 3D as they appear in projection? Or are they caused by chance alignments of galaxies along the line-of-sight within larger virialized groups, or within even longer filamentary structures? The nature of CGs is re-appraised using the redshift zero outputs of three galaxy formation models, applied to the dissipationless Millennium Simulation. The same selection criteria are applied to mock galaxy catalogs from these models as have been applied by Hickson and co-workers in redshift space. We find 50 times as many mock CGs as the 'HCGs' found by Hickson within a distance corresponding to 9000 km/s. This very low (2%) completeness is caused by Hickson missing groups that were either faint, near the surface brightness threshold, of small angular size and with a dominant brightest galaxy. We find that most CGs are physically dense, regardless of the precise thr...
Machine learning and cosmological simulations - I. Semi-analytical models
Kamdar, Harshil M.; Turk, Matthew J.; Brunner, Robert J.
2016-01-01
We present a new exploratory framework to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical Universe by using machine learning (ML). Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively analysing the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on galaxies in the backdrop of semi-analytical models (SAMs). We use the influential Millennium Simulation and the corresponding Munich SAM to train and test various sophisticated ML algorithms (k-Nearest Neighbors, decision trees, random forests, and extremely randomized trees). By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties for haloes of M > 1012 M⊙ and a partial merger tree, our model predicts the hot gas mass, cold gas mass, bulge mass, total stellar mass, black hole mass and cooling radius at z = 0 for each central galaxy in a dark matter halo for the Millennium run. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon SAMs and demonstrably place ML as a promising and a computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation.
Machine Learning and Cosmological Simulations I: Semi-Analytical Models
Kamdar, Harshil M; Brunner, Robert J
2016-01-01
We present a new exploratory framework to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe by using machine learning (ML). Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively analyzing the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on galaxies in the backdrop of semi-analytical models (SAMs). We use the influential Millennium Simulation and the corresponding Munich SAM to train and test various sophisticated machine learning algorithms (k-Nearest Neighbors, decision trees, random forests and extremely randomized trees). By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties for haloes of $M>10^{12} M_{\\odot}$ and a partial merger tree, our model predicts the hot gas mass, cold gas mass, bulge mass, total stellar mass, black hole mass and cooling radius at z = 0 for each central galaxy in a dark matter halo for the Millennium run. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore...
Cosmology with AGN dust time lags - Simulating the new VEILS survey
Hönig, S. F.; Watson, D.; Kishimoto, M.; Gandhi, P.; Goad, M.; Horne, K.; Shankar, F.; Banerji, M.; Boulderstone, B.; Jarvis, M.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.
2016-10-01
The time lag between optical and near-infrared continuum emission in active galactic nuclei (AGN) shows a tight correlation with luminosity and has been proposed as a standardisable candle for cosmology. In this paper, we explore the use of these AGN hot-dust time lags for cosmological model fitting under the constraints of the new VISTA Extragalactic Infrared Legacy Survey VEILS. This new survey will target a 9 deg2 field observed in J- and Ks-band with a 14-day cadence and will run for three years. The same area will be covered simultaneously in the optical griz bands by the Dark Energy Survey, providing complementary time-domain optical data. We perform realistic simulations of the survey setup, showing that we expect to recover dust time lags for about 450 objects out of a total of 1350 optical type 1 AGN, spanning a redshift range of 0.1 AGN as well as in the normalisation of the lag-luminosity relation, we are able to constrain Ω _Λ in ΛCDM with similar accuracy as current supernova samples. We discuss the benefits of combining AGN and supernovae for cosmology and connect the present work to future attempts to reach out to redshifts of z > 4.
Exponents of non-linear clustering in scale-free one dimensional cosmological simulations
Benhaiem, David; Sicard, François
2012-01-01
One dimensional versions of cosmological N-body simulations have been shown to share many qualitative behaviours of the three dimensional problem. They can resolve a large range of time and length scales, and admit exact numerical integration. We use such models to study how non-linear clustering depends on initial conditions and cosmology. More specifically, we consider a family of models which, like the 3D EdS model, lead for power-law initial conditions to self-similar clustering characterized in the strongly non-linear regime by power-law behaviour of the two point correlation function. We study how the corresponding exponent \\gamma depends on the initial conditions, characterized by the exponent n of the power spectrum of initial fluctuations, and on a single parameter \\kappa controlling the rate of expansion. The space of initial conditions/cosmology divides very clearly into two parts: (1) a region in which \\gamma depends strongly on both n and \\kappa and where it agrees very well with a simple general...
Modified Baryonic Dynamics: two-component cosmological simulations with light sterile neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, G.W.; Gentile, G. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, 1050 Belgium (Belgium); Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 Italy (Italy); Famaey, B. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, Strasbourg, F-67000 France (France); Heyden, K.J. van der, E-mail: garry.angus@vub.ac.be, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: benoit.famaey@astro.unistra.fr, E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be, E-mail: heyden@ast.uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept. of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 South Africa (South Africa)
2014-10-01
In this article we continue to test cosmological models centred on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with light sterile neutrinos, which could in principle be a way to solve the fine-tuning problems of the standard model on galaxy scales while preserving successful predictions on larger scales. Due to previous failures of the simple MOND cosmological model, here we test a speculative model where the modified gravitational field is produced only by the baryons and the sterile neutrinos produce a purely Newtonian field (hence Modified Baryonic Dynamics). We use two-component cosmological simulations to separate the baryonic N-body particles from the sterile neutrino ones. The premise is to attenuate the over-production of massive galaxy cluster halos which were prevalent in the original MOND plus light sterile neutrinos scenario. Theoretical issues with such a formulation notwithstanding, the Modified Baryonic Dynamics model fails to produce the correct amplitude for the galaxy cluster mass function for any reasonable value of the primordial power spectrum normalisation.
Simulating the Effect of Non-Linear Mode-Coupling in Cosmological Parameter Estimation
Kiessling, A; Heavens, A F
2011-01-01
Fisher Information Matrix methods are commonly used in cosmology to estimate the accuracy that cosmological parameters can be measured with a given experiment, and to optimise the design of experiments. However, the standard approach usually assumes both data and parameter estimates are Gaussian-distributed. Further, for survey forecasts and optimisation it is usually assumed the power-spectra covariance matrix is diagonal in Fourier-space. But in the low-redshift Universe, non-linear mode-coupling will tend to correlate small-scale power, moving information from lower to higher-order moments of the field. This movement of information will change the predictions of cosmological parameter accuracy. In this paper we quantify this loss of information by comparing naive Gaussian Fisher matrix forecasts with a Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation analysis of a suite of mock weak lensing catalogues derived from N-body simulations, based on the SUNGLASS pipeline, for a 2-D and tomographic shear analysis of a Eucl...
Towards a more realistic population of bright spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations
Aumer, Michael; Naab, Thorsten; Scannapieco, Cecilia
2013-01-01
We present an update to the multiphase SPH galaxy formation code by Scannapieco et al. We include a more elaborate treatment of the production of metals, cooling rates based on individual element abundances, and a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals. Our SN feedback model now transfers energy to the ISM in kinetic and thermal form, and we include a prescription for the effects of radiation pressure from massive young stars on the ISM. We calibrate our new code on the well studied Aquarius haloes and then use it to simulate a sample of 16 galaxies with halo masses between 1x10^11 and 3x10^12 M_sun. In general, the stellar masses of the sample agree well with the stellar mass to halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching techniques for redshifts z=0-4. There is however a tendency to overproduce stars at z>4 and to underproduce them at z<0.5 in the least massive haloes. Overly high SFRs at z<1 for the most massive haloes are likely connected to the lack of AGN feedback in our model. The s...
Gurzadyan's Problem 5 and improvement of softenings for cosmological simulations using the PP method
Eingorn, Maxim
2014-01-01
This Letter is devoted to different modifications of two standard softenings of the gravitational attraction, which are commonly used in cosmological simulations based on the particle-particle (PP) method, and their comparison. It is demonstrated that some of the proposed alternatives lead to almost the same accuracy as in the case of the pure Newtonian interaction, even despite the fact that the force resolution is allowed to equal half the minimum interparticle distance. The revealed way of precision improvement gives an opportunity to succeed in solving Gurzadyan's Problem 5 and bring modern computer codes up to a higher standard.
An SPH code for galaxy formation problems; Presentation of the code
Hultman, John; Kaellander, Daniel
1997-01-01
We present and test a code for two-fluid simulations of galaxy formation, one of the fluids being collision-less. The hydrodynamical evolution is solved through the SPH method while gravitational forces are calculated using a tree method. The code is Lagrangian, and fully adaptive both in space and time. A significant fraction gas in simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation ends up in tight clumps where it is, in terms of computational effort, very expensive to integrate the SPH equations...
Crosby, Brian D; Smith, Britton D; Turk, Matthew J; Hahn, Oliver
2013-01-01
We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z~10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z=10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z=30 to z=10, and ranging in mass from 2.3x10^5 M_sun to 1.2x10^10 M_sun. At early times, the environment...
Hackstein, S.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.; Sigl, G.; Dundovic, A.
2016-11-01
We use the CRPROPA code to simulate the propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (with energy ≥1018eV and pure proton composition) through extragalactic magnetic fields that have been simulated with the cosmological ENZO code. We test both primordial and astrophysical magnetogenesis scenarios in order to investigate the impact of different magnetic field strengths in clusters, filaments and voids on the deflection of cosmic rays propagating across cosmological distances. We also study the effect of different source distributions of cosmic rays around simulated Milky Way-like observers. Our analysis shows that the arrival spectra and anisotropy of events are rather insensitive to the distribution of extragalactic magnetic fields, while they are more affected by the clustering of sources within an ˜50 Mpc distance to observers. Finally, we find that in order to reproduce the observed degree of isotropy of cosmic rays at ˜EeV energies, the average magnetic fields in cosmic voids must be ˜ 0.1 nG, providing limits on the strength of primordial seed fields.
Hackstein, Stefan; Brueggen, Marcus; Sigl, Guenter; Dundovic, Andrej
2016-01-01
We use the CRPropa code to simulate the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (with energy $\\geq 10^{18} \\rm eV$ and pure proton composition) through extragalactic magnetic fields that have been simulated with the cosmological ENZO code.We test both primordial and astrophysical magnetogenesis scenarios in order to investigate the impact of different magnetic field strengths in clusters, filaments and voids on the deflection of cosmic rays propagating across cosmological distances. We also study the effect of different source distributions of cosmic rays around simulated Milky-Way like observers. Our analysis shows that the arrival spectra and anisotropy of events are rather insensitive to the distribution of extragalactic magnetic fields, while they are more affected by the clustering of sources within a $\\sim 50$ Mpc distance to observers. Finally, we find that in order to reproduce the observed degree of isotropy of cosmic rays at $\\sim $ EeV energies, the average magnetic fields in cosmic voids must...
Evolution of cosmic filaments and of their galaxy population from MHD cosmological simulations
Gheller, C.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.; Alpaslan, M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.
2016-10-01
Despite containing about a half of the total matter in the Universe, at most wavelengths the filamentary structure of the cosmic web is difficult to observe. In this work, we use large unigrid cosmological simulations to investigate how the geometrical, thermodynamical and magnetic properties of cosmological filaments vary with mass and redshift (z ≤ 1). We find that the average temperature, length, volume and magnetic field of filaments scales well with their total mass. This reflects the role of self-gravity in shaping their properties and enables statistical predictions of their observational properties based on their mass. We also focus on the properties of the simulated population of galaxy-sized haloes within filaments, and compare their properties to the results obtained from the spectroscopic GAMA survey. Simulated and observed filaments with the same length are found to contain an equal number of galaxies, with very similar distribution of masses. The total number of galaxies within each filament and the total/average stellar mass in galaxies can now be used to predict also the large-scale properties of the gas in the host filaments across tens or hundreds of Mpc in scale. These results are the first steps towards the future use of galaxy catalogues in order to select the best targets for observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium.
Lia, Cesario; Carraro, Giovanni; Chiosi, Cesare; Voli, Marco
1998-01-01
In this report we describe a parallel implementation of a Tree-SPH code realized using the SHMEM libraries in the Cray T3E supercomputer at CINECA. We show the result of a 3D test to check the code performances against its scalar version. Finally we compare the load balancing and scalability of the code with PTreeSPH (Dav\\'e et al 1997), the only other parallel Tree-SPH code present in the literature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Dinghua; Guo Jinli; Liu Liming
2005-01-01
Following up Neuts'idea, the SPH-distribution class associated with bounded Q matrices for infinite Markov chains is defined. The main result in this paper is to characterize the SPH class through the derivatives of the distribution functions. Based on the characterization theorem, closure properties, the expansion, uniform approximation,and the matrix representations of the SPH class are also discussed by the derivatives of the distribution functions at origin.
Muratov, Alexander L; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Hopkins, Philip F; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of the galaxy-scale gaseous outflows from the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) simulations. This suite of hydrodynamic cosmological zoom simulations provides a sample of halos where star-forming giant molecular clouds are resolved to z=0, and features an explicit stellar feedback model on small scales. In this work, we focus on quantifying the gas mass ejected out of galaxies in winds and how this material travels through the halo. We correlate these quantities to star formation in galaxies throughout cosmic history. Our simulations reveal that a significant portion of every galaxy's evolution, particularly at high redshift, is dominated by bursts of star formation, which are followed by powerful gusts of galactic outflow that sweep up a large fraction of gas in the interstellar medium and send it through the circumgalactic medium. The dynamical effect of these outflows can significantly limit the amount of star formation within the affected galaxy. At low redshift, however, su...
A physical model for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation: multi-epoch validation
Torrey, Paul; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2013-01-01
We present a multi-epoch analysis of the galaxy populations formed within the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations presented in Vogelsberger et al. (2013). These simulations explore the performance of a recently implemented feedback model which includes primordial and metal line radiative cooling with self-shielding corrections; stellar evolution with associated mass loss and chemical enrichment; feedback by stellar winds; black hole seeding, growth and merging; and AGN quasar- and radio-mode heating with a phenomenological prescription for AGN electro-magnetic feedback. We illustrate the impact of the model parameter choices on the resulting simulated galaxy population properties at high and intermediate redshifts. We demonstrate that our scheme is capable of producing galaxy populations that broadly reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function extending from redshift z=0 to z=3. We also characterise the evolving galactic B-band luminosity function, stellar mass to halo mass ratio, star formation m...
The metal enrichment of passive galaxies in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation
Okamoto, Takashi; Lacey, Cedric G; Frenk, Carlos S
2016-01-01
Massive early-type galaxies have higher metallicities and higher ratios of $\\alpha$ elements to iron than their less massive counterparts. Reproducing these correlations has long been a problem for hierarchical galaxy formation theory, both in semi-analytic models and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that a simulation in which gas cooling in massive dark haloes is quenched by radio-mode active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback naturally reproduces the observed trend between $\\alpha$/Fe and the velocity dispersion of galaxies, $\\sigma$. The quenching occurs earlier for more massive galaxies. Consequently, these galaxies complete their star formation before $\\alpha$/Fe is diluted by the contribution from type Ia supernovae. For galaxies more massive than $\\sim 10^{11}~M_\\odot$ whose $\\alpha$/Fe correlates positively with stellar mass, we find an inversely correlated mass-metallicity relation. This is a common problem in simulations in which star formation in massive galaxies is quenched either by qu...
Transfert radiatif numerique pour un code SPH
Viau, Joseph Edmour Serge
2001-03-01
Le besoin de reproduire la formation d'etoiles par simulations numeriques s'est fait de plus en plus present au cours des 30 dernieres annees. Depuis Larson (1968), les codes de simulations n'ont eu de cesse de s'ameliorer. D'ailleurs, en 1977, Lucy introduit une autre methode de calcul venant concurrencer la methode par grille. Cette nouvelle facon de calculer utilise en effet des points a defaut d'utiliser des grilles, ce qui est une bien meilleure adaptation aux calculs d'un effondrement gravitationnel. Il restait cependant le probleme d'ajouter le transfert radiatif a un tel code. Malgre la proposition de Brookshaw (1984), qui nous montre une formule permettant d'ajouter le transfert radiatif sous la forme SPH tout en evitant la double sommation genante qu'elle implique, aucun code SPH a ce jour ne contient un transfert radiatif satisfaisant. Cette these presente pour la premiere fois un code SPH muni d'un transfert radiatif adequat. Toutes les difficultes ont pu etre surmontees afin d'obtenir finalement le transfert radiatif "vrai" qui survient dans l'effondrement d'un nuage moleculaire. Pour verifier l'integrite de nos resultats, une comparaison avec le nonisothermal test case de Boss & Myhill (1993) nous revele un resultat fort satisfaisant. En plus de suivre fidelement la courbe de l'evolution de la temperature centrale en fonction de la densite centrale, notre code est exempt de toutes les anomalies rencontrees par les codes par grille. Le test du cas de la conduction thermique nous a lui aussi servit a verifier la fiabilite de notre code. La aussi les resultats sont fort satisfaisants. Faisant suite a ces resultats, le code fut utilise dans deux situations reelles de recherche, ce qui nous a permis de demontrer les nombreuses possibilites que nous donne notre nouveau code. Dans un premier temps, nous avons tudie le comportement de la temperature dans un disque d'accretion durant son evolution. Ensuite nous avons refait en partie une experience de Bonnell
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史晓宁; 温垚珂; 王亚平
2012-01-01
运用光滑粒子流体动力学分析方法,对钢球高速侵彻肥皂靶标进行了数值仿真分析.建立了钢球与肥皂高速撞击数值计算模型,运用侵蚀接触算法,求解了高速钢球侵彻肥皂的动力响应时间历程,获取了钢球侵彻肥皂靶标的侵彻深度与投射物速度关系图和瞬态Von-Mises等效应力云图,分析了高速碰撞过程及碰撞过程中空腔的形成和变化情况,并与实验结果及Lagrange数值仿真结果对照,计算结果具有良好精度,表明运用SPH方法能够较好地描述高速撞击现象.文中的研究表明,SPH技术是开展创伤弹道研究的有效手段.%A smoothed particle hydrodynamics algorithm was introduced to simulate the physical process of steel sphere penetrated against soap drone with a high speed. By this way, a numerical simulation model of the steel sphere impacting with soap drone in high-speed was established,dynamic response time history was calculated by the eroding contact algorithm. The penetration-velocity relationship diagram of projectiles and transient Von-Mises equivalent stress-nephogram,the course of the high-speed impacting,the quantitative change of the formation and the change condition of the cavity in the process of the high-speed impacting were analyzed. By comparison with the results of experiment and Lagrange method, the simulation results of this text have well precision. It shows the SPH algorithm can characterize the process of high-speed impacting. The investigation of this message indicates that the SPH method is an effective way to study on wound ballistics research.
Cattaneo, A.; Blaizot, J.; Devriendt, J.; Guiderdoni, B.
2005-12-01
This is the first paper of a series on the methods and results of the Active Galactic Nuclei In Cosmological Simulations (AGNICS) project, which incorporates the physics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) into Galaxies In Cosmological Simulations (GalICS), a galaxy formation model that combines large cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter hierarchical clustering and a semi-analytic approach to the physics of the baryons. The project explores the quasar-galaxy link in a cosmological perspective, in response to growing observational evidence for a close relation between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and spheroids. The key problems are the quasar fuelling mechanism, the origin of the black hole (BH)-to-bulge mass relation, the causal and chronological link between BH growth and galaxy formation, the properties of quasar hosts and the role of AGN feedback in galaxy formation. This first paper has two goals. The first is to describe the general structure and assumptions that provide the framework for the AGNICS series. The second is to apply AGNICS to studying the joint formation of SMBHs and spheroids in galaxy mergers. We investigate under what conditions this scenario can reproduce the local distribution of SMBHs in nearby galaxies and the evolution of the quasar population. AGNICS contains two star formation modes: a quiescent mode in discs and a starburst mode in proto-spheroids, the latter triggered by mergers and disc instabilities. Here we assume that BH growth is linked to the starburst mode. The simplest version of this scenario, in which the BH accretion rate and the star formation rate in the starburst component are simply related by a constant of proportionality, does not to reproduce the cosmic evolution of the quasar population. A model in which , where ρburst is the density of the gas in the starburst and ζ~= 0.5, can explain the evolution of the quasar luminosity function in B band and X-rays (taking into account the presence of obscured AGNs
Ab Initio Cosmological Simulations of CR7 as an Active Black Hole
Smidt, Joseph; Johnson, Jarrett L
2016-01-01
We present the first ab initio cosmological simulations of a CR7-like object which approximately reproduce the observed line widths and strengths. In our model, CR7 is powered by a massive (2.23 x 10^7 M_Sun), accreting (0.25 Eddington) supermassive black hole (BH). Our model takes into account multi-dimensional effects, X-ray feedback, secondary ionizations and primordial chemistry. We estimate Ly-alpha line widths by post-processing simulation output with Monte Carlo radiative transfer and calculate emissivity contributions from radiative recombination and collisional excitation. We find the luminosities in the Lyman-alpha and He II 1640 angstrom lines to be 5.0 x 10^44 and 2.4 x 10^43 erg/s, respectively, in agreement with the observed values of > 8.3 x 10^43 and 2.0 x 10^43 erg/s. We also find that the black hole heats the halo and renders it unable to produce stars as required to keep the halo metal free. These results demonstrate the viability of the BH hypothesis for CR7 in a cosmological context. Assu...
How to Zoom: Bias, Contamination, and Lagrange Volumes in Multimass Cosmological Simulations
Onorbe, Jose; Maller, Ariyeh H; Bullock, James S; Rocha, Miguel; Hahn, Oliver
2013-01-01
We perform a suite of multimass cosmological zoom simulations of individual dark matter halos and explore how to best select Lagrangian regions for resimulation without contaminating the halo of interest with low-resolution particles. Such contamination can lead to significant errors in the gas distribution of hydrodynamical simulations, as we show. For a fixed Lagrange volume, we find that the chance of contamination increases systematically with the level of zoom. In order to avoid contamination, the Lagrangian volume selected for resimulation must increase monotonically with the resolution difference between parent box and the zoom region. We provide a simple formula for selecting Lagrangian regions (in units of the halo virial volume) as a function of the level of zoom required. We also explore the degree to which a halo's Lagrangian volume correlates with other halo properties (concentration, spin, formation time, shape, etc.) and find no significant correlation. There is a mild correlation between Lagra...
Wainwright, Carroll L; Peiris, Hiranya V; Aguirre, Anthony; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L
2014-01-01
The theory of eternal inflation in an inflaton potential with multiple vacua predicts that our universe is one of many bubble universes nucleating and growing inside an ever-expanding false vacuum. The collision of our bubble with another could provide an important observational signature to test this scenario. We develop and implement an algorithm for accurately computing the cosmological observables arising from bubble collisions directly from the Lagrangian of a single scalar field. We first simulate the entire collision spacetime, from nucleation to reheating, inside each bubble. Taking advantage of the collision's hyperbolic symmetry, simulations are performed with a 1+1-dimensional fully relativistic code that uses adaptive mesh refinement. We then calculate the comoving curvature perturbation in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, which is used to determine, in the Sachs-Wolfe approximation, the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For a fiducial Lagrangian, t...
The radiation energy component of the Hubble function and a LCDM cosmological simulation
Aceves, Hector
2013-01-01
We study some effects the inclusion of the radiation energy component in the universe, Omega_r, can have on several quantities of interest for the large-scale structure of the universe in a LCDM cosmological simulation; started at a very high redshift (z=500). In particular we compute the power spectrum density, the halo mass function, and the concentration-mass relation for haloes. We find that Omega_r has an important contribution in the long-term nonlinear evolution of structures in the universe. For instance, a lower matter density power, by approx 50%, in all scales is obtained when compared with a simulation without the radiation term. Also, haloes formed with the Omega_r taken into account are approx 20% less concentrated than when not included in the Hubble function.
Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao
2017-02-01
We investigate the constraint ability of the gravitational wave (GW) as the standard siren on the cosmological parameters by using the third-generation gravitational wave detector: the Einstein Telescope. The binary merger of a neutron with either a neutron or black hole is hypothesized to be the progenitor of a short and intense burst of γ rays; some fraction of those binary mergers could be detected both through electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves. Thus we can determine both the luminosity distance and redshift of the source separately. We simulate the luminosity distances and redshift measurements from 100 to 1000 GW events. We use two different algorithms to constrain the cosmological parameters. For the Hubble constant H0 and dark matter density parameter Ωm, we adopt the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. We find that with about 500-600 GW events we can constrain the Hubble constant with an accuracy comparable to Planck temperature data and Planck lensing combined results, while for the dark matter density, GWs alone seem not able to provide the constraints as good as for the Hubble constant; the sensitivity of 1000 GW events is a little lower than that of Planck data. It should require more than 1000 events to match the Planck sensitivity. Yet, for analyzing the more complex dynamical property of dark energy, i.e., the equation of state w , we adopt a new powerful nonparametric method: the Gaussian process. We can reconstruct w directly from the observational luminosity distance at every redshift. In the low redshift region, we find that about 700 GW events can give the constraints of w (z ) comparable to the constraints of a constant w by Planck data with type-Ia supernovae. Those results show that GWs as the standard sirens to probe the cosmological parameters can provide an independent and complementary alternative to current experiments.
Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds: Comparing the AMR and SPH Approaches
Luo, Yang; Shlosman, Isaac
2015-01-01
We provide detailed comparison between the AMR code Enzo-2.4 and the SPH code GADGET-3 in the context of direct baryonic collapse within DM halos to form supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds, in isolated and cosmological frameworks, at z ~ 10-20. We find that both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse, however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, we find that the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, leading to substantially earlier collapse times in SPH due to higher gravitational resolution in GADGET-3. In fully cosmological runs, starting from z = 200, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during DM halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both numerical schemes agree in the buildup of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of direct collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so the evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind the AMR by ~10-...
Raymond, Samuel J.; Jones, Bruce; Williams, John R.
2016-12-01
A strategy is introduced to allow coupling of the material point method (MPM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for numerical simulations. This new strategy partitions the domain into SPH and MPM regions, particles carry all state variables and as such no special treatment is required for the transition between regions. The aim of this work is to derive and validate the coupling methodology between MPM and SPH. Such coupling allows for general boundary conditions to be used in an SPH simulation without further augmentation. Additionally, as SPH is a purely particle method, and MPM is a combination of particles and a mesh. This coupling also permits a smooth transition from particle methods to mesh methods, where further coupling to mesh methods could in future provide an effective farfield boundary treatment for the SPH method. The coupling technique is introduced and described alongside a number of simulations in 1D and 2D to validate and contextualize the potential of using these two methods in a single simulation. The strategy shown here is capable of fully coupling the two methods without any complicated algorithms to transform information from one method to another.
Younger, Joshua D
2007-01-01
We perform a set of non--radiative cosmological simulations of a preheated intracluster medium in which the entropy of the gas was uniformly boosted at high redshift. The results of these simulations are used first to test the current analytic techniques of preheating via entropy input in the smooth accretion limit. When the unmodified profile is taken directly from simulations, we find that this model is in excellent agreement with the results of our simulations. This suggests that preheated efficiently smoothes the accreted gas, and therefore a shift in the unmodified profile is a good approximation even with a realistic accretion history. When we examine the simulation results in detail, we do not find strong evidence for entropy amplification, at least for the high-redshift preheating model adopted here. In the second section of the paper, we compare the results of the preheating simulations to recent observations. We show -- in agreement with previous work -- that for a reasonable amount of preheating, a...
The Effect of Corner Modes in the Initial Conditions of Cosmological Simulations
Falck, B; Neyrinck, M C; Wang, J; Szalay, A S
2016-01-01
In view of future high precision large scale structure surveys, it is important to quantify percent and sub-percent level effects in cosmological $N$-body simulations from which theoretical predictions are drawn. One such effect involves the choice of whether to set all modes above the one-dimensional Nyquist frequency, the so-called "corner" modes, to zero in the initial conditions. By comparing simulations with and without these modes, we find that at $z>6$, the difference in the matter power spectrum is large at wavenumbers just below $k_{\\rm{Ny}}$, reducing to below 2% at all scales by $z\\sim 3$. Including corner modes results in a better match between a low-resolution simulation and a high-resolution simulation at wavenumbers around the Nyquist frequency of the low-resolution simulation. The differences in mass functions are 3% for the smallest halos at $z=6$ for the simulation resolution studied here ($m_p \\sim 10^{11}h^{-1}\\,M_{\\odot}$), but we find no significant difference in the stacked profiles of ...
Testing X-ray Measurements of Galaxy Cluster Outskirts with Cosmological Simulations
Avestruz, Camille; Nagai, Daisuke; Vikhlinin, Alexey
2014-01-01
The study of galaxy cluster outskirts has emerged as one of the new frontiers in extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology with the advent of new observations in X-ray and microwave. However, the thermodynamic properties and chemical enrichment of this diffuse and azimuthally asymmetric component of the intra-cluster medium are still not well understood. This work, for the first time, systematically explores potential observational biases in these regions. To assess X-ray measurements of galaxy cluster properties at large radii ($>{R}_{500c}$), we use mock Chandra analyses of cosmological galaxy cluster simulations. The pipeline is identical to that used for Chandra observations, but the biases discussed in this paper are relevant for all X-ray observations outside of ${R}_{500c}$. We find the following from our analysis: (1) filament regions can contribute as much as a factor of 3 to the emission measure, (2) X-ray temperatures and metal abundances from model fitted mock X-ray spectra respectively vary to the...
Lovell, Mark R; Boyarsky, Alexey; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Ludlow, Aaron D; Navarro, Julio F; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2016-01-01
We study galaxy formation in sterile neutrino dark matter models that differ significantly from both cold and from `warm thermal relic' models. We use the EAGLE code to carry out hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of pairs of galaxies chosen to resemble the Local Group, as part of the APOSTLE simulations project. We compare cold dark matter (CDM) with two sterile neutrino models with 7 keV mass: one, the warmest among all models of this mass (LA120) and the other, a relatively cold case (LA10). We show that the lower concentration of sterile neutrino subhalos compared to their CDM counterparts makes the inferred inner dark matter content of galaxies like Fornax (or Magellanic Clouds) less of an outlier in the sterile neutrino cosmologies. In terms of the galaxy number counts the LA10 simulations are \\emph{indistinguishable} from CDM when one takes into account halo-to-halo (or `simulation-to-simulation') scatter. In order for the LA120 model to match the number of Local Group dwarf galaxies, a higher f...
Halo statistics analysis within medium volume cosmological N-body simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martinović N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present halo statistics analysis of a ΛCDM N body cosmological simulation (from first halo formation until z = 0. We study mean major merger rate as a function of time, where for time we consider both per redshift and per Gyr dependence. For latter we find that it scales as the well known power law (1 + zn for which we obtain n = 2.4. The halo mass function and halo growth function are derived and compared both with analytical and empirical fits. We analyse halo growth through out entire simulation, making it possible to continuously monitor evolution of halo number density within given mass ranges. The halo formation redshift is studied exploring possibility for a new simple preliminary analysis during the simulation run. Visualization of the simulation is portrayed as well. At redshifts z = 0−7 halos from simulation have good statistics for further analysis especially in mass range of 1011 − 1014 M./h. [176021 ’Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations
Ganzenmüller, G. C.; Sauer, M.; May, M.; Hiermaier, S.
2016-05-01
We present a stabilization scheme for elastoplastic Smooth-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) which overcomes two major challenges: (i) the tensile instability inherent to the updated Lagrangian approach is suppressed and (ii) the rank-deficiency instability inherent to the nodal integration approach is cured. To achieve these goals, lessons learned from the Finite-Element Method are transferred to SPH. In particular, an analogue of hourglass control is derived for SPH, which locally linearizes the deformation field to obtain stable and accurate solutions, without the need to resort to stabilization via excessive artificial viscosity. The resulting SPH scheme combines the ability of updated Lagrangian SPH to model truly large deformations with the accuracy and stability needed to faithfully perform simulations. This claim is supported by the analysis of problematic cases and the simulation of an impact scenario.
Galaxy Formation and Evolution; 1, The Padua TreeSPH code (PD-SPH)
Carraro, G; Chiosi, C; Carraro, Giovanni; Lia, Cesario; Chiosi, Cesare
1997-01-01
In this paper we report on PD-SPH the new tree-sph code developed in Padua. The main features of the code are described and the results of a new and independent series of 1-D and 3-D tests are shown. The paper is mainly dedicated to the presentation of the code and to the critical discussion of its performances. In particular great attention is devoted to the convergency analysis. The code is highly adaptive in space and time by means of individual smoothing lengths and individual time steps. At present it contains both dark and baryonic matter, this latter in form of gas and stars, cooling, thermal conduction, star formation, and feed-back from Type I and II supernovae, stellar winds, and ultraviolet flux from massive stars, and finally chemical enrichment. New cooling rates that depend on the metal abundance of the interstellar medium are employed, and the differences with respect to the standard ones are outlined. Finally, we show the simulation of the dynamical and chemical evolution of a disk-like galaxy...
Cosmological MHD Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics: Insights and Warnings for Observations
Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L
2012-01-01
Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio rel...
Bode, P; Bode, Paul; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
2003-01-01
An improved implementation of an N-body code for simulating collisionless cosmological dynamics is presented. TPM (Tree-Particle-Mesh) combines the PM method on large scales with a tree code to handle particle-particle interactions at small separations. After the global PM forces are calculated, spatially distinct regions above a given density contrast are located; the tree code calculates the gravitational interactions inside these denser objects at higher spatial and temporal resolution. The new implementation includes individual particle time steps within trees, an improved treatment of tidal forces on trees, new criteria for higher force resolution and choice of time step, and parallel treatment of large trees. TPM is compared to P^3M and a tree code (GADGET) and is found to give equivalent results in significantly less time. The implementation is highly portable (requiring a Fortran compiler and MPI) and efficient on parallel machines. The source code can be found at http://astro.princeton.edu/~bode/TPM/
Analisys of the Luminosity-Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation in cosmological simulations
De Rossi, M E; Scannapieco, C; Rossi, Maria Emilia De; Tissera, Patricia Beatriz; Scannapieco, Cecilia
2006-01-01
We study the Luminosity-Metallicity Relation and the Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation by performing chemo-dynamical simulations in a cosmological scenario. Our results predict a tight linear correlation between oxygen chemical abundance and luminosity for galactic systems up to z=3. The Luminosity-Metallicity Relation evolves with redshift in such a way that systems at a given oxygen abundance were ~3 dex brighter at z=3 compared to local ones, in good agreement with observations. We determin also a characteristic stellar mass M_c~10^(10.2) M_sun/h above which the Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation starts to flatten. We encounter that this mass arises as a consequence of the hierarchical aggregation of structure in a LCDM universe and segregates two galactic populations with different astophysical properties.
Churchill, Christopher
2011-10-01
The mammoth challenge for contemporary studies of galaxy formation and evolution are to establish detailed models in the cosmological context in which both the few parsec scale physics within galaxies are self-consistently unified and made consistent with the observed universe of galaxies. They key diagnostics reside with the gas physics, which dictate virtually every aspect of galaxy formation and evolution. The small scale physics includes stellar feedback, gas cooling, heating, and advection and the multiphase interstellar medium; the large scale physics includes intergalactic accretion, local merging, effects of supernovae driven winds, and the development of extended metal-enriched gas halos.Absorption line data have historically proven to be {and shall in the future} virtually the most powerful tool for understanding gas physics on all spatial scales over the majority of the age of the universe- the key to success. Simply stated, absorption lines are one of astronomy's most powerful observational windows on the universe {galaxy formation, galaxy winds, IGM metal enrichment, etc.}. The high quality and vast numbers of absorption line data {obtained with HST and FUSE} probe a broad range of gas structures {ISM, HVCs, halos, IGM} over the full cosmic span when galaxies are actively evolving.We propose to use LCDM hydrodynamic cosmological simulations employing a Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree {ART} code to develop and refine our understanding of stellar feedback physics and its role in governing the gas physics that regulates the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. We aim to substantially progress our understanding of all possible gas phases embedded within and extending far from galaxies. Our methodology is to apply a series of quantitative observational constraints from absorption line systems to better understand extended galaxy halos and the influence of the cosmological environment of the simulated galaxies: {1} galaxy halos
Characterization of the cosmological nonlinear path of single galaxies in N-body Simulations
Stalder Díaz, Diego Herbin; Rosa, Reinaldo; Clua, Esteban; Campanharo, Andriana
Turbulent-like behaviour is an important and recent ingredient in the investigation of large scale structure formation in the observable universe [1,2]. Recently, an established statistical method was used to demonstrate the importance of considering chaotic advection (or Lagrange turbulence) in combination with gravitational instabilities in the LambdaCDM simulations performed from the Virgo Consortium (VC). However, the Hubble volumes simulated from GADGET-VC algoritm have some limitations for direct lagrangian data analysis due to the large amount of data and no real time computation for particle kinetic velocity along the dark matter structure evolution. We use our COsmic LAgrangian TUrbulence Simulator (COLATUS) [3], based on GPU/CUDA technology, to perform gravitational Cosmological N-body simulations and tracking the particles paths. In this work we discuss the chaotic advection behavior of tracers galaxies based on the angular velocity fluctuation analysis of single particles during its trajectory to the gravitational collapse of super clusters at low redshifts. [1] Caretta et al., A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20079105 [2] Rosa et al., CCP doi: 10.1016/j.cpc.2008.11.018 [3] Stalder et al., AIP doi: 10.1063/1.4756992
Moving mesh cosmology: properties of neutral hydrogen in absorption
Bird, Simeon; Sijacki, Debora; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2012-01-01
We examine the distribution of neutral hydrogen in cosmological simulations carried out with the new moving-mesh code AREPO and compare it with the corresponding GADGET simulations based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. The two codes use identical gravity solvers and baryonic physics implementations, but very different methods for solving the Euler equations, allowing us to assess how numerical effects associated with the hydro-solver impact the results of simulations. Here we focus on an analysis of the neutral gas, as detected in quasar absorption lines. We find that the high column density regime probed by Damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLS) exhibits significant differences between the codes. GADGET produces spurious artefacts in large halos in the form of gaseous clumps, boosting the LLS cross-section. Furthermore, it forms halos with denser central baryonic cores than AREPO, which leads to a substantially greater DLA cross-section from smaller halos. AREPO thus p...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wainwright, Carroll L.; Aguirre, Anthony [SCIPP and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, On, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Peiris, Hiranya V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lehner, Luis [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Liebling, Steven L., E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu, E-mail: mjohnson@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: llehner@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: steve.liebling@liu.edu [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brookville, NY, 11548 (United States)
2014-03-01
The theory of eternal inflation in an inflaton potential with multiple vacua predicts that our universe is one of many bubble universes nucleating and growing inside an ever-expanding false vacuum. The collision of our bubble with another could provide an important observational signature to test this scenario. We develop and implement an algorithm for accurately computing the cosmological observables arising from bubble collisions directly from the Lagrangian of a single scalar field. We first simulate the collision spacetime by solving Einstein's equations, starting from nucleation and ending at reheating. Taking advantage of the collision's hyperbolic symmetry, the simulations are performed with a 1+1-dimensional fully relativistic code that uses adaptive mesh refinement. We then calculate the comoving curvature perturbation in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, which is used to determine the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For a fiducial Lagrangian, the anisotropies are well described by a power law in the cosine of the angular distance from the center of the collision signature. For a given form of the Lagrangian, the resulting observational predictions are inherently statistical due to stochastic elements of the bubble nucleation process. Further uncertainties arise due to our imperfect knowledge about inflationary and pre-recombination physics. We characterize observational predictions by computing the probability distributions over four phenomenological parameters which capture these intrinsic and model uncertainties. This represents the first fully-relativistic set of predictions from an ensemble of scalar field models giving rise to eternal inflation, yielding significant differences from previous non-relativistic approximations. Thus, our results provide a basis for a rigorous confrontation of these theories with cosmological data.
Complex fluid flow modeling with SPH on GPU
Bilotta, Giuseppe; Hérault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro; Russo, Giovanni; Vicari, Annamaria
2010-05-01
We describe an implementation of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for the simulation of complex fluid flows. The algorithm is entirely executed on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA and fully exploiting their computational power. An increase of one to two orders of magnitude in simulation speed over equivalent CPU code is achieved. A complete modeling of the flow of a complex fluid such as lava is challenging from the modelistic, numerical and computational points of view. The natural topography irregularities, the dynamic free boundaries and phenomena such as solidification, presence of floating solid bodies or other obstacles and their eventual fragmentation make the problem difficult to solve using traditional numerical methods (finite volumes, finite elements): the need to refine the discretization grid in correspondence of high gradients, when possible, is computationally expensive and with an often inadequate control of the error; for real-world applications, moreover, the information needed by the grid refinement may not be available (e.g. because the Digital Elevation Models are too coarse); boundary tracking is also problematic with Eulerian discretizations, more so with complex fluids due to the presence of internal boundaries given by fluid inhomogeneity and presence of solidification fronts. An alternative approach is offered by mesh-free particle methods, that solve most of the problems connected to the dynamics of complex fluids in a natural way. Particle methods discretize the fluid using nodes which are not forced on a given topological structure: boundary treatment is therefore implicit and automatic; the movement freedom of the particles also permits the treatment of deformations without incurring in any significant penalty; finally, the accuracy is easily controlled by the insertion of new particles where needed. Our team has developed a new model based on the
Baldi, Marco
2016-01-01
Persisting tensions between the cosmological constraints derived from low-redshift probes and the ones obtained from temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background -- although not yet providing compelling evidence against the $\\Lambda $CDM model -- seem to consistently indicate a slower growth of density perturbations as compared to the predictions of the standard cosmological scenario. Such behavior is not easily accommodated by the simplest extensions of General Relativity, such as f(R) models, which generically predict an enhanced growth rate. In the present work we present the outcomes of a suite of large N-body simulations carried out in the context of a cosmological model featuring a non-vanishing scattering cross section between the dark matter and the dark energy fields, for two different parameterisations of the dark energy equation of state. Our results indicate that these Dark Scattering models have very mild effects on many observables related to large-scale structure...
Schwarzschild models of the Sculptor dSph galaxy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van de Ven G.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We have developed a spherically symmetric dynamical model of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy using the Schwarzschild method. This type of modelling yields constraints both on the total mass distribution (e.g. enclosed mass and scale radius as well as on the orbital structure of the system modelled (e.g. velocity anisotropy. Therefore not only can we derive the dark matter content of these systems, but also explore possible formation scenarios. Here we present preliminary results for the Sculptor dSph. We find that the mass of Sculptor within 1 kpc is 8.5 × 107±0.05 M๏, its anisotropy profile is tangentially biased and slightly more isotropic near the center. For an NFW profile, the preferred concentration (~15 is compatible with cosmological models. Very cuspy density profiles (steeper than NFW are strongly disfavoured for Sculptor.
Ibata, Rodrigo A; Lewis, Geraint F; Martin, Nicolas F; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika
2014-01-01
In a recent contribution, Bahl \\& Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation, and concluded that vast thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in $\\Lambda$-Cold Dark Matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. (2013) on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04\\% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the ang...
The evolution of galaxy metallicity scaling relations in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
De Rossi, Maria E; Font, Andreea S; McCarthy, Ian G
2015-01-01
The evolution of the metal content of galaxies and its relations to other global properties [such as total stellar mass (M*), circular velocity, star formation rate (SFR), halo mass, etc.] provides important constraints on models of galaxy formation. Here we examine the evolution of metallicity scaling relations of simulated galaxies in the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation suite of cosmological simulations. We make comparisons to observations of the correlation of gas-phase abundances with M* (the mass-metallicity relation, MZR), as well as with both M* and SFR or gas mass fraction (the so-called 3D fundamental metallicity relations, FMRs). The simulated galaxies follow the observed local MZR and FMRs over an order of magnitude in M*, but overpredict the metallicity of massive galaxies (log M* > 10.5), plausibly due to inefficient feedback in this regime. We discuss the origin of the MZR and FMRs in the context of galactic outflows and gas accretion. We examine the evolution of mass-metal...
Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the Horizon-AGN cosmological hydrodynamical simulation
Chisari, Nora Elisa; Laigle, Clotilde; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Miller, Lance; Gavazzi, Raphael; Benabed, Karim
2015-01-01
The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are recognised as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing measurements. In this work, we study the alignment of galaxy shapes and spins at low redshift (z~0.5) in Horizon-AGN, an adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamical cosmological simulation box of 100 Mpc/h a side with AGN feedback implementation. We find that spheroidal galaxies in the simulation show a tendency to be aligned radially towards over-densities in the dark matter density field and other spheroidals. This trend is in agreement with observations, but the amplitude of the signal depends strongly on how shapes are measured and how galaxies are selected in the simulation. Disc galaxies show a tendency to be oriented tangentially around spheroidals in three-dimensions. While this signal seems suppressed in projection, this does not guarantee that disc alignments can be safely ignored in future weak lensing surveys. The shape alignments of luminous galaxies in Horizon-AGN are in agreement with observations and...
The stellar metallicity distribution of disc galaxies and bulges in cosmological simulations
Calura, F; Michel-Dansac, L; Stinson, G S; Pilkington, K; House, E L; Brook, C B; Few, C G; Bailin, J; Couchman, H M P; Wadsley, J; .,
2012-01-01
By means of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-like disc galaxies, we conduct an analysis of the associated stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs). After undertaking a kinematic decomposition of each simulation into spheroid and disc sub-components, we compare the predicted MDFs to those observed in the solar neighbourhood and the Galactic bulge. The effects of the star formation density threshold are visible in the star formation histories, which show a modulation in their behaviour driven by the threshold. The derived MDFs show median metallicities lower by 0.2-0.3 dex than the MDF observed locally in the disc and in the Galactic bulge. Possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy include the use of low stellar yields and/or centrally-concentrated star formation. The dispersions are larger than the one of the observed MDF; this could be due to simulated discs being kinematically hotter relative to the Milky Way. The fraction of low metallicity stars is largely ...
The metal enrichment of passive galaxies in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation
Okamoto, Takashi; Nagashima, Masahiro; Lacey, Cedric G.; Frenk, Carlos S.
2017-02-01
Massive early-type galaxies have higher metallicities and higher ratios of α elements to iron than their less massive counterparts. Reproducing these correlations has long been a problem for hierarchical galaxy formation theory, both in semi-analytic models and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that a simulation in which gas cooling in massive dark haloes is quenched by radio-mode active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback naturally reproduces the observed trend between α/Fe and the velocity dispersion of galaxies, σ. The quenching occurs earlier for more massive galaxies. Consequently, these galaxies complete their star formation before α/Fe is diluted by the contribution from Type Ia supernovae. For galaxies more massive than ˜1011 M⊙, whose α/Fe correlates positively with stellar mass, we find an inversely correlated mass-metallicity relation. This is a common problem in simulations in which star formation in massive galaxies is quenched either by quasar- or radio-mode AGN feedback. The early suppression of gas cooling in progenitors of massive galaxies prevents them from recapturing enriched gas ejected as winds. Simultaneously reproducing the [α/Fe]-σ relation and the mass-metallicity relation is, thus, difficult in the current framework of galaxy formation.
Effects of Mergers and Dynamical State on Galaxy Clusters in Cosmological Simulations
Nelson, Katherine L.; Nagai, Daisuke
2015-01-01
Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties, which result in large bias and scatter in the hydrostatic mass estimate. In this work, we analyze a sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 high-resolution hydrodynamic cosmological simulation to examine the effects of dynamical state on non-thermal pressure. We use the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, an Eulerian grid-based adaptive refinement mesh code, which is well suited for modeling shock heating of gas and generation of bulk and turbulent motions from cosmic accretion. We examine the effects of cluster mergers on the hydrostatic mass bias and the evolution of non-thermal pressure. We find that during a major merger about a third of the total pressure support in the system is in non-thermal pressure from random gas motions, which leads to a ~30% bias in the hydrostatic mass estimate. Even after the clusters relax, we find a residual 10% bias due to the residual non-thermal pressure sustained by continuous gas accretion and minor mergers in cluster outskirts. However, when the non-thermal pressure support is accounted for in the mass estimates of relaxed clusters, we are able to recover the true mass to within a few percent. Moreover, by accounting for the additional pressure contribution from gas accelerations, we find that the bias in the HSE can be reduced by about half for our whole cluster sample. We also characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate. We find a universal, redshift-independent fitting formula for describing the fractional pressure support due to bulk motions. Within the relation, we find that the mass accretion rate has a systematic effect on the amount of non-thermal pressure in clusters
Numerical Convergence in the Dark Matter Halos Properties Using Cosmological Simulations
Mosquera-Escobar, X. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.
2017-07-01
Nowadays, the accepted cosmological model is the so called -Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In such model, the universe is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, composed of diverse components as the dark matter and dark energy, where the latter is the most abundant one. Dark matter plays an important role because it is responsible for the generation of gravitational potential wells, commonly called dark matter halos. At the end, dark matter halos are characterized by a set of parameters (mass, radius, concentration, spin parameter), these parameters provide valuable information for different studies, such as galaxy formation, gravitational lensing, etc. In this work we use the publicly available code Gadget2 to perform cosmological simulations to find to what extent the numerical parameters of the simu- lations, such as gravitational softening, integration time step and force calculation accuracy affect the physical properties of the dark matter halos. We ran a suite of simulations where these parameters were varied in a systematic way in order to explore accurately their impact on the structural parameters of dark matter halos. We show that the variations on the numerical parameters affect the structural pa- rameters of dark matter halos, such as concentration, virial radius, and concentration. We show that these modifications emerged when structures become non- linear (at redshift 2) for the scale of our simulations, such that these variations affected the formation and evolution structure of halos mainly at later cosmic times. As a quantitative result, we propose which would be the most appropriate values for the numerical parameters of the simulations, such that they do not affect the halo properties that are formed. For force calculation accuracy we suggest values smaller or equal to 0.0001, integration time step smaller o equal to 0.005 and for gravitational softening we propose equal to 1/60th of the mean interparticle distance, these values, correspond to the
Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian
2011-01-01
We examine the growth of the stellar content of galaxies from z=3-0 in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations incorporating parameterised galactic outflows. Without outflows, galaxies overproduce stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) compared to observations. Winds introduce a three-tier form for the galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate functions, where the middle tier depends on differential (i.e. mass-dependent) recycling of ejected wind material back into galaxies. A tight M*-SFR relation is a generic outcome of all these simulations, and its evolution is well-described as being powered by cold accretion, although current observations at z>2 suggest that star formation in small early galaxies must be highly suppressed. Roughly one-third of z=0 galaxies at masses below M^* are satellites, and star formation in satellites is not much burstier than in centrals. All models fail to suppress star formation and stellar mass growth in massive galaxies at z<2, indicating the need for an exter...
Martizzi, Davide; Moore, Ben
2011-01-01
We use 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a Virgo-like galaxy cluster to study the properties of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) that forms at the center of the halo. We compared two simulations; one incorporating only supernovae feedback and a second that also includes prescriptions for black hole growth and the resulting AGN feedback from gas accretion. As previous work has shown, with supernovae feedback alone we are unable to reproduce any of the observed properties of massive cluster ellipticals. The resulting BCG is rotating quickly, has a high Sersic index, a strong mass excess in the center and a total central density profile falling more steeply than isothermal. Furthermore, it is far too efficient at converting most of the available baryons into stars which is strongly constrained by abundance matching. With a treatment of black hole dynamics and AGN feedback the BCG properties are in good agreement with data: they rotate slowly, have a cored surface density profile, a flat or rising v...
Cen, Renyue
2016-01-01
Utilizing high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we investigate various ultra-violet absorption lines in the circumgalactic medium of star forming galaxies at low redshift, in hopes of checking and alleviating the claimed observational conundrum of the ratio of NV to OVI absorbers, among others. We find a satisfactory agreement between simulations and extant observational data with respect to the ratios of the following four line pairs examined, NV/OVI, SiIV/OVI, NIII/OVI and NII/OVI. For the pairs involving nitrogen lines, we examine two cases of nitrogen abundance, one with constant N/O ratio and the other with varying N/O ratio, with the latter motivated by theoretical considerations of two different synthetic sources of nitrogen that is empirically verified independently. Along a separate vector, for all line pairs, we examine two cases of radiation field, one with the Haardt-Madau background radiation field and the other with an additional local radiation field sourced by hot gas in the ho...
Chon, Sunmyon; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki
2016-01-01
Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is thought to be a promising path for the formation of supermassive blackholes in the early universe. We study conditions for the so-called direct collapse (DC) blackhole formation in a fully cosmological context. We combine a semi-analytic model of early galaxy formation with halo merger trees constructed from dark matter $N$-body simulations. We locate a total of 68 possible DC sites in a volume of $20\\;h^{-1}\\;\\mathrm{Mpc}$ on a side. We then perform hydrodynamics simulations for 42 selected halos to study in detail the evolution of the massive clouds within them. We find only two successful cases where the gas clouds rapidly collapse to form stars. In the other cases, gravitational collapse is prevented by the tidal force exerted by a nearby massive halo, which otherwise should serve as a radiation source necessary for DC. Ram pressure stripping disturbs the cloud approaching the source. In many cases, a DC halo and its nearby light source halo merg...
Galaxy Evolution in Cosmological Simulations with Outflows II: Metallicities and Gas Fractions
Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D
2011-01-01
We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation, and outflows govern the the gaseous and metal content of galaxies. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the ISM, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochasticity in the inflow rate moves galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the SFR, and the scatter is set by the timescale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z=3-0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the co...
Jeltema, Tesla E; Burns, Jack O; Motl, Patrick M
2007-01-01
We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian AMR/N-body code including non-gravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomplete gas physics. We find no dependence on cluster structure in the mass-observable scaling relations, T_X-M and Y_X-M, when using the true cluster masses. However, estimates of the total mass based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, as assumed in observational studies, are systematically low. We show that the hydrostatic mass bias strongly correlates with cluster structure and, more weakly, with cluster mass. When the hydrostatic masses are used, the mass-observable scaling relations and gas mass fractions depen...
Baryonic and dark matter distribution in cosmological simulations of spiral galaxies
Mollitor, Pol; Teyssier, Romain
2014-01-01
We study three high resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-sized halos including a comparison with the corresponding DM-only counterparts performed with the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES. We analyse the stellar and the gas distribution and find one of our simulated galaxies with interesting Milky Way-like features with regard to several observational tests. Thanks to consistently tuned star formation rate and supernovae feedback, we manage to obtain an extended disk and a flat rotation curve with a circular velocity and a dark matter density in the solar neighbourhood in agreement with observations. With a careful look at the derivation of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio, we also obtain competitive values for this criterion. Concerning the dark matter distribution, we explicitly show the interaction with the baryons and show how the dark matter is first contracted by star formation and then cored by feedback processes. Analysing the clump spectrum, we find a shift in mass with r...
Gravitational torque-driven black hole growth and feedback in cosmological simulations
Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Özel, Feryal; Hopkins, Philip F.
2017-01-01
We investigate black hole-host galaxy scaling relations in cosmological simulations with a self-consistent black hole growth and feedback model. Our sub-grid accretion model captures the key scalings governing angular momentum transport by gravitational torques from galactic scales down to parsec scales, while our kinetic feedback implementation enables the injection of outflows with properties chosen to match observed nuclear outflows (star formation-driven winds are not included to isolate the effects of black hole feedback). We show that `quasar mode' feedback can have a large impact on the thermal properties of the intergalactic medium and the growth of galaxies and massive black holes for kinetic feedback efficiencies as low as 0.1 per cent relative to the bolometric luminosity. None the less, our simulations indicate that the black hole-host scaling relations are only weakly dependent on the effects of black hole feedback on galactic scales, since black hole feedback suppresses the growth of galaxies and massive black holes by a similar amount. In contrast, the rate at which gravitational torques feed the central black hole relative to the host galaxy star formation rate governs the slope and normalization of the black hole-host correlations. Our results suggest that a common gas supply regulated by gravitational torques is the primary driver of the observed co-evolution of black holes and galaxies.
Stable clustering and the resolution of dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations
Benhaiem, David; Labini, Francesco Sylos
2016-01-01
The determination of the resolution of cosmological N-body simulations, i.e., the range of scales in which quantities measured in them represent accurately the continuum limit, is an important open question. We address it here using scale-free models, for which self-similarity provides a powerful tool to control resolution. Such models also provide a robust testing ground for the so-called stable clustering approximation, which gives simple predictions for them. Studying large N-body simulations of such models with different force smoothing, we find that these two issues are in fact very closely related: our conclusion is that resolution in the non-linear regime extends, in practice, down to the scale at which stable clustering breaks down. Physically the association of the two scales is in fact simple to understand: stable clustering fails to be a good approximation when there are strong interactions of structures (in particular merging) and it is precisely such non-linear processes which are sensitive to fl...
基于SPH的小型飞机水上迫降姿态数值仿真%Numerical Simulation of Light Aircraft Ditching Attitude Based on SPH Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张盛; 闫家益; 朱书华; 童明波
2014-01-01
适航条例中要求飞机必须具备良好的水上迫降性能。早期主要通过试验方法研究飞机的水上迫降性能，但是试验耗资巨大、时间周期长。采用一种新型的数值模拟方法研究飞机水上迫降问题，利用光滑质点流体动力学（ SPH）方法模拟三级波浪，建立小型飞机水上迫降模型。考虑到飞机姿态角和起落架收放状态对迫降性能的影响，建立7种计算工况，模拟得到相应的加速度响应和姿态角变化。以飞机在迫降过程中应该受到较小的加速度响应和姿态角变化为依据，通过对比分析计算结果，最终给出12°姿态角、起落架收起为最优迫降状态的结论，为飞机迫降的入水姿态提供技术支持。%Abtsract :Under the requirement of airworthiness regulation ,one aircraft must have a good ditching per-formance .In the past ,tests were implemented to evaluate the aircraft ditching performance ,however tests have really some disadvantages:vast investment and time-consuming .This paper applied numerical sim-ulation technique to research aircraft ditching performance .The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics ( SPH) method was introduced to simulate sea waves and a aircraft ditching model was then built .In consideration of influences of the state of landing gear and attitude angle on ditching performance ,seven simulation con-ditions were designed ,the corresponding acceleration responses and attitude angle changes were simula-ted.Under the condition that aircraft should get a lower drag force and smaller change in amplitude ,a fi-nal conclusion of optimum ditching attitude , viz landing gear retraction with attitude angle of 12 °, was drawn from the comparative analysis of simulation results ,which is valuable to aircraft ditching solution .
A Parallel Tree-SPH code for Galaxy Formation
Lia, C; Lia, Cesario; Carraro, Giovanni
1999-01-01
We describe a new implementation of a parallel Tree-SPH code with the aim to simulate Galaxy Formation and Evolution. The code has been parallelized using SHMEM, a Cray proprietary library to handle communications between the 256 processors of the Silicon Graphics T3E massively parallel supercomputer hosted by the Cineca Supercomputing Center (Bologna, Italy). The code combines the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to solve hydro-dynamical equations with the popular Barnes and Hut (1986) tree-code to perform gravity calculation with a NlogN scaling, and it is based on the scalar Tree-SPH code developed by Carraro et al(1998)[MNRAS 297, 1021]. Parallelization is achieved distributing particles along processors according to a work-load criterion. Benchmarks, in terms of load-balance and scalability, of the code are analyzed and critically discussed against the adiabatic collapse of an isothermal gas sphere test using 20,000 particles on 8 processors. The code results balanced at more that 95% level. ...
Parallel TreeSPH A Tool for Galaxy Formation
Lia, C; Lia, Cesario; Carraro, Giovanni
1999-01-01
We describe a new implementation of a parallel Tree-SPH code with the aim to simulate Galaxy Formation and Evolution. The code has been parallelized using SHMEM, a Cray proprietary library to handle communications between the 256 processors of the Silicon Graphics T3E massively parallel supercomputer hosted by the Cineca Super-computing Center (Bologna, Italy). The code combines the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to solve hydro-dynamical equations with the popular Barnes and Hut (1986) tree-code to perform gravity calculation with a $N \\times logN$ scaling, and it is based on the scalar Tree-SPH code developed by Carraro et al (1998)[MNRAS 297, 1021]. Parallelization is achieved distributing particles along processors according to a work-load criterium. Benchmarks, in terms of load-balance and scalability, of the code are analised and critically discussed against the adiabatic collapse of an isothermal gas sphere test using $2 \\times 10^{4}$ particles on 8 processors. The code results balanced a...
Evaluating galactic habitability using high-resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation
Forgan, Duncan; Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam
2017-01-01
We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of local group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which has sufficient metallicity to form terrestrial planets without being subject to hazardous radiation. These simulations allow us to make substantial progress in mapping out the asymmetric three-dimensional GHZ and its time evolution for the Milky Way (MW) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies, as opposed to works that generally assume an azimuthally symmetric GHZ. Applying typical habitability metrics to MW and M33, we find that while a large number of habitable planets exist as close as a few kiloparsecs from the galactic centre, the probability of individual planetary systems being habitable rises as one approaches the edge of the stellar disc. Tidal streams and satellite galaxies also appear to be fertile grounds for habitable planet formation. In short, we find that both galaxies arrive at similar GHZs by different evolutionary paths, as measured by the first and third quartiles of surviving biospheres. For the MW, this interquartile range begins as a narrow band at large radii, expanding to encompass much of the Galaxy at intermediate times before settling at a range of 2-13 kpc. In the case of M33, the opposite behaviour occurs - the initial and final interquartile ranges are quite similar, showing gradual evolution. This suggests that Galaxy assembly history strongly influences the time evolution of the GHZ, which will affect the relative time lag between biospheres in different galactic locations. We end by noting the caveats involved in such studies and demonstrate that high-resolution cosmological simulations will play a vital role in understanding habitability on galactic scales, provided that these simulations accurately resolve chemical evolution.
Galaxy evolution in cosmological simulations with outflows - II. Metallicities and gas fractions
Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.
2011-09-01
We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation and outflows govern the gaseous and metal content of galaxies within a hierarchical structure formation context. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content, meanwhile, is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the interstellar medium, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochastic variations in the inflow rate move galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the star formation rate, and the scatter is set by the time-scale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z= 3 → 0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the cosmic inflow rate diminishes faster than the consumption rate, while metallicities slowly increase as infalling gas becomes more enriched. Observations from z˜ 3 → 0 are better matched by simulations employing momentum-driven wind scalings rather than constant wind speeds, but all models predict too low gas fractions at low masses and too high metallicities at high masses. All our models reproduce observed second-parameter trends of the mass-metallicity relation with the star formation rate and environment, indicating that these are a consequence of equilibrium and not feedback. Overall, the analytical framework of our equilibrium scenario broadly captures the relevant physics establishing the galaxy gas and metal content in simulations, which suggests that the cycle of baryonic inflows and outflows centrally governs the cosmic evolution of these properties
Joyce, Michael
2007-01-01
We apply a recently developed perturbative formalism which describes the evolution under their self-gravity of particles displaced from a perfect lattice to quantify precisely, up to shell crossing, the effects of discreteness in dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations. We give simple expressions, explicitly dependent on the particle density, for the evolution of power in each mode as a function of red-shift. For typical starting red-shifts the effect of finite particle number is to {\\it slow down} slightly the growth of power compared to that in the fluid limit (e.g. by about ten percent at half the Nyquist frequency), and to induce also dispersion in the growth as a function of direction at a comparable level. Further, above the Nyquist frequency, purely discrete power generated in the initial conditions is amplified. We note that, at fixed particle number, the effects of discreteness increase as the initial red-shift $z_{\\rm init}$ is increased, with divergence from the fluid limit as $z_{\\rm init}...
Validity of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Galaxy Clusters from Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue
2013-01-01
We examine the validity of the hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE) assumption for galaxy clusters using one of the highest-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We define and evaluate several effective mass terms corresponding to the Euler equations of the gas dynamics, and quantify the degree of the validity of HSE in terms of the mass estimate. We find that the mass estimated under the HSE assumption (the HSE mass) deviates from the true mass by up to ~ 30 %. This level of departure from HSE is consistent with the previous claims, but our physical interpretation is rather different. We demonstrate that the inertial term in the Euler equations makes a negligible contribution to the total mass, and the overall gravity of the cluster is balanced by the thermal gas pressure gradient and the gas acceleration term. Indeed the deviation from the HSE mass is well explained by the acceleration term at almost all radii. We also clarify the confusion of previous work due to the inappropriate application of the...
Cervantes-Sodi, B; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan
2008-01-01
We use a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to search for correlations between the $\\lambda$ spin parameter and the environment and mass of galaxies. In order to calculate the total value of $\\lambda$ for each observed galaxy, we employed a simple model of the dynamical structure of the galaxies which allows a rough estimate of the value of $\\lambda$ using only readily obtainable observables from the luminous galaxies. Use of a large volume limited sample (upwards of 11,000) allows reliable inferences of mean values and dispersions of $\\lambda$ distributions. We find, in agreement with some N-body cosmological simulations, no significant dependence of $\\lambda$ on the environmental density of the galaxies. For the case of mass, our results show a marked correlation with $\\lambda$, in the sense that low mass galaxies present both higher mean values of $\\lambda$ and associated dispersions, than high mass galaxies. This last direct empirical result, at odds with expectations from N-body ...
Cai, Rong-Gen
2016-01-01
We investigate the gravitational wave (GW) as the standard siren to estimate the constraint ability of cosmological parameters using the third-generation gravitational wave detector: Einstein Telescope. The binary merger of a neutron with either a neutron or black hole is hypothesized to be the progenitor of a short and intense burst of $\\gamma$-rays, some fraction of those binary mergers could be detected both through electromagnetic radiation and gravitational wave. Thus we can determine both the luminosity distance and redshift of the source separately. We simulate the luminosity distance and redshift measurements from 100 to 1000 GW events. We adopt Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the Hubble constant and dark matter density parameter, we find that with about 500-600 GW events we can constrain the Hubble constant with an accuracy comparable to \\textit{Planck} temperature data and \\textit{Planck} lensing combined results, while for the dark matter density, it needs about 1000 GW events. Then we...
On the dynamical state of galaxy clusters: insights from cosmological simulations II.
Cui, Weiguang; Power, Chris; Borgani, Stefano; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Murante, Giuseppe; Poole, Gregory B.
2016-10-01
Using a suite of cosmology simulations of a sample of >120 galaxy clusters with log (MDM, vir) ≤ 14.5. We compare clusters that form in purely dark matter run and their counterparts in hydro runs and investigate 4 independent parameters, that are normally used to classify dynamical state. We find that the virial ratio η in hydro-dynamical runs is ˜10 per cent lower than in the DM run, and there is no clear separation between the relaxed and unrelaxed clusters for any parameter. Further, using the velocity dispersion deviation parameter ζ, which is defined as the ratio between cluster velocity dispersion σ and the theoretical prediction σ _t = √{G M_{total}/R}, we find that there is a linear correlation between the virial ratio η and this ζ parameter. We propose to use this ζ parameter, which can be easily derived from observed galaxy clusters, as a substitute of the η parameter to quantify the cluster dynamical state.
Heavy Dust Obscuration of z = 7 Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation
Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue
2013-10-01
Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Wide Field Camera 3/Infrared reveal that galaxies at z ~ 7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5 × 108-3 × 1010 M ⊙ with three parameters: the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (f esc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (AV ~ 1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a significant fraction (~10%) of light directly escapes from them. The observed UV slope and scatter are better explained with a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-type extinction curve, whereas a Milky-Way-type curve also predicts blue UV colors due to the 2175 Å bump. We expect that upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be able to test this heavily obscured model.
Heavy dust obscuration of z=7 galaxies in a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation
Kimm, Taysun
2013-01-01
Hubble Space Telescope observations with Wide Field Camera 3/IR reveal that galaxies at z~7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5x10^8-3x10^{10} Msun with three parameters, the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (\\fesc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (A_V~1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a sig...
Warps and waves in the stellar discs of the Auriga cosmological simulations
Gómez, Facundo A.; White, Simon D. M.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger
2017-03-01
Recent studies have revealed an oscillating asymmetry in the vertical structure of the Milky Way's disc. Here, we analyse 16 high-resolution, fully cosmological simulations of the evolution of individual Milky Way-sized galaxies, carried out with the magnetohydrodynamic code AREPO. At redshift zero, about 70 per cent of our galactic discs show strong vertical patterns, with amplitudes that can exceed 2 kpc. Half of these are typical 'integral sign' warps. The rest are oscillations similar to those observed in the Milky Way. Such structures are thus expected to be common. The associated mean vertical motions can be as large as 30 km s-1. Cold disc gas typically follows the vertical patterns seen in the stars. These perturbations have a variety of causes: close encounters with satellites, distant fly-bys of massive objects, accretion of misaligned cold gas from halo infall or from mergers. Tidally induced vertical patterns can be identified in both young and old stellar populations, whereas those originating from cold gas accretion are seen mainly in the younger populations. Galaxies with regular or at most weakly perturbed discs are usually, but not always, free from recent interactions with massive companions, although we have one case where an equilibrium compact disc reforms after a merger.
Sanchez, N Nicole; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Tremmel, Michael; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Tom; Volonteri, Marta; Wadsley, James
2016-01-01
Using a new, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a Milky Way-type (MW-type) galaxy, we explore how a merger-rich assembly history affects the mass budget of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We examine a MW-mass halo at the present epoch whose evolution is characterized by several major mergers to isolate the importance of merger history on black hole accretion. This study is an extension of Bellovary et. al. 2013, which analyzed the accretion of high mass, high redshift galaxies and their central black holes, and found that the gas content of the central black hole reflects what is accreted by the host galaxy halo. In this study, we find that a merger-rich galaxy will have a central SMBH preferentially fed by merger gas. Moreover, we find that nearly 30$\\%$ of the accreted mass budget of the SMBH enters the galaxy through the two major mergers in its history, which may account for the increase of merger-gas fueling the SMBH. Through an investigation of the angular momentum of th...
Star cluster formation in cosmological simulations. I. properties of young clusters
Li, Hui; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Meng, Xi; Semenov, Vadim A; Kravtsov, Andrey V
2016-01-01
We present a new implementation of star formation in cosmological simulations, by considering star clusters as a unit of star formation. Cluster particles grow in mass over several million years at the rate determined by local gas properties, with high time resolution. The particle growth is terminated by its own energy and momentum feedback on the interstellar medium. We test this implementation for Milky Way-sized galaxies at high redshift, by comparing the properties of model clusters with observations of young star clusters. We find that the cluster initial mass function is best described by a Schechter function rather than a single power law. In agreement with observations, at low masses the logarithmic slope is $\\alpha\\approx 1.8-2$, while the cutoff at high mass scales with the star formation rate. A related trend is a positive correlation between the surface density of star formation rate and fraction of stars contained in massive clusters. Both trends indicate that the formation of massive star clust...
Compaction and Quenching of High-z Galaxies: Blue and Red Nuggets in Cosmological Simulations
Zolotov, Adi; Mandelker, Nir; Tweed, Dylan; Inoue, Shigeki; DeGraf, Colin; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel
2014-01-01
We use cosmological simulations to study a characteristic evolution pattern of high redshift galaxies. Early, stream-fed, highly perturbed, gas-rich discs undergo phases of dissipative contraction into compact, star-forming systems (blue nuggets) at z~4-2. The peak of gas compaction marks the onset of central gas depletion and inside-out quenching into compact ellipticals (red nuggets) by z~2. These are sometimes surrounded by gas rings or grow extended dry stellar envelopes. The compaction occurs at a roughly constant specific star-formation rate (SFR), and the quenching occurs at a constant stellar surface density within the inner kpc (Sigma_1). Massive galaxies quench earlier, faster, and at a higher Sigma_1 than lower-mass galaxies, which compactify and attempt to quench more than once. This evolution pattern is consistent with the way galaxies populate the SFR-radius-mass space, and with gradients and scatter across the main sequence. The compaction is triggered by an intense inflow episode, involving me...
A unified model for AGN feedback in cosmological simulations of structure formation
Sijacki, Debora; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Hernquist, Lars
2007-01-01
We discuss a numerical model for black hole growth and its associated feedback processes that for the first time allows cosmological simulations of structure formation to simultaneously follow the build up of the cosmic population of galaxies and active galactic nuclei. Our model assumes that seed black holes are present at early cosmic epochs at the centres of forming halos. We then track their growth from gas accretion and mergers with other black holes in the course of cosmic time. For black holes that are active, we distinguish between two distinct modes of feedback, depending on the black hole accretion rate itself. Black holes that accrete at high rates are assumed to be in a `quasar regime', where we model their feedback by thermally coupling a small fraction of their bolometric luminosity to the surrounding gas. For black holes with low accretion rates, we conjecture that most of their feedback occurs in mechanical form, where AGN-driven bubbles are injected into a gaseous environment. Using our new m...
Far-Infrared Properties of Lyman Break Galaxies from Cosmological Simulations
Cen, Renyue
2011-01-01
Utilizing state-of-the-art, adaptive mesh-refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with ultra-high resolution (114h-1pc) and large sample size (>3300 galaxies of stellar mass >10^9Msun), we show how the stellar light of Lyman Break Galaxies at z=2 is distributed between optical/ultra-violet (UV) and far-infrared (FIR) bands. With a single scalar parameter for dust obscuration we can simultaneously reproduce the observed UV luminosity function for the entire range (3-100 Msun/yr) and extant FIR luminosity function at the bright end (>20Msun/yr). We quantify that galaxies more massive or having higher SFR tend to have larger amounts of dust obscuration mostly due to a trend in column density and in a minor part due to a mass (or SFR)-metallicity relation. It is predicted that the FIR luminosity function in the range SFR=1-100Msun/yr is a powerlaw with a slope about -1.7. We further predict that there is a "galaxy desert" at SFR(FIR) < 0.02 (SFR(UV)/10Msun/yr)^2.1 Msun/yr in the SFR(UV)-SFR(FIR) plane...
Pike, Simon R; Newton, Richard D A; Thomas, Peter A; Jenkins, Adrian
2014-01-01
We present results from a new set of 30 cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, including the effects of radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, black hole growth and AGN feedback. We first demonstrate that our AGN model is capable of reproducing the observed cluster pressure profile at redshift, z~0, once the AGN heating temperature of the targeted particles is made to scale with the final virial temperature of the halo. This allows the ejected gas to reach larger radii in higher-mass clusters than would be possible had a fixed heating temperature been used. Such a model also successfully reduces the star formation rate in brightest cluster galaxies and broadly reproduces a number of other observational properties at low redshift, including baryon, gas and star fractions; entropy profiles outside the core; and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation. Our results are consistent with the notion that the excess entropy is generated via selective removal of the densest material through radiative c...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: samuel.skillman@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2013-03-01
Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic-ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angle of the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in clusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach number. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -28}-10{sup -27} g cm{sup -3}, with magnetic field strengths of 0.1-1.0 {mu}G, and shock Mach numbers of M {approx} 3-6. We present an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variation of the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations.
Bar-driven evolution and quenching of spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations
Spinoso, Daniele; Bonoli, Silvia; Dotti, Massimo; Mayer, Lucio; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian
2017-03-01
We analyse the outputs of the cosmological 'zoom-in' hydrodynamical simulation ErisBH to study a strong stellar bar which naturally emerges in the late evolution of the simulated Milky Way-type galaxy. We focus on the analysis of the formation and evolution of the bar and on its effects on the galactic structure, the gas distribution and the star formation. A large central region in the ErisBH disc becomes bar unstable after z ∼ 1.4, but a clear bar starts to grow significantly only after z ≃ 0.4, possibly triggered by the interaction with a massive satellite. At z ≃ 0.1, the bar stabilizes and reaches its maximum radial extent of l ≈ 2.2 kpc. As the bar grows, it becomes prone to buckling instability. The actual buckling event, observable at z ≃ 0.1, results in the formation of a boxy-peanut bulge clearly discernible at z = 0. During its early growth, the bar exerts a strong torque on the gas and drives gas inflows that enhance the nuclear star formation on sub-kpc scales. Later on, as the bar reaches its maximum length and strength, the gas within its extent is nearly all consumed into stars, leaving behind a gas-depleted region in the central ∼2 kpc. Observations would more likely identify a prominent, large-scale bar at the stage when the galactic central region has already been gas depleted, giving a hint at the fact that bar-driven quenching may play an important role in the evolution of disc-dominated galaxies.
Simulations of the WFIRST Supernova Survey and Forecasts of Cosmological Constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hounsell, R. [Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Scolnic, D. [Chicago U., KICP; Foley, R. J. [UC, Santa Cruz; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Miranda, V. [Pennsylvania U.; Avelino, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bohlin, R. C. [Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Filippenko, A. V. [UC, Berkeley; Frieman, J. [Fermilab; Jha, S. W. [Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kelly, P. L. [UC, Berkeley; Kirshner, R. P. [Xerox, Palo Alto; Mandel, K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rest, A. [Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Riess, A. G. [Johns Hopkins U.; Rodney, S. A. [South Carolina U.; Strolger, L. [Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.
2017-02-06
The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) was the highest rankedlarge space-based mission of the 2010 New Worlds, New Horizons decadal survey.It is now a NASA mission in formulation with a planned launch in themid-2020's. A primary mission objective is to precisely constrain the nature ofdark energy through multiple probes, including Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia).Here, we present the first realistic simulations of the WFIRST SN survey basedon current hardware specifications and using open-source tools. We simulate SNlight curves and spectra as viewed by the WFIRST wide-field channel (WFC)imager and integral field channel (IFC) spectrometer, respectively. We examine11 survey strategies with different time allocations between the WFC and IFC,two of which are based upon the strategy described by the WFIRST ScienceDefinition Team, which measures SN distances exclusively from IFC data. Wepropagate statistical and, crucially, systematic uncertainties to predict thedark energy task force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for each strategy. Theincrease in FoM values with SN search area is limited by the overhead times foreach exposure. For IFC-focused strategies the largest individual systematicuncertainty is the wavelength-dependent calibration uncertainty, whereas forWFC-focused strategies, it is the intrinsic scatter uncertainty. We find thatthe best IFC-focused and WFC-exclusive strategies have comparable FoM values.Even without improvements to other cosmological probes, the WFIRST SN surveyhas the potential to increase the FoM by more than an order of magnitude fromthe current values. Although the survey strategies presented here have not beenfully optimized, these initial investigations are an important step in thedevelopment of the final hardware design and implementation of the WFIRSTmission.
Stable clustering and the resolution of dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations
Benhaiem, David; Joyce, Michael; Sylos Labini, Francesco
2017-10-01
The determination of the resolution of cosmological N-body simulations, i.e. the range of scales in which quantities measured in them represent accurately the continuum limit, is an important open question. We address it here using scale-free models, for which self-similarity provides a powerful tool to control resolution. Such models also provide a robust testing ground for the so-called stable clustering approximation, which gives simple predictions for them. Studying large N-body simulations of such models with different force smoothing, we find that these two issues are in fact very closely related: our conclusion is that the accuracy of two-point statistics in the non-linear regime starts to degrade strongly around the scale at which their behaviour deviates from that predicted by the stable clustering hypothesis. Physically the association of the two scales is in fact simple to understand: stable clustering fails to be a good approximation when there are strong interactions of structures (in particular merging) and it is precisely such non-linear processes which are sensitive to fluctuations at the smaller scales affected by discretization. Resolution may be further degraded if the short distance gravitational smoothing scale is larger than the scale to which stable clustering can propagate. We examine in detail the very different conclusions of studies by Smith et al. and Widrow et al. and find that the strong deviations from stable clustering reported by these works are the results of over-optimistic assumptions about scales resolved accurately by the measured power spectra, and the reliance on Fourier space analysis. We emphasize the much poorer resolution obtained with the power spectrum compared to the two-point correlation function.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈佩佩; 白冰
2016-01-01
The unsaturated soil seepage occurs widely in the dam seepage,rainfall infiltration and pollutants diffusion in landfill etc.The numerical solution of unsaturated seepage equation of Richards based on the finite element algorithm has been derived with the matrix suction head as the independent variable.However,the strong nonlinear characteristics of the material properties leads to the poor mass conservation properties and non physical oscillation of the numerical solution,and may cause inconvergence of the iterative process at the same time.In order to obtain a numerical solution with mass conservation,smoothed particle method was introduced into the solution of the head-based form of Richards equation,and the practicability and reliability of the new algorithm was verified by a numerical example.Finally,a complex unsaturated seepage problem with the evaporation condition was simulated using a program which was written based on SPH algorithm.%非饱和土渗流问题在大坝渗流、降雨入渗、垃圾填埋场内部污染物扩散等领域有着广泛的应用.对非饱和渗流Richards方程的数值求解,一直以来多是采用有限单元法计算基质吸力水头为自变量的方程进行的.但是,材料属性的高度非线性特征会导致数值解的质量守恒性质较差及非物理性震荡,同时可能引起迭代过程的不收敛.尝试着将光滑粒子法引入到基质吸力水头形式Richards方程的求解中,以便获得具有质量守恒特性的数值解,并通过数值算例验证其实用性和可靠性,从而为此类问题的求解提供一种新的思路.最后,采用基于光滑粒子法编写的程序模拟了蒸发条件下的一个复杂非饱和渗流问题,这对实际的工程应用有一定的借鉴价值.
Cosmological Perturbation Theory as a Tool for Estimating Box-Scale Effects in N-body Simulations
Orban, Chris
2013-01-01
In performing cosmological N-body simulations, it is widely appreciated that the growth of structure on the largest scales within a simulation box will be inhibited by the finite size of the simulation volume. Following ideas set forth in Seto 1999, this paper shows that standard (a.k.a. 1-loop) cosmological perturbation theory (SPT) can be used to predict at an order-of-magnitude level the deleterious effect of the box scale on the power spectrum of density fluctuations in simulation volumes. Alternatively, this approach can be used to quickly estimate post facto the effect of the box scale on power spectrum results from existing simulations. In this way SPT can help determine whether larger box sizes or other more-sophisticated methods are needed to achieve a particular level of precision for a given application (e.g. simulations to measure the non-linear evolution of baryon acoustic oscillations). I focus on SPT in this note and show that its predictions are order-of-magnitude accurate compared to N-body s...
SPH Modeling of Droplet Impact on Solid Boundary
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李大鸣; 白玲; 李玲玲; 赵明宇
2014-01-01
A droplet undergoes spreading, rebounding or splashing when it impacts solid boundary, which is a typical phenomenon of free surface flow that exists widely in modern industry. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is applied to numerically study the dynamical behaviors of the droplet impacting solid boundary, and both the spreading and rebounding phenomena of the droplet are reproduced in the simulation. The droplet deformation, flow fields and pressure fields inside the droplet at different moments are analyzed. Two important factors, the initial veloc-ity and diameter, are discussed in determining the maximum spreading factor, revealing that the maximum spreading factor increases with the increase of the impact velocity and droplet diameter respectively.
Sph simulations of early and late superhumps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kunze
2004-01-01
Full Text Available La hidrodin amica de part culas suavizadas es un m etodo Lagrangiano para la soluci on de ecuaciones hidrodin amicas. Utilizamos aqu este m etodo para simular el disco de acreci on en novas enanas con cocientes muy bajos de masa, q < 0:25, t picos de sistemas SU UMa donde el disco de acreci on puede llegar a ser exc entrico y estar en precesi on durante una superexplosi on, lo cual conduce a variaciones peri odicas de brillo: las llamadas superjorobas. Se examinan dos fen omenos: primero, las superjorobas tard as, es decir, la ocasional permanencia de superjorobas mucho despu es del retorno al reposo, vistas por ejemplo en OY Car e IY UMa. Esto es debido a la variaci on de brillo de la regi on de manchas calientes, mientras el disco exc entrico contin ua en precesi on en el reposo; segundo, la ocurrencia de superjorobas tempranas en la superexplosi on de WZ Sge. En este caso fuerzas de marea comprimen el borde del disco y la disipaci on de marea conduce a una estructura de picos dobles en la curva de luz orbital durante las etapas tempranas de la superexplosi on.
Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov SPH
Murante, Giuseppe; Brunino, Riccardo; Cha, Suneg-Hoon
2011-01-01
We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka (2002), in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear flow test, and the "blob" test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha (2010): (i) GSPH provi...
Baldi, Marco; Simpson, Fergus
2017-02-01
Persisting tensions between the cosmological constraints derived from low-redshift probes and the ones obtained from temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) - although not yet providing compelling evidence against the Λcold dark matter model - seem to consistently indicate a slower growth of density perturbations as compared to the predictions of the standard cosmological scenario. Such behaviour is not easily accommodated by the simplest extensions of General Relativity, such as f(R) models, which generically predict an enhanced growth rate. In this work, we present the outcomes of a suite of large N-body simulations carried out in the context of a cosmological model featuring a non-vanishing scattering cross-section between the dark matter and the dark energy fields, for two different parametrizations of the dark energy equation of state. Our results indicate that these dark scattering models have very mild effects on many observables related to large-scale structures formation and evolution, while providing a significant suppression of the amplitude of linear density perturbations and the abundance of massive clusters. Our simulations therefore confirm that these models offer a promising route to alleviate existing tensions between low-redshift measurements and those of the CMB.
SPH method applied to high speed cutting modelling
LIMIDO, Jérôme; Espinosa, Christine; Salaün, Michel; Lacome, Jean-Luc
2007-01-01
The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach of high speed cutting numerical modelling. A Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)- based model is arried out using the Ls-Dyna software. SPH is a meshless method, thus large material distortions that occur in the cutting problem are easily managed and SPH contact control permits a "natural" workpiece/chip separation. The developed approach is compared to machining dedicated code results and experimental data. The SPH cutting...
Star Cluster Formation in Cosmological Simulations. I. Properties of Young Clusters
Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Meng, Xi; Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.
2017-01-01
We present a new implementation of star formation in cosmological simulations by considering star clusters as a unit of star formation. Cluster particles grow in mass over several million years at the rate determined by local gas properties, with high time resolution. The particle growth is terminated by its own energy and momentum feedback on the interstellar medium. We test this implementation for Milky Way-sized galaxies at high redshift by comparing the properties of model clusters with observations of young star clusters. We find that the cluster initial mass function is best described by a Schechter function rather than a single power law. In agreement with observations, at low masses the logarithmic slope is α ≈ 1.8{--}2, while the cutoff at high mass scales with the star formation rate (SFR). A related trend is a positive correlation between the surface density of the SFR and fraction of stars contained in massive clusters. Both trends indicate that the formation of massive star clusters is preferred during bursts of star formation. These bursts are often associated with major-merger events. We also find that the median timescale for cluster formation ranges from 0.5 to 4 Myr and decreases systematically with increasing star formation efficiency. Local variations in the gas density and cluster accretion rate naturally lead to the scatter of the overall formation efficiency by an order of magnitude, even when the instantaneous efficiency is kept constant. Comparison of the formation timescale with the observed age spread of young star clusters provides an additional important constraint on the modeling of star formation and feedback schemes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, Robyn Deborah [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2008-01-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in the centers of galaxies. Their formation and subsequent evolution is inextricably linked to that of their host galaxies, and the study of galaxy formation is incomplete without the inclusion of SMBHs. The present work seeks to understand the growth and evolution of SMBHs through their interaction with the host galaxy and its environment. In the first part of the thesis (Chap. 2 and 3), we combine a simple semi-analytic model of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a simulated dark matter density distribution to study the impact of SMBH feedback on cosmological scales. We find that constraints can be placed on the kinetic efficiency of such feedback using observations of the filling fraction of the Lyα forest. We also find that AGN feedback is energetic enough to redistribute baryons over cosmological distances, having potentially significant effects on the interpretation of cosmological data which are sensitive to the total matter density distribution (e.g. weak lensing). However, truly assessing the impact of AGN feedback in the universe necessitates large-dynamic range simulations with extensive treatment of baryonic physics to first model the fueling of SMBHs. In the second part of the thesis (Chap. 4-6) we use a hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulation to follow the growth and evolution of a typical disk galaxy hosting a SMBH, in a cosmological context. The simulation covers a dynamical range of 10 million allowing us to study the transport of matter and angular momentum from super-galactic scales all the way down to the outer edge of the accretion disk around the SMBH. Focusing our attention on the central few hundred parsecs of the galaxy, we find the presence of a cold, self-gravitating, molecular gas disk which is globally unstable. The global instabilities drive super-sonic turbulence, which maintains local stability and allows gas to fuel a SMBH without first fragmenting completely
Is the motion of a single SPH particle droplet/solid physically correct?
Szewc, Kamil; Olejnik, Michał
2016-01-01
In recent years the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach gained popularity in modeling multiphase and free-surface flows. In many situations, due to certain reasons, interface and free-surface fragmentation occurs. As a result single SPH particle solids/droplets of one phase can appear and travel through other phases. In this paper we investigate this issue focusing on a movement of such single SPH particles. The main questions we try to answer here are: is movement of such particles physically correct? What is its physical size? How numerical parameters affect on it? With this in mind we performed simple simulations of solid particles falling due to gravity in a fluid. Considering three different diameters of a single particle, we compared values of the drag coefficient and the velocity obtained through the SPH approach with the experimental and the analytical reference data. In the way to accurately model multiphase flows with free-surfaces we proposed and validated a novel SPH formulation.
Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug
2016-01-01
We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter halos and subhalos as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck cosmological parameters. We also report the halo mass accretion rates, which may be connected with galaxy star formation rates. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive halos at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter $\\lambda_{\\rm B} = J(2M_{\\rm vir}R_{\\rm vir}V_{\\rm vir})^{-1}$ is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median $\\lambda_{\\rm P} = J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2}$ predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass...
Valdarnini, R
2016-01-01
In this paper we present results from a series of hydrodynamical tests aimed at validating the performance of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation in which gradients are derived from an integral approach. We specifically investigate the code behavior with subsonic flows, where it is well known that zeroth-order inconsistencies present in standard SPH make it particularly problematic to correctly model the fluid dynamics. In particular we consider the Gresho-Chan vortex problem, the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, the statistics of driven subsonic turbulence and the cold Keplerian disc problem. We compare simulation results for the different tests with those obtained, for the same initial conditions, using standard SPH. We also compare the results with the corresponding ones obtained previously with other numerical methods, such as codes based on a moving-mesh scheme or Godunov-type Lagrangian meshless methods. We quantify code performances by introducing error norms and spectral prope...
Numerical modelling of propagation of landslides using SPH
Montull, Carlos; Pastor, Manuel; Springman, Sarah
2015-04-01
Landslides cause severe economic damage and a large number of casualties every year around the world. Engineers and geologists need to understand and predict their properties, such as velocity, depth and run out distance. In addition to experience gained on similar cases, predictions require the application of mathematical, constitutive/rheological and numerical models. Different models are currently used to simulate long run-out landslides in order to elaborate hazard maps. Among the available alternatives, depth integrated models present a reasonable compromise between computational cost and accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to apply the SPH depth integrated model, together with suitable rheological laws, to analize fast landslides. We will present the results obtained with the code Geoflow_SPH to three selected cases: (i) The Frank avalanche, (ii) the Cougar Hill flowslide and (iii) the Sham Tseng debris flow. The results of the simulations include estimations of fundamental aspects of the problem, such as the path followed by the sliding mass, the shape of the run-out area, the maximum run-out, the depth of the final deposit, the pore pressure evolution and the speed evolution of the landslide.
Zentner, A R
2003-01-01
Improvements in observational techniques have transformed cosmology into a field inundated with ever-expanding, high-quality data sets and driven cosmology toward a standard model where the classic cosmological parameters are accurately measured. I briefly discuss some of the methods used to determine cosmological parameters, particularly primordial nucleosynthesis, the magnitude- redshift relation of supernovae, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. I demonstrate how cosmological data can be used to complement particle physics and constrain extensions to the Standard Model. Specifically, I present bounds on light particle species and the properties of unstable, weakly-interacting, massive particles. Despite the myriad successes of the emerging standard cosmological model, unanswered questions linger. Numerical simulations of structure formation predict galactic central densities that are considerably higher than observed. They also reveal hundreds of satellites orbiting Milky Way-like galaxies while th...
Valdarnini, R.
2016-11-01
In this paper, we present results from a series of hydrodynamical tests aimed at validating the performance of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation in which gradients are derived from an integral approach. We specifically investigate the code behavior with subsonic flows, where it is well known that zeroth-order inconsistencies present in standard SPH make it particularly problematic to correctly model the fluid dynamics. In particular, we consider the Gresho-Chan vortex problem, the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, the statistics of driven subsonic turbulence and the cold Keplerian disk problem. We compare simulation results for the different tests with those obtained, for the same initial conditions, using standard SPH. We also compare the results with the corresponding ones obtained previously with other numerical methods, such as codes based on a moving-mesh scheme or Godunov-type Lagrangian meshless methods. We quantify code performances by introducing error norms and spectral properties of the particle distribution, in a way similar to what was done in other works. We find that the new SPH formulation exhibits strongly reduced gradient errors and outperforms standard SPH in all of the tests considered. In fact, in terms of accuracy, we find good agreement between the simulation results of the new scheme and those produced using other recently proposed numerical schemes. These findings suggest that the proposed method can be successfully applied for many astrophysical problems in which the presence of subsonic flows previously limited the use of SPH, with the new scheme now being competitive in these regimes with other numerical methods.
Is the Sgr dSph a dark matter dominated system?
Martínez-Barbosa, Carmen A
2012-01-01
We study the evolution of possible progenitors of Sgr dSph}using several numerical N-body simulations of different dwarf spheroidal galaxies both with and without dark matter, as they orbit the Milky Way. The barionic and dark components of the dwarfs were made obeying a Plummer and NFW potentials of one million particles respectively. The Milky Way was modeled like a tree-component rigid potential and the simulations were performed using a modified Gadget-2 code. We found that none of the simulated galaxies without dark matter reproduced the physical properties observed in Sgr dSph, suggesting that, at the beginning of its evolution, Sgr dSph might have been immersed in a dark matter halo. The simulations of progenitors immersed in dark matter halos suggest that Sgr dSph at its beginning might have been an extended system, i.e. its Plummer radius could have had a value approximated to 1.2 kpc or higher; furthermore, this galaxy could have been immersed in a dark halo with a mass higher than 10^8 solar masses...
Comparing Simulations of AGN Feedback
Richardson, Mark L. A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Thacker, Robert J.; Dubois, Yohan; Wurster, James; Silk, Joseph
2016-07-01
We perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological zoom simulations of a region around a forming galaxy cluster, comparing the ability of the methods to handle successively more complex baryonic physics. In the simplest, non-radiative case, the two methods are in good agreement with each other, but the SPH simulations generate central cores with slightly lower entropies and virial shocks at slightly larger radii, consistent with what has been seen in previous studies. The inclusion of radiative cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback leads to much larger differences between the two methods. Most dramatically, at z=5, rapid cooling in the AMR case moves the accretion shock to well within the virial radius, while this shock remains near the virial radius in the SPH case, due to excess heating, coupled with poorer capturing of the shock width. On the other hand, the addition of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the simulations results in much better agreement between the methods. For our AGN model, both simulations display halo gas entropies of 100 keV cm2, similar decrements in the star formation rate, and a drop in the halo baryon content of roughly 30%. This is consistent with the AGN growth being self-regulated, regardless of the numerical method. However, the simulations with AGN feedback continue to differ in aspects that are not self-regulated, such that in SPH a larger volume of gas is impacted by feedback, and the cluster still has a lower entropy central core.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jayanti Prasad
2007-06-01
In this study we show how errors due to finite box size affect formation and the destruction rate for haloes in cosmological N-body simulations. In an earlier study we gave an analytic prescription of finding the corrections in the mass function. Following the same approach, in this paper we give analytical expressions for corrections in the formation rate, destruction rate and the rate of change in comoving number density, and compute their expected values for the power law ( = -2) and LCDM models.
Multi-phase SPH modelling of violent hydrodynamics on GPUs
Mokos, Athanasios; Rogers, Benedict D.; Stansby, Peter K.; Domínguez, José M.
2015-11-01
This paper presents the acceleration of multi-phase smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using a graphics processing unit (GPU) enabling large numbers of particles (10-20 million) to be simulated on just a single GPU card. With novel hardware architectures such as a GPU, the optimum approach to implement a multi-phase scheme presents some new challenges. Many more particles must be included in the calculation and there are very different speeds of sound in each phase with the largest speed of sound determining the time step. This requires efficient computation. To take full advantage of the hardware acceleration provided by a single GPU for a multi-phase simulation, four different algorithms are investigated: conditional statements, binary operators, separate particle lists and an intermediate global function. Runtime results show that the optimum approach needs to employ separate cell and neighbour lists for each phase. The profiler shows that this approach leads to a reduction in both memory transactions and arithmetic operations giving significant runtime gains. The four different algorithms are compared to the efficiency of the optimised single-phase GPU code, DualSPHysics, for 2-D and 3-D simulations which indicate that the multi-phase functionality has a significant computational overhead. A comparison with an optimised CPU code shows a speed up of an order of magnitude over an OpenMP simulation with 8 threads and two orders of magnitude over a single thread simulation. A demonstration of the multi-phase SPH GPU code is provided by a 3-D dam break case impacting an obstacle. This shows better agreement with experimental results than an equivalent single-phase code. The multi-phase GPU code enables a convergence study to be undertaken on a single GPU with a large number of particles that otherwise would have required large high performance computing resources.
Booth, C M
2009-01-01
(Abridged) We present a method that tracks the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and the feedback from AGN in cosmological simulations. Our model is a substantially modified version of the one by Springel et al. (2005). Because cosmological simulations lack both the resolution and the physics to model the multiphase interstellar medium, they tend to strongly underestimate the Bondi-Hoyle accretion rate. To allow low-mass BHs to grow, it is therefore necessary to increase the predicted Bondi-Hoyle rates in dense gas by large, ad-hoc factors. We explore the physical regimes where the use of such factors is reasonable, and through this introduce a new prescription for gas accretion. Feedback from AGN is modeled by coupling a fraction of the rest-mass energy of the accreted gas thermally into the surrounding medium. We describe the implementation as well as the limitations of the model and motivate all the changes relative to previous work. We investigate the robustness of the predictions for the cosmic st...
Wetzel, Andrew R; Kim, Ji-hoon; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Quataert, Eliot
2016-01-01
Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present the first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments). This simulation models the formation of a MW-mass galaxy to z = 0 within LCDM cosmology, including dark matter, gas, and stars at unprecedented resolution: baryon mass of 7070 M_sun at spatial resolution down to 1 pc. Latte was simulated using the GIZMO code with a mesh-free method for accurate hydrodynamics and the FIRE model for star formation and explicit feedback within a multi-phase interstellar medium. For the first time, Latte self-consistently resolves the internal structure of dwarf galaxies that form around a MW-mass host down to M_star > 10^5 M_sun. Latte's population of ...
Cora, S A; Lambas, D G; Mosconi, M B
2000-01-01
We present preliminary results on the effects of mergers on the chemical properties of galactic objects in hierarchical clustering scenarios. We adopt a hydrodynamical chemical code that allows to describe the coupled evolution of dark matter and baryons within a cosmological context. We found that disk-like and spheroid-like objects have distinctive metallicity patterns that may be the result of different evolution.
GodunovSPH with shear viscosity : implementation and tests
Cha, Seung-Hoon
2016-01-01
The acceleration and energy dissipation terms due to the shear viscosity have been implemented and tested in GodunovSPH. The double summation method has been employed to avoid the well known numerical noise of the second derivative in particle based codes. The plane Couette flow with various initial and boundary conditions have been used as tests, and the numerical and analytical results show a good agreement. Not only the viscosity--only calculation, but the full hydrodynamics simulations have been performed, and they show expected results as well. The very low kinematic viscosity simulations show a turbulent pattern when the Reynolds number exceeds $\\sim$$10^2$. The critical value of the Reynolds number at the transition point of the laminar and turbulent flows coincides with the previous works approximately. A smoothed dynamic viscosity has been suggested to describe the individual kinematic viscosity of particles. The infinitely extended Couette flow which has two layers of different viscosities has been ...
Soil cracking modelling using the mesh-free SPH method
Bui, H H; Kodikara, J; Sanchez, M
2015-01-01
The presence of desiccation cracks in soils can significantly alter their mechanical and hydrological properties. In many circumstances, desiccation cracking in soils can cause significant damage to earthen or soil supported structures. For example, desiccation cracks can act as the preference path way for water flow, which can facilitate seepage flow causing internal erosion inside earth structures. Desiccation cracks can also trigger slope failures and landslides. Therefore, developing a computational procedure to predict desiccation cracking behaviour in soils is vital for dealing with key issues relevant to a range of applications in geotechnical and geo-environment engineering. In this paper, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method will be extended for the first time to simulate shrinkage-induced soil cracking. The main objective of this work is to examine the performance of the proposed numerical approach in simulating the strong discontinuity in material behaviour and to learn about the crack ...
A refined sub-grid model for black hole accretion and AGN feedback in large cosmological simulations
Bachmann, Lisa K; Hirschmann, Michaela; Prieto, M Almudena; Remus, Rhea-Silvia
2014-01-01
In large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations simplified sub-grid models for gas accretion onto black holes and AGN feedback are commonly used. Such models typically depend on various free parameters, which are not well constrained. We present a new advanced model containing a more detailed description of AGN feedback, where those parameters reflect the results of recent observations. The model takes the dependency of these parameters on the black hole properties into account and describes a continuous transition between the feedback processes acting in the so-called radio-mode and quasar-mode. In addition, we implement a more detailed description of the accretion of gas onto black holes by distinguishing between hot and cold gas accretion. Our new implementations prevent black holes from gaining too much mass, particularly at low redshifts so that our simulations are now very successful in reproducing the observed present-day black hole mass function. Our new model also suppresses star formation in ma...
Application of the SPH method to solitary wave impact on an offshore platform
Pan, K.; IJzermans, R. H. A.; Jones, B. D.; Thyagarajan, A.; van Beest, B. W. H.; Williams, J. R.
2016-04-01
This paper investigates the interaction between large waves and floating offshore structures. Here, the fluid-structure interaction is considered using the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To ensure the applicability of this method, we validate its prediction for fluid forces and rigid-body motion against two sets of experimental data. These are impact due to dam break, and wave induced motion of a floating cube. For the dam break problem, the SPH method is used to predict impact forces on a rectangular column located downstream. In the second case of a floating cube, the SPH method simulates the motion of a buoyant cube under the action of induced waves, where a wall placed upstream of the cube is displaced sinusoidally to induce waves. In both cases, the SPH framework implemented is able to accurately reproduce the experimental results. Following validation, we apply this framework to simulation of a toy model of a tension-leg platform upon impact of a large solitary wave. This analysis shows that the platform may be pulled into the water by stretched tension legs, where the extension of the tension legs also governs the rotational behavior of the platform. The result also indicates that a tension-leg platform is very unlikely to topple over during the arrival of an extreme wave.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖毅华; 胡德安; 韩旭; 杨刚
2012-01-01
为了准确、高效地模拟高速冲击问题,提出了一种自适应轴对称有限元(FEM)-光滑粒子流体动力学(SPH)耦合算法.该算法在初始时刻全部采用FEM计算,在动态变形过程中自动将畸变单元转化为粒子,采用SPH计算.该算法采用一种新的耦合算法实现单元与粒子间的高精度耦合,并应用最小内角转化准则和单元分组转化方式实现单元向粒子的自动转化.计算了几个典型的高速冲击问题:首先,通过计算应力波传播测试了新的单元-粒子耦合算法的精度;然后,通过计算泰勒杆问题验证了自适应耦合算法及相应程序的正确性;最后,计算了弹体侵彻铝板和混凝土板.结果表明:自适应耦合算法计算精度好且效率高,适合模拟高速冲击问题.%An adaptive axisymmetric finite element method (FEM) - smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) coupling algorithm is proposed to accurately and efficiently simulate high velocity impact problems. It uses FEM to calculate at the beginning. During the deformation process, it automatically converts distorted elements to particles and uses SPH for calculation at these regions where distorted elements appear. In the adaptive coupling algorithm, a new coupling algorithm is applied to link elements and particles accurately, and a minimum interior angle criterion combined with a group-based conversion manner is adopted to convert elements to particles. Several typical high velocity impact problems are calculated. Firstly, the stress wave propagation is calculated to test the accuracy of the new element-particle coupling algorithm. Then, the Taylor test is calculated to validate the adaptive coupling algorithm and the corresponding code. Finally, the simulation of projectiles penetrating aluminum and concrete plates is presented. The results show that the adaptive coupling algorithm is accurate and efficient and it is very suitable for the simulation of high velocity impact.
SPH modeling of the Stickney impact at Phobos
Bruck Syal, Megan; Rovny, Jared; Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul L.
2016-10-01
Stickney crater stretches across nearly half the diameter of ~22-km Phobos, the larger of the two martian moons. The Stickney-forming impact would have had global consequences for Phobos, causing extensive damage to the satellite's interior and initiating large-scale resurfacing through ejecta blanket emplacement. Further, much of the ejected material that initially escaped the moon's tiny gravity (escape velocity of ~11 m/s) would have likely reimpacted on subsequent orbits. Modeling of the impact event is necessary to understand the conditions that allowed this "megacrater" to form without disrupting the entire satellite. Impact simulation results also provide a means to test several different hypotheses for how the mysterious families of parallel grooves may have formed at Phobos.We report on adaptive SPH simulations that successfully generate Stickney while avoiding catastrophic fragmentation of Phobos. Inclusion of target porosity and using sufficient numerical resolution in fully 3-D simulations are key for avoiding over-estimation of target damage. Cratering efficiency follows gravity-dominated scaling laws over a wide range of velocities (6-20 km/s) for the appropriate material constants. While the adaptive SPH results are used to constrain crater volume and fracture patterns within the target, additional questions about the fate of ejecta and final crater morphology within an unusual gravity environment can be addressed with complementary numerical methods. Results from the end of the hydrodynamics-controlled phase (tens of seconds after impact) are linked to a Discrete Element Method code, which can explore these processes over longer time scales (see Schwartz et al., this meeting).This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-695442.
A new approach of high speed cutting modelling: SPH method
LIMIDO, Jérôme; Espinosa, Christine; Salaün, Michel; Lacome, Jean-Luc
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach of high speed cutting numerical modelling. A lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) based model is carried out using the Ls-Dyna software. SPH is a meshless method, thus large material distortions that occur in the cutting problem are easily managed and SPH contact control permits a “natural” workpiece/chip separation. Estimated chip morphology and cutting forces are compared to machining dedicated code results and experimenta...
Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Behroozi, Peter; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug
2016-10-01
We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter haloes and subhaloes as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck ΛCDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck parameters. We also report halo mass accretion rates and concentrations. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive haloes at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter {λ _B}= J(√{2}M_virR_virV_vir)^{-1} is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median {λ _P}= J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2} predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass, we show that a simple model of how galaxy velocity is related to halo maximum circular velocity leads to increasing overprediction of cosmic stellar mass density as redshift increases beyond z ˜ 1, implying that such velocity-mass relations must change at z ≳ 1. By making a realistic model of how observed galaxy velocities are related to halo circular velocity, we show that recent optical and radio observations of the abundance of galaxies are in good agreement with our ΛCDM simulations. Our halo demographics are based on updated versions of the ROCKSTAR and CONSISTENT TREES codes, and this paper includes appendices explaining all of their outputs. This paper is an introduction to a series of related papers presenting other analyses of the Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations.
gpuSPHASE-A shared memory caching implementation for 2D SPH using CUDA
Winkler, Daniel; Meister, Michael; Rezavand, Massoud; Rauch, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless Lagrangian method that has been successfully applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), solid mechanics and many other multi-physics problems. Using the method to solve transport phenomena in process engineering requires the simulation of several days to weeks of physical time. Based on the high computational demand of CFD such simulations in 3D need a computation time of years so that a reduction to a 2D domain is inevitable. In this paper gpuSPHASE, a new open-source 2D SPH solver implementation for graphics devices, is developed. It is optimized for simulations that must be executed with thousands of frames per second to be computed in reasonable time. A novel caching algorithm for Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) shared memory is proposed and implemented. The software is validated and the performance is evaluated for the well established dambreak test case.
Shimizu, Ikkoh; Yoshida, Naoki; Okamoto, Takashi
2015-01-01
We have performed very large and high resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations in order to investigate detectability of nebular lines in the rest-frame UV to optical wavelength range from galaxies at z>7. We use a light-cone output to select galaxies at z~7-10 by the same color and magnitude criteria as real observations (Hubble Ultra Deep Survey). The UV dust attenuation is ~ 0.5 mag for galaxies with H160 10 galaxies will be found with the next generation telescopes such as the JWST, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Wide-field Imaging Surveyor for High-Redshift (WISH) (11 9 galaxy candidates (MACS1149JD and MACS0647JD1) can be detectable using even the current facilities such as the VLT/X-Shooter and the Keck/MOSFIRE with high probability.
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - I. Dark matter and non-radiative models
Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Pearce, Frazer R.; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T.; Power, Chris; Cui, Weiguang; Beck, Alexander M.; Borgani, Stefano; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Davé, Romeel; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; Lau, Erwin; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Guiseppe; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea; Newton, Richard D. A.; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I.; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain; Thacker, Robert J.
2016-04-01
We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a Λ cold dark matter universe using 13 different codes modelling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (RAMSES, ART, AREPO, HYDRA and nine incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle-based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span classic and modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at z = 0, global properties such as mass and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employed. As expected, the mesh-based codes RAMSES, ART and AREPO form extended entropy cores in the gas with rising central gas temperatures. Those codes employing classic SPH schemes show falling entropy profiles all the way into the very centre with correspondingly rising density profiles and central temperature inversions. We show that methods with modern SPH schemes that allow entropy mixing span the range between these two extremes and the latest SPH variants produce gas entropy profiles that are essentially indistinguishable from those obtained with grid-based methods.
Evolution and Statistics of Non-Sphericity of Dark Matter Halos from Cosmological N-Body Simulation
Suto, Daichi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi
2016-01-01
We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modelling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turn-around epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting nonsphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turn-around, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction; massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z=0, inner regions of the halos are less spherical than outer regions, i.e., the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not se...
Orban, Chris
2012-01-01
In setting up initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations there are, fundamentally, two choices: either maximizing the correspondence of the initial density field to the assumed fourier-space clustering or, instead, matching to the real-space clustering. As a stringent test of both approaches, I perform ensembles of simulations using power law models and exploit the self-similarity of these initial conditions to quantify the accuracy of the results. Originally proposed by Pen 1997 and implemented by Sirko 2005, I show that the real-space motivated approach, which allows the DC mode to vary, performs well in exhibiting the expected self-similar behavior in the mean xi(r) and P(k) and in both methods this behavior extends below the scale of the initial mean interparticle spacing. I also test the real-space method with simulations of a simplified, powerlaw model for baryon acoustic oscillations, again with success, and mindful of the need to generate mock catalogs using simulations I show extensive po...
一对啮合齿轮模型离散成 SPH 粒子方法研究%Research on a Pair Meshing Gear Model Discrete into SPH Particle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
热合买提江·依明; 买买提明·艾尼
2014-01-01
In this paper,`based on continuums discrete into SPH particles idea ,take involute spur gear as an example,the parameter equations of the transition curve of gear root and the other parts of gear are decided by studied every part curve of gear,provide a algorithm of discrete into SPH par-ticles for 3D gear model and a pair of meshing gear model,programmed pre processor program for correct meshing a pair of gear,to calculate and simulate impact ad contact in gear transmission to provide a good pre processor platform.%利用连续体离散成均匀分布 SPH 粒子的思路，以渐开线直齿轮为例，通过其各部分曲线进行研究，确定齿轮齿根过渡曲线以及其他部分的参数方程，提出了三维齿轮和一对啮合齿轮模型离散成 SPH 粒子的方法和算法，编程实现了正确啮合一对齿轮模型离散成 SPH 粒子的 SPH 前处理程序。通过用 SPH 方法对齿轮传动中冲击、接触等问题进行计算和模拟，提供了一种较好的前处理平台。
The First Generation of Stars in Lambda-CDM Cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Liang; /Durham U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Frenk, C.S.; Jenkins, A.; /Durham U.; Springel, V.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Yoshida,; /Nagoya U.
2006-10-10
We have performed a large set of high-resolution cosmological simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to study the formation of the first luminous objects in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. We follow the collapse of primordial gas clouds in eight early structures and document the scatter in the properties of the first star-forming clouds. Our first objects span formation redshifts from z {approx} 10 to z {approx} 50 and cover an order of magnitude in halo mass. We find that the physical properties of the central star-forming clouds are very similar in all of the simulated objects despite significant differences in formation redshift and environment. This suggests that the formation path of the first stars is largely independent of the collapse redshift; the physical properties of the clouds have little correlation with spin, mass, or assembly history of the host halo. The collapse of proto-stellar objects at higher redshifts progresses much more rapidly due to the higher densities, which accelerates the formation of molecular hydrogen, enhances initial cooling and shortens the dynamical timescales. The mass of the star-forming clouds cover a broad range, from a few hundred to a few thousand solar masses, and exhibit various morphologies: some have disk-like structures which are nearly rotational supported; others form flattened spheroids; still others form bars. All of them develop a single protostellar ''seed'' which does not fragment into multiple objects up to the moment that the central gas becomes optically thick to H{sub 2} cooling lines. At this time, the instantaneous mass accretion rate onto the centre varies significantly from object to object, with disk-like structures having the smallest mass accretion rates. The formation epoch and properties of the star-forming clouds are sensitive to the values of cosmological parameters.
Evolution and statistics of non-sphericity of dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulation
Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi
2016-10-01
We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass-scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modeling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turnaround epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting non-sphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turnaround, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction: massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z = 0, inner regions of the simulated halos are less spherical than outer regions; that is, the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not self-similar (concentric ellipsoids with the same axis ratio and orientation). This is also inconsistent with the homogeneous density distribution that is commonly assumed in EC. Since most of previous fitting formulae for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the axis ratio of triaxial ellipsoids have been constructed under the self-similarity assumption, they are not accurate. Indeed, we compute the PDF of the projected axis ratio a1/a2 directly from the simulation data without the self-similarity assumption, and find that it is very sensitive to the assumption. The latter needs to be carefully taken into account in direct comparison with observations, and therefore we provide an empirical fitting formula for the PDF of a1/a2. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the derived PDF of a1/a2 roughly agrees with the current weak-lensing observations. More importantly, the present results will be useful for future exploration of the non
Evolution and statistics of non-sphericity of dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulation
Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi
2016-12-01
We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass-scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modeling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turnaround epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting non-sphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turnaround, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction: massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z = 0, inner regions of the simulated halos are less spherical than outer regions; that is, the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not self-similar (concentric ellipsoids with the same axis ratio and orientation). This is also inconsistent with the homogeneous density distribution that is commonly assumed in EC. Since most of previous fitting formulae for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the axis ratio of triaxial ellipsoids have been constructed under the self-similarity assumption, they are not accurate. Indeed, we compute the PDF of the projected axis ratio a1/a2 directly from the simulation data without the self-similarity assumption, and find that it is very sensitive to the assumption. The latter needs to be carefully taken into account in direct comparison with observations, and therefore we provide an empirical fitting formula for the PDF of a1/a2. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the derived PDF of a1/a2 roughly agrees with the current weak-lensing observations. More importantly, the present results will be useful for future exploration of the non
Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia
2017-02-01
We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way–sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *–M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ∼ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ∼ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (i.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.
Feldmann, Robert
2014-01-01
Observations show a prevalence of high redshift galaxies with large stellar masses and predominantly passive stellar populations. A variety of processes have been suggested that could reduce the star formation in such galaxies to observed levels, including quasar mode feedback, virial shock heating, or galactic winds driven by stellar feedback. However, the main quenching mechanisms have yet to be identified. Here we study the origin of star formation quenching using Argo, a cosmological zoom-in simulation that follows the evolution of a massive galaxy at $z\\geq{}2$. This simulation adopts the same sub-grid recipes of the Eris simulations, which have been shown to form realistic disk galaxies, and, in one version, adopts also a mass and spatial resolution identical to Eris. The resulting galaxy has properties consistent with those of observed, massive (M_* ~ 1e11 M_sun) galaxies at z~2 and with abundance matching predictions. Our models do not include AGN feedback indicating that supermassive black holes like...
An Extension of Godunov SPH II: Application to Elastic Dynamics
Sugiura, Keisuke
2016-01-01
Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (Godunov SPH) method is a computational fluid dynamics method that utilizes a Riemann solver and achieves the second-order accuracy in space. In this paper, we extend the Godunov SPH method to elastic dynamics by incorporating deviatoric stress tensor that represents the stress for shear deformation or anisotropic compression. Analogously to the formulation of the original Godunov SPH method, we formulate the equation of motion, the equation of energy, and the time evolution equation of deviatoric stress tensor so that the resulting discretized system achieves the second-order accuracy in space. The standard SPH method tends to suffer from the tensile instability that results in unphysical clustering of particles especially in tension-dominated region. We find that the tensile instability can be suppressed by selecting appropriate interpolation for density distribution in the equation of motion for the Godunov SPH method even in the case of elastic dynamics. Several tes...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐金中; 汤文辉
2008-01-01
采用光滑粒子流体动力学(SPH)方法对钨合金长杆弹侵彻玻璃靶板作了数值模拟,给出了侵彻过程的物理图像.分析了玻璃层板间距对计算结果的影响.比较了玻璃的本构模型对数值结果的影响.通过对比实验数据,JH 2模型的计算结果明显大于实验结果,而Mohr Coulomb 盖帽模型得到的侵彻深度与实验更加吻合.进一步研究了侵彻深度对弹丸速度的依赖性,给出了钨合金长杆弹侵彻玻璃靶板的侵彻深度经验表达式.
Cosmological Galaxy Evolution with Superbubble Feedback I: Realistic Galaxies with Moderate Feedback
Keller, B W; Couchman, H M P
2015-01-01
We present the first cosmological galaxy evolved using the modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GASOLINE2 with superbubble feedback. We show that superbubble-driven galactic outflows powered by Type II supernovae alone can produce $\\rm{L^*}$ galaxies with flat rotation curves with circular velocities $\\sim 200\\; \\rm{km/s}$, low bulge-to-disc ratios, and stellar mass fractions that match observed values from high redshift to the present. These features are made possible by the high mass loadings generated by the evaporative growth of superbubbles. Outflows are driven extremely effectively at high redshift, expelling gas at early times and preventing overproduction of stars before $z=2$. Centrally concentrated gas in previous simulations has often lead to unrealistically high bulge to total ratios and strongly peaked rotation curves. We show that supernova-powered superbubbles alone can produce galaxies that agree well with observed properties without the need for additional feedback mechanisms or ...
嶋中, 貴史
2015-01-01
In recent years, earthquake-induced slope failures often occurred in our country. In order to examine the isolations of settlements in mountainous areas, it is necessary to predict damage states of slopes as well as seismic stability assessment of them. A numerical simulation of the 2008 Aratozawa landslide by the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is presented in this paper. We conducted the field survey at Aratozawa and several physical and strength tests for the analyses. In addition, w...
SWIFT: Fast algorithms for multi-resolution SPH on multi-core architectures
Gonnet, Pedro; Theuns, Tom; Chalk, Aidan B G
2013-01-01
This paper describes a novel approach to neighbour-finding in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations with large dynamic range in smoothing length. This approach is based on hierarchical cell decompositions, sorted interactions, and a task-based formulation. It is shown to be faster than traditional tree-based codes, and to scale better than domain decomposition-based approaches on shared-memory parallel architectures such as multi-cores.
Fluid-particle flow and validation using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM
Robinson, Martin; Luding, Stefan; Ramaioli, Marco
2013-01-01
First, a meshless simulation method is presented for multiphase fluid-particle flows with a two-way coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) for the fluid and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the solid phase. The unresolved fluid model, based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations, is expected to be considerably faster than fully resolved models. Furthermore, in contrast to similar mesh-based Discrete Particle Methods (DPMs), our purely particle-based method enjoys the flex...
Ostriker, J P; Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Cen, Renyue
1996-01-01
We compute, including a current state-of-the-art treatment of hydrodynamical processes, heating and cooling, a variety of cosmological models into the extreme nonlinear phase to enable comparisons with observations. First, we note the common, model independent results. All have a mean (z=0) temperature of 10^{4.5}-10^{5.5}\\Kel, set essentially by photoheating processes. Most gas is in one of two components: either at the photoheating floor 10^{4.5}\\Kel and primarily in low density regions or else shock heated to 10^5-10^6\\Kel and in regions of moderate overdensity (in caustics and near groups and clusters). It presents a major observational challenge to observationally detect this second, abundant component as it is neither an efficient radiator nor absorber. About 2\\% to 10\\% of the baryons cool and collapse into galaxies forming on caustics and migrating to clusters. About 1\\%-2\\% of baryons are in the very hot X-ray emitting gas near cluster cores, in good agreement with observations. These correspondances...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴建松; 张辉; 杨锐
2013-01-01
This paper applies the meshfree Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computing technique to investigate the highly complex 3-D dam-break flow in urban areas including underground spaces. Taking the advantage of GPUs parallel computing techniques, simulations involving more than 107 particles can be achieved. We use a virtual geometric plane boundary to handle the outermost solid wall in order to save considerable video card memory for the GPU computing. To evaluate the accuracy of the new GPU-based SPH model, qualitative and quantitative comparison to a real flooding experiment is performed and the results of a numerical model based on Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) is given with good accu- racy. With the new GPU-based SPH model, the effects of the building layouts and underground spaces on the propagation of dam- break flood through an intricate city layout are examined.
Scannapieco, C.
2013-06-01
I use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the formation and evolution of galaxies similar in mass to the Milky Way. First, I use a set of eight simulations where the haloes have a great variety of merger and formation histories, to investigate how similar or diverse these galaxies are at the present epoch, and how their final properties are related to the particular formation history of the galaxy. I find that rotationally-supported disks are present in 7 of the 8 galaxies at {z˜ 2}-3; however, only half of the galaxies have significant disks at z=0. Both major mergers and the accretion of gas that is misaligned with the preexisting stellar disk contribute to the transfer of material from the disks to the spheroidal components, lowering the disk-to-total ratios during evolution. I also present and discuss recent results of the Aquila Project, which compares the predictions of 13 different numerical codes for the properties of a galaxy in a \\Lambda cold dark matter universe. All simulations use a unique initial condition and are analysed in the exact same way, allowing a fair comparison of results. We find large code-to-code variations in stellar masses, star formation rates, galaxy sizes and morphologies. We also find that the way feedback is implemented is the main cause of the differences, although some differences might also result from the use of different numerical technique. Our results show that state-of-the-art simulations cannot yet uniquely predict the properties of the baryonic component of a galaxy, even when the assembly history of its host halo is fully specified.
Jones, Bernard J. T.
2017-04-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson–Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.
AQUAgpusph, a new free 3D SPH solver accelerated with OpenCL
Cercos-Pita, J. L.
2015-07-01
In this paper, AQUAgpusph, a new free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) software accelerated with OpenCL, is described. The main differences and progress with respect to other existing alternatives are considered. These are the use of the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) framework instead of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), the implementation of the most popular boundary conditions, the easy customization of the code to different problems, the extensibility with regard to Python scripts, and the runtime output which allows the tracking of simulations in real time, or a higher frequency in saving some results without a significant performance lost. These modifications are shown to improve the solver speed, the results quality, and allow for a wider areas of application. AQUAgpusph has been designed trying to provide researchers and engineers with a valuable tool to test and apply the SPH method. Three practical applications are discussed in detail. The evolution of a dam break is used to quantify and compare the computational performance and modeling accuracy with the most popular SPH Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated alternatives. The dynamics of a coupled system, a Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD), is discussed in order to show the integration capabilities of the solver with external dynamics. Finally, the sloshing flow inside a nuclear reactor is simulated in order to show the capabilities of the solver to treat 3-D problems with complex geometries and of industrial interest.
A Comparison of SPH Artificial Viscosities and Their Impact on the Keplerian Disk
Hosono, Natsuki; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro
2016-06-01
Hydrodynamical simulations of rotating disks play important roles in the field of astrophysical and planetary science. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been widely used for such simulations. However, it has been known that when using SPH, a cold and thin Kepler disk breaks up due to the unwanted angular momentum transfer. Two possible reasons have been suggested for this breaking up of the disk; the artificial viscosity (AV) and the numerical error in the evaluation of pressure gradient in SPH. Which one is dominant is still unclear. In this paper, we investigate the reason for this rapid breaking up of the disk. We implemented most of the popular formulations of AV and switches, and measured the angular momentum transfer due to both AV and the error of SPH’s estimate of the pressure gradient. We found that the angular momentum transfer due to AV at the inner edge triggers the breaking up of the disk. We also found that the classical von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff type AV with a high-order estimate for {{\
A NUMERICAL STUDY OF WATER PROPAGATION AND BREAKING USING SPH METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
COELHO J. G.
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A breaking wave is a violent natural event that involves highly complex phenomena, such as large deformation of free surface, turbulence, vortex generation, strong interaction between wave and structures, etc. In this work a wave breaking over an inclined surface is simulated using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH. SPH is a meshless method that uses a Lagrangian referential to account the forces acting over a fluid particle. The formalism of SPH is based on the idea that the flow can be considered as a set of parts of fluid volume in motion using the concept of particles. This work uses a Weakly Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (WCSPH, where the pressure field is determined by a state equation. The code is validated with several benchmark cases, in which the most relevant parameters for the numerical stability of the analyses are varied. Finally, the model is applied to the simulation of breaking waves in coastal regions, determining shear stresses, important parameter for various applications in engineering, such as erosion.
A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) study of sediment dispersion on the seafloor
Tran-Duc, Thien; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2017-08-01
Ocean-scale sediment dispersion and sedimentation problems are studied using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A SPH formulation based on a mixture model for two-phase flows is developed to investigate the problem. The sediment mass transport via the settling advection and the turbulent diffusion of the suspended sediment are fully accounted for in the current SPH model. The simulations are carried out in an opened boundary domain with a unidirectional underlined current, with relevant deposition/re-suspension boundary conditions on the seafloor. The factors influencing the sedimentation process, such as the hindering and the bottom shear stress effects, are also considered. The simulation results reveal that the sediment convection near the sediment source location is caused by both the ocean current and secondary density driven flows that are created by the concurrent settling motion of suspended sediment particles, while the downstream sediment transport in the far field is only driven by the ocean current. The peak sediment concentration in the ambient ocean water is found to correlate with the sediment release rate, and the settlement rate is inversely proportional to the initial height of the disturbed sediment.
Baryon Census in Hydrodynamical Simulations of Galaxy Clusters
Planelles, Susana; Dolag, Klaus; Ettori, Stefano; Fabjan, Dunja; Murante, Giuseppe; Tornatore, Luca
2012-01-01
We carry out an analysis of a set of cosmological SPH hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters and groups aimed at studying the total baryon budget in clusters, and how this budget is shared between the hot diffuse component and the stellar component. Using the TreePM+SPH GADGET-3 code, we carried out one set of non-radiative simulations, and two sets of simulations including radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from supernovae (SN), one of which also accounting for the effect of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). The analysis is carried out with the twofold aim of studying the implication of stellar and hot gas content on the relative role played by SN and AGN feedback, and to calibrate the cluster baryon fraction and its evolution as a cosmological tool. We find that both radiative simulation sets predict a trend of stellar mass fraction with cluster mass that tends to be weaker than the observed one. However this tension depends on the particular set of observational data considered...
The Distribution of Satellites Around Central Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulation
Dong, Xuce; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang O; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V
2014-01-01
Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but rather, it is aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. The strength of the alignment is dependent on the properties of both satellites and centrals. Theoretical studies using dissipationless N-body simulations are limited by their inability to directly predict the shape of central galaxies. Using hydrodynamical simulations including gas cooling, star formation and feedback, we carry out a study of galaxy alignment and its dependence on galaxy properties predicted directly from the simulations. We found that the observed alignment signal is well produced, as is the color dependence: red satellites and red centrals both show stronger alignments than their blue counterparts. The reason for the stronger alignment of red satellites is that most of them stay in the inner region of the dark matter halo, where the shape of central galaxy traces better the dark matter distribution. The dependence of alignment on the ...
Galaxy Pairs in cosmological simulations: Effects of interactions on star formation
Perez, M J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.; Scannapieco, Cecilia
2005-01-01
We carried out a statistical analysis of galaxy pairs in hydrodynamical Lambda-CDM simulations. We focused on the triggering of star formation by interactions and analysed the enhancement of star formation activity in terms of orbital parameters. By comparing to a suitable sample of simulated galaxies without a nearby companion, we find that close encounters (r<30 kpc/h) may effectively induce star formation. However, our results suggest that the stability properties of systems and the spatial proximity are both relevant factors in the process of triggering star formation by tidal interactions. In order to assess the effects of projection and spurious pairs in observational samples, we also constructed and analysed samples of pairs of galaxies in the simulations obtained in projection. We found a good agreement with observational results with a threshold at rp ~ 25 kpc/h for interactions to effectively enhance star formation activity. For pairs within rp < 100 kpc/h, we estimated a ~27% contamination by...
TreePM: A Code for Cosmological N-Body Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. S. Bagla
2002-09-01
We describe the TreePM method for carrying out large N-Body simulations to study formation and evolution of the large scale structure in the Universe. This method is a combination of Barnes and Hut tree code and Particle-Mesh code. It combines the automatic inclusion of periodic boundary conditions of PM simulations with the high resolution of tree codes. This is done by splitting the gravitational force into a short range and a long range component. We describe the splitting of force between these two parts.We outline the key differences between TreePM and some other N-Body methods.
Nishimichi, Takahiro
2013-01-01
We examine how well we can explain the large-scale anisotropic clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with mock galaxies assigned to subhalos identified in a large suite of high-resolution cosmological simulations. Instead of relying on an analytical model, we vary the parameters that characterize the condition of subhalos to host LRGs and search for the best-fit parameters to the observed multipole moments of the power spectrum using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method. After demonstrating that we cannot find a reasonable fit to the observation when we assign mock LRGs only to the central population of subhalos sitting at the center of their host halos, we show that simple models using both centrals and satellites can simultaneously fit the multipole moments up to hexadecapole at large scale ($k\\lesssim0.3\\,h\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$). The multiplicity function measured from the best-fit mock catalogs shows good agreement with the observation, when the mean spacial number density...
Zhuravleva, I; Schekochihin, A A; Lau, E T; Nagai, D; Gaspari, M; Allen, S W; Nelson, K; Parrish, I J
2014-01-01
We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the ICM using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: $(\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho)^2 = \\eta_1^2 (V_{1,k}/c_s)^2$, where $\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho$ is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wave number $k$, $V_{1,k}^2=V_k^2/3$ is the mean square component of the velocity field, $c_s$ is the sound speed, and $\\eta_1$ is a dimensionless constant of order unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find $\\eta_1\\approx 1 \\pm 0.3$. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proporti...
Formation and Settling of a Disc Galaxy During the Last 8 Billion Years in a Cosmological Simulation
Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Kassin, Susan A
2016-01-01
We present results of a high-resolution zoom cosmological simulation of the evolution of a low-mass galaxy with a maximum velocity of V=100 km/s at z=0, using the initial conditions from the AGORA project (Kim et al 2014). The final disc-dominated galaxy matches local disc scaling relations. The galaxy evolves from a compact, dispersion-dominated galaxy into a rotation-dominated but dynamically hot disc in about 0.5 Gyr (from z=1.4 to z=1.2). The disc dynamically cools down for the following 7 Gyr, as the gas velocity dispersion decreases over time, in agreement with observations. The primary cause of this slow evolution of velocity dispersion in this low-mass galaxy is stellar feedback. It is related to the decline in gas fraction, and to the associated gravitational disk instability, as the disc slowly settles from a global Toomre Q>1 turbulent disc to a marginally unstable disc (Q=1).
van de Voort, Freeke; Hopkins, Philip F; Keres, Dusan; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre
2014-01-01
We quantify the stellar abundances of neutron-rich r-process nuclei in cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-mass galaxy from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. The galaxy is enriched with r-process elements by binary neutron star (NS) mergers and with iron and other metals by supernovae. These calculations include key hydrodynamic mixing processes not present in standard semi-analytic chemical evolution models, such as galactic winds and hydrodynamic flows associated with structure formation. We explore a range of models for the rate and delay time of NS mergers, intended to roughly bracket the wide range of models consistent with current observational constraints. We show that NS mergers can produce [r-process/Fe] abundance ratios and scatter that appear reasonably consistent with observational constraints. At low metallicity, [Fe/H]<-2, we predict there is a wide range of stellar r-process abundance ratios, with both supersolar and subsolar abundances. Low-metallicity stars or sta...
Viel, M; Viel, Matteo; Haehnelt, Martin G.
2006-01-01
(abridged) The flux power spectrum of the Lyman-alpha forest in quasar (QSO) absorption spectra is sensitive to a wide range of cosmological and astrophysical parameters and instrumental effects. Modelling the flux power spectrum in this large parameter space to an accuracy comparable to the statistical uncertainty of large samples of QSO spectra is very challenging. We use here a coarse grid of hydrodynamical simulations run with GADGET-2 to obtain a ``best guess'' model around which we calculate a finer grid of flux power spectra using a Taylor expansion of the flux power spectrum to first order. We find that the SDSS flux power spectrum alone is able to constrain a wide range of parameters including the amplitude of the matter power spectrum sigma_8, the matter density Omega_m, the spectral index of primordial density fluctuations n, the effective optical depth tau_eff and its evolution. The thermal history of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) is, however, poorly constrained and the SDSS data favour either an...
Keung Chan, Tsang; Keres, Dusan; Oñorbe, Jose; Hopkins, Philip F.; Muratov, Alexander; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Quataert, Eliot
2016-06-01
We study the distribution of cold dark matter (CDM) in cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, which incorporates explicit stellar feedback in the multi-phase ISM, with energetics from stellar population models. We find that stellar feedback, without ``fine-tuned'' parameters, greatly alleviates small-scale problems in CDM. Feedback causes bursts of star formation and outflows, altering the DM distribution. As a result, the inner slope of the DM halo profile (α) shows a strong mass dependence: profiles are shallow at Mh ˜ 1010-1011 M⊙ and steepen at higher/lower masses. The resulting core sizes and slopes are consistent with observations. Because the star formation efficiency, Ms/Mh is strongly halo mass dependent, a rapid change in α occurs around Mh ˜1010M⊙, (Ms˜106-107M⊙) as sufficient feedback energy becomes available to perturb the DM. Large cores are not established during the period of rapid growth of halos because of ongoing DM mass accumulation. Instead, cores require several bursts of star formation after the rapid buildup has completed. Stellar feedback dramatically reduces circular velocities in the inner kpc of massive dwarfs; this could be sufficient to explain the ``Too Big To Fail'' problem without invoking non-standard DM. Finally, feedback and baryonic contraction in Milky Way-mass halos produce DM profiles slightly shallower than the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, consistent with the normalization of the observed Tully-Fisher relation.
Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E
2005-01-01
I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic
Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Le Bret, Theo; Pontzen, Andrew
2017-08-01
Particle tagging is an efficient, but approximate, technique for using cosmological N-body simulations to model the phase-space evolution of the stellar populations predicted, for example, by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We test the technique developed by Cooper et al. (which we call stings here) by comparing particle tags with stars in a smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation. We focus on the spherically averaged density profile of stars accreted from satellite galaxies in a Milky Way (MW)-like system. The stellar profile in the SPH simulation can be recovered accurately by tagging dark matter (DM) particles in the same simulation according to a prescription based on the rank order of particle binding energy. Applying the same prescription to an N-body version of this simulation produces a density profile differing from that of the SPH simulation by ≲10 per cent on average between 1 and 200 kpc. This confirms that particle tagging can provide a faithful and robust approximation to a self-consistent hydrodynamical simulation in this regime (in contradiction to previous claims in the literature). We find only one systematic effect, likely due to the collisionless approximation, namely that massive satellites in the SPH simulation are disrupted somewhat earlier than their collisionless counterparts. In most cases, this makes remarkably little difference to the spherically averaged distribution of their stellar debris. We conclude that, for galaxy formation models that do not predict strong baryonic effects on the present-day DM distribution of MW-like galaxies or their satellites, differences in stellar halo predictions associated with the treatment of star formation and feedback are much more important than those associated with the dynamical limitations of collisionless particle tagging.
Brandenberger, R H; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Magueijo, Joao
1999-01-01
We review a few off-the-beaten-track ideas in cosmology. They solve a variety of fundamental problems; also they are fun. We start with a description of non-singular dilaton cosmology. In these scenarios gravity is modified so that the Universe does not have a singular birth. We then present a variety of ideas mixing string theory and cosmology. These solve the cosmological problems usually solved by inflation, and furthermore shed light upon the issue of the number of dimensions of our Universe. We finally review several aspects of the varying speed of light theory. We show how the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems may be solved in this scenario. We finally present a possible experimental test for a realization of this theory: a test in which the Supernovae results are to be combined with recent evidence for redshift dependence in the fine structure constant.
Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V
2014-01-01
Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.
Churchill, Christopher W; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Klypin, Anatoly
2014-01-01
We study the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a z=0.54 simulated dwarf galaxy using hydroART simulations. We present our analysis methods, which emulate observations, including objective absorption line detection, apparent optical depth (AOD) measurements, Voigt profile (VP) decomposition, and ionization modelling. By comparing the inferred CGM gas properties from the absorption lines directly to the gas selected by low ionization HI and MgII, and by higher ionization CIV and OVI absorption, we examine how well observational analysis methods recover the "true" properties of CGM gas. In this dwarf galaxy, low ionization gas arises in kiloparsec "cloud" structures, but high ionization gas arises in multiple extended structures spread over 100 kpc; due to complex velocity fields, highly separated structures give rise to absorption at similar velocities. We show that AOD and VP analysis fails to accurately characterize the spatial, kinematic, and thermal conditions of high ionization gas. We find that HI absorption...
Tortora, C; Napolitano, N R; Antonuccio-Delogu, V; Meza, A; Sommer-Larsen, J; Capaccioli, M
2010-01-01
The age and metallicity gradients for a sample of group and cluster galaxies from N-body+hydrodynamical simulation are analyzed in terms of galaxy stellar mass. Dwarf galaxies show null age gradient with a tail of high and positive values for systems in groups and cluster outskirts. Massive systems have generally zero age gradients which turn to positive for the most massive ones. Metallicity gradients are distributed around zero in dwarf galaxies and become more negative with mass; massive galaxies have steeper negative metallicity gradients, but the trend flatten with mass. In particular, fossil groups are characterized by a tighter distribution of both age and metallicity gradients. We find a good agreement with both local observations and independent simulations. The results are also discussed in terms of the central age and metallicity, as well as the total colour, specific star formation and velocity dispersion.
Evaluating Galactic Habitability Using High Resolution Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation
Forgan, Duncan; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam
2015-01-01
We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of Local Group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which has sufficient metallicity to form terrestrial planets without being subject to hazardous radiation. These simulations allow us to make substantial progress in mapping out the asymmetric three-dimensional GHZ and its time evolution for the Milky Way (MW) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies, as opposed to works that generally assume an azimuthally symmetric GHZ. Applying typical habitability metrics to MW and M33, we find that while a large number of habitable planets exist as close as a few kiloparsecs from the galactic centre, the probability of individual planetary systems being habitable rises as one approaches the edge of the stellar disc. Tidal streams and satellite galaxies also appear to be fertile grounds for habitable planet formation. In short, we find that both galaxies arrive at similar GHZs by different evolutionary ...
Cosmological Three-Point Function: Testing The Halo Model Against Simulations
Fosalba, P; Szapudi, I; Fosalba, Pablo; Pan, Jun; Szapudi, Istvan
2005-01-01
We perform detailed comparison of the semi-analytic halo model predictions with measurements in numerical simulations of the two and three point correlation functions (3PCF), as well as power spectrum and bispectrum. We discuss the accuracy and self-consistency of the halo model description of gravitational clustering in the non-linear regime and constrain halo model parameters. We exploit the recently proposed multipole expansion of three point statistics that expresses rotation invariance in the most natural way. This not only offers technical advantages by reducing the integrals required for the halo model predictions, but amounts to a convenient way of compressing the information contained in the 3PCF. We find that, with an appropriate choice of the halo boundary and mass function cut-off, halo model predictions are in good agreement with the bispectrum measured in numerical simulations. However, the halo model predicts less than the observed configuration dependence of the 3PCF on ~ Mpc scales. This effe...
Zavala, J; Frenk, Carlos S
2007-01-01
We investigate the evolution of angular momentum in simulations of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe. We analyse two model galaxies produced in the N-body/hydrodynamic simulations of Okamoto et al. Starting from identical initial conditions, but using different assumptions for the baryonic physics, one of the simulations produced a bulge-dominated galaxy and the other one a disk-dominated galaxy. The main difference is the treatment of star formation and feedback, both of which were designed to be more efficient in the disk-dominated object. We find that the specific angular momentum of the disk-dominated galaxy tracks the evolution of the angular momentum of the dark matter halo very closely: the angular momentum grows as predicted by linear theory until the epoch of maximum expansion and remains constant thereafter. By contrast, the evolution of the angular momentum of the bulge-dominated galaxy resembles that of the central, most bound halo material: it also grows at first according to linear...
The resolution bias: low resolution feedback simulations are better at destroying galaxies
Bourne, Martin A; Nayakshin, Sergei
2015-01-01
Feedback from super-massive black holes (SMBHs) is thought to play a key role in regulating the growth of host galaxies. Cosmological and galaxy formation simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which usually use a fixed mass for SPH particles, often employ the same sub-grid Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback prescription across a range of resolutions. It is thus important to ask how the impact of the simulated AGN feedback on a galaxy changes when only the numerical resolution (the SPH particle mass) changes. We present a suite of simulations modelling the interaction of an AGN outflow with the ambient turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium (ISM) in the inner part of the host galaxy at a range of mass resolutions. We find that, with other things being equal, degrading the resolution leads to feedback becoming more efficient at clearing out all gas in its path. For the simulations presented here, the difference in the mass of the gas ejected by AGN feedback varies by more than a factor o...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王建明; 余丰; 刘飞宏; 张刚
2011-01-01
针对Eulerian和ALE（arbitrary lagriange eulerian）方法仿真研究磨料水射流喷嘴中磨料粒子加速过程的局限性,提出采用SPH（smoothed particle hydrodynamics）耦合FEM（finite element method）的方法研究后混式磨料水射流喷嘴中低速磨料粒子在高速水射流作用下的流体动力学特性和磨粒加速后撞击靶材的全过程。水用SPH建模,磨料粒子、喷嘴和工件用FEM建模,通过接触算法实现SPH和FEM的耦合以模拟后混式磨料水射流加工的全过程。仿真研究了磨粒和水在喷嘴中各自的速度变化过程;单磨粒在喷嘴中的运动轨迹;不同直径的磨料粒子在不同水压作用下的速度变化过程;不同直径的磨粒在不同直径的混合管中出口速度的变化规律;磨料粒子在工件上的撞击深度。通过与相关实验及理论数据的比较,验证了仿真模型和结果的正确性。%The existing Eulerian and arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian（ALE） grid-based algorithms were used to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of pre-mixed abrasive water-jet（AWJ） in a cutting head.Smooth particle hydrodynamics（SPH） coupled with the finite element method（FEM） algorithm was adopted to establish a new AWJ model,by which the abrasive particle could enter into the mixing chamber in a low velocity and could be accelerated in the focus tube by a high-speed water-jet from the orifice.SPH particles were used to model the high-speed water-jet and the FEM was applied to model the discrete abrasive particle,cutting head and workpiece.Consequently,the evolution of abrasive and water-jet velocities along the focus tube was analyzed and the trajectory of a single abrasive particle in the focus tube was sighted.Relationships between abrasive particle velocities and different water pressures were studied and the rule of outlet velocities of abrasive particle vs.dimensionless ratio of diameter was conducted.The penetration depth caused by a single
Probing cosmology with weak lensing selected clusters I: Halo approach and all-sky simulations
Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki
2015-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing enables us to search clusters without the conventional assumption on the relation between visible and dark matter. We explore a variety of statistics of clusters selected with cosmic shear measurement by utilizing both analytic models and large numerical simulations. We first develop a halo model to predict the abundance and the clustering of weak lensing selected clusters. Observational effects such as galaxy shape noise are included in our model. We then generate realistic mock weak lensing catalogs to test the accuracy of our analytic model. To this end, we perform full-sky ray-tracing simulations that allow us to have multiple realizations of a large continuous area. We model the masked regions on the sky using the actual positions of bright stars, and generate 200 mock weak lensing catalogs with sky coverage of $\\sim$1000 squared degrees. We utilize the large set of mock catalogs to evaluate the covariance matrices between the local and non-local statistics. We show that our th...
Lin, David; Rocha, Miguel E.; Primack, Joel R.
2015-01-01
Dark matter halos existing around visible galaxies are important for studies of galaxy formation and evolution. Since dark matter does not interact with light and cannot be observed directly, studies of dark matter halos are advanced by computer simulations. Normally, halos are defined by their virialized regions; however, regions that are non-virialized can still be gravitationally bound, like the collision-bound Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. Our project is the first comprehensive characterization of gravitationally bound halo structures, their properties, and their evolution. This study found the bound regions surrounding every dark matter halo from a 100 Mpc cube of the Bolshoi Simulation at redshifts 0, 1, and 2. We optimized computation by removing subhalos, implementing a search radius, and parallelizing code across 160 supercomputer cores. Then, we created a mass function, circular velocity function, and correlation function to describe these regions. The evolution of these properties was consistent with predictions from a ΛCDM universe model. We characterized the sizes and shapes of these bound regions across different mass intervals and redshifts. Most bound regions are elongated, although they become more spheroidal with time. The results enable astronomers to predict how dark matter halos behave in non-virialized regions of space and deepen our understanding of galaxy formation.
GARROTXA cosmological simulations of Milky Way like galaxies - I. Hot gas and the missing baryons
Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Colín, Pedro; Figueras, Francesca; Krongold, Yair; Velázquez, Héctor
2015-01-01
We introduce a new set of simulations of a Milky Way like galaxy using the AMR code ART + hydrodynamics in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony. The simulation series is named GARROTXA and follow the formation of a late type galaxy from z=60 with a final virial mass of \\sim$7.4$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$. This system has no major mergers since z=3 and at z=0 becomes a disk late-type spiral galaxy. Several of its large scale properties fall inside recent observational limits of our Galaxy, like the rotation curve shape, the presence of a stellar bar and flare, and a gaseous disk warp, as well as the stellar and baryonic mass. Here, as a first scientific exploitation of the model we study the total amount and spatial distribution of hot X-ray luminous gas. We do not observe in our models a significant presence of a hot gas thick disk as has been recently discussed in observational studies. The analysis of hot gas mock observations (column density and emission measure) revealed that commonly used hypothesis assumed to deri...
Galaxy pairs in cosmological simulations: effects of interactions on colours and chemical abundances
Perez, M J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Tissera, P B; Lambas, Diego G.; Rossi, Maria E. De; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Tissera, Patricia B.
2006-01-01
We perform an statistical analysis of galaxies in pairs in a Lambda-CDM scenario by using the chemical GADGET-2 of Scannapieco et al. (2005) in order to study the effects of galaxy interactions on colours and metallicities. We find that galaxy-galaxy interactions can produce a bimodal colour distribution with galaxies with significant recent star formation activity contributing mainly to blue colours. In the simulations, the colours and the fractions of recently formed stars of galaxies in pairs depend on environment more strongly than those of galaxies without a close companion, suggesting that interactions play an important role in galaxy evolution. If the metallicity of the stellar populations is used as the chemical indicator, we find that the simulated galaxies determine luminosity-metallicity and stellar mass-metallicity relations which do not depend on the presence of a close companion. However, in the case of the luminosity-metallicity relation, at a given level of enrichment, we detect a systematic d...
Ryan, M.
1972-01-01
The study of cosmological models by means of equations of motion in Hamiltonian form is considered. Hamiltonian methods applied to gravity seem to go back to Rosenfeld (1930), who constructed a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for linearized general relativity theory. The first to notice that cosmologies provided a simple model in which to demonstrate features of Hamiltonian formulation was DeWitt (1967). Applications of the ADM formalism to homogeneous cosmologies are discussed together with applications of the Hamiltonian formulation, giving attention also to Bianchi-type universes. Problems involving the concept of superspace and techniques of quantization are investigated.
Simulations of solitonic core mergers in ultra-light axion dark matter cosmologies
Schwabe, Bodo; Engels, Jan F
2016-01-01
Using three-dimensional simulations, we study the dynamics and final structure of merging solitonic cores predicted to form in ultra-light axion dark matter halos. The classical, Newtonian equations of motion of a self-gravitating scalar field are described by the Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations. We investigate mergers of ground state (boson star) configurations with varying mass ratios, relative phases, orbital angular momenta and initial separation with the primary goal to understand the mass loss of the emerging core by gravitational cooling. Previous results showing that the final density profiles have solitonic cores and NFW-like tails are confirmed. In binary mergers, the final core mass does not depend on initial phase difference or angular momentum and only depends on mass ratio, total initial mass, and total energy of the system. For non-zero angular momenta, the otherwise spherical cores become rotating ellipsoids. The results for mergers of multiple cores are qualitatively identical.
Simulations of solitonic core mergers in ultralight axion dark matter cosmologies
Schwabe, Bodo; Niemeyer, Jens C.; Engels, Jan F.
2016-08-01
Using three-dimensional simulations, we study the dynamics and final structure of merging solitonic cores predicted to form in ultralight axion dark matter halos. The classical, Newtonian equations of motion of a self-gravitating scalar field are described by the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. We investigate mergers of ground state (boson star) configurations with varying mass ratios, relative phases, orbital angular momenta and initial separation with the primary goal to understand the mass loss of the emerging core by gravitational cooling. Previous results showing that the final density profiles have solitonic cores and Navarro-Frenk-White-like tails are confirmed. In binary mergers, the final core mass does not depend on initial phase difference or angular momentum and only depends on mass ratio, total initial mass, and total energy of the system. For nonzero angular momenta, the otherwise spherical cores become rotating ellipsoids. The results for mergers of multiple cores are qualitatively identical.
Towards a more realistic population of bright spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations
Aumer, Michael; White, Simon D. M.; Naab, Thorsten; Scannapieco, Cecilia
2013-10-01
We present an update to the multiphase smoothed particle hydrodynamics galaxy formation code by Scannapieco et al. We include a more elaborate treatment of the production of metals, cooling rates based on individual element abundances and a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals. Our supernova feedback model now transfers energy to the interstellar medium (ISM) in kinetic and thermal form, and we include a prescription for the effects of radiation pressure from massive young stars on the ISM. We calibrate our new code on the well-studied Aquarius haloes and then use it to simulate a sample of 16 galaxies with halo masses between 1 × 1011 and 3 × 1012 M⊙. In general, the stellar masses of the sample agree well with the stellar mass to halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching techniques for redshifts z = 0-4. There is however a tendency to overproduce stars at z > 4 and to underproduce them at z metallicities at z = 0-3. Remaining discrepancies can be connected to deviations from predictions for star formation histories from abundance matching. At z = 0, the model galaxies show realistic morphologies, stellar surface density profiles, circular velocity curves and stellar metallicities, but overly flat metallicity gradients. 15 out of 16 of our galaxies contain disc components with kinematic disc fraction ranging between 15 and 65 per cent. The disc fraction depends on the time of the last destructive merger or misaligned infall event. Considering the remaining shortcomings of our simulations we conclude that even higher kinematic disc fractions may be possible for Λ cold dark matter haloes with quiet merger histories, such as the Aquarius haloes.
Saro, A.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.
2010-08-01
We present a detailed comparison between the galaxy populations within a massive cluster, as predicted by hydrodynamical smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and by a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. Both models include gas cooling and a simple prescription of star formation, which consists in transforming instantaneously any cold gas available into stars, while neglecting any source of energy feedback. This simplified comparison is thus not meant to be compared with observational data, but is aimed at understanding the level of agreement, at the stripped-down level considered, between two techniques that are widely used to model galaxy formation in a cosmological framework and which present complementary advantages and disadvantages. We find that, in general, galaxy populations from SAMs and SPH have similar statistical properties, in agreement with previous studies. However, when comparing galaxies on an object-by-object basis, we find a number of interesting differences: (i) the star formation histories of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from SAM and SPH models differ significantly, with the SPH BCG exhibiting a lower level of star formation activity at low redshift, and a more intense and shorter initial burst of star formation with respect to its SAM counterpart; (ii) while all stars associated with the BCG were formed in its progenitors in the SAM used here, this holds true only for half of the final BCG stellar mass in the SPH simulation, the remaining half being contributed by tidal stripping of stars from the diffuse stellar component associated with galaxies accreted on the cluster halo; (iii) SPH satellites can lose up to 90 per cent of their stellar mass at the time of accretion, due to tidal stripping, a process not included in the SAM used in this paper; (iv) in the SPH simulation, significant cooling occurs on the most massive satellite galaxies and this lasts for up to 1 Gyr after accretion. This physical process is
Shimizu, Ikkoh; Inoue, Akio K.; Okamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki
2016-10-01
We have performed very large and high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations in order to investigate detectability of nebular lines in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) to optical wavelength range from galaxies at z > 7. We find that the expected line fluxes are very well correlated with the apparent UV magnitudes. The C IV 1549 Å and C III] 1909 Å lines of galaxies brighter than 26 AB magnitudes are detectable with current facilities such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) XShooter and the Keck Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE). Metal lines such as C IV 1549 Å, C III] 1909 Å, [O II] 3727 Å and [O III] 4959/5007 Å are good targets for spectroscopic observation with the Thirty-Metre Telescope (TMT), European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We also expect Hα and Hβ lines to be detectable with these telescopes. Additionally, we predict the detectability of nebular lines for z > 10 galaxies, which will be found with JWST, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and First Light And Reionization Explorer (FLARE) (11 ≤ z ≤ 15). We conclude that the C IV 1549 Å, C III] 1909 Å, [O III] 4959/5007 Å and Hβ lines from even z ˜15 galaxies could be strong targets for TMT, E-ELT and JWST. We also find that magnification by gravitational lensing is of great help in detecting such high-z galaxies. According to our model, the C III] 1909 Å line in z > 9 galaxy candidates is detectable even using current facilities.
Belinski, V
2009-01-01
The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.
Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio
2013-01-01
The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.
The Nature of Massive Transition Galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA, and Cosmological Simulations
Pandya, Viraj; Somerville, Rachel S; Choi, Ena; Barro, Guillermo; Wuyts, Stijn; Taylor, Edward N; Behroozi, Peter; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Faber, Sandra M; Primack, Joel; Koo, David C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Kocevski, Dale; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Fang, Jerome J; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lu, Yu; Mantha, Kameswara; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey; Pacifici, Camilla; Papovich, Casey; van der Wel, Arjen; Yesuf, Hassen M
2016-01-01
It is common practice to speak of a "green valley" that hosts galaxies whose colors are intermediate relative to those in the "blue cloud" and the "red sequence." In this study, we raise several questions about how galaxies might transition between the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) and varying "degrees of quiescence" from $z=3$ to $z\\sim0$. We develop a physically and statistically motivated definition of "transition galaxies" based on their uniquely intermediate specific star formation rates, which relieves ambiguities associated with color-based selections and allows us to more cleanly compare observations to theoretical models. Our analysis is focused on galaxies with stellar mass $M_*>10^{10}M_{\\odot}$, and is enabled by GAMA and CANDELS observations, a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, and a hydrodynamical simulation with state-of-the-art mechanical AGN feedback. In both the observations and the SAM, transition galaxies tend to have intermediate S\\'ersic indices, half-light radii, and su...
Olsen, Karen P; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew
2015-01-01
We present SIGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Molecular Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line emission spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the initial hot and partly ionised SPH gas and distributed in Giant Molecular Cloud (GMCs). The GMCs are subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionisation rates which scale with the local star formation rate volume density, thereby ensuring that the thermal state of the gas is directly coupled to the in situ star formation conditions. Level populations as well as line radiative transport of the CO rotational lines are solved for with the 3-D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SIGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disk galaxies at z=2 with stellar masses in the range ~(0.5-2)x10^11 Msun and star formation rates ~40-140 Msun/yr, for which we predict a low-excitation gas ...
An extension of Godunov SPH II: Application to elastic dynamics
Sugiura, Keisuke; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2017-03-01
Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (Godunov SPH) method is a computational fluid dynamics method that utilizes a Riemann solver and achieves the second-order accuracy in space. In this paper, we extend the Godunov SPH method to elastic dynamics by incorporating deviatoric stress tensor that represents the stress for shear deformation or anisotropic compression. Analogously to the formulation of the original Godunov SPH method, we formulate the equation of motion, the equation of energy, and the time evolution equation of deviatoric stress tensor so that the resulting discretized system achieves the second-order accuracy in space. The standard SPH method tends to suffer from the tensile instability that results in unphysical clustering of particles especially in tension-dominated region. We find that the tensile instability can be suppressed by selecting appropriate interpolation for density distribution in the equation of motion for the Godunov SPH method even in the case of elastic dynamics. Several test calculations for elastic dynamics are performed, and the accuracy and versatility of the present method are shown.
Solving microscopic flow problems using Stokes equations in SPH
Van Liedekerke, P.; Smeets, B.; Odenthal, T.; Tijskens, E.; Ramon, H.
2013-07-01
Starting from the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH), we propose an alternative way to solve flow problems at a very low Reynolds number. The method is based on an explicit drop out of the inertial terms in the normal SPH equations, and solves the coupled system to find the velocities of the particles using the conjugate gradient method. The method will be called NSPH which refers to the non-inertial character of the equations. Whereas the time-step in standard SPH formulations for low Reynolds numbers is linearly restricted by the inverse of the viscosity and quadratically by the particle resolution, the stability of the NSPH solution benefits from a higher viscosity and is independent of the particle resolution. Since this method allows for a much higher time-step, it solves creeping flow problems with a high resolution and a long timescale up to three orders of magnitude faster than SPH. In this paper, we compare the accuracy and capabilities of the new NSPH method to canonical SPH solutions considering a number of standard problems in fluid dynamics. In addition, we show that NSPH is capable of modeling more complex physical phenomena such as the motion of a red blood cell in plasma.
A Novel Approach to Visualizing Dark Matter Simulations
Kaehler, Ralf; Abel, Tom
2012-01-01
In the last decades cosmological N-body dark matter simulations have enabled ab initio studies of the formation of structure in the Universe. Gravity amplified small density fluctuations generated shortly after the Big Bang, leading to the formation of galaxies in the cosmic web. These calculations have led to a growing demand for methods to analyze time-dependent particle based simulations. Rendering methods for such N-body simulation data usually employ some kind of splatting approach via point based rendering primitives and approximate the spatial distributions of physical quantities using kernel interpolation techniques, common in SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics)-codes. This paper proposes three GPU-assisted rendering approaches, based on a new, more accurate method to compute the physical densities of dark matter simulation data. It uses full phase-space information to generate a tetrahedral tessellation of the computational domain, with mesh vertices defined by the simulation's dark matter particle...
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-10-05
This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wesson, P.S.
1979-10-01
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)
Sanders, Robert H
2016-01-01
The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...
Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas
2011-01-01
Although it is possible that some fundamental physical constants could vary in time, it is important to only consider dimensionless combinations, such as the fine structure constant or the equivalent coupling constant for gravity. Once all such dimensionless numbers have been given, then we can be sure that our cosmological picture is governed by the same physical laws as that of another civilization with an entirely different set of units. An additional feature of the standard model of cosmology raises an extra complication, namely that the epoch at which we live is a crucial part of the model. This can be defined by giving the value of any one of the evolving cosmological parameters. It takes some care to avoid inconsistent results for constraints on variable constants, which could be caused by effectively fixing more than one parameter today. We show examples of this effect by considering in some detail the physics of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recombination and microwave background anisotropies, being care...
Analysis of structural response under blast loads using the coupled SPH-FEM approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun-xiang XU; Xi-la LIU
2008-01-01
A numerical model using the coupled smoothed particle hydrodynamics-finite element method(SPH-FEM)approach is presented for analysis of structures under blast loads.The analyses on two numerical cases,one for free field explosive and the other for structural response under blast loads,are performed to model the whole processes from the propagation of the pressure wave to the response of structures.Based on the simulation,it is concluded that this model can be used for reasonably accurte explosive analysis of structures.The resulting information would be valuable for protecting structures under blast loads.
Interaction of Submerged Breakwater by a Solitary Wave Using WC-SPH Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afshin Mansouri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Interaction of a solitary wave and submerged breakwater is studied in a meshless, Lagrangian approach. For this purpose, a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH code is developed. Furthermore, an extensive set of simulations is conducted. In the first step, the generated solitary wave is validated. Subsequently, the interaction of solitary wave and submerged breakwater is investigated thoroughly. Results of the interaction of solitary wave and a submerged breakwater are also shown to be in good agreement with published experimental studies. Afterwards, the effects of the inclination and length of breakwater as well as distance between two breakwaters are evaluated on damping ratio of breakwater.
Kiselev, V V
2012-01-01
A huge value of cosmological constant characteristic for the particle physics and the inflation of early Universe are inherently related to each other: one can construct a fine-tuned superpotential, which produces a flat potential of inflaton with a constant density of energy V=\\Lambda^4 after taking into account for leading effects due to the supergravity, so that an introduction of small quantum loop-corrections to parameters of this superpotential naturally results in the dynamical instability relaxing the primary cosmological constant by means of inflationary regime. The model phenomenologically agrees with observational data on the large scale structure of Universe at \\Lambda~10^{16} GeV.
Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot
2016-08-01
Low-mass “dwarf” galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group (LG) of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE). This simulation models the formation of an MW-mass galaxy to z=0 within ΛCDM cosmology, including dark matter, gas, and stars at unprecedented resolution: baryon particle mass of 7070 {M}⊙ with gas kernel/softening that adapts down to 1 {pc} (with a median of 25{--}60 {pc} at z=0). Latte was simulated using the GIZMO code with a mesh-free method for accurate hydrodynamics and the FIRE-2 model for star formation and explicit feedback within a multi-phase interstellar medium. For the first time, Latte self-consistently resolves the spatial scales corresponding to half-light radii of dwarf galaxies that form around an MW-mass host down to {M}{star}≳ {10}5 {M}⊙ . Latte’s population of dwarf galaxies agrees with the LG across a broad range of properties: (1) distributions of stellar masses and stellar velocity dispersions (dynamical masses), including their joint relation; (2) the mass-metallicity relation; and (3) diverse range of star formation histories, including their mass dependence. Thus, Latte produces a realistic population of dwarf galaxies at {M}{star}≳ {10}5 {M}⊙ that does not suffer from the “missing satellites” or “too big to fail” problems of small-scale structure formation. We conclude that baryonic physics can reconcile observed dwarf galaxies with standard ΛCDM cosmology.
Fluid-particle flow modelling and validation using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM
Robinson, Martin; Ramaioli, Marco
2013-01-01
We present a meshless simulation method for multiphase fluid-particle flows coupling Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Rather than fully resolving the interstitial fluid, which is often infeasible, the unresolved fluid model is based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations, which are coupled with a DEM model for the solid phase. In contrast to similar mesh-based Discrete Particle Methods (DPMs), this is a purely particle-based method and enjoys the flexibility that comes from the lack of a prescribed mesh. It is suitable for problems such as free surface flow or flow around complex, moving and/or intermeshed geometries. It can be used for both one and two-way coupling and is applicable to both dilute and dense particle flows. A comprehensive validation procedure for fluid-particle simulations is presented and applied to the SPH-DEM method, using simulations of single and multiple particle sedimentation in a 3D fluid column and comparison with analytical model...
Plionis, M.
2004-07-01
The recent scientific efforts in Astrophysics & Cosmology have brought a revolution to our understanding of the Cosmos. Amazing results is the outcome of amazing experiments! The huge scientific, technological & financial effort that has gone into building the 10-m class telescopes as well as many space and balloon observatories, essential to observe the multitude of cosmic phenomena in their manifestations at different wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the millimetre and the radio, has given and is still giving its fruits of knowledge. These recent scientific achievements in Observational and Theoretical Cosmology were presented in the "Multiwavelength Cosmology" conference that took place on beautiful Mykonos island in the Aegean between 17 and 20 June 2003. More than 180 Cosmologists from all over the world gathered for a four-day intense meeting in which recent results from large ground based surveys (AAT/2-df, SLOAN) and space missions (WMAP, Chandra, XMM, ISO, HST) were presented and debated, providing a huge impetus to our knowledge of the Cosmos. The future of the subject (experiments, and directions of research) was also discussed. The conference was devoted mostly on the constraints on Cosmological models and galaxy formation theories that arise from the study of the high redshift Universe, from clusters of galaxies, and their evolution, from the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure and star-formation history. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1971-8
Marsh, David J E
2015-01-01
Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also extraordinarily well-motivated within high energy physics, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via the CMB and structure formation up to the present-day Universe. I briefly review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. The primary focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a dark matter (DM) candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute l...
Naab, T; Emsellem, E; Cappellari, M; Krajnovic, D; McDermid, R M; Alatalo, K; Bayet, E; Blitz, L; Bois, M; Bournaud, F; Bureau, M; Crocker, A; Davies, R L; Davis, T A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, P -A; Hirschmann, M; Johansson, P H; Khochfar, S; Kuntschner, H; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T; Sarzi, M; Scott, N; Serra, P; van de Ven, G; Weijmans, A; Young, L M
2013-01-01
We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies and their satellites. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion, and higher-order Gauss-Hermite moments $h_3$ and $h_4$ are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the $\\lambda_{\\mathrm{R}}$-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, $h_3$, and $h_4$ fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS$^{\\rm{3D}}$ survey. This includes fast (regular), slow, and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disk components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a signi...
Corrected SPH methods for solving shallow-water equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈善群; 廖斌; 黄涛
2016-01-01
The artificial viscosity in the traditional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methodology concerns some empirical coefficients, which limits the capability of the SPH methodology. To overcome this disadvantage and further improve the accuracy of shock capturing, this paper introduces two other ways for numerical viscosity, which are the Lax-Friedrichs flux and the two- shock Riemann solver with MUSCL reconstruction to provide stability. Six SPH methods with different kinds of numerical viscosity are tested against the analytical solution for a 1-D dam break with a wet bed. The comparison shows that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with MUSCL reconstruction can capture the shock wave more accurate than other five methods. The Lax-Friedrichs flux and the artificial viscosity with MUSCL reconstruction are finally both applied to a 2-D dam-break test case in a L-shaped channel and the numerical results are compared with experimental data. It is concluded that this corrected SPH method can be used to solve shallow-water equations well.
S PH并行计算方案及其在自由表面流动模拟中的应用%SPH parallel schemes and its application in free surface flow simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2015-01-01
For the main computation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was finite nearest particle search,a novel scheme to parallelize the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method based on the concept of particle decomposition was proposed.Any serial smoothed particle hydrodynamics code could be easily parallelized by using the proposed scheme.The amount of information,which was transformed in each time step,depended only on the total number of particles,but not on the spatial distribution of particles.Therefore,the proposed scheme was particularly useful for the parallel simulation of cases involved violent free surface movements.From the simulation results of a 3D dam break case with a total number of 0. 4 million,the proposed scheme can achieve a speedup ratio about 16,which proves that the proposed scheme maybe is better than the domain decomposition scheme(without considering dynamic load balance).%针对光滑粒子动力学主要计算量是近邻粒子搜索这一特点，提出了一种基于粒子分解的光滑粒子动力学并行计算方案。利用该方案可以方便地将任意串行光滑粒子动力学代码并行计算，而且每一个时间步内的信息传递量只和粒子总数有关，而和粒子的分布无关，因而特别适合于自由表面流动等大变形问题的并行数值模拟。对一个粒子总数为40万的三维溃坝问题的模拟结果表明：此方案能达到的最大加速比约为16，这一结果可能比空间分解方案（不考虑动态负载均衡）更优。
Bothun, Greg
2011-10-01
Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent
Marsh, David J. E.
2016-07-01
Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also well-motivated within high energy physics, appearing in theories related to CP-violation in the standard model, supersymmetric theories, and theories with extra-dimensions, including string theory, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. I then present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via BBN, the CMB, reionization and structure formation, up to the present-day Universe. Topics covered include: axion dark matter (DM); direct and indirect detection of axions, reviewing existing and future experiments; axions as dark radiation; axions and the cosmological constant problem; decays of heavy axions; axions and stellar astrophysics; black hole superradiance; axions and astrophysical magnetic fields; axion inflation, and axion DM as an indirect probe of inflation. A major focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a DM candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute lower bound on DM particle mass is established. It is ma > 10-24eV from linear observables, extending to ma ≳ 10-22eV from non-linear observables, and has the potential to reach ma ≳ 10-18eV in the future. These bounds are weaker if the axion is not all of the DM, giving rise to limits on the relic density at low mass. This leads to the exciting possibility that the effects of axion DM on structure formation could one day be detected
SPH-DCDEM model for arbitrary geometries in free surface solid-fluid flows
Canelas, Ricardo B.; Crespo, Alejandro J. C.; Domínguez, Jose M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho
2016-05-01
A unified discretization of rigid solids and fluids is introduced, allowing for resolved simulations of fluid-solid phases within a meshless framework. The numerical solution, attained by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and a variation of Discrete Element Method (DEM), the Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) discretization, is achieved by directly considering solid-solid and solid-fluid interactions. The novelty of the work is centred on the generalization of the coupling of the DEM and SPH methodologies for resolved simulations, allowing for state-of-the-art contact mechanics theories to be used in arbitrary geometries, while fluid to solid and vice versa momentum transfers are accurately described. The methods are introduced, analysed and discussed. Initial validations on the DCDEM and the fluid coupling are presented, drawing from test cases in the literature. An experimental campaign serves as a validation point for complex, large scale solid-fluid flows, where a set of blocks in several configurations is subjected to a dam-break wave. Blocks are tracked and positions are then compared between experimental data and the numerical solutions. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows for the quantification of the flow field and direct comparison with numerical data. The results show that the model is accurate and is capable of treating highly complex interactions, such as transport of debris or hydrodynamic actions on structures, if relevant scales are reproduced.
Neves, J C S
2015-01-01
In the Nietzschean philosophy, the concept of force from physics is important to build one of its main concepts: the will to power. The concept of force, which Nietzsche found out in the Classical Mechanics, almost disappears in the physics of the XX century with the Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. Is the Nietzschean world as contending forces, a Dionysian cosmology, possible in the current science?
Alvarez, Enrique
1985-01-01
Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.
Grant, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...
The velocity field in MOND cosmology
Candlish, G N
2016-01-01
The recently developed code for N-body/hydrodynamics simulations in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), known as RAyMOND, is used to investigate the consequences of MOND on structure formation in a cosmological context, with a particular focus on the velocity field. This preliminary study investigates the results obtained with the two formulations of MOND implemented in RAyMOND, as well as considering the effects of changing the choice of MOND interpolation function, and the cosmological evolution of the MOND acceleration scale. The simulations are contrived such that structure forms in a background cosmology that is similar to $\\Lambda$CDM, but with a significantly lower matter content. Given this, and the fact that a fully consistent MOND cosmology is still lacking, we compare our results with a standard $\\Lambda$CDM simulation, rather than observations. As well as demonstrating the effectiveness of using RAyMOND for cosmological simulations, it is shown that a significant enhancement of the velocity field ...
Brax, Philippe
2016-01-01
We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different f...
Oger, G.; Marrone, S.; Le Touzé, D.; de Leffe, M.
2016-05-01
This paper addresses the accuracy of the weakly-compressible SPH method. Interpolation defects due to the presence of anisotropic particle structures inherent to the Lagrangian character of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method are highlighted. To avoid the appearance of these structures which are detrimental to the quality of the simulations, a specific transport velocity is introduced and its inclusion within an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism is described. Unlike most of existing particle disordering/shifting methods, this formalism avoids the formation of these anisotropic structures while a full consistency with the original Euler or Navier-Stokes equations is maintained. The gain in accuracy, convergence and numerical diffusion of this formalism is shown and discussed through its application to various challenging test cases.
Gill, S P D; Gibson, B K; Flynn, C; Ibata, R A; Lewis, G F; Gill, Stuart P.D.; Knebe, Alexander; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.
2002-01-01
An adaptive multi grid approach to simulating the formation of structure from collisionless dark matter is described. MLAPM (Multi-Level Adaptive Particle Mesh) is one of the most efficient serial codes available on the cosmological 'market' today. As part of Swinburne University's role in the development of the Square Kilometer Array, we are implementing hydrodynamics, feedback, and radiative transfer within the MLAPM adaptive mesh, in order to simulate baryonic processes relevant to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift. We will outline our progress to date in applying the existing MLAPM to a study of the decay of satellite galaxies within massive host potentials.
A numerical study on foundry filling process based on SPH method%基于SPH方法的铸造充型过程数值研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周学君; 陈丁
2016-01-01
数值方法模拟铸造充型过程一直是铸造学科的研究热点，考虑利用光滑粒子流体动力学（Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics ，SPH）方法研究铸造充型过程。SPH方法是一种成熟的无网格粒子数值计算方法，特别适合模拟大变形问题。在建立充型过程的计算模型的基础之上，通过弓形件和环形件两个充型的水模拟算例，并与实验和文献中结果比较，展示了本文SPH算法在处理铸造充型问题中的优势。%Numerical simulation for foundry filling process is always a hot research topic of casting .Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is presented to simulate foundry filling process in this paper .A mature meshless particle numeri‐cal method ,the SPH method is good for mimicking large deformation .By establishing the model of filling process ,the SPH method is applied to simulate water filling process of bow‐shaped and annular models .Compared with the results of the literature and experiments ,the SPH algorithm presented in this paper shows its advantages in solving foundry filling problems .
Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method
Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.
2016-02-01
The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.
Prescribed Velocity Gradients for Highly Viscous SPH Fluids with Vorticity Diffusion.
Peer, Andreas; Teschner, Matthias
2016-12-06
Working with prescribed velocity gradients is a promising approach to efficiently and robustly simulate highly viscous SPH fluids. Such approaches allow to explicitly and independently process shear rate, spin, and expansion rate. This can be used to, e.g., avoid interferences between pressure and viscosity solvers. Another interesting aspect is the possibility to explicitly process the vorticity, e.g. to preserve the vorticity. In this context, this paper proposes a novel variant of the prescribed-gradient idea that handles vorticity in a physically motivated way. In contrast to a less appropriate vorticity preservation that has been used in a previous approach, vorticity is diffused. The paper illustrates the utility of the vorticity diffusion. Therefore, comparisons of the proposed vorticity diffusion with vorticity preservation and additionally with vorticity damping are presented. The paper further discusses the relation between prescribed velocity gradients and prescribed velocity Laplacians which improves the intuition behind the prescribed-gradient method for highly viscous SPH fluids. Finally, the paper discusses the relation of the proposed method to a physically correct implicit viscosity formulation.
Visualization of big SPH simulations via compressed octree grids
Reichl, Florian
2013-10-01
Interactive and high-quality visualization of spatially continuous 3D fields represented by scattered distributions of billions of particles is challenging. One common approach is to resample the quantities carried by the particles to a regular grid and to render the grid via volume ray-casting. In large-scale applications such as astrophysics, however, the required grid resolution can easily exceed 10K samples per spatial dimension, letting resampling approaches appear unfeasible. In this paper we demonstrate that even in these extreme cases such approaches perform surprisingly well, both in terms of memory requirement and rendering performance. We resample the particle data to a multiresolution multiblock grid, where the resolution of the blocks is dictated by the particle distribution. From this structure we build an octree grid, and we then compress each block in the hierarchy at no visual loss using wavelet-based compression. Since decompression can be performed on the GPU, it can be integrated effectively into GPU-based out-of-core volume ray-casting. We compare our approach to the perspective grid approach which resamples at run-time into a view-aligned grid. We demonstrate considerably faster rendering times at high quality, at only a moderate memory increase compared to the raw particle set. © 2013 IEEE.
Religion, theology and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John T. Fitzgerald
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.
A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Fang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is usually expected to be an efficient numerical tool for calculating the fluid-structure interactions in compressors; however, an endogenetic restriction is the problem of low-order consistency. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels, which is quite easy to be implemented but efficient, is proposed for solving this restriction. The basic inverse method and the special treatment near boundary are introduced with also the discussion of the combination of the Least-Square (LS and Moving-Least-Square (MLS methods. Then detailed analysis in spectral space is presented for people to better understand this method. Finally we show three test examples to verify the method behavior.
Boeyens, Jan CA
2010-01-01
The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp