Forecast and analysis of the cosmological redshift drift
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazkoz, Ruth; Leanizbarrutia, Iker [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Salzano, Vincenzo [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Sczcecin (Poland)
2018-01-15
The cosmological redshift drift could lead to the next step in high-precision cosmic geometric observations, becoming a direct and irrefutable test for cosmic acceleration. In order to test the viability and possible properties of this effect, also called Sandage-Loeb (SL) test, we generate a model-independent mock data set in order to compare its constraining power with that of the future mock data sets of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The performance of those data sets is analyzed by testing several cosmological models with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, both independently as well as combining all data sets. Final results show that, in general, SL data sets allow for remarkable constraints on the matter density parameter today Ω{sub m} on every tested model, showing also a great complementarity with SNe and BAO data regarding dark energy parameters. (orig.)
Forecast and analysis of the cosmological redshift drift.
Lazkoz, Ruth; Leanizbarrutia, Iker; Salzano, Vincenzo
2018-01-01
The cosmological redshift drift could lead to the next step in high-precision cosmic geometric observations, becoming a direct and irrefutable test for cosmic acceleration. In order to test the viability and possible properties of this effect, also called Sandage-Loeb (SL) test, we generate a model-independent mock data set in order to compare its constraining power with that of the future mock data sets of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The performance of those data sets is analyzed by testing several cosmological models with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, both independently as well as combining all data sets. Final results show that, in general, SL data sets allow for remarkable constraints on the matter density parameter today [Formula: see text] on every tested model, showing also a great complementarity with SNe and BAO data regarding dark energy parameters.
Cosmological constraints with clustering-based redshifts
Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Rahman, Mubdi
2017-07-01
We demonstrate that observations lacking reliable redshift information, such as photometric and radio continuum surveys, can produce robust measurements of cosmological parameters when empowered by clustering-based redshift estimation. This method infers the redshift distribution based on the spatial clustering of sources, using cross-correlation with a reference data set with known redshifts. Applying this method to the existing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric galaxies, and projecting to future radio continuum surveys, we show that sources can be efficiently divided into several redshift bins, increasing their ability to constrain cosmological parameters. We forecast constraints on the dark-energy equation of state and on local non-Gaussianity parameters. We explore several pertinent issues, including the trade-off between including more sources and minimizing the overlap between bins, the shot-noise limitations on binning and the predicted performance of the method at high redshifts, and most importantly pay special attention to possible degeneracies with the galaxy bias. Remarkably, we find that once this technique is implemented, constraints on dynamical dark energy from the SDSS imaging catalogue can be competitive with, or better than, those from the spectroscopic BOSS survey and even future planned experiments. Further, constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity from future large-sky radio-continuum surveys can outperform those from the Planck cosmic microwave background experiment and rival those from future spectroscopic galaxy surveys. The application of this method thus holds tremendous promise for cosmology.
Peering beyond the horizon with standard sirens and redshift drift
Jimenez, Raul; Raccanelli, Alvise; Verde, Licia; Matarrese, Sabino
2018-04-01
An interesting test on the nature of the Universe is to measure the global spatial curvature of the metric in a model independent way, at a level of |Ωk|limit of |Ωk|<10‑4 would yield stringent tests on several models of inflation. Further, improving the constraint by an order of magnitude would help in reducing "model confusion" in standard parameter estimation. Moreover, if the curvature is measured to be at the value of the amplitude of the CMB fluctuations, it would offer a powerful test on the inflationary paradigm and would indicate that our Universe must be significantly larger than the current horizon. On the contrary, in the context of standard inflation, measuring a value above CMB fluctuations will lead us to conclude that the Universe is not much larger than the current observed horizon; this can also be interpreted as the presence of large fluctuations outside the horizon. However, it has proven difficult, so far, to find observables that can achieve such level of accuracy, and, most of all, be model-independent. Here we propose a method that can in principle achieve that; this is done by making minimal assumptions and using distance probes that are cosmology-independent: gravitational waves, redshift drift and cosmic chronometers. We discuss what kind of observations are needed in principle to achieve the desired accuracy.
Time variation of the cosmological redshift in Dicke-Brans-Jordan cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruediger, R.
1982-01-01
In this paper the time variation z of the cosmological redshift z is discussed for Dicke-Brans-Jordan (DBJ) cosmologies. We determine the general z-z relation in the functional form zH -1 0 = F(z; q 0 , sigma 0 ,xi 0 , ω) for small values of z, where all the symbols have their conventional meanings. For certain combinations of cosmological parameters, which are within the present observational limitations, the DBJ terms in the function F can dominate the general relativistic terms. Furthermore, zH -1 0 can be positive in DBJ cosmologies in contrast to general relativistic cosmologies with q 0 >0
Tejos, Nicolas; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.
2018-01-01
We present a simple, efficient and robust approach to improve cosmological redshift measurements. The method is based on the presence of a reference sample for which a precise redshift number distribution (dN/dz) can be obtained for different pencil-beam-like sub-volumes within the original survey. For each sub-volume we then impose that: (i) the redshift number distribution of the uncertain redshift measurements matches the reference dN/dz corrected by their selection functions and (ii) the rank order in redshift of the original ensemble of uncertain measurements is preserved. The latter step is motivated by the fact that random variables drawn from Gaussian probability density functions (PDFs) of different means and arbitrarily large standard deviations satisfy stochastic ordering. We then repeat this simple algorithm for multiple arbitrary pencil-beam-like overlapping sub-volumes; in this manner, each uncertain measurement has multiple (non-independent) 'recovered' redshifts which can be used to estimate a new redshift PDF. We refer to this method as the Stochastic Order Redshift Technique (SORT). We have used a state-of-the-art N-body simulation to test the performance of SORT under simple assumptions and found that it can improve the quality of cosmological redshifts in a robust and efficient manner. Particularly, SORT redshifts (zsort) are able to recover the distinctive features of the so-called 'cosmic web' and can provide unbiased measurement of the two-point correlation function on scales ≳4 h-1Mpc. Given its simplicity, we envision that a method like SORT can be incorporated into more sophisticated algorithms aimed to exploit the full potential of large extragalactic photometric surveys.
The Relation between Cosmological Redshift and Scale Factor for Photons
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Tian, Shuxun, E-mail: tshuxun@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)
2017-09-10
The cosmological constant problem has become one of the most important ones in modern cosmology. In this paper, we try to construct a model that can avoid the cosmological constant problem and have the potential to explain the apparent late-time accelerating expansion of the universe in both luminosity distance and angular diameter distance measurement channels. In our model, the core is to modify the relation between cosmological redshift and scale factor for photons. We point out three ways to test our hypothesis: the supernova time dilation; the gravitational waves and its electromagnetic counterparts emitted by the binary neutron star systems; and the Sandage–Loeb effect. All of this method is feasible now or in the near future.
The need for accurate redshifts in supernova cosmology
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Calcino, Josh; Davis, Tamara, E-mail: j.calcino@uq.edu.au, E-mail: tamarad@physics.uq.edu.au [The School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Cooper Road, Brisbane (Australia)
2017-01-01
Recent papers have shown that a small systematic redshift shift (Δ z ∼ 10{sup −5}) in measurements of type Ia supernovae can cause a significant bias (∼1%) in the recovery of cosmological parameters. Such a redshift shift could be caused, for example, by a gravitational redshift due to the density of our local environment. The sensitivity of supernova data to redshift shifts means supernovae make excellent probes of inhomogeneities. We therefore invert the analysis, and try to diagnose the nature of our local gravitational environment by fitting for Δ z as an extra free parameter alongside the usual cosmological parameters. Using the Joint Light-curve SN Ia dataset we find the best fit includes a systematic redshift shift of Δ z = (2.6{sup +2.7}{sub −2.8}) × 10{sup −4}. This is a larger shift than would be expected due to gravitational redshifts in a standard Λ-Cold Dark Matter universe (though still consistent with zero), and would correspond to a monopole Doppler shift of about 100 km s{sup −1} moving away from the Milky-Way. However, since most supernova measurements are made to a redshift precision of no better than 10{sup −3}, it is possible that a systematic error smaller than the statistical error remains in the data and is responsible for the shift; or that it is an insignificant statistical fluctuation. We find that when Δ z is included as a free parameter while fitting to the JLA SN Ia data, the constraints on the matter density shifts to Ω {sub m} = 0.313{sup +0.042}{sub −0.040}, bringing it into better agreement with the CMB cosmological parameter constraints from Planck. A positive Δ z ∼ 2.6×10{sup −4} would also cause us to overestimate the supernova measurement of Hubble's constant by Δ H {sub 0} ∼ 1 kms{sup −1}Mpc{sup −1}. However this overestimation should diminish as one increases the low-redshift cutoff, and this is not seen in the most recent data.
Cosmological implications of the redshift distribution of QSO absorption systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khare-Joshi, P.; Perry, J.J.
1982-01-01
We have used the observational data on QSO absorption redshifts, as compiled by Perry, Burbidge and Burbidge (1978) (hereafter PB 2 ), Drew (1978) and Weyman et al. (1979) (hereafter W 2 PT), to study various selection effects likely to affect the distribution of absorption redshifts and, then to determine the probable number distribution of absorbers per redshift interval of 0.1, as a function of z. The distribution obtained, assuming all the observed absorption to be intervening, is found to be statistically incompatible with the redshift distribution of galaxies with constant cross-section for any Friedman cosmology with zero cosmological constant and q 0 >= 0. Therefore, in order to eliminate the absorption systems which are plausibly intrinsic, we have applied the criterion suggested by W 2 PT and by the analysis of the distribution of absorption systems as a function of the relative velocity between the emitting and the absorbing gas, for the PB 2 data set; to wit, we have analysed the distributions obtained by assuming that those systems with relative velocity greater than 0.02 c, 0.02 c but not equal to 0.1 c to 0.11 c and 0.06 c respectively, or those systems without O VI and N V lines, are produced by the intervening galaxies. The results are discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masters, Daniel; Steinhardt, Charles; Faisst, Andreas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Rhodes, Jason [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Salvato, Mara [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schmidt, Samuel [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Longo, Giuseppe [Department of Physics, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Paltani, Stephane; Coupon, Jean [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva ch. dcogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem H’´ugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Speagle, Josh [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS 46, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kalinich, Adam [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano [Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte—INAF, via Moiariello 16, I-80131, Napoli (Italy)
2015-11-01
Calibrating the photometric redshifts of ≳10{sup 9} galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where—in galaxy color space—redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color–redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.
The redshift distribution of cosmological samples: a forward modeling approach
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Herbel, Jörg; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bruderer, Claudio; Nicola, Andrina, E-mail: joerg.herbel@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: tomasz.kacprzak@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: claudio.bruderer@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2017-08-01
Determining the redshift distribution n ( z ) of galaxy samples is essential for several cosmological probes including weak lensing. For imaging surveys, this is usually done using photometric redshifts estimated on an object-by-object basis. We present a new approach for directly measuring the global n ( z ) of cosmological galaxy samples, including uncertainties, using forward modeling. Our method relies on image simulations produced using \\textsc(UFig) (Ultra Fast Image Generator) and on ABC (Approximate Bayesian Computation) within the MCCL (Monte-Carlo Control Loops) framework. The galaxy population is modeled using parametric forms for the luminosity functions, spectral energy distributions, sizes and radial profiles of both blue and red galaxies. We apply exactly the same analysis to the real data and to the simulated images, which also include instrumental and observational effects. By adjusting the parameters of the simulations, we derive a set of acceptable models that are statistically consistent with the data. We then apply the same cuts to the simulations that were used to construct the target galaxy sample in the real data. The redshifts of the galaxies in the resulting simulated samples yield a set of n ( z ) distributions for the acceptable models. We demonstrate the method by determining n ( z ) for a cosmic shear like galaxy sample from the 4-band Subaru Suprime-Cam data in the COSMOS field. We also complement this imaging data with a spectroscopic calibration sample from the VVDS survey. We compare our resulting posterior n ( z ) distributions to the one derived from photometric redshifts estimated using 36 photometric bands in COSMOS and find good agreement. This offers good prospects for applying our approach to current and future large imaging surveys.
The redshift distribution of cosmological samples: a forward modeling approach
Herbel, Jörg; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bruderer, Claudio; Nicola, Andrina
2017-08-01
Determining the redshift distribution n(z) of galaxy samples is essential for several cosmological probes including weak lensing. For imaging surveys, this is usually done using photometric redshifts estimated on an object-by-object basis. We present a new approach for directly measuring the global n(z) of cosmological galaxy samples, including uncertainties, using forward modeling. Our method relies on image simulations produced using \\textsc{UFig} (Ultra Fast Image Generator) and on ABC (Approximate Bayesian Computation) within the MCCL (Monte-Carlo Control Loops) framework. The galaxy population is modeled using parametric forms for the luminosity functions, spectral energy distributions, sizes and radial profiles of both blue and red galaxies. We apply exactly the same analysis to the real data and to the simulated images, which also include instrumental and observational effects. By adjusting the parameters of the simulations, we derive a set of acceptable models that are statistically consistent with the data. We then apply the same cuts to the simulations that were used to construct the target galaxy sample in the real data. The redshifts of the galaxies in the resulting simulated samples yield a set of n(z) distributions for the acceptable models. We demonstrate the method by determining n(z) for a cosmic shear like galaxy sample from the 4-band Subaru Suprime-Cam data in the COSMOS field. We also complement this imaging data with a spectroscopic calibration sample from the VVDS survey. We compare our resulting posterior n(z) distributions to the one derived from photometric redshifts estimated using 36 photometric bands in COSMOS and find good agreement. This offers good prospects for applying our approach to current and future large imaging surveys.
The redshift distribution of cosmological samples: a forward modeling approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbel, Jörg; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bruderer, Claudio; Nicola, Andrina
2017-01-01
Determining the redshift distribution n ( z ) of galaxy samples is essential for several cosmological probes including weak lensing. For imaging surveys, this is usually done using photometric redshifts estimated on an object-by-object basis. We present a new approach for directly measuring the global n ( z ) of cosmological galaxy samples, including uncertainties, using forward modeling. Our method relies on image simulations produced using \\textsc(UFig) (Ultra Fast Image Generator) and on ABC (Approximate Bayesian Computation) within the MCCL (Monte-Carlo Control Loops) framework. The galaxy population is modeled using parametric forms for the luminosity functions, spectral energy distributions, sizes and radial profiles of both blue and red galaxies. We apply exactly the same analysis to the real data and to the simulated images, which also include instrumental and observational effects. By adjusting the parameters of the simulations, we derive a set of acceptable models that are statistically consistent with the data. We then apply the same cuts to the simulations that were used to construct the target galaxy sample in the real data. The redshifts of the galaxies in the resulting simulated samples yield a set of n ( z ) distributions for the acceptable models. We demonstrate the method by determining n ( z ) for a cosmic shear like galaxy sample from the 4-band Subaru Suprime-Cam data in the COSMOS field. We also complement this imaging data with a spectroscopic calibration sample from the VVDS survey. We compare our resulting posterior n ( z ) distributions to the one derived from photometric redshifts estimated using 36 photometric bands in COSMOS and find good agreement. This offers good prospects for applying our approach to current and future large imaging surveys.
Comparison of Plasma-Redshift Cosmology and Big-Bang Cosmology
Brynjolfsson, Ari
2009-05-01
Plasma redshift is derived theoretically from conventional axioms of physics by using more accurate methods than those conventionally used. The main difference is the proper inclusion of the dielectric constant. The force acting on the electron is proportional to E=D/ɛ and not D as is conventionally surmised. This correction is not important in ordinary laboratory plasmas; but in the hot sparse plasmas of the intergalactic space, it explains the gradual energy loss (the cosmological redshift) of photons. This energy loss of photons is transferred to the plasma and makes it very hot. The plasma redshift explains long range of phenomena, including the intrinsic redshift of Sun, stars, galaxies and quasars, and the cosmological redshift. It explains also the beautiful black body spectrum of the CMB, and it predicts the observed XRB, and much more. There is no need for Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Black Holes and much more. The universe is quasi-static and can renew itself forever. There is no cosmic time dilation. In intergalactic space the average temperature is 2.7.10^6 K, and the average electron density (Ne)avg= 2 .10-4 cm-3.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunha, Carlos E. [KIPAC, Menlo Park; Huterer, Dragan [Michigan U.; Lin, Huan [Fermilab; Busha, Michael T. [Zurich U.; Wechsler, Risa H. [SLAC
2014-10-11
We use N-body-spectro-photometric simulations to investigate the impact of incompleteness and incorrect redshifts in spectroscopic surveys to photometric redshift training and calibration and the resulting effects on cosmological parameter estimation from weak lensing shear-shear correlations. The photometry of the simulations is modeled after the upcoming Dark Energy Survey and the spectroscopy is based on a low/intermediate resolution spectrograph with wavelength coverage of 5500{\\AA} < {\\lambda} < 9500{\\AA}. The principal systematic errors that such a spectroscopic follow-up encounters are incompleteness (inability to obtain spectroscopic redshifts for certain galaxies) and wrong redshifts. Encouragingly, we find that a neural network-based approach can effectively describe the spectroscopic incompleteness in terms of the galaxies' colors, so that the spectroscopic selection can be applied to the photometric sample. Hence, we find that spectroscopic incompleteness yields no appreciable biases to cosmology, although the statistical constraints degrade somewhat because the photometric survey has to be culled to match the spectroscopic selection. Unfortunately, wrong redshifts have a more severe impact: the cosmological biases are intolerable if more than a percent of the spectroscopic redshifts are incorrect. Moreover, we find that incorrect redshifts can also substantially degrade the accuracy of training set based photo-z estimators. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining redshifts, either spectroscopically or photometrically, for objects at z > 1.3. We discuss several approaches for reducing the cosmological biases, in particular finding that photo-z error estimators can reduce biases appreciably.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Rui-Yun; Zhang, Xin
2016-01-01
The nature of dark energy affects the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z) by an integral over w(z). However, the usual observables are the luminosity distances or the angular diameter distances, which measure the distance.redshift relation. Actually, the property of dark energy affects the distances (and the growth factor) by a further integration over functions of H(z). Thus, the direct measurements of the Hubble parameter H(z) at different redshifts are of great importance for constraining the properties of dark energy. In this paper, we show how the typical dark energy models, for example, the ΛCDM, wCDM, CPL, and holographic dark energy models, can be constrained by the current direct measurements of H(z) (31 data used in total in this paper, covering the redshift range of z @ element of [0.07, 2.34]). In fact, the future redshift-drift observations (also referred to as the Sandage-Loeb test) can also directly measure H(z) at higher redshifts, covering the range of z @ element of [2, 5]. We thus discuss what role the redshift-drift observations can play in constraining dark energy with the Hubble parameter measurements. We show that the constraints on dark energy can be improved greatly with the H(z) data from only a 10-year observation of redshift drift. (orig.)
zBEAMS: a unified solution for supernova cosmology with redshift uncertainties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, Ethan; Lochner, Michelle; Bassett, Bruce A.; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Agarwal, Shankar [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, 7945, Cape Town (South Africa); Fonseca, José, E-mail: rbreth001@myuct.ac.za, E-mail: michelle@aims.ac.za, E-mail: jfonseca@uwc.ac.za, E-mail: bruce.a.bassett@gmail.com, E-mail: plablanche@aims.ac.za, E-mail: agarwalshankar@aims.ac.za [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)
2017-10-01
Supernova cosmology without spectra will be an important component of future surveys such as LSST. This lack of supernova spectra results in uncertainty in the redshifts which, if ignored, leads to significantly biased estimates of cosmological parameters. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian formalism— zBEAMS—that addresses this problem by marginalising over the unknown or uncertain supernova redshifts to produce unbiased cosmological estimates that are competitive with supernova data with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts. zBEAMS provides a unified treatment of both photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification (occurring due to chance galaxy alignments or faint hosts), effectively correcting the inevitable contamination in the Hubble diagram. Like its predecessor BEAMS, our formalism also takes care of non-Ia supernova contamination by marginalising over the unknown supernova type. We illustrate this technique with simulations of supernovae with photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification. A novel feature of the photometric redshift case is the important role played by the redshift distribution of the supernovae.
zBEAMS: a unified solution for supernova cosmology with redshift uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, Ethan; Lochner, Michelle; Bassett, Bruce A.; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Agarwal, Shankar; Fonseca, José
2017-01-01
Supernova cosmology without spectra will be an important component of future surveys such as LSST. This lack of supernova spectra results in uncertainty in the redshifts which, if ignored, leads to significantly biased estimates of cosmological parameters. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian formalism— zBEAMS—that addresses this problem by marginalising over the unknown or uncertain supernova redshifts to produce unbiased cosmological estimates that are competitive with supernova data with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts. zBEAMS provides a unified treatment of both photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification (occurring due to chance galaxy alignments or faint hosts), effectively correcting the inevitable contamination in the Hubble diagram. Like its predecessor BEAMS, our formalism also takes care of non-Ia supernova contamination by marginalising over the unknown supernova type. We illustrate this technique with simulations of supernovae with photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification. A novel feature of the photometric redshift case is the important role played by the redshift distribution of the supernovae.
Using quasars as standard clocks for measuring cosmological redshift.
Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D; Stojkovic, Branislav; Stojkovic, Dejan; Weltman, Amanda
2012-06-08
We report hitherto unnoticed patterns in quasar light curves. We characterize segments of the quasar's light curves with the slopes of the straight lines fit through them. These slopes appear to be directly related to the quasars' redshifts. Alternatively, using only global shifts in time and flux, we are able to find significant overlaps between the light curves of different pairs of quasars by fitting the ratio of their redshifts. We are then able to reliably determine the redshift of one quasar from another. This implies that one can use quasars as standard clocks, as we explicitly demonstrate by constructing two independent methods of finding the redshift of a quasar from its light curve.
How robust are the constraints on cosmology and galaxy evolution from the lens-redshift test?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capelo, Pedro R; Natarajan, Priyamvada
2007-01-01
The redshift distribution of galaxy lenses in known gravitational lens systems provides a powerful test that can potentially discriminate amongst cosmological models. However, applications of this elegant test have been curtailed by two factors: our ignorance of how galaxies evolve with redshift, and the absence of methods to deal with the effect of incomplete information in lensing systems. In this paper, we investigate both issues in detail. We explore how to extract the properties of evolving galaxies, assuming that the cosmology is well determined by other techniques. We propose a new nested Monte Carlo method to quantify the effects of incomplete data. We apply the lens-redshift test to an improved sample of seventy lens systems derived from recent observations, primarily from the SDSS, SLACS and the CLASS surveys. We find that the limiting factor in applying the lens-redshift test derives from poor statistics, including incomplete information samples and biased sampling. Many lenses that uniformly sample the underlying true image separation distribution will be needed to use this test as a complementary method to measure the value of the cosmological constant or the properties of evolving galaxies. Planned future surveys by missions like the SNAP satellite or LSST are likely to usher in a new era for strong lensing studies that utilize this test. With expected catalogues of thousands of new strong lenses, the lens-redshift test could offer a powerful tool to probe cosmology as well as galaxy evolution
How robust are the constraints on cosmology and galaxy evolution from the lens-redshift test?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capelo, Pedro R [Astronomy Department, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Astronomy Department, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)
2007-12-15
The redshift distribution of galaxy lenses in known gravitational lens systems provides a powerful test that can potentially discriminate amongst cosmological models. However, applications of this elegant test have been curtailed by two factors: our ignorance of how galaxies evolve with redshift, and the absence of methods to deal with the effect of incomplete information in lensing systems. In this paper, we investigate both issues in detail. We explore how to extract the properties of evolving galaxies, assuming that the cosmology is well determined by other techniques. We propose a new nested Monte Carlo method to quantify the effects of incomplete data. We apply the lens-redshift test to an improved sample of seventy lens systems derived from recent observations, primarily from the SDSS, SLACS and the CLASS surveys. We find that the limiting factor in applying the lens-redshift test derives from poor statistics, including incomplete information samples and biased sampling. Many lenses that uniformly sample the underlying true image separation distribution will be needed to use this test as a complementary method to measure the value of the cosmological constant or the properties of evolving galaxies. Planned future surveys by missions like the SNAP satellite or LSST are likely to usher in a new era for strong lensing studies that utilize this test. With expected catalogues of thousands of new strong lenses, the lens-redshift test could offer a powerful tool to probe cosmology as well as galaxy evolution.
The second-order luminosity-redshift relation in a generic inhomogeneous cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Dayan, Ido; Marozzi, Giovanni; Veneziano, Gabriele; Nugier, Fabien
2012-01-01
After recalling a general non-perturbative expression for the luminosity-redshift relation holding in a recently proposed 'geodesic light-cone' gauge, we show how it can be transformed to phenomenologically more convenient gauges in which cosmological perturbation theory is better understood. We present, in particular, the complete result on the luminosity-redshift relation in the Poisson gauge up to second order for a fairly generic perturbed cosmology, assuming that appreciable vector and tensor perturbations are only generated at second order. This relation provides a basic ingredient for the computation of the effects of stochastic inhomogeneities on precision dark-energy cosmology whose results we have anticipated in a recent letter. More generally, it can be used in connection with any physical information carried by light-like signals traveling along our past light-cone
Low-redshift formula for the luminosity distance in a LTB model with cosmological constant
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Romano, Antonio Enea [National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2014-04-15
We calculate the low-redshift Taylor expansion for the luminosity distance for an observer at the center of a spherically symmetric matter inhomogeneity with a non-vanishing cosmological constant. We then test the accuracy of the formulas comparing them to the numerical calculation for different cases for both the luminosity distance and the radial coordinate. The formulas can be used as a starting point to understand the general non-linear effects of a local inhomogeneity in the presence of a cosmological constant, without making any special assumption as regards the inhomogeneity profile. (orig.)
Cosmological constraints from supernova data set with corrected redshift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feoli, A; Rillo, V; Grasso, M; Mancini, L
2012-01-01
Observations of distant type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), used as standard candles, support the notion that the Cosmos is filled with a mysterious form of energy, the dark energy. The constraints on cosmological parameters derived from data of SNe Ia and the measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies indicate that the dark energy amounts to≅ 70% of all the energy contained in the Universe. In the hypothesis of a flat Universe (Ω m + Ω Λ = 1), we investigate if the dark energy is really required in order to explain the SNe Ia experimental data, and, in this case, how much of such unknown energy is actually deduced from the analysis of these data and must be introduced in the ΛCDM model of cosmology. In particular we are interested in verifying if the Einstein-de Sitter model of the expanding Universe is really to be ruled out. By using a fitting procedure based on the Newton method search for a minimum, we reanalyzed the 'Union compilation' reported by Kowalski et al. (2008) formed by 307 SNe, obtaining a very different estimate of the dark energy, that is≅ 60%. Furthermore, in order to balance the correction of the apparent magnitude of SNe Ia, due to the dilation or stretching of the corresponding light curve width, we introduce a suitable modified redsfhit. Taking into account this correction, we refitted the Union compilation dataset after a selection cut. The main result that emerges from our analysis is that the values of Ω m and Ω Λ strongly depend on the fitting procedure and the selected sample. In particular, the constraint we obtain on the mass density, normalized by the critical mass density, is Ω m = 0.7 for a sample of 252, and Ω m = 1 for a sample of 242 SNe Ia respectively. The latter case does not imply the existence of any additional form of dark energy.
Redshift structure of the big bang in inhomogeneous cosmological models. I. Spherical dust solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellaby, C.; Lake, K.
1984-01-01
The redshift from the big bang in the standard model is always infinite, but in inhomogeneous cosmological models infinite blueshifts are also possible. To avoid such divergent energy fluxes, we require that all realistic cosmological models must not display infinite blueshifts. We apply this requirement to the Tolman model (spherically symmetric dust), using the geometrical optics approximation, and assuming that the geodesic tangent vectors may be expanded in power series. We conclude that the bang time must be simultaneous. The stronger requirement, that only infinite redshifts from the big bang may occur, does not lead to a stronger condition on the metric. Further consequences of simultaneity are that no decaying mode fluctuations are possible, and that the only acceptable model which is homogeneous at late times is the Robertson-Walker model
Redshift structure of the big bang in inhomogeneous cosmological models. I. Spherical dust solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellaby, C.; Lake, K.
1984-07-01
The redshift from the big bang in the standard model is always infinite, but in inhomogeneous cosmological models infinite blueshifts are also possible. To avoid such divergent energy fluxes, we require that all realistic cosmological models must not display infinite blueshifts. We apply this requirement to the Tolman model (spherically symmetric dust), using the geometrical optics approximation, and assuming that the geodesic tangent vectors may be expanded in power series. We conclude that the bang time must be simultaneous. The stronger requirement, that only infinite redshifts from the big bang may occur, does not lead to a stronger condition on the metric. Further consequences of simultaneity are that no decaying mode fluctuations are possible, and that the only acceptable model which is homogeneous at late times is the Robertson-Walker model.
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect versus redshift test for the cosmological parameters
Kantowski, R.; Chen, B.; Dai, X.
2015-04-01
We describe a method using the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect caused by individual inhomogeneities to determine the cosmological parameters H0, Ωm , and ΩΛ, etc. This ISW-redshift test requires detailed knowledge of the internal kinematics of a set of individual density perturbations, e.g., galaxy clusters and/or cosmic voids, in particular their density and velocity profiles, and their mass accretion rates. It assumes the density perturbations are isolated and embedded (equivalently compensated) and makes use of the newly found relation between the ISW temperature perturbation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the Fermat potential of the lens. Given measurements of the amplitudes of the temperature variations in the CMB caused by such clusters or voids at various redshifts and estimates of their angular sizes or masses, one can constrain the cosmological parameters. More realistically, the converse is more likely, i.e., if the background cosmology is sufficiently constrained, measurement of ISW profiles of clusters and voids (e.g., hot and cold spots and rings) can constrain dynamical properties of the dark matter, including accretion, associated with such lenses and thus constrain the evolution of these objects with redshift.
Impact of large-scale tides on cosmological distortions via redshift-space power spectrum
Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro
2018-03-01
Although large-scale perturbations beyond a finite-volume survey region are not direct observables, these affect measurements of clustering statistics of small-scale (subsurvey) perturbations in large-scale structure, compared with the ensemble average, via the mode-coupling effect. In this paper we show that a large-scale tide induced by scalar perturbations causes apparent anisotropic distortions in the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in a way depending on an alignment between the tide, wave vector of small-scale modes and line-of-sight direction. Using the perturbation theory of structure formation, we derive a response function of the redshift-space power spectrum to large-scale tide. We then investigate the impact of large-scale tide on estimation of cosmological distances and the redshift-space distortion parameter via the measured redshift-space power spectrum for a hypothetical large-volume survey, based on the Fisher matrix formalism. To do this, we treat the large-scale tide as a signal, rather than an additional source of the statistical errors, and show that a degradation in the parameter is restored if we can employ the prior on the rms amplitude expected for the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model. We also discuss whether the large-scale tide can be constrained at an accuracy better than the CDM prediction, if the effects up to a larger wave number in the nonlinear regime can be included.
Low-redshift Lyman limit systems as diagnostics of cosmological inflows and outflows
Hafen, Zachary; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Feldmann, Robert; Chan, T. K.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Hopkins, Philip F.
2017-08-01
We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with stellar feedback from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the physical nature of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at z ≤ 1. At these low redshifts, LLSs are closely associated with dense gas structures surrounding galaxies, such as galactic winds, dwarf satellites and cool inflows from the intergalactic medium. Our analysis is based on 14 zoom-in simulations covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 109-1013 M⊙ at z = 0, which we convolve with the dark matter halo mass function to produce cosmological statistics. We find that the majority of cosmologically selected LLSs are associated with haloes in the mass range 1010 ≲ Mh ≲ 1012 M⊙. The incidence and H I column density distribution of simulated absorbers with columns in the range 10^{16.2} ≤ N_{H I} ≤ 2× 10^{20} cm-2 are consistent with observations. High-velocity outflows (with radial velocity exceeding the halo circular velocity by a factor of ≳ 2) tend to have higher metallicities ([X/H] ˜ -0.5) while very low metallicity ([X/H] standard deviation) [X/H] = -0.9 (0.4) and does not show significant evidence for bimodality, in contrast to recent observational studies, but consistent with LLSs arising from haloes with a broad range of masses and metallicities.
Search for C II Emission on Cosmological Scales at Redshift Z ˜ 2.6
Pullen, Anthony R.; Serra, Paolo; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Doré, Olivier; Ho, Shirley
2018-05-01
We present a search for Cii emission over cosmological scales at high-redshifts. The Cii line is a prime candidate to be a tracer of star formation over large-scale structure since it is one of the brightest emission lines from galaxies. Redshifted Cii emission appears in the submillimeter regime, meaning it could potentially be present in the higher frequency intensity data from the Planck satellite used to measure the cosmic infrared background (CIB). We search for Cii emission over redshifts z = 2 - 3.2 in the Planck 545 GHz intensity map by cross-correlating the 3 highest frequency Planck maps with spectroscopic quasars and CMASS galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), which we then use to jointly fit for Cii intensity, CIB parameters, and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) emission. We report a measurement of an anomalous emission I_ν =6.6^{+5.0}_{-4.8}× 10^4Jy/sr at 95% confidence, which could be explained by Cii emission, favoring collisional excitation models of Cii emission that tend to be more optimistic than models based on Cii luminosity scaling relations from local measurements; however, a comparison of Bayesian information criteria reveal that this model and the CIB & SZ only model are equally plausible. Thus, more sensitive measurements will be needed to confirm the existence of large-scale Cii emission at high redshifts. Finally, we forecast that intensity maps from Planck cross-correlated with quasars from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) would increase our sensitivity to Cii emission by a factor of 5, while the proposed Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) could increase the sensitivity further.
Study of redshifted H I from the epoch of reionization with drift scan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Sourabh; Sethi, Shiv K.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar, N. Udaya; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Deshpande, Avinash A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Bernardi, Gianni [Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ85281 (United States); Briggs, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), 44 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Cappallo, Roger J.; Corey, Brian E.; Goeke, Robert F. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Emrich, David [Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Kasper, Justin C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, Bryna J. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hewitt, Jacqueline N. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-241, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie [Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, David L., E-mail: sourabh@rri.res.in, E-mail: sethi@rri.res.in [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); and others
2014-09-20
Detection of the epoch of reionization (EoR) in the redshifted 21 cm line is a challenging task. Here, we formulate the detection of the EoR signal using the drift scan strategy. This method potentially has better instrumental stability compared to the case where a single patch of sky is tracked. We demonstrate that the correlation time between measured visibilities could extend up to 1-2 hr for an interferometer array such as the Murchison Widefield Array, which has a wide primary beam. We estimate the EoR power based on a cross-correlation of visibilities over time and show that the drift scan strategy is capable of detecting the EoR signal with a signal to noise that is comparable/better compared to the tracking case. We also estimate the visibility correlation for a set of bright point sources and argue that the statistical inhomogeneity of bright point sources might allow their separation from the EoR signal.
Clark, Stuart
1997-01-01
The light emitted by celestial objects can have its wavelength "stretched" in different ways before it is observed by astronomers. These stretching phenomena are collectively called "redshift". They influence virtually all aspects of astronomy and even underpin the "Big Bang" theory of the creation of the universe. This book details the types of redshift and explains their myriad of uses. It begins by introducing the nature of light and the problems involved in measuring its properties. After explaining the redshift phenomena and their uses, the book touches on the age and size of the universe; two subjects embroiled in controversy because of our current interpretation of the redshift. Less conventional theories are then expressed. As a by-product of the explanation of redshift, the book offers the reader a basic understanding of Einstein's theory of relativity. Mathematical treatments of the concepts introduced in the text are boxed off and should not detract from the book's readibility, but allow it to be u...
Unified approach to redshift in cosmological/black hole spacetimes and synchronous frame
Toporensky, A. V.; Zaslavskii, O. B.; Popov, S. B.
2018-01-01
Usually, interpretation of redshift in static spacetimes (for example, near black holes) is opposed to that in cosmology. In this methodological note, we show that both explanations are unified in a natural picture. This is achieved if, considering the static spacetime, one (i) makes a transition to a synchronous frame, and (ii) returns to the original frame by means of local Lorentz boost. To reach our goal, we consider a rather general class of spherically symmetric spacetimes. In doing so, we construct frames that generalize the well-known Lemaitre and Painlevé-Gullstand ones and elucidate the relation between them. This helps us to understand, in a unifying approach, how gravitation reveals itself in different branches of general relativity. This framework can be useful for general relativity university courses.
High-redshift post-reionization cosmology with 21cm intensity mapping
Obuljen, Andrej; Castorina, Emanuele; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo
2018-05-01
We investigate the possibility of performing cosmological studies in the redshift range 2.5place on the growth rate, the BAO distance scale parameters, the sum of the neutrino masses and the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at decoupling, N eff. We point out that quantities that depend on the amplitude of the 21cm power spectrum, like fσ8, are completely degenerate with ΩHI and bHI, and propose several strategies to independently constrain them through cross-correlations with other probes. Assuming 5% priors on ΩHI and bHI, kmax=0.2 h Mpc‑1 and the primary beam wedge, we find that a HIRAX extension can constrain, within bins of Δ z=0.1: 1) the value of fσ8 at simeq4%, 2) the value of DA and H at simeq1%. In combination with data from Euclid-like galaxy surveys and CMB S4, the sum of the neutrino masses can be constrained with an error equal to 23 meV (1σ), while Neff can be constrained within 0.02 (1σ). We derive similar constraints for the extensions of the other instruments. We study in detail the dependence of our results on the instrument, amplitude of the HI bias, the foreground wedge coverage, the nonlinear scale used in the analysis, uncertainties in the theoretical modeling and the priors on bHI and Ω HI. We conclude that 21cm intensity mapping surveys operating in this redshift range can provide extremely competitive constraints on key cosmological parameters.
Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Ji, Alexander P.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Frebel, Anna; Scannapieco, Evan; Gómez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.
2018-06-01
The smallest satellites of the Milky Way ceased forming stars during the epoch of reionization and thus provide archaeological access to galaxy formation at z > 6. Numerical studies of these ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) require expensive cosmological simulations with high mass resolution that are carried out down to z = 0. However, if we are able to statistically identify UFD host progenitors at high redshifts with relatively high probabilities, we can avoid this high computational cost. To find such candidates, we analyse the merger trees of Milky Way type haloes from the high-resolution Caterpillar suite of dark matter only simulations. Satellite UFD hosts at z = 0 are identified based on four different abundance matching (AM) techniques. All the haloes at high redshifts are traced forward in time in order to compute the probability of surviving as satellite UFDs today. Our results show that selecting potential UFD progenitors based solely on their mass at z = 12 (8) results in a 10 per cent (20 per cent) chance of obtaining a surviving UFD at z = 0 in three of the AM techniques we adopted. We find that the progenitors of surviving satellite UFDs have lower virial ratios (η), and are preferentially located at large distances from the main MW progenitor, while they show no correlation with concentration parameter. Haloes with favorable locations and virial ratios are ≈3 times more likely to survive as satellite UFD candidates at z = 0.
Kacprzak, T.; Herbel, J.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.
2018-02-01
Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) is a method to obtain a posterior distribution without a likelihood function, using simulations and a set of distance metrics. For that reason, it has recently been gaining popularity as an analysis tool in cosmology and astrophysics. Its drawback, however, is a slow convergence rate. We propose a novel method, which we call qABC, to accelerate ABC with Quantile Regression. In this method, we create a model of quantiles of distance measure as a function of input parameters. This model is trained on a small number of simulations and estimates which regions of the prior space are likely to be accepted into the posterior. Other regions are then immediately rejected. This procedure is then repeated as more simulations are available. We apply it to the practical problem of estimation of redshift distribution of cosmological samples, using forward modelling developed in previous work. The qABC method converges to nearly same posterior as the basic ABC. It uses, however, only 20% of the number of simulations compared to basic ABC, achieving a fivefold gain in execution time for our problem. For other problems the acceleration rate may vary; it depends on how close the prior is to the final posterior. We discuss possible improvements and extensions to this method.
Li, Xiao-Dong; Park, Changbom; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Park, Hyunbae; Cheng, Cheng; Kim, Juhan; Hong, Sungwook E.
2017-08-01
We develop a methodology to use the redshift dependence of the galaxy 2-point correlation function (2pCF) across the line of sight, ξ ({r}\\perp ), as a probe of cosmological parameters. The positions of galaxies in comoving Cartesian space varies under different cosmological parameter choices, inducing a redshift-dependent scaling in the galaxy distribution. This geometrical distortion can be observed as a redshift-dependent rescaling in the measured ξ ({r}\\perp ). We test this methodology using a sample of 1.75 billion mock galaxies at redshifts 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2, drawn from the Horizon Run 4 N-body simulation. The shape of ξ ({r}\\perp ) can exhibit a significant redshift evolution when the galaxy sample is analyzed under a cosmology differing from the true, simulated one. Other contributions, including the gravitational growth of structure, galaxy bias, and the redshift space distortions, do not produce large redshift evolution in the shape. We show that one can make use of this geometrical distortion to constrain the values of cosmological parameters governing the expansion history of the universe. This method could be applicable to future large-scale structure surveys, especially photometric surveys such as DES and LSST, to derive tight cosmological constraints. This work is a continuation of our previous works as a strategy to constrain cosmological parameters using redshift-invariant physical quantities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumlinson, J.; Malec, A. L.; Murphy, M. T.; Carswell, R. F.; Jorgenson, R. A.; Buning, R.; Ubachs, W.; Milutinovic, N.; Ellison, S. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Wolfe, A. M.
2010-01-01
We report two detections of deuterated molecular hydrogen (HD) in QSO absorption-line systems at z>2. Toward J2123-0500, we find N(HD) =13.84 ± 0.2 for a sub-Damped Lyman Alpha system (DLA) with metallicity ≅0.5Z sun and N(H 2 ) = 17.64 ± 0.15 at z = 2.0594. Toward FJ0812+32, we find N(HD) =15.38 ± 0.3 for a solar-metallicity DLA with N(H 2 ) = 19.88 ± 0.2 at z = 2.6265. These systems have ratios of HD to H 2 above that observed in dense clouds within the Milky Way disk and apparently consistent with a simple conversion from the cosmological ratio of D/H. These ratios are not readily explained by any available model of HD chemistry, and there are no obvious trends with metallicity or molecular content. Taken together, these two systems and the two published z>2 HD-bearing DLAs indicate that HD is either less effectively dissociated or more efficiently produced in high-redshift interstellar gas, even at low molecular fraction and/or solar metallicity. It is puzzling that such diverse systems should show such consistent HD/H 2 ratios. Without clear knowledge of all the aspects of HD chemistry that may help determine the ratio HD/H 2 , we conclude that these systems are potentially more revealing of gas chemistry than of D/H itself and that it is premature to use such systems to constrain D/H at high redshift.
Constraining Cosmic Dawn and Cosmological Reionization via the global redshifted 21-cm signal
Singh, Saurabh
2018-01-01
The formation of first stars and consequent thermal evolution in baryons during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is poorly constrained. The 21-cm line transition of neutral hydrogen is one of the richest probes of the astrophysics during this era. The signal has the potential to reveal the nature and timing of the emergence of first stars, first light, and the consequent evolution in thermal and ionization state of the baryons.The detection of the global redshifted 21-cm signal, which represents the mean thermal history of the gas, is challenging since it is extremely faint and seen through orders of magnitude stronger contributions from Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. Man-made terrestrial Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and the exacting tolerances required on instrument systematics make the detection even more daunting.The design considerations for a precision spectral radiometer are first listed, and a comparison is made of different radiometer configurations, including short and zero baseline interferometers along with methods to enhance the response. We discuss the relative merits of different methods.We then describe SARAS 2, a spectral radiometer custom-designed for precision measurement of the global 21-cm signal. SARAS 2 has been designed to have a system transfer function and internal systematics – both multiplicative and additive – to be spectrally smooth so as to allow a separation of foregrounds and systematics from plausible and predicted global cosmological 21-cm signals. The algorithms for calibration and RFI mitigation are carefully developed so that they do not introduce spectral features that may confuse the detection of the 21-cm signal.We present the outcomes for cosmology from analysis of 60 hr observing with the radiometer deployed at the Timbaktu Collective in Southern India. The detailed analysis of the data reveals an RMS noise level of 11 mK, without being limited by systematic structures. The likelihood
Diemer, Benedikt; Mansfield, Philip; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud
2017-07-01
The splashback radius R sp, the apocentric radius of particles on their first orbit after falling into a dark matter halo, has recently been suggested to be a physically motivated halo boundary that separates accreting from orbiting material. Using the Sparta code presented in Paper I, we analyze the orbits of billions of particles in cosmological simulations of structure formation and measure R sp for a large sample of halos that span a mass range from dwarf galaxy to massive cluster halos, reach redshift 8, and include WMAP, Planck, and self-similar cosmologies. We analyze the dependence of R sp/R 200m and M sp/M 200m on the mass accretion rate Γ, halo mass, redshift, and cosmology. The scatter in these relations varies between 0.02 and 0.1 dex. While we confirm the known trend that R sp/R 200m decreases with Γ, the relationships turn out to be more complex than previously thought, demonstrating that R sp is an independent definition of the halo boundary that cannot trivially be reconstructed from spherical overdensity definitions. We present fitting functions for R sp/R 200m and M sp/M 200m as a function of accretion rate, peak height, and redshift, achieving an accuracy of 5% or better everywhere in the parameter space explored. We discuss the physical meaning of the distribution of particle apocenters and show that the previously proposed definition of R sp as the radius of the steepest logarithmic density slope encloses roughly three-quarters of the apocenters. Finally, we conclude that no analytical model presented thus far can fully explain our results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romano, Antonio Enea [University of Crete, Department of Physics and CCTP, Heraklion (Greece); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Vallejo, Sergio Andres [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia)
2016-04-15
In order to estimate the effects of a local structure on the Hubble parameter we calculate the low-redshift expansion for H(z) and (δH)/(H) for an observer at the center of a spherically symmetric matter distribution in the presence of a cosmological constant. We then test the accuracy of the formulas comparing them with fully relativistic non-perturbative numerical calculations for different cases for the density profile. The low-redshift expansion we obtain gives results more precise than perturbation theory since it is based on the use of an exact solution of Einstein's field equations. For larger density contrasts the low-redshift formulas accuracy improves respect to the perturbation theory accuracy because the latter is based on the assumption of a small density contrast, while the former does not rely on such an assumption. The formulas can be used to take into account the effects on the Hubble expansion parameter due to the monopole component of the local structure. If the H(z) observations will show deviations from the ΛCDM prediction compatible with the formulas we have derived, this could be considered an independent evidence of the existence of a local inhomogeneity, and the formulas could be used to determine the characteristics of this local structure. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K.; Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Das, Subinoy; Marsh, David J.E.
2016-01-01
The particle nature of dark matter remains a mystery. In this paper, we consider two dark matter models—Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) and Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) models—where the matter power spectra show novel effects on small scales. The high redshift universe offers a powerful probe of their parameters. In particular, we study two cosmological observables: the neutral hydrogen (HI) redshifted 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization, and the evolution of the collapsed fraction of HI in the redshift range 2 < z < 5. We model the theoretical predictions of the models using CDM-like N-body simulations with modified initial conditions, and generate reionization fields using an excursion set model. The N-body approximation is valid on the length and halo mass scales studied. We show that LFDM and ULA models predict an increase in the HI power spectrum from the epoch of reionization by a factor between 2–10 for a range of scales 0.1 < k < 4 Mpc −1 . Assuming a fiducial model where a neutral hydrogen fraction x-bar HI = 0.5 must be achieved by z = 8, the reionization process allows us to put approximate bounds on the redshift of dark matter formation z f > 4 × 10 5 (for LFDM) and the axion mass m a > 2.6 × 10 −23 eV (for ULA). The comparison of the collapsed mass fraction inferred from damped Lyman-α observations to the theoretical predictions of our models lead to the weaker bounds: z f > 2 × 10 5 and m a > 10 −23 eV. These bounds are consistent with other constraints in the literature using different observables; we briefly discuss how these bounds compare with possible constraints from the observation of luminosity function of galaxies at high redshifts. In the case of ULAs, these constraints are also consistent with a solution to the cusp-core problem of CDM
Kim, Ji-hoon; Ma, Xiangcheng; Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Wetzel, Andrew; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Murray, Norman
2018-03-01
Using a state-of-the-art cosmological simulation of merging proto-galaxies at high redshift from the FIRE project, with explicit treatments of star formation and stellar feedback in the interstellar medium, we investigate the formation of star clusters and examine one of the formation hypotheses of present-day metal-poor globular clusters. We find that frequent mergers in high-redshift proto-galaxies could provide a fertile environment to produce long-lasting bound star clusters. The violent merger event disturbs the gravitational potential and pushes a large gas mass of ≳ 105-6 M⊙ collectively to high density, at which point it rapidly turns into stars before stellar feedback can stop star formation. The high dynamic range of the reported simulation is critical in realizing such dense star-forming clouds with a small dynamical time-scale, tff ≲ 3 Myr, shorter than most stellar feedback time-scales. Our simulation then allows us to trace how clusters could become virialized and tightly bound to survive for up to ˜420 Myr till the end of the simulation. Because the cluster's tightly bound core was formed in one short burst, and the nearby older stars originally grouped with the cluster tend to be preferentially removed, at the end of the simulation the cluster has a small age spread.
Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Bilicki, M.; Branchini, E.; Postiglione, A.
2018-05-01
Using the almost all-sky 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalogue (2MPZ) we perform for the first time a tomographic analysis of galaxy angular clustering in the local Universe (z baryon fraction fb=0.14^{+0.09}_{-0.06}, the total matter density parameter Ωm = 0.30 ± 0.06, and the effective linear bias of 2MPZ galaxies beff, which grows from 1.1^{+0.3}_{-0.4} at = 0.05 up to 2.1^{+0.3}_{-0.5} at = 0.2, largely because of the flux-limited nature of the data set. The results obtained here for the local Universe agree with those derived with the same methodology at higher redshifts, and confirm the importance of the tomographic technique for next-generation photometric surveys such as Euclid or Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, I.D.
1979-01-01
Progress made by this Commission over the period 1976-1978 is reviewed. Topics include the Hubble constant, deceleration parameter, large-scale distribution of matter in the universe, radio astronomy and cosmology, space astronomy and cosmology, formation of galaxies, physics near the cosmological singularity, and unconventional cosmological models. (C.F.)
Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E
2005-01-01
I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.; Kotsakis, D.
1987-01-01
An extensive first part on a wealth of observational results relevant to cosmology lays the foundation for the second and central part of the book; the chapters on general relativity, the various cosmological theories, and the early universe. The authors present in a complete and almost non-mathematical way the ideas and theoretical concepts of modern cosmology including the exciting impact of high-energy particle physics, e.g. in the concept of the ''inflationary universe''. The final part addresses the deeper implications of cosmology, the arrow of time, the universality of physical laws, inflation and causality, and the anthropic principle
Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John Pl; Baker, Andrew J.; Sifon, Cristobal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Hilton, Matt; Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N.;
2011-01-01
We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102-4915 as the most significant Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) decrement in a sky survey area of 755 square degrees. Our VLT/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, sigma(gal) +/- 1321 106 km s-1. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T(X) = 14:5 +/- 0:1 keV and 0.5 2.0 keV band luminosity of L(X) = (2:19 0:11) 1045 h(exp -2)70erg s-1. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y(X) , and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M(200) = (2:16 +/- 0:32) 10(exp 15) h(exp-1) 70M compared to the Sun. We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6:6 +/- 0:7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 +/- 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other from which we estimate a merger speed of around 1300 km s(exp -1) for an assumed merger timescale of 1 Gyr. ACTCL J0102-4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet Cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift is rare, although consistent with the standard CDM cosmology in the lower part of its allowed mass range. Massive
García-Bellido, J
2015-01-01
In these lectures I review the present status of the so-called Standard Cosmological Model, based on the hot Big Bang Theory and the Inflationary Paradigm. I will make special emphasis on the recent developments in observational cosmology, mainly the acceleration of the universe, the precise measurements of the microwave background anisotropies, and the formation of structure like galaxies and clusters of galaxies from tiny primordial fluctuations generated during inflation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mathew [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Konishi, Kohki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Lampeitl, Hubert [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2012-05-15
We present Keck high-quality rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical spectra of 21 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.11 {<=} z {<=} 0.37 and a mean redshift of 0.22 that were discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. Using the broadband photometry of the SDSS survey, we are able to reconstruct the SN host-galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), allowing for a correction for the host-galaxy contamination in the SN Ia spectra. Comparison of composite spectra constructed from a subsample of 17 high-quality spectra to those created from a low-redshift sample with otherwise similar properties shows that the Keck/SDSS SNe Ia have, on average, extremely similar rest-frame optical spectra but show a UV flux excess. This observation is confirmed by comparing synthesized broadband colors of the individual spectra, showing a difference in mean colors at the 2.4{sigma}-4.4{sigma} level for various UV colors. We further see a slight difference in the UV spectral shape between SNe with low-mass and high-mass host galaxies. Additionally, we detect a relationship between the flux ratio at 2770 and 2900 A and peak luminosity that differs from that observed at low redshift. We find that changing the UV SED of an SN Ia within the observed dispersion can change the inferred distance moduli by {approx}0.1 mag. This effect only occurs when the data probe the rest-frame UV. We suggest that this discrepancy could be due to differences in the host-galaxy population of the two SN samples or to small-sample statistics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Ma Zhaoming; Huterer, Dragan
2010-01-01
A goal of forthcoming imaging surveys is to use weak gravitational lensing shear measurements to constrain dark energy. A challenge to this program is that redshifts to the lensed, source galaxies must be determined using photometric, rather than spectroscopic, information. We quantify the importance of uncalibrated photometric redshift outliers to the dark energy goals of forthcoming imaging surveys in a manner that does not assume any particular photometric redshift technique or template. In so doing, we provide an approximate blueprint for computing the influence of specific outlier populations on dark energy constraints. We find that outlier populations whose photo-z distributions are tightly localized about a significantly biased redshift must be controlled to a per-galaxy rate of (1-3) x 10 -3 to insure that systematic errors on dark energy parameters are rendered negligible. In the complementary limit, a subset of imaged galaxies with uncalibrated photometric redshifts distributed over a broad range must be limited to fewer than a per-galaxy error rate of F cat ∼ -4 . Additionally, we explore the relative importance of calibrating the photo-z's of a core set of relatively well-understood galaxies as compared to the need to identify potential catastrophic photo-z outliers. We discuss the degradation of the statistical constraints on dark energy parameters induced by excising source galaxies at high- and low-photometric redshifts, concluding that removing galaxies with photometric redshifts z ph ∼> 2.4 and z ph ∼< 0.3 may mitigate damaging catastrophic redshift outliers at a relatively small (∼<20%) cost in statistical error. In an Appendix, we show that forecasts for the degradation in dark energy parameter constraints due to uncertain photometric redshifts depend sensitively on the treatment of the nonlinear matter power spectrum. In particular, previous work using Peacock and Dodds may have overestimated the photo-z calibration requirements of
Vittorio, Nicola
2018-01-01
Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Postnikov, S. [Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Dainotti, M. G. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Capozziello, S., E-mail: spostnik@indiana.edu, E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu, E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl, E-mail: xavier@astros.unam.mx, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli " Federico II," Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)
2014-03-10
We study the dark energy equation of state as a function of redshift in a nonparametric way, without imposing any a priori w(z) (ratio of pressure over energy density) functional form. As a check of the method, we test our scheme through the use of synthetic data sets produced from different input cosmological models that have the same relative errors and redshift distribution as the real data. Using the luminosity-time L{sub X} -T{sub a} correlation for gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows (the Dainotti et al. correlation), we are able to utilize GRB samples from the Swift satellite as probes of the expansion history of the universe out to z ≈ 10. Within the assumption of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe and combining supernovae type Ia (SNeIa) data with baryonic acoustic oscillation constraints, the resulting maximum likelihood solutions are close to a constant w = –1. If one imposes the restriction of a constant w, we obtain w = –0.99 ± 0.06 (consistent with a cosmological constant) with the present-day Hubble constant as H {sub 0} = 70.0 ± 0.6km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} and density parameter as Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.723 ± 0.025, while nonparametric w(z) solutions give us a probability map that is centered at H {sub 0} = 70.04 ± 1km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} and Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.724 ± 0.03. Our chosen GRB data sample with a full correlation matrix allows us to estimate the amount, as well as quality (errors), of data needed to constrain w(z) in the redshift range extending an order of magnitude beyond the farthest SNeIa measured.
Stability analysis in tachyonic potential chameleon cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farajollahi, H.; Salehi, A.; Tayebi, F.; Ravanpak, A.
2011-01-01
We study general properties of attractors for tachyonic potential chameleon scalar-field model which possess cosmological scaling solutions. An analytic formulation is given to obtain fixed points with a discussion on their stability. The model predicts a dynamical equation of state parameter with phantom crossing behavior for an accelerating universe. We constrain the parameters of the model by best fitting with the recent data-sets from supernovae and simulated data points for redshift drift experiment generated by Monte Carlo simulations
Stability analysis in tachyonic potential chameleon cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farajollahi, H.; Salehi, A.; Tayebi, F.; Ravanpak, A., E-mail: hosseinf@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: a.salehi@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: ftayebi@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: aravanpak@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-05-01
We study general properties of attractors for tachyonic potential chameleon scalar-field model which possess cosmological scaling solutions. An analytic formulation is given to obtain fixed points with a discussion on their stability. The model predicts a dynamical equation of state parameter with phantom crossing behavior for an accelerating universe. We constrain the parameters of the model by best fitting with the recent data-sets from supernovae and simulated data points for redshift drift experiment generated by Monte Carlo simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifon, Cristobal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Felipe Barrientos, L. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bond, John R.; Hajian, Amir; Nolta, Michael R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Marsden, Danica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others
2012-03-20
We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102-4915 as the most significant SZ decrement in a sky survey area of 755 deg{sup 2}. Our Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub gal} = 1321 {+-} 106 km s{sup -1}. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T{sub X} = 14.5 {+-} 0.1 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV band luminosity of L{sub X} = (2.19 {+-} 0.11) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 45} h{sup -2}{sub 70} erg s{sup -1}. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y{sub X}, and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M{sub 200a} = (2.16 {+-} 0.32) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} h{sup -1}{sub 70} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6 {+-} 0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 {+-} 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102-4915 is possibly a high-redshift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J.; Sifón, Cristóbal; González, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Felipe Barrientos, L.; Hilton, Matt; Bond, John R.; Hajian, Amir; Nolta, Michael R.; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Marsden, Danica; Dunkley, Joanna; Hincks, Adam D.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.
2012-01-01
We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102–4915 as the most significant SZ decrement in a sky survey area of 755 deg 2 . Our Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, σ gal = 1321 ± 106 km s –1 . Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T X = 14.5 ± 0.1 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV band luminosity of L X = (2.19 ± 0.11) × 10 45 h –2 70 erg s –1 . We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y X , and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M 200a = (2.16 ± 0.32) × 10 15 h –1 70 M ☉ . We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6 ± 0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 ± 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102–4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift is rare, although consistent
Optical drift effects in general relativity
Korzyński, Mikołaj; Kopiński, Jarosław
2018-03-01
We consider the question of determining the optical drift effects in general relativity, i.e. the rate of change of the apparent position, redshift, Jacobi matrix, angular distance and luminosity distance of a distant object as registered by an observer in an arbitrary spacetime. We present a fully relativistic and covariant approach, in which the problem is reduced to a hierarchy of ODE's solved along the line of sight. The 4-velocities and 4-accelerations of the observer and the emitter and the geometry of the spacetime along the line of sight constitute the input data. We build on the standard relativistic geometric optics formalism and extend it to include the time derivatives of the observables. In the process we obtain two general, non-perturbative relations: the first one between the gravitational lensing, represented by the Jacobi matrix, and the apparent position drift, also called the cosmic parallax, and the second one between the apparent position drift and the redshift drift. The applications of the results include the theoretical study of the drift effects of cosmological origin (so-called real-time cosmology) in numerical or exact Universe models.
Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Sifon, Cristobal; Hilton, Matt; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, John R.; Das, Sudeep;
2012-01-01
We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102-4915 as the most significant Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) decrement in a sky survey area of 755 square degrees. Our VLT/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, sigma(sub gal) = 1321+/-106 km s-1. Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of T(sub X) = 14.5+/-1.0 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV band luminosity of L(sub X) = (2.19+/-0.11)×10(sup 45) h(sup -2)(sub 70) erg s-1. We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray Y(sub X), and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M(sub 200a) = (2.16+/-0.32)×1015 h(sup -1)(sub 70) solar mass. We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6+/-0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22+/-6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102-4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet Cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift
Next-to-leading resummation of cosmological perturbations via the Lagrangian picture: 2-loop correction in real and redshift spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamura, Tomohiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahiko
2011-01-01
We present an improved prediction of Lagrangian resummation theory (LRT), the nonlinear perturbation theory (PT) via the Lagrangian picture originally proposed by Matsubara (2008). Based on the relations between the power spectrum in standard PT and that in LRT, we derive analytic expressions for the power spectrum in LRT up to 2-loop order in both real and redshift spaces. Comparing the improved prediction of LRT with N-body simulations in real space, we find that the 2-loop corrections can extend the valid range of wave numbers where we can predict the power spectrum within 1% accuracy by a factor of 1.0 (z = 0.5), 1.3 (1), 1.6 (2) and 1.8 (3) vied with 1-loop LRT results. On the other hand, in all redshift ranges, the higher-order corrections are shown to be less significant on the two-point correlation functions around the baryon acoustic peak, because the 1-loop LRT is already accurate enough to explain the nonlinearity on those scales in N-body simulations
Joudaki, Shahab; Blake, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Amon, Alexandra; Asgari, Marika; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Mead, Alexander; Miller, Lance; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B.; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo; Wolf, Christian
2018-03-01
We perform a combined analysis of cosmic shear tomography, galaxy-galaxy lensing tomography, and redshift-space multipole power spectra (monopole and quadrupole) using 450 deg2 of imaging data by the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) overlapping with two spectroscopic surveys: the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey (2dFLenS) and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We restrict the galaxy-galaxy lensing and multipole power spectrum measurements to the overlapping regions with KiDS, and self-consistently compute the full covariance between the different observables using a large suite of N-body simulations. We methodically analyse different combinations of the observables, finding that the galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements are particularly useful in improving the constraint on the intrinsic alignment amplitude, while the multipole power spectra are useful in tightening the constraints along the lensing degeneracy direction. The fully combined constraint on S_8 ≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.742± 0.035, which is an improvement by 20 per cent compared to KiDS alone, corresponds to a 2.6σ discordance with Planck, and is not significantly affected by fitting to a more conservative set of scales. Given the tightening of the parameter space, we are unable to resolve the discordance with an extended cosmology that is simultaneously favoured in a model selection sense, including the sum of neutrino masses, curvature, evolving dark energy and modified gravity. The complementarity of our observables allows for constraints on modified gravity degrees of freedom that are not simultaneously bounded with either probe alone, and up to a factor of three improvement in the S8 constraint in the extended cosmology compared to KiDS alone.
Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.; Nugier, F.
2011-01-01
We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ''geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ''redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe
Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys.
Lahav, Ofer; Suto, Yasushi
2004-01-01
Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant). We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surdin, M.
1980-01-01
It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)
Masters, Daniel C.; Stern, Daniel; Cohen, Judy; Capak, Peter
2018-01-01
A primary objective of both WFIRST and Euclid is to provide a 3D map of the distribution of matter across a significant fraction of the universe from the weak lensing shear field. Doing so will require accurate redshifts to the billions of galaxies that comprise the weak lensing samples of these surveys; achieving the required accuracy is a “tall pole” challenge for both missions. Here we present the ongoing Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation (C3R2) survey, designed specifically to calibrate the empirical galaxy color-redshift relation to Euclid depth. C3R2 is an ambitious Keck spectroscopy program, with a survey design based on a machine learning technique that allows us to optimally select the most important galaxies to sample the full range of galaxy colors. C3R2 is a multi-center program with time from all the primary Keck partners (Caltech, UC, Hawaii, and NASA), with a total of 34.5 Keck nights allocated to this project. Data Release 1, including 1283 high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts, is published as Masters, Stern, Cohen, Capak, et al. (2017), and we are currently completing Data Release 2, which will include >2000 additional high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts (Masters et al., in prep.). We will discuss current results and prospects for the survey going forward.
Zavala, J. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Geach, J. E.; Hughes, D. H.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Clements, D. L.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Jenness, T.; Michałowski, M. J.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, Douglas; Simpson, J.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P.
2017-01-01
We present deep observations at 450 and 850 μm in the Extended Groth Strip field taken with the SCUBA-2 camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the deep SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS), achieving a central instrumental depth of σ450 = 1.2 mJy beam-1 and σ850 = 0.2 mJy beam-1. We detect 57 sources at 450 μm and 90 at 850 μm with signal-to-noise ratio >3.5 over ˜70 arcmin2. From these detections, we derive the number counts at flux densities S450 > 4.0 mJy and S850 > 0.9 mJy, which represent the deepest number counts at these wavelengths derived using directly extracted sources from only blank-field observations with a single-dish telescope. Our measurements smoothly connect the gap between previous shallower blank-field single-dish observations and deep interferometric ALMA results. We estimate the contribution of our SCUBA-2 detected galaxies to the cosmic infrared background (CIB), as well as the contribution of 24 μm-selected galaxies through a stacking technique, which add a total of 0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.07 ± 0.01 MJy sr-1, at 450 and 850 μm, respectively. These surface brightnesses correspond to 60 ± 20 and 50 ± 20 per cent of the total CIB measurements, where the errors are dominated by those of the total CIB. Using the photometric redshifts of the 24 μm-selected sample and the redshift distributions of the submillimetre galaxies, we find that the redshift distribution of the recovered CIB is different at each wavelength, with a peak at z ˜ 1 for 450 μm and at z ˜ 2 for 850 μm, consistent with previous observations and theoretical models.
Bardeen, J. M.
The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.
1986-01-01
The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs
Boeyens, Jan CA
2010-01-01
The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, Nathan; Khoury, Justin
2009-01-01
We study the cosmology of a galileon scalar-tensor theory, obtained by covariantizing the decoupling Lagrangian of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Poratti (DGP) model. Despite being local in 3+1 dimensions, the resulting cosmological evolution is remarkably similar to that of the full 4+1-dimensional DGP framework, both for the expansion history and the evolution of density perturbations. As in the DGP model, the covariant galileon theory yields two branches of solutions, depending on the sign of the galileon velocity. Perturbations are stable on one branch and ghostlike on the other. An interesting effect uncovered in our analysis is a cosmological version of the Vainshtein screening mechanism: at early times, the galileon dynamics are dominated by self-interaction terms, resulting in its energy density being suppressed compared to matter or radiation; once the matter density has redshifted sufficiently, the galileon becomes an important component of the energy density and contributes to dark energy. We estimate conservatively that the resulting expansion history is consistent with the observed late-time cosmology, provided that the scale of modification satisfies r c > or approx. 15 Gpc.
A null test of the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiba, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takashi
2007-01-01
We provide a consistency relation between cosmological observables in general relativity with the cosmological constant. Breaking of this relation at any redshift would imply the breakdown of the hypothesis of the cosmological constant as an explanation of the current acceleration of the universe. (author)
Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lahav Ofer
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant. We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.
Cosmological constant and advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Turner, E.L.
1997-01-01
Interferometric gravitational wave detectors could measure the frequency sweep of a binary inspiral (characterized by its chirp mass) to high accuracy. The observed chirp mass is the intrinsic chirp mass of the binary source multiplied by (1+z), where z is the redshift of the source. Assuming a nonzero cosmological constant, we compute the expected redshift distribution of observed events for an advanced LIGO detector. We find that the redshift distribution has a robust and sizable dependence on the cosmological constant; the data from advanced LIGO detectors could provide an independent measurement of the cosmological constant. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Remapping simulated halo catalogues in redshift space
Mead, Alexander; Peacock, John
2014-01-01
We discuss the extension to redshift space of a rescaling algorithm, designed to alter the effective cosmology of a pre-existing simulated particle distribution or catalogue of dark matter haloes. The rescaling approach was initially developed by Angulo & White and was adapted and applied to halo catalogues in real space in our previous work. This algorithm requires no information other than the initial and target cosmological parameters, and it contains no tuned parameters. It is shown here ...
The Doppler Effect: A Consideration of Quasar Redshifts.
Gordon, Kurtiss J.
1980-01-01
Provides information on the calculation of the redshift to blueshift ratio introduced by the transverse Doppler effect at relativistic speeds. Indicates that this shift should be mentioned in discussions of whether quasars are "local" rather than "cosmological" objects. (GS)
The many flavours of photometric redshifts
Salvato, Mara; Ilbert, Olivier; Hoyle, Ben
2018-06-01
Since more than 70 years ago, the colours of galaxies derived from flux measurements at different wavelengths have been used to estimate their cosmological distances. Such distance measurements, called photometric redshifts, are necessary for many scientific projects, ranging from investigations of the formation and evolution of galaxies and active galactic nuclei to precision cosmology. The primary benefit of photometric redshifts is that distance estimates can be obtained relatively cheaply for all sources detected in photometric images. The drawback is that these cheap estimates have low precision compared with resource-expensive spectroscopic ones. The methodology for estimating redshifts has been through several revolutions in recent decades, triggered by increasingly stringent requirements on the photometric redshift accuracy. Here, we review the various techniques for obtaining photometric redshifts, from template-fitting to machine learning and hybrid schemes. We also describe state-of-the-art results on current extragalactic samples and explain how survey strategy choices affect redshift accuracy. We close with a description of the photometric redshift efforts planned for upcoming wide-field surveys, which will collect data on billions of galaxies, aiming to investigate, among other matters, the stellar mass assembly and the nature of dark energy.
Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isidro, Eddy G. Chirinos; Zimdahl, Winfried; Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga
2016-01-01
Based on the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump with an extension of almost 2 Gpc provides a better description of the observations than a local void for which we obtain a best-fit scale of about 30 Mpc. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the ΛCDM model.
Dark energy with fine redshift sampling
Linder, Eric V.
2007-03-01
The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≈0.2 0.3.
Dark energy with fine redshift sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linder, Eric V.
2007-01-01
The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≅0.2-0.3
Cosmological constants and variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D
2005-01-01
We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrahamse, Augusta; Knox, Lloyd; Schmidt, Samuel; Thorman, Paul; Anthony Tyson, J.; Zhan Hu
2011-01-01
The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from multi-band imaging surveys. The accuracy of the photometric redshifts measured in these surveys depends not only on the quality of the flux data, but also on a number of modeling assumptions that enter into both the training set and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting methods of photometric redshift estimation. In this work we focus on the latter, considering two types of modeling uncertainties: uncertainties in the SED template set and uncertainties in the magnitude and type priors used in a Bayesian photometric redshift estimation method. We find that SED template selection effects dominate over magnitude prior errors. We introduce a method for parameterizing the resulting ignorance of the redshift distributions, and for propagating these uncertainties to uncertainties in cosmological parameters.
Redshift formulas and the Doppler–Fizeau effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pérez, José-Philippe
2016-01-01
In this paper, we show that redshifts, which appear in some pedagogical examples, can be expressed in terms of the Doppler–Fizeau effect. For this purpose, we use, as suggested by Weyl, the worldline elements of two physical events: the emission and the reception of a monochromatic wave. The redshift in special relativity and its Galilean approximation are derived in a simpler way than is usually done. In general relativity, the cosmological redshift can be obtained with the general Weyl formula in three important cases of gravitational fields, even though the gravitational redshift, due to bodies running away from each other, cannot be reduced to a simple kinematic effect. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wainwright, J.
1990-01-01
The workshop on mathematical cosmology was devoted to four topics of current interest. This report contains a brief discussion of the historical background of each topic and a concise summary of the content of each talk. The topics were; the observational cosmology program, the cosmological perturbation program, isotropic singularities, and the evolution of Bianchi cosmologies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychaudhuri, A.K.
1979-01-01
The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; introduction; Newtonian gravitation and cosmology; general relativity and relativistic cosmology; analysis of observational data; relativistic models not obeying the cosmological principle; microwave radiation background; thermal history of the universe and nucleosynthesis; singularity of cosmological models; gravitational constant as a field variable; cosmological models based on Einstein-Cartan theory; cosmological singularity in two recent theories; fate of perturbations of isotropic universes; formation of galaxies; baryon symmetric cosmology; assorted topics (including extragalactic radio sources; Mach principle). (U.K.)
Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de
2012-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies
Testing the accuracy of clustering redshifts with simulations
Scottez, V.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Mellier, Y.
2018-03-01
We explore the accuracy of clustering-based redshift inference within the MICE2 simulation. This method uses the spatial clustering of galaxies between a spectroscopic reference sample and an unknown sample. This study give an estimate of the reachable accuracy of this method. First, we discuss the requirements for the number objects in the two samples, confirming that this method does not require a representative spectroscopic sample for calibration. In the context of next generation of cosmological surveys, we estimated that the density of the Quasi Stellar Objects in BOSS allows us to reach 0.2 per cent accuracy in the mean redshift. Secondly, we estimate individual redshifts for galaxies in the densest regions of colour space ( ˜ 30 per cent of the galaxies) without using the photometric redshifts procedure. The advantage of this procedure is threefold. It allows: (i) the use of cluster-zs for any field in astronomy, (ii) the possibility to combine photo-zs and cluster-zs to get an improved redshift estimation, (iii) the use of cluster-z to define tomographic bins for weak lensing. Finally, we explore this last option and build five cluster-z selected tomographic bins from redshift 0.2 to 1. We found a bias on the mean redshift estimate of 0.002 per bin. We conclude that cluster-z could be used as a primary redshift estimator by next generation of cosmological surveys.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsberg, P.T.; Evans, D.A.
1977-01-01
The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: cosmology -some fundamentals; Newtonian gravitation - some fundamentals; the cosmological differential equation - the particle model and the continuum model; some simple Friedmann models; the classification of the Friedmann models; the steady-state model; universe with pressure; optical effects of the expansion according to various theories of light; optical observations and cosmological models. (U.K.)
A tomographic test of cosmological principle using the JLA compilation of type Ia supernovae
Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Sai
2018-05-01
We test the cosmological principle by fitting a dipolar modulation of distance modulus and searching for an evolution of this modulation with respect to cosmological redshift. Based on a redshift tomographic method, we divide the Joint Light-curve Analysis compilation of supernovae of type Ia into different redshift bins, and employ a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method to infer the anisotropic amplitude and direction in each redshift bin. However, we do not find any significant deviations from the cosmological principle, and the anisotropic amplitude is stringently constrained to be less than a few thousandths at 95% confidence level.
A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heymann Y.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sam- pling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spec- troscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the galactic density curves of the simulations with that of the survey, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology.
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)
2017-10-01
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander
2014-12-01
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Observable cosmology and cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kardashev, N.S.; Lukash, V.N.; Novikov, I.D.
1987-01-01
Modern state of observation cosmology is briefly discussed. Among other things, a problem, related to Hibble constant and slowdown constant determining is considered. Within ''pancake'' theory hot (neutrino) cosmological model explains well the large-scale structure of the Universe, but does not explain the galaxy formation. A cold cosmological model explains well light object formation, but contradicts data on large-scale structure
Zhang Yuan Zhong
2002-01-01
This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...
iCosmo: an interactive cosmology package
Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Kitching, T. D.; Rassat, A.
2011-04-01
Aims: The interactive software package iCosmo, designed to perform cosmological calculations is described. Methods: iCosmo is a software package to perfom interactive cosmological calculations for the low-redshift universe. Computing distance measures, the matter power spectrum, and the growth factor is supported for any values of the cosmological parameters. It also computes derived observed quantities for several cosmological probes such as cosmic shear, baryon acoustic oscillations, and type Ia supernovae. The associated errors for these observable quantities can be derived for customised surveys, or for pre-set values corresponding to current or planned instruments. The code also allows for calculation of cosmological forecasts with Fisher matrices, which can be manipulated to combine different surveys and cosmological probes. The code is written in the IDL language and thus benefits from the convenient interactive features and scientific libraries available in this language. iCosmo can also be used as an engine to perform cosmological calculations in batch mode, and forms a convenient adaptive platform for the development of further cosmological modules. With its extensive documentation, it may also serve as a useful resource for teaching and for newcomers to the field of cosmology. Results: The iCosmo package is described with a number of examples and command sequences. The code is freely available with documentation at http://www.icosmo.org, along with an interactive web interface and is part of the Initiative for Cosmology, a common archive for cosmological resources.
van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.
2017-12-01
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.
Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, J.A.
1982-01-01
The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)
How to falsify the GR+ΛCDM model with galaxy redshift surveys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric
2010-01-01
A wide range of models describing modifications to general relativity have been proposed, but no fundamental parameter set exists to describe them. Similarly, no fundamental theory exists for dark energy to parametrize its potential deviation from a cosmological constant. This motivates a model-independent search for deviations from the concordance GR+ΛCDM cosmological model in large galaxy redshift surveys. We describe two model-independent tests of the growth of cosmological structure, in the form of quantities that must equal one if GR+ΛCDM is correct. The first, ε, was introduced previously as a scale-independent consistency check between the expansion history and structure growth. The second, υ, is introduced here as a test of scale-dependence in the linear evolution of matter density perturbations. We show that the ongoing and near-future galaxy redshift surveys WiggleZ, BOSS, and HETDEX will constrain these quantities at the 5-10% level, representing a stringent test of concordance cosmology at different redshifts. When redshift space distortions are used to probe the growth of cosmological structure, galaxies at higher redshift with lower bias are found to be most powerful in detecting the presence of deviations from the GR+ΛCDM model. However, because many dark energy or modified gravity models predict consistency with GR+ΛCDM at high redshift, it is desirable to apply this approach to surveys covering a wide range of redshifts and spatial scales.
Cosmology with decaying particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1984-09-01
We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons β -1 identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (β) family of solutions; physically β -1 approx. = (Ω/sub R//Ω/sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references
Cosmology with decaying particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, M.S.
1984-09-01
We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons ..beta../sup -1/ identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (..beta..) family of solutions; physically ..beta../sup -1/ approx. = (..cap omega../sub R//..cap omega../sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references.
Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.
Higgs field and cosmological parameters in the fractal quantum system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abramov Valeriy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the fractal model of the Universe the relations of cosmological parameters and the Higgs field are established. Estimates of the critical density, the expansion and speed-up parameters of the Universe (the Hubble constant and the cosmological redshift; temperature and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation were performed.
Prospects for Detecting the 326.5 MHz Redshifted 21-cm HI Signal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
principle be carried out over a large redshift range starting from the cosmological dark ages ... BAOBAB7 aim to probe the low redshift Universe (z ≤ 2.5). ..... where each visibility V(Un,ν) is a weighted linear superposition of different Fourier ... where Tsys is the total system temperature, kB is the Boltzmann constant, A = b ×.
Constraining omega from X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies at high redshifts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadat, R.; Blanchard, A.; Oukbir, J.
1997-01-01
Properties of high redshift clusters are a fundamental source of information for cosmology. It has been shown by Oukbir and Blanchard (1997) that the combined knowledge of the redshift distribution of X-ray clusters of galaxies and the luminosity-temperature correlation, L-X - T-X, provides a pow...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inagaki, Yosuke
1977-01-01
Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Jones, Bernard J. T.
2017-04-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaver, P.A.
1986-01-01
Evidence for clustering of and with high-redshift QSOs is discussed. QSOs of different redshifts show no clustering, but QSOs of similar redshifts appear to be clustered on a scale comparable to that of galaxies at the present epoch. In addition, spectroscopic studies of close pairs of QSOs indicate that QSOs are surrounded by a relatively high density of absorbing matter, possibly clusters of galaxies
Cosmological viability of the bimetric theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krygier, B.; Krempec-Krygier, J.
1983-01-01
The approximate solutions of field equations for flat radiative cosmological models in the second version of bimetric gravitation theory are discussed. They indicate that these cosmological models are ever expanding. The apparent magnitude-redshift relations for flat dust cosmological models for different theories of gravitation are described and compared. One can reject Dirac's additive creation theory and the first version of Rosen's bimetric theory on the basis of this observational test. (author)
Luminosity function of high redshift quasars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaucher, B.G.
1982-01-01
Data from ten different emission-line surveys are included in a study of the luminosity function of high redshift quasars. Five of the surveys are analyzed through microdensitometric techniques and the data for new quasars are given. The uncertainties in magnitudes, redshifts, and line equivalent widths are assessed and found to be +-0.3 mag. +-0.04 in z and approx. 30%, respectively. Criteria for selecting the redshift range 1.8 less than or equal to z - 1 Mpc - 1 for each of two cosmologies (q 0 = 1 and q 0 = 0). For either cosmology, the function exhibits a steep increase with magnitude at high luminosities and a gentler increase at intermediate luminosities. Data from the new surveys indicate a possible turnover at the faint end of the distribution. Total volume densities of quasars are computed for each of three extrapolations of the trend of the data to low luminosities. These densities are compared to those of active galaxies and field galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desert, F.-Xavier
2004-01-01
After an introduction comprising some definitions, an historical overview, and a discussion of the paradoxical Universe, this course proposes a presentation of fundamental notions and theories, i.e. the restrained relativity and the universal gravitation. The next part addresses the general relativity with the following notions: space-time metrics and principle of generalised covariance, basics of tensor analysis, geodesics, energy-pulse tensor, curvature, Einstein equations, Newtonian limit, Schwarzschild metrics, gravitational waves, gravitational redshift. The next part addresses the standard cosmology with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations of the evolution of the Universe. The Universe expansion is then addressed: distances and horizons, Hubble law, determination of the Hubble constant. The next chapter deals with the constituents of the Universe: light matter, baryonic dark matter, black matter, supernovae, Universe acceleration and black energy. Then comes the nuclear evolution of the Universe: thermodynamics of the primordial Universe, the matter-antimatter asymmetry, from quarks to atoms, cosmic abundance, neutron cosmological background, matter-radiation equality, cosmo-chronology or the age of the Universe. The next chapter addresses the cosmological background at 3 K: sky electromagnetic spectrum, measurement of CMB anisotropies, interpretation of anisotropies, growth of perturbations. The last chapter addresses the quantum field theory and inflation: paradoxes of the standard Big Bang, the simple inflation, noticeable consequences
Statistical issues in galaxy cluster cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Rapetti Serra, David Angelo
2013-01-01
The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters is a sensitive probe of cosmological structure formation and dark energy. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneo...
The Hubble series: convergence properties and redshift variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cattoen, Celine; Visser, Matt
2007-01-01
In cosmography, cosmokinetics and cosmology, it is quite common to encounter physical quantities expanded as a Taylor series in the cosmological redshift z. Perhaps the most well-known exemplar of this phenomenon is the Hubble relation between distance and redshift. However, we now have considerable high-z data available; for instance, we have supernova data at least back to redshift z ∼ 1.75. This opens up the theoretical question as to whether or not the Hubble series (or more generally any series expansion based on the z-redshift) actually converges for large redshift. Based on a combination of mathematical and physical reasonings, we argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in z is less than or equal to 1, and that z-based expansions must break down for z > 1, corresponding to a universe less than half of its current size. Furthermore, we shall argue on theoretical grounds for the utility of an improved parametrization y = z/(1 + z). In terms of the y-redshift, we again argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in y is less than or equal to 1, so that y-based expansions are likely to be good all the way back to the big bang (y = 1), but that y-based expansions must break down for y < -1, now corresponding to a universe more than twice its current size
Redshift sensitivity of the Kaiser effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, Fergus
2010-01-01
We explore potential strategies for testing general relativity via the coherent motions of galaxies. Our position at z=0 provides the reference point for distance measures in cosmology. By contrast, the cosmic microwave background at z≅1100 acts as the point of reference for the growth of a large-scale structure. As a result, we find there is a lack of synergy between growth and distance measures. We show that, when measuring the gravitational growth index γ using redshift-space distortions, typically 80% of the signal corresponds to the local growth rate at the galaxy bin location, while the remaining fraction is determined by its behavior at higher redshifts. In order to clarify whether modified gravity may be responsible for the dark energy phenomenon, the aim is to search for a modification to the growth of structure. One might expect the magnitude of this deviation to be commensurate with the apparent dark energy density Ω Λ (z). This provides an incentive to study redshift-space distortions at as low a redshift as is practical. Specifically, we find the region around z=0.5 offers the optimal balance of available volume and signal strength.
FRB strength distribution challenges the cosmological principle
Katz, J. I.
2017-11-01
The distribution of fast radio burst (FRB) fluxes and fluences is characterized by a few very bright events and a deficiency of fainter events, compared to expectations for a homogeneous space-filling distribution. I define a metric to quantify this, and apply it to the 17 presently known Parkes FRB, products of a comparatively homogeneous search. With 98 per cent confidence, we reject the hypothesis of a homogeneous distribution in Euclidean space. Possible explanations include a reduction of fainter events by cosmological redshifts or evolution or a cosmologically local concentration of events. The former is opposed by the small value of the one known FRB redshift. The latter contradicts the Cosmological Principle, but may be explained if the brighter FRB originates in the Local Supercluster.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leibundgut, B.
2005-01-01
Supernovae have developed into a versatile tool for cosmology. Their impact on the cosmological model has been profound and led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion. The current status of the cosmological model as perceived through supernova observations will be presented. Supernovae are currently the only astrophysical objects that can measure the dynamics of the cosmic expansion during the past eight billion years. Ongoing experiments are trying to determine the characteristics of the accelerated expansion and give insight into what might be the physical explanation for the acceleration. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berstein, J.
1984-01-01
These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalatnikov, I.M.; Belinskij, V.A.
1984-01-01
Application of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems to analysis of homogeneous cosmological models is described. Together with the well-known cases, requiring ideal liquid, the properties of cosmological evolution of matter with dissipative processes due to viscosity are considered. New cosmological effects occur, when viscosity terms being one and the same order with the rest terms in the equations of gravitation or even exceeding them. In these cases the description of the dissipative process by means of only two viscosity coefficients (volume and shift) may become inapplicable because all the rest decomposition terms of dissipative addition to the energy-momentum in velocity gradient can be large application of equations with hydrodynamic viscosty should be considered as a model of dissipative effects in cosmology
Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio
2013-01-01
The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeldovich, Y.B.
1983-01-01
This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Yuanzhong
2002-06-21
This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeldovich, Ya.
1984-01-01
The knowledge is summed up of contemporary cosmology on the universe and its development resulting from a great number of highly sensitive observations and the application of contemporary physical theories to the entire universe. The questions are assessed of mass density in the universe, the structure and origin of the universe, its baryon asymmetry and the quantum explanation of the origin of the universe. Physical problems are presented which should be resolved for the future development of cosmology. (Ha)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.
Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.; NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia, IL)
1987-01-01
Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references
Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.
1986-05-01
Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations
Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.
1986-05-01
Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.
Rajantie, Arttu
2018-03-06
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesson, P.S.
1979-01-01
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution
Rajantie, Arttu
2018-01-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.
UV Visibility of Moderate-Redshift Giant Elliptical Galaxies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myung-Hyun Rhee
1998-06-01
Full Text Available We show quantitatively whether giant elliptical galaxies would be visible at far UV wavelengths if they were placed at moderate redshift of 0.4-0.5. On the basis of simple cosmological tests, we conclude that giant elliptical galaxies can be detectable upto the redshift of 0.4-0.5 in the proposed GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. We also show that obtaining UV color index such as m_1550 - V from upcoming GALEX and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations should be feasible.
Nonsingular cosmology from evolutionary quantum gravity
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni; Pittorino, Fabrizio
2014-11-01
We provide a cosmological implementation of the evolutionary quantum gravity, describing an isotropic Universe, in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and a massive (preinflationary) scalar field. We demonstrate that the considered Universe has a nonsingular quantum behavior, associated to a primordial bounce, whose ground state has a high occupation number. Furthermore, in such a vacuum state, the super-Hamiltonian eigenvalue is negative, corresponding to a positive emerging dust energy density. The regularization of the model is performed via a polymer quantum approach to the Universe scale factor and the proper classical limit is then recovered, in agreement with a preinflationary state of the Universe. Since the dust energy density is redshifted by the Universe de Sitter phase and the cosmological constant does not enter the ground state eigenvalue, we get a late-time cosmology, compatible with the present observations, endowed with a turning point in the far future.
Cosmological Parameter Estimation with Large Scale Structure Observations
Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth; Lesgourgues, Julien
2014-01-01
We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, $C_\\ell(z_1,z_2)$, calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We compare the standard $P(k)$ analysis with the new $C_\\ell(z_1,z_2)$ method. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the new analysis performs significantly better than the $P(k)$ analysis. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins which would be needed to fully profit from the redshift information, is severely limited by shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, $C_0(z_1,z_2)$.
Sanders, Robert H
2016-01-01
The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickau, Jonathan J.
2009-01-01
The use of fractals and fractal-like forms to describe or model the universe has had a long and varied history, which begins long before the word fractal was actually coined. Since the introduction of mathematical rigor to the subject of fractals, by Mandelbrot and others, there have been numerous cosmological theories and analyses of astronomical observations which suggest that the universe exhibits fractality or is by nature fractal. In recent years, the term fractal cosmology has come into usage, as a description for those theories and methods of analysis whereby a fractal nature of the cosmos is shown.
Cosmology with coalescing massive black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, Scott A; Holz, Daniel E
2003-01-01
The gravitational waves generated in the coalescence of massive binary black holes will be measurable by LISA to enormous distances. Redshifts z ∼ 10 or larger (depending somewhat on the mass of the binary) can potentially be probed by such measurements, suggesting that binary coalescences can be made into cosmological tools. We discuss two particularly interesting types of probe. First, by combining gravitational-wave measurements with information about the cosmography of the universe, we can study the evolution of black-hole masses and merger rates as a function of redshift, providing information about the growth of structures at high redshift and possibly constraining hierarchical merger scenarios. Second, if it is possible to associate an 'electromagnetic' counterpart with a coalescence, it may be possible to measure both redshift and luminosity distance to an event with less than ∼1% error. Such a measurement would constitute an amazingly precise cosmological standard candle. Unfortunately, gravitational lensing uncertainties will reduce the quality of this candle significantly. Though not as amazing as might have been hoped, such a candle would nonetheless very usefully complement other distance-redshift probes, in particular providing a valuable check on systematic effects in such measurements
Preparatory studies for the WFIRST supernova cosmology measurements
Perlmutter, Saul
In the context of the WFIRST-AFTA Science Definition Team we developed a first version of a supernova program, described in the WFIRST-AFTA SDT report. This program uses the imager to discover supernova candidates and an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) to obtain spectrophotometric light curves and higher signal to noise spectra of the supernovae near peak to better characterize the supernovae and thus minimize systematic errors. While this program was judged a robust one, and the estimates of the sensitivity to the cosmological parameters were felt to be reliable, due to limitation of time the analysis was clearly limited in depth on a number of issues. The goal of this proposal is to further develop this program and refine the estimates of the sensitivities to the cosmological parameters using more sophisticated systematic uncertainty models and covariance error matrices that fold in more realistic data concerning observed populations of SNe Ia as well as more realistic instrument models. We propose to develop analysis algorithms and approaches that are needed to build, optimize, and refine the WFIRST instrument and program requirements to accomplish the best supernova cosmology measurements possible. We plan to address the following: a) Use realistic Supernova populations, subclasses and population drift. One bothersome uncertainty with the supernova technique is the possibility of population drift with redshift. We are in a unique position to characterize and mitigate such effects using the spectrophotometric time series of real Type Ia supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). Each supernova in this sample has global galaxy measurements as well as additional local environment information derived from the IFS spectroscopy. We plan to develop methods of coping with this issue, e.g., by selecting similar subsamples of supernovae and allowing additional model flexibility, in order to reduce systematic uncertainties. These studies will allow us to
Is cosmic acceleration proven by local cosmological probes?
Tutusaus, I.; Lamine, B.; Dupays, A.; Blanchard, A.
2017-06-01
Context. The cosmological concordance model (ΛCDM) matches the cosmological observations exceedingly well. This model has become the standard cosmological model with the evidence for an accelerated expansion provided by the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Hubble diagram. However, the robustness of this evidence has been addressed recently with somewhat diverging conclusions. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to assess the robustness of the conclusion that the Universe is indeed accelerating if we rely only on low-redshift (z ≲ 2) observations, that is to say with SNIa, baryonic acoustic oscillations, measurements of the Hubble parameter at different redshifts, and measurements of the growth of matter perturbations. Methods: We used the standard statistical procedure of minimizing the χ2 function for the different probes to quantify the goodness of fit of a model for both ΛCDM and a simple nonaccelerated low-redshift power law model. In this analysis, we do not assume that supernovae intrinsic luminosity is independent of the redshift, which has been a fundamental assumption in most previous studies that cannot be tested. Results: We have found that, when SNIa intrinsic luminosity is not assumed to be redshift independent, a nonaccelerated low-redshift power law model is able to fit the low-redshift background data as well as, or even slightly better, than ΛCDM. When measurements of the growth of structures are added, a nonaccelerated low-redshift power law model still provides an excellent fit to the data for all the luminosity evolution models considered. Conclusions: Without the standard assumption that supernovae intrinsic luminosity is independent of the redshift, low-redshift probes are consistent with a nonaccelerated universe.
Bolejko, Krzysztof
2018-01-01
During my talk I will present results suggesting that the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature could resolve the conflict between Planck's (high-redshift) and Riess et al. (low-redshift) measurements of the Hubble constant. The phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature is absent in the Standard Cosmological Model, which has a flat and fixed spatial curvature (small perturbations are considered in the Standard Cosmological Model but their global average vanishes, leading to spatial flatness at all times).In my talk I will show that with the nonlinear growth of cosmic structures the global average deviates from zero. As a result, the spatial curvature evolves from spatial flatness of the early universe to a negatively curved universe at the present day, with Omega_K ~ 0.1. Consequently, the present day expansion rate, as measured by the Hubble constant, is a few percent higher compared to the high-redshift constraints. This provides an explanation why there is a tension between high-redshift (Planck) and low-redshift (Riess et al.) measurements of the Hubble constant. In the presence of emerging spatial curvature these two measurements should in fact be different: high redshift measurements should be slightly lower than the Hubble constant inferred from the low-redshift data.The presentation will be based on the results described in arXiv:1707.01800 and arXiv:1708.09143 (which discuss the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature) and on a paper that is still work in progress but is expected to be posted on arxiv by the AAS meeting (this paper uses mock low-redshift data to show that starting from the Planck's cosmological models (in the early universe) but with the emerging spatial curvature taken into account, the low-redshift Hubble constant should be 72.4 km/s/Mpc.
GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.
2011-01-01
Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 ∼ + - m 3.6 μ m colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z f ≥ 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m 3.6μm colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z f ∼ 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.
Constraints on the cosmological relativistic energy density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zentner, Andrew R.; Walker, Terry P.
2002-01-01
We discuss bounds on the cosmological relativistic energy density as a function of redshift, reviewing the big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background bounds, updating bounds from large scale structure, and introducing a new bound from the magnitude-redshift relation for type Ia supernovae. We conclude that the standard and well-motivated assumption that relativistic energy is negligible during recent epochs is not necessitated by extant data. We then demonstrate the utility of these bounds by constraining the mass and lifetime of a hypothetical massive big bang relic particle
Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing
Hearin, Andrew P.
In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my
Machine Learning and Experimental Design for Hydrogen Cosmology
Rapetti, David; Tauscher, Keith A.; Burns, Jack O.; Mirocha, Jordan; Switzer, Eric; Monsalve, Raul A.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Bowman, Judd D.
2018-06-01
Based on two powerful innovations, we present a new pipeline to analyze the redshifted sky-averaged 21-cm spectrum (~10-200 MHz) of neutral hydrogen from the first stars, galaxies and black holes. First, we combine machine learning and model selection techniques to extract the global 21-cm signal from foreground and instrumental systematics. Second, we employ experimental designs to increase our ability to separate these two components in data sets. For measurements with foreground polarization induced by rotation about the anisotropic low-frequency radio sky on a large beam, we incorporate this information into the likelihood to distinguish the unpolarized 21-cm signal from the rest of the data. For experiments with a drift scan strategy, we take advantage of the varying foreground in time to identify the constant 21-cm signal. This pipeline can be applied to either lunar orbit/surface instruments shielded from terrestrial and solar radio contamination, or existing ground-based observations, such as those from the EDGES collaboration that recently observed an absorption trough potentially consistent with the global 21-cm signal of Cosmic Dawn. Finally, this pipeline allows us to constrain physical parameters for a given model of the first luminous objects plus exotic physics in the early universe, from e.g. dark matter, through an MCMC analysis that uses the extracted signal as a starting point, providing key efficiency for unexplored cosmologies.
Cosmological measurements with general relativistic galaxy correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raccanelli, Alvise; Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier
2016-01-01
We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called ''relativistic effects'', and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms, especially lensing convergence, introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. The analysis suggests a possible substantial systematic error in cosmological parameter constraints. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.
Enqvist, K
2012-01-01
The very basics of cosmological inflation are discussed. We derive the equations of motion for the inflaton field, introduce the slow-roll parameters, and present the computation of the inflationary perturbations and their connection to the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background.
Ellis, G F R
1993-01-01
Many topics were covered in the submitted papers, showing much life in this subject at present. They ranged from conventional calculations in specific cosmological models to provocatively speculative work. Space and time restrictions required selecting from them, for summarisation here; the book of Abstracts should be consulted for a full overview.
Cosmological reconstruction of realistic modified F(R) gravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saez-Gomez, Diego
2009-01-01
The cosmological reconstruction scheme for modified F(R) gravity is developed in terms of e-folding (or, redshift). It is demonstrated how any FRW cosmology may emerge from specific F(R) theory. The specific examples of well-known cosmological evolution are reconstructed, including ΛCDM cosmology, deceleration with transition to phantom superacceleration era which may develop singularity or be transient. The application of this scheme to viable F(R) gravities unifying inflation with dark energy era is proposed. The additional reconstruction of such models leads to non-leading gravitational correction mainly relevant at the early/late universe and helping to pass the cosmological bounds (if necessary). It is also shown how cosmological reconstruction scheme may be generalized in the presence of scalar field.
On the Number of Galaxies at High Redshift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Zaninetti
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The number of galaxies at a given flux as a function of the redshift, z, is derived when the z-distance relation is non-standard. In order to compare different models, the same formalism is also applied to the standard cosmology. The observed luminosity function for galaxies of the zCOSMOS catalog at different redshifts is modeled by a new luminosity function for galaxies, which is derived by the truncated beta probability density function. Three astronomical tests, which are the photometric maximum as a function of the redshift for a fixed flux, the mean value of the redshift for a fixed flux, and the luminosity function for galaxies as a function of the redshift, compare the theoretical values of the standard and non-standard model with the observed value. The tests are performed on the FORS Deep Field (FDF catalog up to redshift z = 1.5 and on the zCOSMOS catalog extending beyond z = 4. These three tests show minimal differences between the standard and the non-standard models.
Hiding neutrino mass in modified gravity cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellomo, Nicola; Bellini, Emilio; Hu, Bin; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia [ICC, University of Barcelona (UB-IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Pena-Garay, Carlos, E-mail: nicola.bellomo@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: binhu@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UVEG, P.O. 22085, Valencia, 46071 (Spain)
2017-02-01
Cosmological observables show a dependence with the neutrino mass, which is partially degenerate with parameters of extended models of gravity. We study and explore this degeneracy in Horndeski generalized scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Using forecasted cosmic microwave background and galaxy power spectrum datasets, we find that a single parameter in the linear regime of the effective theory dominates the correlation with the total neutrino mass. For any given mass, a particular value of this parameter approximately cancels the power suppression due to the neutrino mass at a given redshift. The extent of the cancellation of this degeneracy depends on the cosmological large-scale structure data used at different redshifts. We constrain the parameters and functions of the effective gravity theory and determine the influence of gravity on the determination of the neutrino mass from present and future surveys.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)
2007-02-07
to a far better review article or book on modern cosmology. The doubters' case is threadbare at best, as Alain Blanchard put it rather more politely in his panel contribution. The Burbidges and Halton Arp reiterate the difficulties that these eminent scientists have long had in reconciling certain observations with the standard model. Most workers in the field are aware of their views and find they lack substance, especially Arp's worries about some close coincidences between the observed positions of low-redshift galaxies and high-redshift quasars. Virtually everyone believes that they have no statistical significance. Arp's belief that some quasars have non-cosmological redshifts and are being spewed out of nearby exploding galactic centres raises eyebrows. For me the most worthwhile of the 'rebel' papers is Narlikar's. Its first half is a thought-provoking survey of the many modifications through which the big-bang model has passed. He calls them additions of epicycles and in some cases I think he has a point. But his rival theory seems very far fetched and makes my point about Hamlet's ghost. The steady-state theory just will not die: in 1994, Hoyle, G. Burbidge, and Narlikar published the quasi-steady-state theory (The Astrophysical Journal 410 437) in which the universe expands, not perfectly steadily but 'in mini-creation events at regular intervals and in response the universe oscillates on a short-term period of about 50 Gyr while it also has a steady (exponential) long-term expansion at a characteristic time scale of about 1000 Gyr.' I won't go into details, but this looks like a whopping epicycle on the steady-state model{exclamation_point} Wickramasinghe's paper is on iron whiskers, which have now taken over from standard dust as the agents that must transform starlight into the microwave background. In my view the two best papers in the volume are those of the panellists Alain Blanchard (in favour of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbour, J B
2007-01-01
cosmology. The doubters' case is threadbare at best, as Alain Blanchard put it rather more politely in his panel contribution. The Burbidges and Halton Arp reiterate the difficulties that these eminent scientists have long had in reconciling certain observations with the standard model. Most workers in the field are aware of their views and find they lack substance, especially Arp's worries about some close coincidences between the observed positions of low-redshift galaxies and high-redshift quasars. Virtually everyone believes that they have no statistical significance. Arp's belief that some quasars have non-cosmological redshifts and are being spewed out of nearby exploding galactic centres raises eyebrows. For me the most worthwhile of the 'rebel' papers is Narlikar's. Its first half is a thought-provoking survey of the many modifications through which the big-bang model has passed. He calls them additions of epicycles and in some cases I think he has a point. But his rival theory seems very far fetched and makes my point about Hamlet's ghost. The steady-state theory just will not die: in 1994, Hoyle, G. Burbidge, and Narlikar published the quasi-steady-state theory (The Astrophysical Journal 410 437) in which the universe expands, not perfectly steadily but 'in mini-creation events at regular intervals and in response the universe oscillates on a short-term period of about 50 Gyr while it also has a steady (exponential) long-term expansion at a characteristic time scale of about 1000 Gyr.' I won't go into details, but this looks like a whopping epicycle on the steady-state model! Wickramasinghe's paper is on iron whiskers, which have now taken over from standard dust as the agents that must transform starlight into the microwave background. In my view the two best papers in the volume are those of the panellists Alain Blanchard (in favour of the standard model though he has difficulties with X-ray clusters) and the observer Michael Disney, who expresses radical doubts
Grant, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...
Probabilistic Photometric Redshifts in the Era of Petascale Astronomy
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Carrasco Kind, Matias [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2014-01-01
With the growth of large photometric surveys, accurately estimating photometric redshifts, preferably as a probability density function (PDF), and fully understanding the implicit systematic uncertainties in this process has become increasingly important. These surveys are expected to obtain images of billions of distinct galaxies. As a result, storing and analyzing all of these photometric redshift PDFs will be non-trivial, and this challenge becomes even more severe if a survey plans to compute and store multiple different PDFs. In this thesis, we have developed an end-to-end framework that will compute accurate and robust photometric redshift PDFs for massive data sets by using two new, state-of-the-art machine learning techniques that are based on a random forest and a random atlas, respectively. By using data from several photometric surveys, we demonstrate the applicability of these new techniques, and we demonstrate that our new approach is among the best techniques currently available. We also show how different techniques can be combined by using novel Bayesian techniques to improve the photometric redshift precision to unprecedented levels while also presenting new approaches to better identify outliers. In addition, our framework provides supplementary information regarding the data being analyzed, including unbiased estimates of the accuracy of the technique without resorting to a validation data set, identification of poor photometric redshift areas within the parameter space occupied by the spectroscopic training data, and a quantification of the relative importance of the variables used during the estimation process. Furthermore, we present a new approach to represent and store photometric redshift PDFs by using a sparse representation with outstanding compression and reconstruction capabilities. We also demonstrate how this framework can also be directly incorporated into cosmological analyses. The new techniques presented in this thesis are crucial
Singh, Satya Pal; Singh, Apoorva; Hareet, Prabhav
2011-01-01
The progress of modern cosmology took off in 1917 when A. Einstein published his paper on general theory of relativity extending his work of special theory of relativity (1905). In 1922 Alexander Friedmann constructed a mathematical model for expanding Universe that had a big bang in remote past. The experimental evidences could come in 1929 by…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partridge, R.B.
1977-01-01
Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)
CALIBRATING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH CROSS-CORRELATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, A. E.
2010-01-01
The next generation of proposed galaxy surveys will increase the number of galaxies with photometric redshift identifications by two orders of magnitude, drastically expanding both the redshift range and detection threshold from the current state of the art. Obtaining spectra for a fair subsample of these new data could be cumbersome and expensive. However, adequate calibration of the true redshift distribution of galaxies is vital to tapping the potential of these surveys to illuminate the processes of galaxy evolution and to constrain the underlying cosmology and growth of structure. We examine here an alternative to direct spectroscopic follow-up: calibration of the redshift distribution of photometric galaxies via cross-correlation with an overlapping spectroscopic survey whose members trace the same density field. We review the theory, develop a pipeline to implement the method, apply it to mock data from N-body simulations, and examine the properties of this redshift distribution estimator. We demonstrate that the method is generally effective, but the estimator is weakened by two main factors. One is that the correlation function of the spectroscopic sample must be measured in many bins along the line of sight, which renders the measurement noisy and interferes with high-quality reconstruction of the photometric redshift distribution. Also, the method is not able to disentangle the photometric redshift distribution from redshift dependence in the bias of the photometric sample. We establish the impact of these factors using our mock catalogs. We conclude that it may still be necessary to spectroscopically follow up a fair subsample of the photometric survey data. Nonetheless, it is significant that the method has been successfully implemented on mock data, and with further refinement it may appreciably decrease the number of spectra that will be needed to calibrate future surveys.
the Universe About Cosmology Planck Satellite Launched Cosmology Videos Professor George Smoot's group conducts research on the early universe (cosmology) using the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB science goals regarding cosmology. George Smoot named Director of Korean Cosmology Institute The GRB
Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology
Mantz, Adam
2013-01-01
The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan
2008-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2008-06-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also
Large scale geometry and evolution of a universe with radiation pressure and cosmological constant
Coquereaux, Robert; Coquereaux, Robert; Grossmann, Alex
2000-01-01
In view of new experimental results that strongly suggest a non-zero cosmological constant, it becomes interesting to revisit the Friedmann-Lemaitre model of evolution of a universe with cosmological constant and radiation pressure. In this paper, we discuss the explicit solutions for that model, and perform numerical explorations for reasonable values of cosmological parameters. We also analyse the behaviour of redshifts in such models and the description of ``very large scale geometrical features'' when analysed by distant observers.
The visibility of high-redshift galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.
1990-01-01
The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.
1991-01-01
We analyse a class of cosmological models in magnetohydrodynamic regime extending and completing the results of a previous paper. The material content of the models is a perfect fluid plus electromagnetic fields. The fluid is neutral in average but admits an electrical current which satisfies Ohm's law. All models fulfil the physical requirements of near equilibrium thermodynamics and can be favourably used as a more realistic description of the interior of a collapsing star in a magnetohydrodynamic regime with or without a magnetic field. (author)
Page, Don N.
2006-01-01
A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...
Religion, theology and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John T. Fitzgerald
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.
CHANDRA CLUSTER COSMOLOGY PROJECT III: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER CONSTRAINTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Voevodkin, A.; Ebeling, H.; Hornstrup, A.; Nagai, D.; Quintana, H.
2009-01-01
Chandra observations of large samples of galaxy clusters detected in X-rays by ROSAT provide a new, robust determination of the cluster mass functions at low and high redshifts. Statistical and systematic errors are now sufficiently small, and the redshift leverage sufficiently large for the mass function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with (z) = 0.55 derived from 400 deg 2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ∼ 0.05 clusters detected in the All-Sky Survey. Evolution of the mass function between these redshifts requires Ω Λ > 0 with a ∼5σ significance, and constrains the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to w 0 = -1.14 ± 0.21, assuming a constant w and a flat universe. Cluster information also significantly improves constraints when combined with other methods. Fitting our cluster data jointly with the latest supernovae, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and baryonic acoustic oscillation measurements, we obtain w 0 = -0.991 ± 0.045 (stat) ±0.039 (sys), a factor of 1.5 reduction in statistical uncertainties, and nearly a factor of 2 improvement in systematics compared with constraints that can be obtained without clusters. The joint analysis of these four data sets puts a conservative upper limit on the masses of light neutrinos Σm ν M h and σ 8 from the low-redshift cluster mass function.
Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids
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Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie, E-mail: hamaus@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: cousinou@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pisani@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: maubert@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: escoffier@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: jochen.weller@usm.lmu.de [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, 163 avenue de Luminy, F-13288, Marseille (France)
2017-07-01
We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h {sup −1}Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599{sup +0.134}{sub −0.124} and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457{sup +0.056}{sub −0.054}, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.
Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids
Hamaus, Nico; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Weller, Jochen
2017-07-01
We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h-1Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β(bar z=0.32)=0.599+0.134-0.124 and β(bar z=0.54)=0.457+0.056-0.054, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at bar z=0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15
Next generation redshift surveys and the origin of cosmic acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acquaviva, Viviana; Hajian, Amir; Spergel, David N.; Das, Sudeep
2008-01-01
Cosmologists are exploring two possible sets of explanations for the remarkable observation of cosmic acceleration: dark energy fills space or general relativity fails on cosmological scales. We define a null test parameter ε(k,a)≡Ω m -γ dlnD/dlna-1, where a is the scale factor, D is the growth rate of structure, Ω m (a) is the matter density parameter, and γ is a simple function of redshift. We show that it can be expressed entirely in terms of the bias factor, b(a), measured from cross correlations with cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the amplitude of redshift-space distortions, β(k,a). Measurements of the CMB power spectrum determine Ω m0 H 0 2 . If dark energy within general relativity is the solution to the cosmic acceleration problem, then the logarithmic growth rate of structure dlnD/dlna=Ω m γ . Thus, ε(k,a)=0 on linear scales to better than 1%. We show that in the class of modified gravity models known as f(R), the growth rate has a different dependence on scale and redshift. By combining measurements of the amplitude of β and of the bias, b, redshift surveys will be able to determine the logarithmic growth rate as a function of scale and redshift. We estimate the predicted sensitivity of the proposed SDSS III (BOSS) survey and the proposed ADEPT mission and find that they will test structure growth in general relativity to the percent level.
Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie
2017-01-01
We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h −1 Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599 +0.134 −0.124 and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457 +0.056 −0.054 , with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.
The Galaxy Count Correlation Function in Redshift Space Revisited
Campagne, J.-E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Neveu, J.
2017-08-01
In the near future, cosmology will enter the wide and deep galaxy survey era, enabling high-precision studies of the large-scale structure of the universe in three dimensions. To test cosmological models and determine their parameters accurately, it is necessary to use data with exact theoretical expectations expressed in observational parameter space (angles and redshift). The data-driven, galaxy number count fluctuations on redshift shells can be used to build correlation functions ξ (θ ,{z}1,{z}2) on and between shells to probe the baryonic acoustic oscillations and distance-redshift distortions, as well as gravitational lensing and other relativistic effects. To obtain a numerical estimation of ξ (θ ,{z}1,{z}2) from a cosmological model, it is typical to use either a closed form derived from a tripolar spherical expansion or to compute the power spectrum {C}{\\ell }({z}1,{z}2) and perform a Legendre polynomial {P}{\\ell }(\\cos θ ) expansion. Here, we present a new derivation of a ξ (θ ,{z}1,{z}2) closed form using the spherical harmonic expansion and proceeding to an infinite sum over multipoles thanks to an addition theorem. We demonstrate that this new expression is perfectly compatible with the existing closed forms but is simpler to establish and manipulate. We provide formulas for the leading density and redshift-space contributions, but also show how Doppler-like and lensing terms can be easily included in this formalism. We have implemented and made publicly available software for computing those correlations efficiently, without any Limber approximation, and validated this software with the CLASSgal code. It is available at https://gitlab.in2p3.fr/campagne/AngPow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, L P; Forte, M; Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L
2011-01-01
In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.
Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after considering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the early ...
The large scale microwave background anisotropy in decaying particle cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panek, M.
1987-06-01
We investigate the large-scale anisotropy of the microwave background radiation in cosmological models with decaying particles. The observed value of the quadrupole moment combined with other constraints gives an upper limit on the redshift of the decay z/sub d/ < 3-5. 12 refs., 2 figs
Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mary L. Martínez-Aldama
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.
Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift
Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Perea, Jaime; D'Onofrio, Mauro
2017-12-01
We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (LLedd>0.2) at high redshift, z 2-3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as AlIII, SiIII and CIII. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.
Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Knop, R.A.; Nugent, P.; Castro, P.G.; Deustua, S.; Fabbro, S.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hook, I.M.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Lee, J.C.; Nunes, N.J.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Quimby, R.; Lidman, C.; Ellis, R.S.; Irwin, M.; McMahon, R.G.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Walton, N.; Schaefer, B.; Boyle, B.J.; Filippenko, A.V.; Matheson, T.; Fruchter, A.S.; Panagia, N.; Newberg, H.J.; Couch, W.J.
1999-01-01
We report measurements of the mass density, Ω M , and cosmological-constant energy density, Ω Λ , of the universe based on the analysis of 42 type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these supernovae, at redshifts between 0.18 and 0.83, are fitted jointly with a set of supernovae from the Calacute an/Tololo Supernova Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological parameters. All supernova peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia light-curve width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the relation 0.8Ω M -0.6Ω Λ ∼-0.2±0.1 in the region of interest (Ω M approx-lt 1.5). For a flat (Ω M +Ω Λ =1) cosmology we find Ω flat M =0.28 +0.09 -0.08 (1 σ statistical) +0.05 -0.04 (identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Λ=0 flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Λ=0 cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero and positive, with a confidence of P(Λ>0)=99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t flat 0 =14.9 +1.4 -1.1 (0.63/h) Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calacute an/Tololo sample and our high-redshift sample. Excluding those few supernovae that are outliers in color excess or fit residual does not significantly change the results. The conclusions are also robust whether or not a width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the supernova peak magnitudes. We discuss and constrain, where possible, hypothetical alternatives to a cosmological constant
Isotropy of low redshift type Ia supernovae: A Bayesian analysis
Andrade, U.; Bengaly, C. A. P.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Santos, B.
2018-04-01
The standard cosmology strongly relies upon the cosmological principle, which consists on the hypotheses of large scale isotropy and homogeneity of the Universe. Testing these assumptions is, therefore, crucial to determining if there are deviations from the standard cosmological paradigm. In this paper, we use the latest type Ia supernova compilations, namely JLA and Union2.1 to test the cosmological isotropy at low redshift ranges (z <0.1 ). This is performed through a Bayesian selection analysis, in which we compare the standard, isotropic model, with another one including a dipole correction due to peculiar velocities. The full covariance matrix of SN distance uncertainties are taken into account. We find that the JLA sample favors the standard model, whilst the Union2.1 results are inconclusive, yet the constraints from both compilations are in agreement with previous analyses. We conclude that there is no evidence for a dipole anisotropy from nearby supernova compilations, albeit this test should be greatly improved with the much-improved data sets from upcoming cosmological surveys.
The afterglow, redshift and extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst of 23 January 1999
Kulkarni, [No Value; Djorgovski, SG; Odewahn, SC; Bloom, JS; Gal, RR; Koresko, CD; Harrison, FA; Lubin, LM; Armus, L; Sari, R; Illingworth, GD; Kelson, DD; Magee, DK; van Dokkum, PG; Frail, DA; Mulchaey, JS; Malkan, MA; McClean, IS; Teplitz, HI; Koerner, D; Kirkpatrick, D; Kobayashi, N; Yadigaroglu, IA; Halpern, J; Piran, T; Goodrich, RW; Chaffee, FH; Feroci, M; Costa, E
1999-01-01
Long-lived emission, known as afterglow, has now been detected from about a dozen gamma-ray bursts. Distance determinations place the bursts at cosmological distances, with redshifts,z, ranging from similar to 1 to 3, The energy required to produce these bright gamma-ray flashes is enormous: up to
Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslanka, K.
1983-01-01
The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)
Getting started With Amazon Redshift
Bauer, Stefan
2013-01-01
Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.
1984-01-01
The subject of these lectures is quantum effects in cosmology. The author deals first with situations in which the gravitational field can be treated as a classical, unquantized background on which the quantum matter fields propagate. This is the case with inflation at the GUT era. Nevertheless the curvature of spacetime can have important effects on the behaviour of the quantum fields and on the development of long-range correlations. He then turns to the question of the quantization of the gravitational field itself. The plan of these lectures is as follows: Euclidean approach to quantum field theory in flat space; the extension of techniques to quantum fields on a curved background with the four-sphere, the Euclidean version of De Sitter space as a particular example; the GUT era; quantization of the gravitational field by Euclidean path integrals; mini superspace model. (Auth.)
Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián
2012-01-01
Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.
Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu
2002-01-01
The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.
Hierarchical Matching and Regression with Application to Photometric Redshift Estimation
Murtagh, Fionn
2017-06-01
This work emphasizes that heterogeneity, diversity, discontinuity, and discreteness in data is to be exploited in classification and regression problems. A global a priori model may not be desirable. For data analytics in cosmology, this is motivated by the variety of cosmological objects such as elliptical, spiral, active, and merging galaxies at a wide range of redshifts. Our aim is matching and similarity-based analytics that takes account of discrete relationships in the data. The information structure of the data is represented by a hierarchy or tree where the branch structure, rather than just the proximity, is important. The representation is related to p-adic number theory. The clustering or binning of the data values, related to the precision of the measurements, has a central role in this methodology. If used for regression, our approach is a method of cluster-wise regression, generalizing nearest neighbour regression. Both to exemplify this analytics approach, and to demonstrate computational benefits, we address the well-known photometric redshift or `photo-z' problem, seeking to match Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic and photometric redshifts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.
1989-01-01
A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.
1989-01-01
We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs
Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies
Hoyle, B.; Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Rau, M. M.; De Vicente, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Gaztanaga, E.; DeRose, J.; Troxel, M. A.; Davis, C.; Alarcon, A.; MacCrann, N.; Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Childress, M.; Davis, T. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gatti, M.; Glazebrook, K.; Gschwend, J.; Hinton, S. R.; Hoormann, J. K.; Kim, A. G.; King, A.; Kuehn, K.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; Macaulay, E.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Mudd, D.; Möller, A.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Rollins, R. P.; Roodman, A.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sharp, R.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Varga, T. N.; Vielzeuf, P.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Busha, M. T.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.; Yanny, B.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration
2018-04-01
We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the populations of galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z ≈ 0.2 and ≈1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions n^i_PZ(z)∝ dn^i/dz for members of bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of ni but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts n^i(z)=n^i_PZ(z-Δ z^i) to correct the mean redshift of ni(z) for biases in n^i_PZ. The Δzi are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the Δzi of the three lowest redshift bins are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15 < z < 0.9. This paper details the BPZ and COSMOS procedures, and demonstrates that the cosmological inference is insensitive to details of the ni(z) beyond the choice of Δzi. The clustering and COSMOS validation methods produce consistent estimates of Δzi in the bins where both can be applied, with combined uncertainties of σ _{Δ z^i}=0.015, 0.013, 0.011, and 0.022 in the four bins. Repeating the photo-z proceedure instead using the Directional Neighborhood Fitting (DNF) algorithm, or using the ni(z) estimated from the matched sample in COSMOS, yields no discernible difference in cosmological inferences.
RECONSTRUCTING REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH CROSS-CORRELATIONS: TESTS AND AN OPTIMIZED RECIPE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.
2010-01-01
Many of the cosmological tests to be performed by planned dark energy experiments will require extremely well-characterized photometric redshift measurements. Current estimates for cosmic shear are that the true mean redshift of the objects in each photo-z bin must be known to better than 0.002(1 + z), and the width of the bin must be known to ∼0.003(1 + z) if errors in cosmological measurements are not to be degraded significantly. A conventional approach is to calibrate these photometric redshifts with large sets of spectroscopic redshifts. However, at the depths probed by Stage III surveys (such as DES), let alone Stage IV (LSST, JDEM, and Euclid), existing large redshift samples have all been highly (25%-60%) incomplete, with a strong dependence of success rate on both redshift and galaxy properties. A powerful alternative approach is to exploit the clustering of galaxies to perform photometric redshift calibrations. Measuring the two-point angular cross-correlation between objects in some photometric redshift bin and objects with known spectroscopic redshift, as a function of the spectroscopic z, allows the true redshift distribution of a photometric sample to be reconstructed in detail, even if it includes objects too faint for spectroscopy or if spectroscopic samples are highly incomplete. We test this technique using mock DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift survey light cones constructed from the Millennium Simulation semi-analytic galaxy catalogs. From this realistic test, which incorporates the effects of galaxy bias evolution and cosmic variance, we find that the true redshift distribution of a photometric sample can, in fact, be determined accurately with cross-correlation techniques. We also compare the empirical error in the reconstruction of redshift distributions to previous analytic predictions, finding that additional components must be included in error budgets to match the simulation results. This extra error contribution is small for surveys that sample
Perspective: Tipping the scales: Search for drifting constants from molecular spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, Paul; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Ubachs, Wim
2014-01-01
Transitions in atoms and molecules provide an ideal test ground for constraining or detecting a possible variation of the fundamental constants of nature. In this perspective, we review molecular species that are of specific interest in the search for a drifting proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. In particular, we outline the procedures that are used to calculate the sensitivity coefficients for transitions in these molecules and discuss current searches. These methods have led to a rate of change in μ bounded to 6 × 10 −14 /yr from a laboratory experiment performed in the present epoch. On a cosmological time scale, the variation is limited to |Δμ/μ| −5 for look-back times of 10–12× 10 9 years and to |Δμ/μ| −7 for look-back times of 7× 10 9 years. The last result, obtained from high-redshift observation of methanol, translates into μ . /μ=(1.4±1.4)×10 −17 /yr if a linear rate of change is assumed
Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.
1994-12-01
In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.
Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Esparza-Arredondo, Donají; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión
2017-01-01
We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.
Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negrete, C. Alenka [CONACYT Research Fellow - Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padua (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain); Esparza-Arredondo, Donají [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Morelia (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión, E-mail: alenka@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain)
2017-12-15
We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.
Cluster cosmology with next-generation surveys.
Ascaso, B.
2017-03-01
The advent of next-generation surveys will provide a large number of cluster detections that will serve the basis for constraining cos mological parameters using cluster counts. The main two observational ingredients needed are the cluster selection function and the calibration of the mass-observable relation. In this talk, we present the methodology designed to obtain robust predictions of both ingredients based on realistic cosmological simulations mimicking the following next-generation surveys: J-PAS, LSST and Euclid. We display recent results on the selection functions for these mentioned surveys together with others coming from other next-generation surveys such as eROSITA, ACTpol and SPTpol. We notice that the optical and IR surveys will reach the lowest masses between 0.3
Cosmology with clusters in the CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, Subhabrata
2008-01-01
Ever since the seminal work by Sunyaev and Zel'dovich describing the distortion of the CMB spectrum, due to photons passing through the hot inter cluster gas on its way to us from the surface of last scattering (the so called Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE)), small scale distortions of the CMB by clusters has been used to detect clusters as well as to do cosmology with clusters. Cosmology with clusters in the CMB can be divided into three distinct regimes: a) when the clusters are completely unresolved and contribute to the secondary CMB distortions power spectrum at small angular scales; b) when we can just about resolve the clusters so as to detect the clusters through its total SZE flux such that the clusters can be tagged and counted for doing cosmology and c) when we can completely resolve the clusters so as to measure their sizes and other cluster structural properties and their evolution with redshift. In this article, we take a look at these three aspects of SZE cluster studies and their implication for using clusters as cosmological probes. We show that clusters can be used as effective probes of cosmology, when in all of these three cases, one explores the synergy between cluster physics and cosmology as well take clues about cluster physics from the latest high precision cluster observations (for example, from Chandra and XMM - Newton). As a specific case, we show how an observationally motivated cluster SZ template can explain the CBI-excess without the need for a high σ 8 . We also briefly discuss 'self-calibration' in cluster surveys and the prospect of using clusters as an ensemble of cosmic rulers to break degeneracies arising in cluster cosmology.
Cosmological forecasts from photometric measurements of the angular correlation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R.; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L. A. N. da; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.
2011-01-01
We study forecasts for the accuracy of the determination of cosmological parameters from future large-scale photometric surveys obtained using the full shape of the 2-point galaxy angular correlation function. The effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift Gaussian errors, galaxy bias and nonlinearities in the power spectrum are included on our analysis. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, including the correlation between nearby redshift shells arising from the photometric redshift error. We show that under some reasonable assumptions, a survey such as the imminent Dark Energy Survey should be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w and the cold dark matter density Ω cdm with a precision of the order of 20% and 13%, respectively, from the full shape of the angular correlation function alone. When combined with priors from other observations the precision in the determination of these parameters improve to 8% and 4%, respectively.
Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae
Haynie, Annastasia
2018-01-01
Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.
Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Cucchiara, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2014-07-01
We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.
Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.
2014-01-01
We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z phot , of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z phot < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z phot in the ranges of 4 < z phot ≲ 8 and 9 < z phot < 10 and can robustly determine when z phot > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z phot < 4 when z sim > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.
ArborZ: PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS USING BOOSTED DECISION TREES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerdes, David W.; Sypniewski, Adam J.; McKay, Timothy A.; Hao, Jiangang; Weis, Matthew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.
2010-01-01
Precision photometric redshifts will be essential for extracting cosmological parameters from the next generation of wide-area imaging surveys. In this paper, we introduce a photometric redshift algorithm, ArborZ, based on the machine-learning technique of boosted decision trees. We study the algorithm using galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and from mock catalogs intended to simulate both the SDSS and the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. We show that it improves upon the performance of existing algorithms. Moreover, the method naturally leads to the reconstruction of a full probability density function (PDF) for the photometric redshift of each galaxy, not merely a single 'best estimate' and error, and also provides a photo-z quality figure of merit for each galaxy that can be used to reject outliers. We show that the stacked PDFs yield a more accurate reconstruction of the redshift distribution N(z). We discuss limitations of the current algorithm and ideas for future work.
A high deuterium abundance at redshift z = 0.7.
Webb, J K; Carswell, R F; Lanzetta, K M; Ferlet, R; Lemoine, M; Vidal-Madjar, A; Bowen, D V
1997-07-17
Of the light elements, the primordial abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen, (D/H)p, provides the most sensitive diagnostic for the cosmological mass density parameter, omegaB. Recent high-redshift D/H measurements are highly discrepant, although this may reflect observational uncertainties. The larger primordial D/H values imply a low omegaB (requiring the Universe to be dominated by non-baryonic matter), and cause problems for galactic chemical evolution models, which have difficulty in reproducing the steep decline in D/H to the present-day values. Conversely, the lower D/H values measured at high redshift imply an omegaB greater than that derived from 7Li and 4He abundance measurements, and may require a deuterium-abundance evolution that is too low to easily explain. Here we report the first measurement of D/H at intermediate redshift (z = 0.7010), in a gas cloud selected to minimize observational uncertainties. Our analysis yields a value of D/H ((2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10[-4]) which is at the upper end of the range of values measured at high redshifts. This finding, together with other independent observations, suggests that there may be inhomogeneity in (D/H)p of at least a factor of ten.
Dimensional cosmological principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chi, L.K.
1985-01-01
The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1985-01-01
The author reviews the standard cosmology, focusing on primordial nucleosynthesis, and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is examined in which the B, C, CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-baryon ratio. Monoposes, cosmology and astrophysics are reviewed. The author also discusses supersymmetry/supergravity and cosmology, superstrings and cosmology in extra dimensions, and axions, astrophics, and cosmology
Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoyle, B.; et al.
2017-08-04
We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z=0.2 and 1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions $n^i_{PZ}(z)$ for bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of $n^i$ but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts $n^i(z)=n^i_{PZ}(z-\\Delta z^i)$ to correct the mean redshift of $n^i(z)$ for biases in $n^i_{\\rm PZ}$. The $\\Delta z^i$ are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the $\\Delta z^i$ are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15
An Investigation of Intracluster Light Evolution Using Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
Tang, Lin; Lin, Weipeng; Cui, Weiguang; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Contini, E.; Yu, Yu
2018-06-01
Intracluster light (ICL) in observations is usually identified through the surface brightness limit (SBL) method. In this paper, for the first time we produce mock images of galaxy groups and clusters, using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to investigate the ICL fraction and focus on its dependence on observational parameters, e.g., the SBL, the effects of cosmological redshift-dimming, point-spread function (PSF), and CCD pixel size. Detailed analyses suggest that the width of the PSF has a significant effect on the measured ICL fraction, while the relatively small pixel size shows almost no influence. It is found that the measured ICL fraction depends strongly on the SBL. At a fixed SBL and redshift, the measured ICL fraction decreases with increasing halo mass, while with a much fainter SBL, it does not depend on halo mass at low redshifts. In our work, the measured ICL fraction shows a clear dependence on the cosmological redshift-dimming effect. It is found that there is more mass locked in the ICL component than light, suggesting that the use of a constant mass-to-light ratio at high surface brightness levels will lead to an underestimate of ICL mass. Furthermore, it is found that the radial profile of ICL shows a characteristic radius that is almost independent of halo mass. The current measurement of ICL from observations has a large dispersion due to different methods, and we emphasize the importance of using the same definition when observational results are compared with theoretical predictions.
Infrared Resummation for Biased Tracers in Redshift Space arXiv
Ivanov, Mikhail M.
We incorporate the effects of redshift space distortions and non-linear bias in time-sliced perturbation theory (TSPT). This is done via a new method that allows to map cosmological correlation functions from real to redshift space. This mapping preserves a transparent infrared (IR) structure of the theory and provides us with an efficient tool to study non-linear infrared effects altering the pattern of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in redshift space. We give an accurate description of the BAO by means of a systematic resummation of Feynman diagrams guided by well-defined power counting rules. This establishes IR resummation within TSPT as a robust and complete procedure and provides a consistent theoretical model for the BAO feature in the statistics of biased tracers in redshift space.
Gomes, Zahra; Jarvis, Matt J.; Almosallam, Ibrahim A.; Roberts, Stephen J.
2018-03-01
The next generation of large-scale imaging surveys (such as those conducted with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Euclid) will require accurate photometric redshifts in order to optimally extract cosmological information. Gaussian Process for photometric redshift estimation (GPZ) is a promising new method that has been proven to provide efficient, accurate photometric redshift estimations with reliable variance predictions. In this paper, we investigate a number of methods for improving the photometric redshift estimations obtained using GPZ (but which are also applicable to others). We use spectroscopy from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Data Release 2 with a limiting magnitude of r Program Data Release 1 and find that it produces significant improvements in accuracy, similar to the effect of including additional features.
Discovery of a probable galaxy with a redshift of 3.218
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djorgovski, S.; Spinard, H.; McCarthy, P.; Strauss, M.A.
1985-01-01
We report the discovery of a narrow emission line object, probably a galaxy, with a redshift of 3.218. The object is a companion to the quasar PKS 1614+051, which is at a redshift of 3.209. This is the most distant non--QSO, non--gravitationally lensed object presently known by a large margin. Its properties are consistent with those expected of a high-redshift galaxy. This object has an age of only a few percent of the present age of the universe. The object was discovered with a novel technique, which promises to push studies of distant galaxies to redshifts as high as those of the most distant quasars known, and which may eventually lead to the discovery of primeval galaxies. This discovery opens the way for studies of galaxies beyond z = 3, which should prove invaluable for observational cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E. Gaffiney
2004-11-23
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaffiney, E.
2004-01-01
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)
(Lack of) Cosmological evidence for dark radiation after Planck
Verde, Licia; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V
2013-01-01
We use Bayesian model comparison to determine whether extensions to Standard-Model neutrino physics -- primarily additional effective numbers of neutrinos and/or massive neutrinos -- are merited by the latest cosmological data. Given the significant advances in cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations represented by the Planck data, we examine whether Planck temperature and CMB lensing data, in combination with lower redshift data, have strengthened (or weakened) the previous findings. We conclude that the state-of-the-art cosmological data do not show evidence for deviations from the standard cosmological model (which has three massless neutrino families). This does not mean that the model is necessarily correct -- in fact we know it is incomplete as neutrinos are not massless -- but it does imply that deviations from the standard model (e.g., non-zero neutrino mass) are too small compared to the current experimental uncertainties to be inferred from cosmological data alone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.
1991-01-01
This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1985-01-01
Two Friedman's cosmological papers (1922, 1924) and his own interpretation of the obtained results are briefly reviewed. Discussion follows of Friedman's role in the early development of relativistic cosmology. 18 refs. (author)
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2016-12-20
Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
2016-01-01
The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...
Rectangular drift tube characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.
1985-01-01
Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode
LOWER BOUNDS ON PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ERRORS FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA TEMPLATES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asztalos, S.; Nikolaev, S.; De Vries, W.; Olivier, S.; Cook, K.; Wang, L.
2010-01-01
Cosmology with Type Ia supernova heretofore has required extensive spectroscopic follow-up to establish an accurate redshift. Though this resource-intensive approach is tolerable at the present discovery rate, the next generation of ground-based all-sky survey instruments will render it unsustainable. Photometry-based redshift determination may be a viable alternative, though the technique introduces non-negligible errors that ultimately degrade the ability to discriminate between competing cosmologies. We present a strictly template-based photometric redshift estimator and compute redshift reconstruction errors in the presence of statistical errors. Under highly degraded photometric conditions corresponding to a statistical error σ of 0.5, the residual redshift error is found to be 0.236 when assuming a nightly observing cadence and a single Large Synoptic Science Telescope (LSST) u-band filter. Utilizing all six LSST bandpass filters reduces the residual redshift error to 9.1 x 10 -3 . Assuming a more optimistic statistical error σ of 0.05, we derive residual redshift errors of 4.2 x 10 -4 , 5.2 x 10 -4 , 9.2 x 10 -4 , and 1.8 x 10 -3 for observations occuring nightly, every 5th, 20th and 45th night, respectively, in each of the six LSST bandpass filters. Adopting an observing cadence in which photometry is acquired with all six filters every 5th night and a realistic supernova distribution, binned redshift errors are combined with photometric errors with a σ of 0.17 and systematic errors with a σ∼ 0.003 to derive joint errors (σ w , σ w ' ) of (0.012, 0.066), respectively, in (w,w') with 68% confidence using Fisher matrix formalism. Though highly idealized in the present context, the methodology is nonetheless quite relevant for the next generation of ground-based all-sky surveys.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E.S. Gaffney
2003-10-08
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
E.S. Gaffney
2003-01-01
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report
Roos, Matts
2015-01-01
The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Schramm, D.N.
1985-01-01
During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe
Phantom cosmologies and fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M
2008-01-01
Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the 'phantomization' process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes. As an application we analyze the cosmological constant group for a fermionic seed fluid
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Turner, M.S.
1982-06-01
work is described in these areas: cosmological baryon production; cosmological production of free quarks and other exotic particle species; the quark-hadron transition in the early universe; astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties; massive neutrinos; phase transitions in the early universe; and astrophysical implications of an axion-like particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1989-01-01
Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one
. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Nobelist George Smoot to Direct Korean Cosmology Institute Nobel Laureate George Smoot has been appointed director of a new cosmology institute in South Korea that will work closely with the year-old Berkeley the Early Universe (IEU) at EWHA Womans University in Seoul, Korea will provide cosmology education
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P.
1991-01-01
The main concepts of cosmology are discussed, and some of the misconceptions are clarified. The features of big bang cosmology are examined, and it is noted that the existence of the cosmic background radiation provides welcome confirmation of the big bang theory. Calculations of relative abundances of the elements conform with observations, further strengthening the confidence in the basic ideas of big bang cosmology
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2001-01-01
Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.
CERN. Geneva
1999-01-01
Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langer, M.
2007-01-01
This is a very concise introductory lecture to Cosmology. We start by reviewing the basics of homogeneous and isotropic cosmology. We then spend some time on the description of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Finally, a small section is devoted to the discussion of the cosmological constant and of some of the related problems
Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Raccanelli, A
2012-08-01
Full Text Available is to measure the cosmo- logical parameters of particular current interest. Among the biggest challenges in cosmology is to determine whether the standard � cold dark matter (CDM) model and its general relativity (GR) con- text are correct, or whether we need a... as a function of redshift and the bias of different source populations as a function of red- shift. These are required in order to make predictions for cosmo- logical probes, such as the autocorrelation function and the cross- correlation of radio...
PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; McKee, Christopher F.; Pozzi, Francesca
2013-01-01
We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 ∼> z ∼> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z phot )/(1 + z spec ) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 μm flux ∼> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR ∼> 10 12 L ☉ ), and 3% of the total SFRD at z ∼ 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dwayne C. Kicker
2001-09-28
A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events
Cosmological tests of a scale covariant theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owen, J.R.
1979-01-01
The Friedmann models with #betta# = 0 are subjected to several optical and radio tests within the standard and scale covariant theories of gravitation. Within standard cosmology, both interferometric and scintillation data are interpreted in terms of selection effects and evolution. Within the context of scale covariant cosmology are derived: (1) the full solution to Einstein's gravitational equations in atomic units for a matter dominated universe, (2) the study of the magnitude vs. redshift relation for elliptical galaxies, (3) the derivation of the evolutionary parameter used in (2), (4) the isophotal angular diameter vs. redshift relation, (5) the metric angular diameter vs. redshift relation, (6) the N(m) vs. magnitude relation for QSO's and their m vs z relation, and finally (7) the integrated and differential expressions for the number count vs. radio flux test. The results, both in graphical and tabular form, are presented for four gauges (i.e. parametrized relations between atomic and gravitational units). No contradiction between the new theory and the data is found with any of the tests studied. For some gauges, which are suggested by a recent analysis of the time variation of the Moon's period which is discussed in the text in terms of the new theory, the effect of the deceleration parameter on cosmological predictions is enhanced over standard cosmology and it is possible to say that the data are more easily reconciled with an open universe. Within the same gauge, the main features of both the N(m) vs. m and m-z test are accounted for by the same simple evolutionary parametrization whereas different evolutionary rates were indicated by interpretation within standard cosmology. The same consistency, lacking in standard cosmology on this level of analysis, is achieved for the integrated and differential number count - radio flux tests within the same gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pesce, D. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Gao, F.; Lo, K. Y. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Litzinger, E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-09-01
We use single-dish radio spectra of known 22 GHz H{sub 2}O megamasers, primarily gathered from the large data set observed by the Megamaser Cosmology Project, to identify Keplerian accretion disks and to investigate several aspects of the disk physics. We test a mechanism for maser excitation proposed by Maoz and McKee (1998), whereby population inversion arises in gas behind spiral shocks traveling through the disk. Though the flux of redshifted features is larger on average than that of blueshifted features, in support of the model, the high-velocity features show none of the predicted systematic velocity drifts. We find rapid intra-day variability in the maser spectrum of ESO 558−G009 that is likely the result of interstellar scintillation, for which we favor a nearby (D ≈ 70 pc) scattering screen. In a search for reverberation in six well-sampled sources, we find that any radially propagating signal must be contributing ≲10% of the total variability. We also set limits on the magnetic field strengths in seven sources, using strong flaring events to check for the presence of Zeeman splitting. These limits are typically 200–300 mG (1σ), but our most stringent limits reach down to 73 mG for the galaxy NGC 1194.
Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon
2017-04-01
Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O
Cosmological evidence for leptonic asymmetry after Planck
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caramete, A.; Popa, L.A., E-mail: acaramete@spacescience.ro, E-mail: lpopa@spacescience.ro [Institute of Space Science, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania)
2014-02-01
Recently, the PLANCK satellite found a larger and most precise value of the matter energy density, that impacts on the present values of other cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, the present cluster abundances S{sub 8}, and the age of the Universe t{sub U}. The existing tension between PLANCK determination of these parameters in the frame of the base ΛCDM model and their determination from other measurements generated lively discussions, one possible interpretation being that some sources of systematic errors in cosmological measurements are not completely understood. An alternative interpretation is related to the fact that the CMB observations, that probe the high redshift Universe are interpreted in terms of cosmological parameters at present time by extrapolation within the base ΛCDM model that can be inadequate or incomplete. In this paper we quantify this tension by exploring several extensions of the base ΛCDM model that include the leptonic asymmetry. We set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties by using the latest cosmological measurements, imposing also self-consistent BBN constraints on the primordial helium abundance. For all asymmetric cosmological models we find the preference of cosmological data for smaller values of active and sterile neutrino masses. This increases the tension between cosmological and short baseline neutrino oscillation data that favors a sterile neutrino with the mass of around 1 eV. For the case of degenerate massive neutrinos, we find that the discrepancies with the local determinations of H{sub 0}, and t{sub U} are alleviated at ∼ 1.3σ level while S{sub 8} is in agreement with its determination from CFHTLenS survey data at ∼ 1σ and with the prediction of cluster mass-observation relation at ∼ 0.5σ. We also find 2σ statistical preference of the cosmological data for the leptonic asymmetric models involving three massive neutrino species and neutrino direct
Philosophical Roots of Cosmology
Ivanovic, M.
2008-10-01
We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.
An electrodeless drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.
1982-01-01
We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.
2015-01-01
An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...... data set from a Spanish bank....
Space distribution of extragalactic sources - Cosmology versus evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavaliere, A.; Maccacaro, T.
1990-01-01
Alternative cosmologies have been recurrently invoked to explain in terms of global spacetime structure the apparent large increase, with increasing redshift, in the average luminosity of active galactic nuclei. These models interestingly seek to avoid the complexities of the canonical interpretation in terms of intrinsic population evolutions in a Friedmann universe. However, a problem of consistency for these cosmologies is pointed out, since they have to include also other classes of extragalactic sources, such as clusters of galaxies and BL Lac objects, for which there is preliminary evidence of a different behavior. 40 refs
Time dependent drift Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1982-04-01
The motion of individual charged particles in a given magnetic and an electric fields is discussed. An idea of a guiding center distribution function f is introduced. The guiding center distribution function is connected to the asymptotic Hamiltonian through the drift kinetic equation. The general non-stochastic magnetic field can be written in a contravariant and a covariant forms. The drift Hamiltonian is proposed, and the canonical gyroradius is presented. The proposed drift Hamiltonian agrees with Alfven's drift velocity to lowest non-vanishing order in the gyroradius. The relation between the exact, time dependent equations of motion and the guiding center equation is clarified by a Lagrangian analysis. The deduced Lagrangian represents the drift motion. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J.T. Birkholzer
2004-01-01
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport
Deconstructing the neutrino mass constraint from galaxy redshift surveys
Boyle, Aoife; Komatsu, Eiichiro
2018-03-01
The total mass of neutrinos can be constrained in a number of ways using galaxy redshift surveys. Massive neutrinos modify the expansion rate of the Universe, which can be measured using baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) or the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. Massive neutrinos also change the structure growth rate and the amplitude of the matter power spectrum, which can be measured using redshift-space distortions (RSD). We use the Fisher matrix formalism to disentangle these information sources, to provide projected neutrino mass constraints from each of these probes alone and to determine how sensitive each is to the assumed cosmological model. We isolate the distinctive effect of neutrino free-streaming on the matter power spectrum and structure growth rate as a signal unique to massive neutrinos that can provide the most robust constraints, which are relatively insensitive to extensions to the cosmological model beyond ΛCDM . We also provide forecasted constraints using all of the information contained in the observed galaxy power spectrum combined, and show that these maximally optimistic constraints are primarily limited by the accuracy to which the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background, τ, is known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G.H. Nieder-Westermann
2005-01-01
The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])
de Jaeger, T.; Galbany, L.; Filippenko, A. V.; González-Gaitán, S.; Yasuda, N.; Maeda, K.; Tanaka, M.; Morokuma, T.; Moriya, T. J.; Tominaga, N.; Nomoto, K.; Komiyama, Y.; Anderson, J. P.; Brink, T. G.; Carlberg, R. G.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Zheng, W.
2017-12-01
Although Type Ia supernova cosmology has now reached a mature state, it is important to develop as many independent methods as possible to understand the true nature of dark energy. Recent studies have shown that Type II supernovae (SNe II) offer such a path and could be used as alternative distance indicators. However, the majority of these studies were unable to extend the Hubble diagram above redshift z = 0.3 because of observational limitations. Here, we show that we are now ready to move beyond low redshifts and attempt high-redshift (z ≳ 0.3) SN II cosmology as a result of new-generation deep surveys such as the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. Applying the 'standard candle method' to SN 2016jhj (z = 0.3398 ± 0.0002; discovered by HSC) together with a low-redshift sample, we are able to construct the highest-redshift SN II Hubble diagram to date with an observed dispersion of 0.27 mag (i.e. 12-13 per cent in distance). This work demonstrates the bright future of SN II cosmology in the coming era of large, wide-field surveys like that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.
Population III Stars and Remnants in High-redshift Galaxies
Xu, Hao; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.
2013-08-01
Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 109 M ⊙ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M vir ~ 107 M ⊙ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ~10-4 M ⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 107 M ⊙, which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 108 M ⊙, culminating in 50 remnants located in 109 M ⊙ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies.
Extending cosmology: the metric approach
Mendoza, S.
2012-01-01
Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach
Collisional drift fluids and drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1995-05-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T ν (x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)
Cosmic acceleration in non-flat f( T) cosmology
Capozziello, Salvatore; Luongo, Orlando; Pincak, Richard; Ravanpak, Arvin
2018-05-01
We study f( T) cosmological models inserting a non-vanishing spatial curvature and discuss its consequences on cosmological dynamics. To figure this out, a polynomial f( T) model and a double torsion model are considered. We first analyze those models with cosmic data, employing the recent surveys of Union 2.1, baryonic acoustic oscillation and cosmic microwave background measurements. We then emphasize that the two popular f( T) models enable the crossing of the phantom divide line due to dark torsion. Afterwards, we compute numerical bounds up to 3-σ confidence level, emphasizing the fact that Ω _{k0} turns out to be non-compatible with zero at least at 1σ . Moreover, we underline that, even increasing the accuracy, one cannot remove the degeneracy between our models and the Λ CDM paradigm. So that, we show that our treatments contain the concordance paradigm and we analyze the equation of state behaviors at different redshift domains. We also take into account gamma ray bursts and we describe the evolution of both the f( T) models with high redshift data. We calibrate the gamma ray burst measurements through small redshift surveys of data and we thus compare the main differences between non-flat and flat f( T) cosmology at different redshift ranges. We finally match the corresponding outcomes with small redshift bounds provided by cosmography. To do so, we analyze the deceleration parameters and their variations, proportional to the jerk term. Even though the two models well fit late-time data, we notice that the polynomial f( T) approach provides an effective de-Sitter phase, whereas the second f( T) framework shows analogous results compared with the Λ CDM predictions.
Quantification of the multi-streaming effect in redshift space distortion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Yi; Oh, Minji [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Pengjie, E-mail: yizheng@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: zhangpj@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: minjioh@kasi.re.kr [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)
2017-05-01
Both multi-streaming (random motion) and bulk motion cause the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect in redshift space distortion (RSD). We apply a direct measurement of the multi-streaming effect in RSD from simulations, proving that it induces an additional, non-negligible FoG damping to the redshift space density power spectrum. We show that, including the multi-streaming effect, the RSD modelling is significantly improved. We also provide a theoretical explanation based on halo model for the measured effect, including a fitting formula with one to two free parameters. The improved understanding of FoG helps break the f σ{sub 8}−σ {sub v} degeneracy in RSD cosmology, and has the potential of significantly improving cosmological constraints.
How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational constants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
She-Sheng Xue
2015-08-01
Full Text Available With a basic varying space–time cutoff ℓ˜, we study a regularized and quantized Einstein–Cartan gravitational field theory and its domains of ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir≳0 and ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv≈4/3 of the gravitational gauge coupling g=(4/3G/GNewton. Because the fundamental operators of quantum gravitational field theory are dimension-2 area operators, the cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the squared correlation length Λ∝ξ−2. The correlation length ξ characterizes an infrared size of a causally correlate patch of the universe. The cosmological constant Λ and the gravitational constant G are related by a generalized Bianchi identity. As the basic space–time cutoff ℓ˜ decreases and approaches to the Planck length ℓpl, the universe undergoes inflation in the domain of the ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir, then evolves to the low-redshift universe in the domain of ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv. We give the quantitative description of the low-redshift universe in the scaling-invariant domain of the ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv, and its deviation from the ΛCDM can be examined by low-redshift (z≲1 cosmological observations, such as supernova Type Ia.
Bias-limited extraction of cosmological parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimon, Meir; Itzhaki, Nissan; Rephaeli, Yoel, E-mail: meirs@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: yoelr@wise.tau.ac.il [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2013-03-01
It is known that modeling uncertainties and astrophysical foregrounds can potentially introduce appreciable bias in the deduced values of cosmological parameters. While it is commonly assumed that these uncertainties will be accounted for to a sufficient level of precision, the level of bias has not been properly quantified in most cases of interest. We show that the requirement that the bias in derived values of cosmological parameters does not surpass nominal statistical error, translates into a maximal level of overall error O(N{sup −½}) on |ΔP(k)|/P(k) and |ΔC{sub l}|/C{sub l}, where P(k), C{sub l}, and N are the matter power spectrum, angular power spectrum, and number of (independent Fourier) modes at a given scale l or k probed by the cosmological survey, respectively. This required level has important consequences on the precision with which cosmological parameters are hoped to be determined by future surveys: in virtually all ongoing and near future surveys N typically falls in the range 10{sup 6}−10{sup 9}, implying that the required overall theoretical modeling and numerical precision is already very high. Future redshifted-21-cm observations, projected to sample ∼ 10{sup 14} modes, will require knowledge of the matter power spectrum to a fantastic 10{sup −7} precision level. We conclude that realizing the expected potential of future cosmological surveys, which aim at detecting 10{sup 6}−10{sup 14} modes, sets the formidable challenge of reducing the overall level of uncertainty to 10{sup −3}−10{sup −7}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balbi Amedeo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.
Inflation and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1991-01-01
In this article a review of the present status of inflationary cosmology is given. We start with a discussion of the simplest version of the chaotic inflation scenario. Then we discuss some recent develoments in the inflationary cosmology, including the theory of a self-reproducing inflationary universe (eternal chaotic inflation). We do it with the help of stochastic approach to inflation. The results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. (WL)
An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wainwright, John
2007-01-01
-Walker geometry and the FL models. The rest of part II, two lengthy chapters, deals with two classes of solutions of Einstein's field equations that represent spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models, and that contain the FL models as a special case. Parts of these two chapters are based on Krasinski's book on inhomogeneous cosmologies, with the difference that the present work does not attempt to be comprehensive, but instead provides clear derivations of the most important results. A potential reader may ask how this book differs from other texts on general relativity. It is unique in a number of respects. First is the authors' emphasis on spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models, i.e. models that do not satisfy the cosmological principle. The authors appear to have reservations about the almost universal preference in the cosmological community for working within the framework of the FL models, combined with the inflationary scenario in the very early universe, and these reservations motivate the above emphasis. They remind the reader that the FL models are based on the cosmological principle, which has a philosophical rather than a physical status, since it cannot be directly tested by observation. In other words, observations alone do not uniquely select the FL models. Moreover the interpretation of cosmological observations depends on the choice of the underlying spacetime geometry. For example, there is ambiguity in inferring the spatial distribution of matter from redshift measurements. The authors discuss in some detail the work of Kurki-Suonio and Liang to illustrate this point. They also refer to Celerier who shows that the high redshift type Ia supernovae observations are compatible with a Lemaitre-Tolman model with zero cosmological constant, i.e. these observations do not imply that the universe is accelerating if one considers models more general than the FL models, in contrast to the usual interpretation. The authors also give a critique of the cosmological
Cosmology and the Subgroups of Gamma-ray Bursts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mészáros
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Both short and intermediate gamma-ray bursts are distributed anisotropically in the sky (Mészáros, A. et al. ApJ, 539, 98 (2000, Vavrek, R. et al. MNRAS, 391, 1 741 (2008. Hence, in the redshift range, where these bursts take place, the cosmological principle is in doubt. It has already been noted that short bursts should be mainly at redshifts smaller than one (Mészáros, A. et al. Gamma-ray burst: Sixth Huntsville Symp., AIP, Vol. 1 133, 483 (2009; Mészáros, A. et al. Baltic Astron., 18, 293 (2009. Here we show that intermediate bursts should be at redshifts up to three.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Jonathan L.
2005-01-01
Cosmology now provides unambiguous, quantitative evidence for new particle physics. I discuss the implications of cosmology for supersymmetry and vice versa. Topics include: motivations for supersymmetry; supersymmetry breaking; dark energy; freeze out and WIMPs; neutralino dark matter; cosmologically preferred regions of minimal supergravity; direct and indirect detection of neutralinos; the DAMA and HEAT signals; inflation and reheating; gravitino dark matter; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; and the cosmic microwave background. I conclude with speculations about the prospects for a microscopic description of the dark universe, stressing the necessity of diverse experiments on both sides of the particle physics/cosmology interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Misao
1983-01-01
We review the recent status of the inflationary cosmology. After exhibiting the essence of difficulties associated with the horizon, flatness and baryon number problems in the standard big-bang cosmology, we discuss that the inflationary universe scenario is one of the most plausible solutions to these fundamental cosmological problems. Since there are two qualitatively different versions of the inflationary universe scenario, we review each of them separately and discuss merits and demerits of each version. The Hawking radiation in de Sitter space is also reviewed since it may play an essential role in the inflationary cosmology. (author)
Roos, Matts
2003-01-01
The Third Edition of the hugely successful Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, general relativity, black holes, cosmological models, particles and symmetries, and phase transitions. Extensively revised, this latest edition includes broader and updated coverage of distance measures, gravitational lensing and waves, dark energy and quintessence, the thermal history of the Universe, inflation,
Axions in inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1991-01-01
The problem of the cosmological constraints on the axion mass is re-examined. It is argued that in the context of inflationary cosmology the constraint m a > or approx.10 -5 eV can be avoided even when the axion perturbations produced during inflation are taken into account. It is shown also that in most axion models the effective parameter f a rapidly changes during inflation. This modifies some earlier statements concerning isothermal perturbations in the axion cosmology. A hybrid inflation scenario is proposed which combines some advantages of chaotic inflation with specific features of new and/or extended inflation. Its implications for the axion cosmology are discussed. (orig.)
Spatial distribution of the gamma-ray bursts at very high redshift
Mészáros, Attila
2018-05-01
The author - with his collaborators - already in years 1995-96 have shown - purely from the analyses of the observations - that the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be till redshift 20. Since that time several other statistical studies of the spatial distribution of GRBs were provided. Remarkable conclusions concerning the star-formation rate and the validity of the cosmological principle were obtained about the regions of the cosmic dawn. In this contribution these efforts are surveyed.
Large-scale clustering of galaxies in the CfA Redshift Survey
Vogeley, Michael S.; Park, Changbom; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.
1992-01-01
The power spectrum of the galaxy distribution in the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986; Geller and Huchra, 1989; and Huchra et al., 1992) is measured up to wavelengths of 200/h Mpc. Results are compared with several cosmological simulations with Gaussian initial conditions. It is shown that the power spectrum of the standard CDM model is inconsistent with the observed power spectrum at the 99 percent confidence level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Lixin
2012-01-01
As so far, the redshift of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can extend to z ∼ 8 which makes it as a complementary probe of dark energy to supernova Ia (SN Ia). However, the calibration of GRBs is still a big challenge when they are used to constrain cosmological models. Though, the absolute magnitude of GRBs is still unknown, the slopes of GRBs correlations can be used as a useful constraint to dark energy in a completely cosmological model independent way. In this paper, we follow Wang's model-independent distance measurement method and calculate their values by using 109 GRBs events via the so-called Amati relation. Then, we use the obtained model-independent distances to constrain ΛCDM model as an example
Redshift anisotropy among test-particle sources inside a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debney, G.
1976-01-01
An elementary (mass-normalized) model of observers and emitters of light in free-fall within a black hole's radius is investigated in terms of the redshift spectrum induced. All observers and emitters follow the same kinds of trajectories, radially inward and starting from rest at spatial infinity. The major results are concerned with demonstrating the types of redshifts possible in all directions on a typical observer's celestial sphere. These are simulated by considering all equatorial light paths inside and generalizing to three dimensions by symmetry. Under certain assumptions a direction for maximum redshift and one for minimum redshift are obtained; these lie on antipodal points on the observer's celestial sphere. No multiple imaging or focusing is possible from isotropic sources inside r = 2m, however. At this stage no luminosity distances or intensity results are developed; these more complicated relationships would be required to simulate the actual picture getting through to an observer. Some of the redshift results are applied to a black hole whose scale is cosmological. This extreme example is included mainly as a curiosity to illustrate the impact of a simple change of scale and to reemphasize the importance of the microwave isotropy to theoretical models. A careful analytical formulation of general relativistic redshifts as seen in local Lorentz frames provides the tools for this investigation. (author)
Redshift anisotropy among test-particle sources inside a black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Debney, G [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA)
1976-09-01
An elementary (mass-normalized) model of observers and emitters of light in free-fall within a black hole's radius is investigated in terms of the redshift spectrum induced. All observers and emitters follow the same kinds of trajectories, radially inward and starting from rest at spatial infinity. The major results are concerned with demonstrating the types of redshifts possible in all directions on a typical observer's celestial sphere. These are simulated by considering all equatorial light paths inside and generalizing to three dimensions by symmetry. Under certain assumptions a direction for maximum redshift and one for minimum redshift are obtained; these lie on antipodal points on the observer's celestial sphere. No multiple imaging or focusing is possible from isotropic sources inside r = 2m, however. At this stage no luminosity distances or intensity results are developed; these more complicated relationships would be required to simulate the actual picture getting through to an observer. Some of the redshift results are applied to a black hole whose scale is cosmological. This extreme example is included mainly as a curiosity to illustrate the impact of a simple change of scale and to reemphasize the importance of the microwave isotropy to theoretical models. A careful analytical formulation of general relativistic redshifts as seen in local Lorentz frames provides the tools for this investigation.
Future Cosmological Constraints From Fast Radio Bursts
Walters, Anthony; Weltman, Amanda; Gaensler, B. M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Witzemann, Amadeus
2018-03-01
We consider the possible observation of fast radio bursts (FRBs) with planned future radio telescopes, and investigate how well the dispersions and redshifts of these signals might constrain cosmological parameters. We construct mock catalogs of FRB dispersion measure (DM) data and employ Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, with which we forecast and compare with existing constraints in the flat ΛCDM model, as well as some popular extensions that include dark energy equation of state and curvature parameters. We find that the scatter in DM observations caused by inhomogeneities in the intergalactic medium (IGM) poses a big challenge to the utility of FRBs as a cosmic probe. Only in the most optimistic case, with a high number of events and low IGM variance, do FRBs aid in improving current constraints. In particular, when FRBs are combined with CMB+BAO+SNe+H 0 data, we find the biggest improvement comes in the {{{Ω }}}{{b}}{h}2 constraint. Also, we find that the dark energy equation of state is poorly constrained, while the constraint on the curvature parameter, Ω k , shows some improvement when combined with current constraints. When FRBs are combined with future baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data from 21 cm Intensity Mapping, we find little improvement over the constraints from BAOs alone. However, the inclusion of FRBs introduces an additional parameter constraint, {{{Ω }}}{{b}}{h}2, which turns out to be comparable to existing constraints. This suggests that FRBs provide valuable information about the cosmological baryon density in the intermediate redshift universe, independent of high-redshift CMB data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masters, Daniel C. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel K.; Rhodes, Jason D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Capak, Peter L. [Spitzer Science Center, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Castander, Francisco J. [Institut de Ciències de lEspai (ICE, IEEC/CSIC), E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Paltani, Stéphane [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. dEcogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)
2017-06-01
A key goal of the Stage IV dark energy experiments Euclid , LSST, and WFIRST is to measure the growth of structure with cosmic time from weak lensing analysis over large regions of the sky. Weak lensing cosmology will be challenging: in addition to highly accurate galaxy shape measurements, statistically robust and accurate photometric redshift (photo- z ) estimates for billions of faint galaxies will be needed in order to reconstruct the three-dimensional matter distribution. Here we present an overview of and initial results from the Complete Calibration of the Color–Redshift Relation (C3R2) survey, which is designed specifically to calibrate the empirical galaxy color–redshift relation to the Euclid depth. These redshifts will also be important for the calibrations of LSST and WFIRST . The C3R2 survey is obtaining multiplexed observations with Keck (DEIMOS, LRIS, and MOSFIRE), the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; OSIRIS), and the Very Large Telescope (VLT; FORS2 and KMOS) of a targeted sample of galaxies that are most important for the redshift calibration. We focus spectroscopic efforts on undersampled regions of galaxy color space identified in previous work in order to minimize the number of spectroscopic redshifts needed to map the color–redshift relation to the required accuracy. We present the C3R2 survey strategy and initial results, including the 1283 high-confidence redshifts obtained in the 2016A semester and released as Data Release 1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masters, Daniel C.; Stern, Daniel K.; Rhodes, Jason D.; Cohen, Judith G.; Capak, Peter L.; Castander, Francisco J.; Paltani, Stéphane
2017-01-01
A key goal of the Stage IV dark energy experiments Euclid , LSST, and WFIRST is to measure the growth of structure with cosmic time from weak lensing analysis over large regions of the sky. Weak lensing cosmology will be challenging: in addition to highly accurate galaxy shape measurements, statistically robust and accurate photometric redshift (photo- z ) estimates for billions of faint galaxies will be needed in order to reconstruct the three-dimensional matter distribution. Here we present an overview of and initial results from the Complete Calibration of the Color–Redshift Relation (C3R2) survey, which is designed specifically to calibrate the empirical galaxy color–redshift relation to the Euclid depth. These redshifts will also be important for the calibrations of LSST and WFIRST . The C3R2 survey is obtaining multiplexed observations with Keck (DEIMOS, LRIS, and MOSFIRE), the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; OSIRIS), and the Very Large Telescope (VLT; FORS2 and KMOS) of a targeted sample of galaxies that are most important for the redshift calibration. We focus spectroscopic efforts on undersampled regions of galaxy color space identified in previous work in order to minimize the number of spectroscopic redshifts needed to map the color–redshift relation to the required accuracy. We present the C3R2 survey strategy and initial results, including the 1283 high-confidence redshifts obtained in the 2016A semester and released as Data Release 1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutqvist, J.
2004-01-01
This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a
The Weyl Definition of Redshifts
Harvey, Alex
2012-01-01
In 1923, Weyl published a (not widely known) protocol for the calculation of redshifts. It is completely independent of the origin of the shift and treats it as a pure Doppler shift. The method is comprehensive and depends solely on the relation between the world lines of source and observer. It has the merit of simplicity of statement and…
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: Lavinia.heisenberg@googlemail.com, E-mail: r.kase@rs.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2016-11-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v {sup 2} || φ{sup 2} are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w {sub DE} in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w {sub DE}{sup (iso)} typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
Chaves-Montero, Jonás; Angulo, Raúl E.; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos
2018-04-01
In the upcoming era of high-precision galaxy surveys, it becomes necessary to understand the impact of redshift uncertainties on cosmological observables. In this paper we explore the effect of sub-percent photometric redshift errors (photo-z errors) on galaxy clustering and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). Using analytic expressions and results from 1 000 N-body simulations, we show how photo-z errors modify the amplitude of moments of the 2D power spectrum, their variances, the amplitude of BAO, and the cosmological information in them. We find that: a) photo-z errors suppress the clustering on small scales, increasing the relative importance of shot noise, and thus reducing the interval of scales available for BAO analyses; b) photo-z errors decrease the smearing of BAO due to non-linear redshift-space distortions (RSD) by giving less weight to line-of-sight modes; and c) photo-z errors (and small-scale RSD) induce a scale dependence on the information encoded in the BAO scale, and that reduces the constraining power on the Hubble parameter. Using these findings, we propose a template that extracts unbiased cosmological information from samples with photo-z errors with respect to cases without them. Finally, we provide analytic expressions to forecast the precision in measuring the BAO scale, showing that spectro-photometric surveys will measure the expansion history of the Universe with a precision competitive to that of spectroscopic surveys.
DES Science Portal: Computing Photometric Redshifts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro
2016-01-01
An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of
Ultrahigh energy gamma rays: carriers of cosmological information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonian, F.A.; Atoyan, A.M.
1985-01-01
Observational data being the basis of contemporary cosmological models are not numerous: Hubble law of redshift for galaxies, element abundances, and observation of cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR). The significance of MBR discovery predicted in the Big-Band model is particularly stressed. Radio astronomical measurements give an information on MBR only near the Earth. Experimental confirmation of evolution of MBR, i.e., its probing in remote epochs, might obviously present a direct verification of the hypothesis of hot expanding Universe. The carriers of similar cosmological information should be particles which, firstly, effectively interact with MBR, and secondly, make it possible to identify unambiguously the epoch of interaction. A possibility to verify a number of cosmological hypotheses by searching the cutoffs in spectra of ultrahigh energy gamma-rays (UHEGR) from extragalactic sources is discussed
Dark matter and dark energy a challenge for modern cosmology
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Matarrese, Sabino
2011-01-01
This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift su...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. Kicker
2004-01-01
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Kicker
2004-09-16
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.
1988-10-01
We review Coleman's wormhole mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. We find a discouraging result that wormholes much bigger than the Planck size are generated. We also consider the implications of the wormhole theory for cosmology. 7 refs., 2 figs
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.
1983-01-01
The authors describe the connection between cosmology and particle physics in an introductory way. In this connection the big bang theory and unified gauge models of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions are considered. Furthermore cosmological nucleosynthesis is discussed in this framework, and the problem of cosmic neutrinos is considered with special regards to its rest mass. (HSI).
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1986-01-01
Progress in cosmology has become linked to progress in elementary particle physics. In these six lectures, the author illustrates the two-way nature of the interplay between these fields by focusing on a few selected topics. In the next section the author reviews the standard cosmology, especially concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Grand Unification makes two striking predictions: (i) B non-conservation; (ii) the existence of stable, superheavy magnetic monopoles. Both have had great cosmological impact. In the following section the author discusses baryogenesis, the very attractive scenario in which the B,C,CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-photon ratio. Monopoles are a cosmological disaster and an astrophysicist's delight. In Section 4 discusses monopoles, cosmology, and astrophysics. In the fourth lecture the author discusses how a very early (t≤10/sup -34/ sec) phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) has the potential to explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts, facts which can be accommodated by the standard cosmology, but which are not ''explained'' by it. The fifth lecture is devoted to a discussion of structure formation in the universe
van de Weygaert, Rien; van Albada, Tjeerd S.
1996-01-01
A detailed account of the ways in which a square kilometer array could further cosmological research. Observational and theoretical studies of the large scale structure and morphology of the local universe are reviewed against the potential capabilities of a new generation telescope. Cosmological
Barkana, Rennan; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Kim, Jihn E; Nagamine, Kentaro
2018-01-01
The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, in four volumes, is a major, long-lasting, seminal reference at the graduate student level, laid out by the most prominent, respected researchers in the general field of Cosmology. These volumes will be a comprehensive review of the most important concepts and current status in the field, covering both theory and observation.
Astroparticle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Thompson, G.
2001-01-01
In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, γ-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2010-01-01
The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilenkin, Alexander
2010-01-01
The n ew standard cosmology , based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.
Astroparticle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senjanovic, G; Smirnov, A Yu; Thompson, G [eds.
2001-11-15
In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, {gamma}-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses two aspects of antimatter and cosmology: 1. the fundamental cosmological question as to whether antimatter plays an equally important role as matter in the universe (overall baryon symmetry), and 2. cosmic-ray antimatter tests for the nature of the dark matter in the universe. (orig.)
Spiral silicon drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.
1988-01-01
An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs
Calibrating photometric redshifts of luminous red galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Budavari, Tamas; Schlegel, David J.; Bridges, Terry; Brinkmann, Jonathan
2005-01-01
We discuss the construction of a photometric redshift catalogue of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), emphasizing the principal steps necessary for constructing such a catalogue: (i) photometrically selecting the sample, (ii) measuring photometric redshifts and their error distributions, and (iii) estimating the true redshift distribution. We compare two photometric redshift algorithms for these data and find that they give comparable results. Calibrating against the SDSS and SDSS–2dF (Two Degree Field) spectroscopic surveys, we find that the photometric redshift accuracy is σ~ 0.03 for redshifts less than 0.55 and worsens at higher redshift (~ 0.06 for z < 0.7). These errors are caused by photometric scatter, as well as systematic errors in the templates, filter curves and photometric zero-points. We also parametrize the photometric redshift error distribution with a sum of Gaussians and use this model to deconvolve the errors from the measured photometric redshift distribution to estimate the true redshift distribution. We pay special attention to the stability of this deconvolution, regularizing the method with a prior on the smoothness of the true redshift distribution. The methods that we develop are applicable to general photometric redshift surveys.
The fate of high redshift massive compact galaxies in dense environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaufmann, Tobias; /Zurich, ETH; Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich U.; Carollo, Marcella; /Zurich, ETH; Feldmann, Robert; /Fermilab /Chicago U., KICP
2012-01-01
Massive compact galaxies seem to be more common at high redshift than in the local universe, especially in denser environments. To investigate the fate of such massive galaxies identified at z {approx} 2 we analyse the evolution of their properties in three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that form virialized galaxy groups of mass {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} hosting a central massive elliptical/S0 galaxy by redshift zero. We find that at redshift {approx} 2 the population of galaxies with M{sub *} > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} is diverse in terms of mass, velocity dispersion, star formation and effective radius, containing both very compact and relatively extended objects. In each simulation all the compact satellite galaxies have merged into the central galaxy by redshift 0 (with the exception of one simulation where one of such satellite galaxy survives). Satellites of similar mass at z = 0 are all less compact than their high redshift counterparts. They form later than the galaxies in the z = 2 sample and enter the group potential at z < 1, when dynamical friction times are longer than the Hubble time. Also, by z = 0 the central galaxies have increased substantially their characteristic radius via a combination of in situ star formation and mergers. Hence in a group environment descendants of compact galaxies either evolve towards larger sizes or they disappear before the present time as a result of the environment in which they evolve. Since the group-sized halos that we consider are representative of dense environments in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we conclude that the majority of high redshift compact massive galaxies do not survive until today as a result of the environment.
Lesgourgues, Julien
2012-01-01
Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verde, L.
2011-01-01
This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)
Classical and quantum cosmology
Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-01-01
This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...
Verde, L.
2013-06-27
This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gekman, O.
1982-01-01
The brief essay of the development of the main ideas of relativistic cosmology is presented. The Einstein's cosmological work about the Universe - ''Cosmological considerations in connection with the general relativity theory'' - gave the basis to all further treatments in this field. In 1922 A. Friedman's work appeared, in which the first expanding Universe model was proposed as a solution of the Einstein field equations. The model was spherically closed, but its curvature radius was a function of time. About 1955 the searches for anisotropic homogeneous solutions to Einstein field equation began. It turned out that isotropic cosmological models are unstable in general. The predominant part of them transform to anisotropic at insignificant breaking of isotropy. The discovery of isotropic background cosmic radiation in 1965, along with the Hubble low of the Universe expansion, served as the direct confirmation of cosmology based on the Einstein theory
Planck 2013 results. XX. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
We present constraints on cosmological parameters using number counts as a function of redshift for a sub-sample of 189 galaxy clusters from the Planck SZ (PSZ) catalogue. The PSZ is selected through the signature of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and the sub-sample used here has a signal-to-...
Radial semiconductor drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawlings, K.J.
1987-01-01
The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)
Constraints on interacting dark energy models from Planck 2015 and redshift-space distortion data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, André A.; Abdalla, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xu, Xiao-Dong [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Wang, Bin, E-mail: alencar@if.usp.br, E-mail: xiaodong.xu@uct.ac.za, E-mail: wang_b@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: eabdalla@usp.br [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China)
2017-01-01
We investigate phenomenological interactions between dark matter and dark energy and constrain these models by employing the most recent cosmological data including the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies from Planck 2015, Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, the Hubble constant and redshift-space distortions. We find that the interaction in the dark sector parameterized as an energy transfer from dark matter to dark energy is strongly suppressed by the whole updated cosmological data. On the other hand, an interaction between dark sectors with the energy flow from dark energy to dark matter is proved in better agreement with the available cosmological observations. This coupling between dark sectors is needed to alleviate the coincidence problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the continuous-time Itô semi-martingale model in such a way that the fundamental arbitrage-free property is preserved......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....
Center for astrophysics redshift survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, M.; Huchra, J.; Latham, D.
1983-01-01
Major advances in the art of redshift measurements have improved the obtainable accuracy to better than 30 km/s. It is now posible to obtain a redshift for almost any galaxy brighter than 15th magnitude on a 60-inch telescope in 60 minutes or less. These advances were utilized in an observation program initiated in the spring of 1978. This program represents a survey of radial velocities for all 2400 galaxies brighter than 14.5 at high galactic latitude in the northern hemisphere. The obtained data set has been employed as a basis for a derivation of a good measure of the local mean mass density. In addition, information was obtained concerning the overdensity and the dynamics of the local supercluster, and an analysis was conducted of the dynamics of groups and clusters of galaxies within the sample volume. 16 references
Alonso, M. V.
The Universe we see today is the result of structures and galaxies that have been evolving since earlier times. Looking the evolution of the galaxy population at z ˜ 1 has emphasized the important role played by high redshift data. This is the case of the morphology - density relationship, where the morphological type of galaxies in distant clusters has given us a clear vision of evolutionary processes, partly led by environmental effects. I review part of the data available at high redshifts that are fundamental today to check the validity of galaxy formation models in reproducing local and basic galaxy properties. Briefly, I will comment about high redshift studies, a still little explored portion of the Universe, and the current strategies that allow us the study. In this sense, the epoch of reionization is essential for understanding the formation of structures because it is the phase where the first protogalaxies were formed, creating stars and enriching the intergalactic medium. Because of the great distances involved in these studies, gamma-ray bursts, quasars and Lyman-α galaxies are the best tools to study these earlier times. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.
2016-01-01
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Oikonomou, V K
2016-01-01
We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein–Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2016-05-25
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
Cosmologies with a time dependent vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sola, Joan
2011-01-01
The idea that the cosmological term Λ should be a time dependent quantity in cosmology is a most natural one. It is difficult to conceive an expanding universe with a strictly constant vacuum energy density, ρ Λ = Λ/(8π G), namely one that has remained immutable since the origin of time. A smoothly evolving vacuum energy density ρ Λ = ρ Λ (ξ(t)) that inherits its time-dependence from cosmological functions ξ = ξ(t), such as the Hubble rate H(t) or the scale factor a(t), is not only a qualitatively more plausible and intuitive idea, but is also suggested by fundamental physics, in particular by quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time. To implement this notion, is not strictly necessary to resort to ad hoc scalar fields, as usually done in the literature (e.g. in quintessence formulations and the like). A 'running' Λ term can be expected on very similar grounds as one expects (and observes) the running of couplings and masses with a physical energy scale in QFT. Furthermore, the experimental evidence that the equation of state (EOS) of the dark energy (DE) could be evolving with time/redshift (including the possibility that it might currently behave phantom-like) suggests that a time-variable Λ = Λ(t) term (possibly accompanied by a variable Newton's gravitational coupling too, G = G(t)) could account in a natural way for all these features. Remarkably enough, a class of these models (the 'new cosmon') could even be the clue for solving the old cosmological constant problem, including the coincidence problem.
Universal subhalo accretion in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies
Kubik, Bogna; Libeskind, Noam I.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda
2017-12-01
The influence of the large-scale structure on host haloes may be studied by examining the angular infall pattern of subhaloes. In particular, since warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies predict different abundances and internal properties for haloes at the low-mass end of the mass function, it is interesting to examine if there are differences in how these low-mass haloes are accreted. The accretion events are defined as the moment a halo becomes a substructure, namely when it crosses its host's virial radius. We quantify the cosmic web at each point by the shear tensor and examine where, with respect to its eigenvectors, such accretion events occur in ΛCDM and ΛWDM (1 keV sterile neutrino) cosmological models. We find that the CDM and WDM subhaloes are preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor corresponding to the direction of weakest collapse. The beaming strength is modulated by the host and subhalo masses and by the redshift at which the accretion event occurs. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall is found to be always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse, thus we say that it has universal nature. We compare the strength of beaming in the ΛWDM cosmology with the one found in the ΛCDM scenario. While the main findings remain the same, the accretion in the ΛWDM model for the most massive host haloes appears more beamed than in ΛCDM cosmology across all the redshifts.
Observable relations in an inhomogeneous self-similar cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesson, P.S.
1979-01-01
An exact self-similar solution is taken in general relativity as a model for an inhomogeneous cosmology. The self-similarity property means (conceptually) that the model is scale-free and (mathematically) that its essential parameters are functions of only one dimensionless variable zeta (equivalentct/R, where R and t are distance and time coordinates and c is the velocity of light). It begins inhomogeneous (zeta=0 or t=0), and tends to a homogeneous Einstein--de Sitter type state as zeta (or t) →infinity. Such a model can be used (a) for evaluating the observational effects of a clumpy universe; (b) for studying astrophysical processes such as galaxy formation and the growth and decay of inhomogeneities in initially clumpy cosmologies; and (c) as a relativistic basis for cosmological models with extended clustering of the de Vaucouleurs and Peebles types. The model has two adjustable parameters, namely, the observer's coordinate zeta 0 and a constant α/sub s/ that fixes the effect of the inhomogeneity. Expressions are obtained for the redshift, Hubble parameter, deceleration parameter, magnitude-redshift relation, and (number density of objects) --redshift relation. Expected anisotropies in the 3 K microwave background are also examined. There is no conflict with observation if zeta 0 /α/sub s/> or approx. =10, and four tests of the model are suggested that can be used to further determine the acceptability of inhomogeneous cosmologies of this type. The ratio α/sub s//zeta 0 on presently available data is α/sub s//zeta 0 < or approx. =10% and this, loosely speaking, means that the universe at the present epoch is globally homogeneous to within about 10%
The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heymann Y.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world i s expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z 4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Tapping with intentional drift
Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.
2009-01-01
When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, A.
2002-01-01
The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events
High resolution drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Va'vra, J.
1985-07-01
High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P
1983-11-15
The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.
Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.
2010-01-01
Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these
Guiding center drift equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1979-03-01
The quations for particle guiding center drift orbits are given in a new magnetic coordinate system. This form of the equations not only separates the fast motion along the lines from the slow motion across, but also requires less information about the magnetic field than many other formulations of the problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D.M. Jolley
1999-12-02
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.
Redshift and lateshift from homogeneous and isotropic modified dispersion relations
Pfeifer, Christian
2018-05-01
Observables which would indicate a modified vacuum dispersion relations, possibly caused by quantum gravity effects, are a four momentum dependence of the cosmological redshift and the existence of a so called lateshift effect for massless or very light particles. Existence or non-existence of the latter is currently analyzed on the basis of the available observational data from gamma-ray bursts and compared to predictions of specific modified dispersion relation models. We consider the most general perturbation of the general relativistic dispersion relation of freely falling particles on homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes and derive the red- and lateshift to first order in the perturbation. Our result generalizes the existing formulae in the literature and we find that there exist modified dispersion relations causing both, one or none of the two effects to first order.
Type Ia supernovae as speed sensors at intermediate redshifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Pengjie; Chen Xuelei
2008-01-01
Large scale peculiar velocity (LSPV) is a crucial probe of dark matter, dark energy, and gravity at cosmological scales. However, its application is severely limited by measurement obstacles. We show that fluctuations in type Ia supernovae fluxes induced by LSPV offer a promising approach to measure LSPV at intermediate redshifts. In the 3D Fourier space, gravitational lensing, the dominant systematical error, is well suppressed, localized, and can be further corrected effectively. Advances in supernova observations can further significantly reduce shot noise induced by supernova intrinsic fluctuations, which is the dominant statistical error. Robust mapping on the motion of the dark universe through type Ia supernovae is thus feasible to z∼0.5.
Neutrino properties from cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannestad, S.
2013-01-01
In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1982-01-01
A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the Universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters. (Auth.)
Cosmology and particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steigman, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bartol Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware (USA))
1982-01-29
The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses.
Neutrino properties from cosmology
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Future, massive large-scale structure survey have been presented and approved.On the theory side, a significant effort has bene devoted to achieve better modeling of small scale clustering that is of cosmological non-linearities. As a result it has become clear that forthcoming cosmological data have enough statitsical power to detect the effect of non-zero neutrino mass (even at the lower mass scale limit imposed by oscillations) and to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale.Cosmological data can also constrain the numb...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report
The cosmological constant problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.
1989-05-01
A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs
Time in contemporary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavrides, Stamatia
1980-01-01
Cosmological time is defined, as is coordinated universal time against local times of special relativity. The problems of time and matter, age of the universe, Goedel models, arrow of time, are also discussed [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coule, D H
2005-01-01
We contrast the initial condition requirements of various contemporary cosmological models including inflationary and bouncing cosmologies. Canonical quantization of general relativity is used, as a first approximation to full quantum gravity, to determine whether suitable initial conditions are present. Various proposals such as Hartle-Hawking's 'no boundary' or tunnelling boundary conditions are assessed on grounds of naturalness and fine tuning. Alternatively, a quiescent initial state or an initial closed timelike curve 'time machine' is considered. Possible extensions to brane models are also addressed. Further ideas about universe creation from a meta-universe are outlined. Semiclassical and time asymmetry requirements of cosmology are briefly discussed and contrasted with the black-hole final-state proposal. We compare the recent loop quantum cosmology of Bojowald and co-workers with these earlier schemes. A number of possible difficulties and limitations are outlined. (topical review)
Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Khlopov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, Michael S.
1999-01-01
For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology!
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg
1984-07-01
Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)
Lachieze-Rey, Marc
This book delivers a quantitative account of the science of cosmology, designed for a non-specialist audience. The basic principles are outlined using simple maths and physics, while still providing rigorous models of the Universe. It offers an ideal introduction to the key ideas in cosmology, without going into technical details. The approach used is based on the fundamental ideas of general relativity such as the spacetime interval, comoving coordinates, and spacetime curvature. It provides an up-to-date and thoughtful discussion of the big bang, and the crucial questions of structure and galaxy formation. Questions of method and philosophical approaches in cosmology are also briefly discussed. Advanced undergraduates in either physics or mathematics would benefit greatly from use either as a course text or as a supplementary guide to cosmology courses.
Ryden, Barbara
2017-01-01
This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.
Tensors, relativity, and cosmology
Dalarsson, Mirjana
2015-01-01
Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...
Cosmological implications of a large complete quasar sample.
Segal, I E; Nicoll, J F
1998-04-28
Objective and reproducible determinations of the probabilistic significance levels of the deviations between theoretical cosmological prediction and direct model-independent observation are made for the Large Bright Quasar Sample [Foltz, C., Chaffee, F. H., Hewett, P. C., MacAlpine, G. M., Turnshek, D. A., et al. (1987) Astron. J. 94, 1423-1460]. The Expanding Universe model as represented by the Friedman-Lemaitre cosmology with parameters qo = 0, Lambda = 0 denoted as C1 and chronometric cosmology (no relevant adjustable parameters) denoted as C2 are the cosmologies considered. The mean and the dispersion of the apparent magnitudes and the slope of the apparent magnitude-redshift relation are the directly observed statistics predicted. The C1 predictions of these cosmology-independent quantities are deviant by as much as 11sigma from direct observation; none of the C2 predictions deviate by >2sigma. The C1 deviations may be reconciled with theory by the hypothesis of quasar "evolution," which, however, appears incapable of being substantiated through direct observation. The excellent quantitative agreement of the C1 deviations with those predicted by C2 without adjustable parameters for the results of analysis predicated on C1 indicates that the evolution hypothesis may well be a theoretical artifact.
Ray tracing and Hubble diagrams in post-Newtonian cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanghai, Viraj A.A.; Clifton, Timothy [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: v.a.a.sanghai@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: pierre.fleury@unige.ch, E-mail: t.clifton@qmul.ac.uk [Départment de Physique Théorique, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)
2017-07-01
On small scales the observable Universe is highly inhomogeneous, with galaxies and clusters forming a complex web of voids and filaments. The optical properties of such configurations can be quite different from the perfectly smooth Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solutions that are frequently used in cosmology, and must be well understood if we are to make precise inferences about fundamental physics from cosmological observations. We investigate this problem by calculating redshifts and luminosity distances within a class of cosmological models that are constructed explicitly in order to allow for large density contrasts on small scales. Our study of optics is then achieved by propagating one hundred thousand null geodesics through such space-times, with matter arranged in either compact opaque objects or diffuse transparent haloes. We find that in the absence of opaque objects, the mean of our ray tracing results faithfully reproduces the expectations from FLRW cosmology. When opaque objects with sizes similar to those of galactic bulges are introduced, however, we find that the mean of distance measures can be shifted up from FLRW predictions by as much as 10%. This bias is due to the viable photon trajectories being restricted by the presence of the opaque objects, which means that they cannot probe the regions of space-time with the highest curvature. It corresponds to a positive bias of order 10% in the estimation of Ω{sub Λ} and highlights the important consequences that astronomical selection effects can have on cosmological observables.
Ray tracing and Hubble diagrams in post-Newtonian cosmology
Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Fleury, Pierre; Clifton, Timothy
2017-07-01
On small scales the observable Universe is highly inhomogeneous, with galaxies and clusters forming a complex web of voids and filaments. The optical properties of such configurations can be quite different from the perfectly smooth Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solutions that are frequently used in cosmology, and must be well understood if we are to make precise inferences about fundamental physics from cosmological observations. We investigate this problem by calculating redshifts and luminosity distances within a class of cosmological models that are constructed explicitly in order to allow for large density contrasts on small scales. Our study of optics is then achieved by propagating one hundred thousand null geodesics through such space-times, with matter arranged in either compact opaque objects or diffuse transparent haloes. We find that in the absence of opaque objects, the mean of our ray tracing results faithfully reproduces the expectations from FLRW cosmology. When opaque objects with sizes similar to those of galactic bulges are introduced, however, we find that the mean of distance measures can be shifted up from FLRW predictions by as much as 10%. This bias is due to the viable photon trajectories being restricted by the presence of the opaque objects, which means that they cannot probe the regions of space-time with the highest curvature. It corresponds to a positive bias of order 10% in the estimation of ΩΛ and highlights the important consequences that astronomical selection effects can have on cosmological observables.
Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Cosmology
Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas
2007-09-01
We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, both in the Newtonian and the general-relativistic limit, as regards a viscous magnetized fluid of finite conductivity and discuss instability criteria. In addition, we explore the excitation of cosmological perturbations in anisotropic spacetimes, in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. Acoustic, electromagnetic (e/m) and fast-magnetosonic modes, propagating normal to the magnetic field, can be excited, resulting in several implications of cosmological significance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, I.D.
1999-01-01
In this talk a brief survey has been carried out on the development of cosmology from the days Leopold Infeld was active in the field up to the present. Attention in particular is paid to the history of our knowledge of Hubble's expansion, of the cosmological constant, of the average density of matter and its distribution, and of the related issue of possible types of matter in the Universe. (author)
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1993-10-01
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.
The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reis, Ribamar R.R.; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab /Inst. Geo. Astron., Havana /Sao Paulo U.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Hao, Jiangang; /Fermilab; Johnston, David; /Fermilab; Kubo, Jeffrey; /Fermilab; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Seo, Hee-Jong; /UC, Berkeley; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U.
2011-11-01
We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z's and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx} 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx} 89, 000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the Visible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph - Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.036. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.
Tracing The Sound Horizon Scale With Photometric Redshift Surveys
Sanchez, E; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gaztanaga, E; de Simoni, F; Crocce, M; Cabre, A; Fosalba, P; Alonso, D
2010-01-01
We propose a new method for cosmological parameters extraction using the baryon acoustic oscillation scale as a standard ruler in deep galaxy surveys with photometric determination of redshifts. The method consists in a simple empirical parametric fit to the angular 2-point correlation function w(theta). It is parametrized as a power law to describe the continuum plus a Gaussian to describe the BAO bump. The location of the Gaussian is used as the basis for the measurement of the sound horizon scale. This method, although simple, actually provides a robust estimation, since the inclusion of the power law and the use of the Gaussian removes the shifts which affect the local maximum. We discuss the effects of projection bias, non-linearities, redshift space distortions and photo-z precision, and apply our method to a mock catalog of the Dark Energy Survey, built upon a large N-body simulation provided by the MICE collaboration. We discuss the main systematic errors associated to our method and show that they ar...
Beyond the plane-parallel approximation for redshift surveys
Castorina, Emanuele; White, Martin
2018-06-01
Redshift -space distortions privilege the location of the observer in cosmological redshift surveys, breaking the translational symmetry of the underlying theory. This violation of statistical homogeneity has consequences for the modelling of clustering observables, leading to what are frequently called `wide-angle effects'. We study these effects analytically, computing their signature in the clustering of the multipoles in configuration and Fourier space. We take into account both physical wide-angle contributions as well as the terms generated by the galaxy selection function. Similar considerations also affect the way power spectrum estimators are constructed. We quantify in an analytical way the biases that enter and clarify the relation between what we measure and the underlying theoretical modelling. The presence of an angular window function is also discussed. Motivated by this analysis, we present new estimators for the three dimensional Cartesian power spectrum and bispectrum multipoles written in terms of spherical Fourier-Bessel coefficients. We show how the latter have several interesting properties, allowing in particular a clear separation between angular and radial modes.
Cosmological Models and Stability
Andersson, Lars
Principles in the form of heuristic guidelines or generally accepted dogma play an important role in the development of physical theories. In particular, philosophical considerations and principles figure prominently in the work of Albert Einstein. As mentioned in the talk by Jiří Bičák at this conference, Einstein formulated the equivalence principle, an essential step on the road to general relativity, during his time in Prague 1911-1912. In this talk, I would like to discuss some aspects of cosmological models. As cosmology is an area of physics where "principles" such as the "cosmological principle" or the "Copernican principle" play a prominent role in motivating the class of models which form part of the current standard model, I will start by comparing the role of the equivalence principle to that of the principles used in cosmology. I will then briefly describe the standard model of cosmology to give a perspective on some mathematical problems and conjectures on cosmological models, which are discussed in the later part of this paper.
Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
2009-01-01
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.
Hook, I M
2013-06-13
Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.
Physics of stellar evolution and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, H.S.; Scadron, M.D.
1981-01-01
Astrophysical phenomena are examined on a fundamental level, stressing basic physical laws, in a textbook suitable for a one-semester intermediate course. The ideal gas law, the meaning of temperature, black-body radiation, discrete spectra, and the Doppler effect are introduced and used to study such features of the interstellar medium as 21-cm radiation, nebulae and dust, and the galactic magnetic field. The phases of stellar evolution are discussed, including stellar collapse, quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium, the main sequence, red giants, white dwarves, neutron stars, supernovae, pulsars, and black holes. Among the cosmological topics covered are the implications of Hubble's constant, the red-shift curve, the steady-state universe, the evolution of the big bang (thermal equilibrium, hadron era, lepton era, primordial nucleosynthesis, hydrogen recombination, galaxy formation, and the cosmic fireball), and the future (cold end or big crunch). 72 references
POPULATION III STARS AND REMNANTS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Wise, John H.
2013-01-01
Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 10 9 M ☉ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M vir ∼ 10 7 M ☉ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H 2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ∼10 –4 M ☉ yr –1 Mpc –3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 10 7 M ☉ , which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 10 8 M ☉ , culminating in 50 remnants located in 10 9 M ☉ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies
Millimeter Astronomy at High Redshift
Decarli, Roberto
2017-11-01
Our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution critically depends on our ability of exposing the properties of the gaseous content of galaxies throughout cosmic history: how much gas is there, in which phase (ionized, atomic, molecular?), in which physical conditions (temperature, density), how efficiently does it turn into stars? We are now entering an exciting era where these questions can be addressed via observations of various gas tracers, especially at mm and sub-mm wavelengths. I will review how to observe various gas phases at high redshift, and discuss lessons we have learned so far from campaigns aimed at characterizing the gas content in galaxies in various cosmic epochs.
Diogene pictorial drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosset, J.
1984-01-01
A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)
BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology
Howell, Dale Andrew
2013-04-01
Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Banoo
1998-01-01
equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehre, Per Kristian
2011-01-01
An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms......, to be derived from simple conditions on the one-step behaviour of their variation operators and selection mechanisms....
Spacetimes admitting a universal redshift function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dautcourt, G.
1987-01-01
The conditions are given for a velocity congruence in a Riemannian spacetime admitting a universal redshift function R. This function allows to calculate in a simple way (as a quotient of R values taken at the emission and registration event) the redshift or blueshift connected with an emitter and observer both following the congruence. Spacetimes and congruences with an universal redshift function are shortly discussed. (author)
Maximum Redshift of Gravitational Wave Merger Events
Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Loeb, Abraham
2017-12-01
Future generations of gravitational wave detectors will have the sensitivity to detect gravitational wave events at redshifts far beyond any detectable electromagnetic sources. We show that if the observed event rate is greater than one event per year at redshifts z ≥40 , then the probability distribution of primordial density fluctuations must be significantly non-Gaussian or the events originate from primordial black holes. The nature of the excess events can be determined from the redshift distribution of the merger rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory Beskin
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The results of a study of 43 peaked R-band light curves of optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts with known redshifts are presented. The parameters of optical transients were calculated in the comoving frame, and then a search for pair correlations between them was conducted. A statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the peak luminosity and the redshift both for pure afterglows and for events with residual gamma activity, which cannot be explained as an effect of observational selection.This suggests a cosmological evolution of the parameters of the local interstellar medium around the sources of the gamma-ray burst. In the models of forward and reverse shock waves, a relation between the density of the interstellar medium and the redshift was built for gamma-ray burst afterglows, leading to a power-law dependence of the star-formation rate at regions around GRBs on redshift with a slope of about 6.
Consistent guiding center drift theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wimmel, H.K.
1982-04-01
Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)
Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.
2006-01-01
Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas
THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. VIII. A GEOMETRIC DISTANCE TO NGC 5765b
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, F.; Zhao, W. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200030 (China); Braatz, J. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kuo, C. Y. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pesce, D. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2016-02-01
As part of the Megamaser Cosmology Project, here we present a new geometric distance measurement to the megamaser galaxy NGC 5765b. Through a series of very long baseline interferometry observations, we have confirmed the water masers trace a thin, sub-parsec Keplerian disk around the nucleus, implying an enclosed mass of 4.55 ± 0.40 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}. Meanwhile, from single-dish monitoring of the maser spectra over two years, we measured the secular drifts of maser features near the systemic velocity of the galaxy with rates between 0.5 and 1.2 km s{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. Fitting a warped, thin-disk model to these measurements, we determine a Hubble Constant H{sub 0} of 66.0 ± 6.0 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1} with an angular-diameter distance to NGC 5765b of 126.3 ± 11.6 Mpc. Apart from the distance measurement, we also investigate some physical properties related to the maser disk in NGC 5765b. The high-velocity features are spatially distributed into several clumps, which may indicate the existence of a spiral density wave associated with the accretion disk. For the redshifted features, the envelope defined by the peak maser intensities increases with radius. The profile of the systemic masers in NGC 5765b is smooth and shows almost no structural changes over the two years of monitoring time, which differs from the more variable case of NGC 4258.
Chudaykin, A.; Gorbunov, D.; Tkachev, I.
2018-04-01
It has been recently suggested [1] that a subdominant fraction of dark matter decaying after recombination may alleviate tension between high-redshift (CMB anisotropy) and low-redshift (Hubble constant, cluster counts) measurements. In this report, we continue our previous study [2] of the decaying dark matter (DDM) model adding all available recent baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and redshift space distortions (RSD) measurements. We find that the BAO/RSD measurements generically prefer the standard Λ CDM and combined with other cosmological measurements impose an upper limit on the DDM fraction at the level of ˜5 %, strengthening by a factor of 1.5 limits obtained in [2] mostly from CMB data. However, the numbers vary from one analysis to other based on the same Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) galaxy sample. Overall, the model with a few percent DDM fraction provides a better fit to the combined cosmological data as compared to the Λ CDM : the cluster counting and direct measurements of the Hubble parameter are responsible for that. The improvement can be as large as 1.5 σ and grows to 3.3 σ when the CMB lensing power amplitude AL is introduced as a free fitting parameter.
Detecting Massive, High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters Using the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect
Adams, Carson; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Loeb, Abraham; Karim, Alexander; Staguhn, Johannes; Erler, Jens; Capak, Peter L.
2017-01-01
We develop the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect as a direct astrophysical measure of the mass distribution of dark matter halos. The SZ effect increases with cosmological distance, a unique astronomical property, and is highly sensitive to halo mass. We find that this presents a powerful methodology for distinguishing between competing models of the halo mass function distribution, particularly in the high-redshift domain just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Recent surveys designed to probe this epoch of initial galaxy formation such as CANDELS and SPLASH report an over-abundance of highly massive halos as inferred from stellar ultraviolet (UV) luminosities and the stellar mass to halo mass ratio estimated from nearby galaxies. If these UV luminosity to halo mass relations hold to high-redshift, observations estimate several orders of magnitude more highly massive halos than predicted by hierarchical merging and the standard cosmological paradigm. Strong constraints on the masses of these galaxy clusters are essential to resolving the current tension between observation and theory. We conclude that detections of thermal SZ sources are plausible at high-redshift only for the halo masses inferred from observation. Therefore, future SZ surveys will provide a robust determination between theoretical and observational predictions.
Maximal compression of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum
Gualdi, Davide; Manera, Marc; Joachimi, Benjamin; Lahav, Ofer
2018-05-01
We explore two methods of compressing the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum with respect to a chosen set of cosmological parameters. Both methods involve reducing the dimension of the original data vector (e.g. 1000 elements) to the number of cosmological parameters considered (e.g. seven ) using the Karhunen-Loève algorithm. In the first case, we run MCMC sampling on the compressed data vector in order to recover the 1D and 2D posterior distributions. The second option, approximately 2000 times faster, works by orthogonalizing the parameter space through diagonalization of the Fisher information matrix before the compression, obtaining the posterior distributions without the need of MCMC sampling. Using these methods for future spectroscopic redshift surveys like DESI, Euclid, and PFS would drastically reduce the number of simulations needed to compute accurate covariance matrices with minimal loss of constraining power. We consider a redshift bin of a DESI-like experiment. Using the power spectrum combined with the bispectrum as a data vector, both compression methods on average recover the 68 {per cent} credible regions to within 0.7 {per cent} and 2 {per cent} of those resulting from standard MCMC sampling, respectively. These confidence intervals are also smaller than the ones obtained using only the power spectrum by 81 per cent, 80 per cent, and 82 per cent respectively, for the bias parameter b1, the growth rate f, and the scalar amplitude parameter As.
On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances
Belinski, V. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.
2018-03-01
We show that solitonic cosmological gravitational waves propagated through the Friedmann universe and generated by the inhomogeneities of the gravitational field near the Big Bang can be responsible for increase of cosmological distances.
Fossil Groups as Cosmological Labs
D'Onghia, Elena
Optical and X-ray measurements of fossil groups (FGs) suggest that they are old and relaxed systems. If FGs are assembled at higher redshift, there is enough time for intermediate-luminosity galaxies to merge, resulting in the formation of the brightest group galaxy (BGG). We carry out the first, systematic study of a large sample of FGs, the "FOssil Group Origins'' (FOGO) based on an International Time Project at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory. For ten FOGO FGs we have been awarded time at SUZAKU Telescope to measure the temperature of the hot intragroup gas (IGM). For these systems we plan to evaluate and correlate their X-ray luminosity and X-ray temperature, Lx-Tx, optical luminosity and X-ray temperature, Lopt-Tx, and group velocity dispersion with their X-ray temperature, sigma V-Tx, as compared to the non fossil systems. By combining these observations with state-of-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations we will open a new window into the study of the IGM and the nature of fossil systems. Our proposed work will be of direct relevance for the understanding and interpretation of data from several NASA science missions. Specifically, the scaling relations obtained from these data combined with our predictions obtained using state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulation numerical adopting a new hydrodynamical scheme will motivate new proposal on CHANDRA X-ray telescope for fossil groups and clusters. We will additionally create a public Online Planetarium Show. This will be an educational site, containing an interactive program called: "A Voyage to our Universe''. In the show we will provide observed images of fossil groups and similar images and movies obtained from the numerical simulations showing their evolution. The online planetarium show will be a useful reference and an interactive educational tool for both students and the public.
Bell, M. B.
2004-01-01
A Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) source sample containing 44,200 quasar redshifts is examined. Although arguments have been put forth to explain some of the structure observed in the redshift distribution, it is argued here that this structure may just as easily be explained by the presence of previously predicted preferred redshifts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.
1992-01-01
The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-01-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Belinski, Vladimir
2018-01-01
Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...
Tomaschitz, R
1994-01-01
Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skaanes, Thea
2015-01-01
Abstract: This article concerns Hadza cosmology examined through objects, rituals and the Hadza concept of epeme. A brief background to the Hadza and the eldwork that informs this study is followed by a close analysis of three key objects that are central to the argument presented. The objects...... are intimately linked to women and to aspects of the social and cosmological identity of the individual makers. one object is a materi- alisation of the woman’s name and it leads to an examination by interview of naming practices more generally. Naming a child gives it a spirit and places the child in a strong...... of ethnographic research indicating the potential and need for further examination of the power and role of objects in Hadza society. Keywords: Hadza, epeme, ritual, cosmology, power objects...
Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon
2017-01-01
Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.
Leveraging 3D-HST Grism Redshifts to Quantify Photometric Redshift Performance
Bezanson, Rachel; Wake, David A.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.
2016-05-01
We present a study of photometric redshift accuracy in the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using 3D-HST grism redshifts to quantify and dissect trends in redshift accuracy for galaxies brighter than JH IR > 24 with an unprecedented and representative high-redshift galaxy sample. We find an average scatter of 0.0197 ± 0.0003(1 + z) in the Skelton et al. photometric redshifts. Photometric redshift accuracy decreases with magnitude and redshift, but does not vary monotonically with color or stellar mass. The 1σ scatter lies between 0.01 and 0.03 (1 + z) for galaxies of all masses and colors below z 2), dusty star-forming galaxies for which the scatter increases to ˜0.1 (1 + z). We find that photometric redshifts depend significantly on galaxy size; the largest galaxies at fixed magnitude have photo-zs with up to ˜30% more scatter and ˜5 times the outlier rate. Although the overall photometric redshift accuracy for quiescent galaxies is better than that for star-forming galaxies, scatter depends more strongly on magnitude and redshift than on galaxy type. We verify these trends using the redshift distributions of close pairs and extend the analysis to fainter objects, where photometric redshift errors further increase to ˜0.046 (1 + z) at {H}F160W=26. We demonstrate that photometric redshift accuracy is strongly filter dependent and quantify the contribution of multiple filter combinations. We evaluate the widths of redshift probability distribution functions and find that error estimates are underestimated by a factor of ˜1.1-1.6, but that uniformly broadening the distribution does not adequately account for fitting outliers. Finally, we suggest possible applications of these data in planning for current and future surveys and simulate photometric redshift performance in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Dark Energy Survey (DES), and combined DES and Vista Hemisphere surveys.
Calculating observables in inhomogeneous cosmologies. Part I: general framework
Hellaby, Charles; Walters, Anthony
2018-02-01
We lay out a general framework for calculating the variation of a set of cosmological observables, down the past null cone of an arbitrarily placed observer, in a given arbitrary inhomogeneous metric. The observables include redshift, proper motions, area distance and redshift-space density. Of particular interest are observables that are zero in the spherically symmetric case, such as proper motions. The algorithm is based on the null geodesic equation and the geodesic deviation equation, and it is tailored to creating a practical numerical implementation. The algorithm provides a method for tracking which light rays connect moving objects to the observer at successive times. Our algorithm is applied to the particular case of the Szekeres metric. A numerical implementation has been created and some results will be presented in a subsequent paper. Future work will explore the range of possibilities.
Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.
Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-10-27
The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.
The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fialkov, A. [Departement de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, Paris, 75005 (France); Loeb, A., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@phys.ens.fr, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)
2013-11-01
The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ∼ 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Lyα radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.
The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A.
2013-01-01
The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ∼ 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Lyα radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.
1990-01-01
Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Michael L.
2001-01-01
Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing
An iterative reconstruction of cosmological initial density fields
Hada, Ryuichiro; Eisenstein, Daniel J.
2018-05-01
We present an iterative method to reconstruct the linear-theory initial conditions from the late-time cosmological matter density field, with the intent of improving the recovery of the cosmic distance scale from the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). We present tests using the dark matter density field in both real and redshift space generated from an N-body simulation. In redshift space at z = 0.5, we find that the reconstructed displacement field using our iterative method are more than 80% correlated with the true displacement field of the dark matter particles on scales k < 0.10h Mpc-1. Furthermore, we show that the two-point correlation function of our reconstructed density field matches that of the initial density field substantially better, especially on small scales (<40h-1 Mpc). Our redshift-space results are improved if we use an anisotropic smoothing so as to account for the reduced small-scale information along the line of sight in redshift space.
Cosmological simulation with dust formation and destruction
Aoyama, Shohei; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shimizu, Ikkoh
2018-06-01
To investigate the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume, we perform hydrodynamic simulations, in which the enrichment of metals and dust is treated self-consistently with star formation and stellar feedback. We consider dust evolution driven by dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by sputtering, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering, and treat small and large grains separately to trace the grain size distribution. After confirming that our model nicely reproduces the observed relation between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity for nearby galaxies, we concentrate on the dust abundance over the cosmological volume in this paper. The comoving dust mass density has a peak at redshift z ˜ 1-2, coincident with the observationally suggested dustiest epoch in the Universe. In the local Universe, roughly 10 per cent of the dust is contained in the intergalactic medium (IGM), where only 1/3-1/4 of the dust survives against dust destruction by sputtering. We also show that the dust mass function is roughly reproduced at ≲ 108 M⊙, while the massive end still has a discrepancy, which indicates the necessity of stronger feedback in massive galaxies. In addition, our model broadly reproduces the observed radial profile of dust surface density in the circum-galactic medium (CGM). While our model satisfies the observational constraints for the dust extinction on cosmological scales, it predicts that the dust in the CGM and IGM is dominated by large (>0.03 μm) grains, which is in tension with the steep reddening curves observed in the CGM.
Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1999-01-01
Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive
Kaufmann, William J
1973-01-01
The foundations of gravitational theory ; the birth of relativity theory ; the foundations of general relativity ; experimental tests of relativity ; the meaning of the redshift ; the black hole ; wormholes and white holes ; galaxies and quasars ; gravitational waves ; the shape of the Universe ; the creation of the Universe.
Cosmology with cluster surveys
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...
Drift velocity monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2010-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented.
Cosmology and the early universe
Di Bari, Pasquale
2018-01-01
This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.
Non equilibrium relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.
1982-01-01
A certain systematization through the discussion of results already known on cosmology and the presentation of new ones is given. In section 2 a brief review of the necessary mathematical background is also given. The theory of perturbation of Friedmann-like Universes is presented in section 3. The reduction of Einstein's equations for homogeneous Universes to an autonomous planar system of differential equations is done in section 4. Finally in section 5 the alternative gravitational non-minimal coupling and its consequences to cosmology are discussed. (Author) [pt
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
Most of the puzzles with standard big bang cosmology can be avoided if the big bang is NOT identified with the beginning of time. The short-distance cutoff and duality symmetries of superstring theory suggest a new (so-called pre-big bang) cosmology in which the birth of our Universe is the result of a long classical evolution characterized by a gravitational instability. I will motivate and describe this heretical scenario and compare its phenomenological implications with those of ortodox (post-big bang) inflation.
Exploring Cosmology with Supernovae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xue
distribution of strong gravitational lensing is developed. For Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia), the rate is lower than core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). The rate of SNe Ia declines beyond z 1:5. Based on these reasons, we investigate a potential candidate to measure cosmological distance: GRB......-SNe. They are a subclass of CC SNe. Light curves of GRB-SNe are obtained and their properties are studied. We ascertain that the properties of GRB-SNe make them another candidate for standardizable candles in measuring the cosmic distance. Cosmological parameters M and are constrained with the help of GRB-SNe. The first...
2012-01-01
This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.
Silk, Joseph
2011-01-01
Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p
Relativistic Cosmology Revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity
Tkachev, Igor
2017-01-01
This lecture course covers cosmology from the particle physicist perspective. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the evidence for the new physics in cosmological and astrophysical data together with minimal theoretical frameworks needed to understand and appreciate the evidence. I review the case for non-baryonic dark matter and describe popular models which incorporate it. In parallel, the story of dark energy will be developed, which includes accelerated expansion of the Universe today, the Universe origin in the Big Bang, and support for the Inflationary theory in CMBR data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabell, R.
1979-01-01
Einstein applied his gravitation theory to a universe model with positively curved space in 1917. In order to maintain a static universe he introduced the cosmological constant, which in the light of later nonstatic universe models, he described as his life's greatest mistake. The best known such model is the Einstein-de Sitter model, which is here discussed in some detail. The 'big bang' theory is also discussed leading to the cosmic background radiation. The early phase of the 'big bang' cosmology, the first ten seconds, and the first minutes are discussed, leading to the transparent stage. (JIW)
Cosmological models without singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, W.
1981-01-01
A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)
Difficulties with inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, R.
1989-01-01
According to the author, the idea of inflationary cosmology is an ingenious attempt to solve some of the major puzzles of cosmology, most notably the flatness problem, the homogeneity (horizon) problem, and the monopole problem. The homogeneity problem, in particular, is intimately connected with a largely unappreciated, but profound puzzle presented by the second law of thermodynamics. The author argues that the mechanism of inflation does not, by itself, come to terms with this and consequently, comes nowhere close to providing an understanding of the large-scale homogeneity of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marrakchi, A.E.L.; Tapia, V.
1992-05-01
Some cosmological implications of the recently proposed fourth-rank theory of gravitation are studied. The model exhibits the possibility of being free from the horizon and flatness problems at the price of introducing a negative pressure. The field equations we obtain are compatible with k obs =0 and Ω obs t clas approx. 10 20 t Planck approx. 10 -23 s. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. Hence, an interpretation of the negative pressure hypothesis is provided. (author). 8 refs
Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology
Bzowski, A.W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of
Quintessence and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.
2003-01-01
Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant
Cosmological Results from High-z Supernovae
Tonry, John L.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Barris, Brian; Candia, Pablo; Challis, Peter; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Coil, Alison L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hogan, Craig; Holland, Stephen T.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Leibundgut, Bruno; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Phillips, Mark M.; Riess, Adam G.; Schommer, Robert; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
2003-09-01
The High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight new supernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independent observations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm the results of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminosity distances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extend the redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the opposite sign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, these measurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of the importance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitative test for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a rate for SN Ia of (1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1 at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for 230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmological quantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy is w=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, and ΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Including the constraint of a flat universe, we find ΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scale structure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field (2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming a flat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the dark energy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain wInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associated with proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposals GO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118. Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter
Model-independent cosmological constraints from growth and expansion
L'Huillier, Benjamin; Shafieloo, Arman; Kim, Hyungjin
2018-05-01
Reconstructing the expansion history of the Universe from Type Ia supernovae data, we fit the growth rate measurements and put model-independent constraints on some key cosmological parameters, namely, Ωm, γ, and σ8. The constraints are consistent with those from the concordance model within the framework of general relativity, but the current quality of the data is not sufficient to rule out modified gravity models. Adding the condition that dark energy density should be positive at all redshifts, independently of its equation of state, further constrains the parameters and interestingly supports the concordance model.
Gravitational wave memory in ΛCDM cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-01-01
We examine gravitational wave memory in the case where sources and detector are in a ΛCDM cosmology. We consider the case where the Universe can be highly inhomogeneous, but gravitational radiation is treated in the short wavelength approximation. We find results very similar to those of gravitational wave memory in an asymptotically flat spacetime; however, the overall magnitude of the memory effect is enhanced by a redshift-dependent factor. In addition, we find the memory can be affected by lensing. (paper)
Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D
2002-01-01
The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).
Revisiting the bulge-halo conspiracy - II. Towards explaining its puzzling dependence on redshift
Shankar, Francesco; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Grylls, Philip; Zanisi, Lorenzo; Nipoti, Carlo; Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Bernardi, Mariangela; Petrillo, Carlo Enrico; Huertas-Company, Marc; Mamon, Gary A.; Buchan, Stewart
2018-04-01
We carry out a systematic investigation of the total mass density profile of massive (log Mstar/M⊙ ˜ 11.5) early-type galaxies and its dependence on redshift, specifically in the range 0 ≲ z ≲ 1. We start from a large sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey early-type galaxies with stellar masses and effective radii measured assuming two different profiles, de Vaucouleurs and Sérsic. We assign dark matter haloes to galaxies via abundance matching relations with standard ΛCDM profiles and concentrations. We then compute the total, mass-weighted density slope at the effective radius γ΄, and study its redshift dependence at fixed stellar mass. We find that a necessary condition to induce an increasingly flatter γ΄ at higher redshifts, as suggested by current strong lensing data, is to allow the intrinsic stellar profile of massive galaxies to be Sérsic and the input Sérsic index n to vary with redshift as n(z) ∝ (1 + z)δ, with δ ≲ -1. This conclusion holds irrespective of the input Mstar-Mhalo relation, the assumed stellar initial mass function (IMF), or even the chosen level of adiabatic contraction in the model. Secondary contributors to the observed redshift evolution of γ΄ may come from an increased contribution at higher redshifts of adiabatic contraction and/or bottom-light stellar IMFs. The strong lensing selection effects we have simulated seem not to contribute to this effect. A steadily increasing Sérsic index with cosmic time is supported by independent observations, though it is not yet clear whether cosmological hierarchical models (e.g. mergers) are capable of reproducing such a fast and sharp evolution.
Electronics for proportional drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)
1980-01-01
An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)
The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4
Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.
2012-01-01
Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.
An intensity map of hydrogen 21-cm emission at redshift z approximately 0.8.
Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Bandura, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey B
2010-07-22
Observations of 21-cm radio emission by neutral hydrogen at redshifts z approximately 0.5 to approximately 2.5 are expected to provide a sensitive probe of cosmic dark energy. This is particularly true around the onset of acceleration at z approximately 1, where traditional optical cosmology becomes very difficult because of the infrared opacity of the atmosphere. Hitherto, 21-cm emission has been detected only to z = 0.24. More distant galaxies generally are too faint for individual detections but it is possible to measure the aggregate emission from many unresolved galaxies in the 'cosmic web'. Here we report a three-dimensional 21-cm intensity field at z = 0.53 to 1.12. We then co-add neutral-hydrogen (H i) emission from the volumes surrounding about 10,000 galaxies (from the DEEP2 optical galaxy redshift survey). We detect the aggregate 21-cm glow at a significance of approximately 4sigma.
Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houseworth, J.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the
How accurately can 21cm tomography constrain cosmology?
Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver
2008-07-01
There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6noise, to uncertainties in the reionization history, and to the level of contamination from astrophysical foregrounds. We derive simple analytic estimates for how various assumptions affect an experiment’s sensitivity, and we find that the modeling of reionization is the most important, followed by the array layout. We present an accurate yet robust method for measuring cosmological parameters that exploits the fact that the ionization power spectra are rather smooth functions that can be accurately fit by 7 phenomenological parameters. We find that for future experiments, marginalizing over these nuisance parameters may provide constraints almost as tight on the cosmology as if 21 cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to ΔΩk≈0.0002 and Δmν≈0.007eV, and give a 4σ detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.
Simulation-based marginal likelihood for cluster strong lensing cosmology
Killedar, M.; Borgani, S.; Fabjan, D.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G.; Meneghetti, M.; Planelles, S.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.
2018-01-01
Comparisons between observed and predicted strong lensing properties of galaxy clusters have been routinely used to claim either tension or consistency with Λ cold dark matter cosmology. However, standard approaches to such cosmological tests are unable to quantify the preference for one cosmology over another. We advocate approximating the relevant Bayes factor using a marginal likelihood that is based on the following summary statistic: the posterior probability distribution function for the parameters of the scaling relation between Einstein radii and cluster mass, α and β. We demonstrate, for the first time, a method of estimating the marginal likelihood using the X-ray selected z > 0.5 Massive Cluster Survey clusters as a case in point and employing both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations of clusters. We investigate the uncertainty in this estimate and consequential ability to compare competing cosmologies, which arises from incomplete descriptions of baryonic processes, discrepancies in cluster selection criteria, redshift distribution and dynamical state. The relation between triaxial cluster masses at various overdensities provides a promising alternative to the strong lensing test.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc
2011-01-01
We present a simple method for measuring cosmological bulk flows from large redshift surveys, based on the apparent dimming or brightening of galaxies due to their peculiar motion. It is aimed at estimating bulk flows of cosmological volumes containing large numbers of galaxies. Constraints on the bulk flow are obtained by minimizing systematic variations in galaxy luminosities with respect to a reference luminosity function measured from the whole survey. This method offers two advantages over more popular bulk flow estimators: it is independent of error-prone distance indicators and of the poorly known galaxy bias. We apply the method to the Two Micron All Sky Survey redshift survey to measure the local bulk flows of spherical shells centered on the Milky Way (MW). The result is consistent with that obtained by Nusser and Davis using the SFI++ catalogue of Tully-Fisher distance indicators. We also make an assessment of the ability of the method to constrain bulk flows at larger redshifts (z = 0.1-0.5) from next-generation data sets. As a case study we consider the planned EUCLID survey. Using this method we will be able to measure a bulk motion of ∼200 km s -1 of 10 6 galaxies with photometric redshifts, at the 3σ level for both z ∼ 0.15 and z ∼ 0.5. Thus, the method will allow us to put strong constraints on dark energy models as well as alternative theories for structure formation.
THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Juhan; Gott III, J. Richard
2012-01-01
Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat ΛCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the ΛCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the ΛCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in quality, quantity, and the scope of cosmological observations. While the ob- ... In this article, I summarize both the oral and poster presentations made at the workshop. ... the angular spectrum of CMB anisotropy with recent measurements of the power spectrum of ..... A thermodynamical treatment within the framework of.
Primack, Joel R.
2000-01-01
The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\
Culture and Children's Cosmology
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
2004-01-01
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Cosmological dynamical systems
Leon, Genly
2011-01-01
In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1995-01-01
Primordial nucleosynthesis has established itself as one of the three pillars of Big Bang cosmology. Many of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis reactions involve unstable nuclei. Hence there is a tight relationship hetween the subject of this conference and cosmology. The prime role of unstable nuclei in cosmology is related to lithium synthesis and the lack of cosmological synthesis of Be and B. These nuclei will thus be focused upon. Nucleosynthesis involves comparing calculated abundances with observed abundances. In general, abundance determinations are dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors, and work on bounding systematics is crucial. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ω b are possible vis-a-vis the homogeneous model; hence the robustness of Ω b ∼0.05 is now apparent. (These calculations depend critically on unstable nuclei.) The above argues that the bulk of the baryons in the universe are not producing visible light. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ω b ∼1 seems to be definitely excluded, so if Ω TOTAL =1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required. The implications of the recently reported halo microlensing events are discussed. In summary, it is argued that the physics of unstable nuclei affects the fundamental dark matter argument. ((orig.))
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin; Pueblas, Sebastian; Scoccimarro, Roman; /CCPP, New York
2006-04-01
The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies. They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.
McFadden, P.; Skenderis, K.
2010-01-01
We propose a holographic description of four-dimensional single-scalar inflationary universes, and show how cosmological observables, such as the primordial power spectrum, are encoded in the correlation functions of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). The holographic description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.; Torres, J.; Oliveira, H.P. de
1989-01-01
A set of spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological geometries generated by a class of non-perfect is investigated fluids. The irreversibility if this system is studied in the context of causal thermodynamics which provides a useful mechanism to conform to the non-violation of the causal principle. (author) [pt
Solitons in relativistic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pullin, J.
1988-08-01
The application to the construction of solitonic cosmologies in General Relativity of the Inverse Scattering Technique of Belinskii an Zakharov is analyzed. Three improvements to the mentioned technique are proposed: the inclusion of higher order poles in the scattering matrix, a new renormalization technique for diagonal metrics and the extension of the technique to include backgrounds with material content by means of a Kaluza-Klein formalism. As a consequence of these improvements, three new aspects can be analyzed: a) The construction of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models which can mimic the formation of halos and voids, due to the presence of a material content. The new renormalization technique allows to construct an exact perturbation theory. b) The analysis of the dynamics of models with cosmological constant (inflationary models) and their perturbations. c) The study of interaction of gravitational solitonic waves on material backgrounds. Moreover, some additional works, connected with the existance of 'Crack of doom' type singularities in Kaluza-Klein cosmologies, stochastic perturbations in inflationary universes and inflationary phase transitions in rotating universes are described. (Author) [es
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This report is based on a recent work in collaboration with Bagla and Padmanabhan. [1]. In this paper, we construct cosmological models with homogeneous tachyon matter [2] to provide the dark energy component which drives acceleration of the universe (for a recent review of dark energy models, see [3]). We assume that.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1986-01-01
It is proposed to understand cosmology as a non-local physics. Non-local methods, when developed from locally performed observations, imply a considerable extrapolation, which in turn is possible without some unverifiable assumptions. Cosmology is, therefore, not only a science on the Universe but also about assumptions that render such a science possible. As far as theoretical aspects of cosmology are concerned, cosmology can be treated as a theory of the space of all solutions to Einstein's field equations (called the ensemble of universes). The very distinction is touched upon between solutions of differential equations, expressing laws of nature, and boundary conditions identifying particular instances of the law's operation. Both observational and theoretical studies demonstrate that our Universe occupies a distinguished position within the ensemble of universes. This fact remains in a close relationship with the existence and developing of structures in the Universe. Possible philosophies aimed at justifying or neutralizing our distinguished situation in the ensemble of universes are discussed at some length. 60 refs. (author)
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehners, Jean-Luc
2008-01-01
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Michael S
1999-03-01
For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology{exclamation_point}.
Excessive extrapolations in cosmology
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.
2016-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 270-280 ISSN 0202-2893 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : cosmology * friedmann equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289316030105
Modified geodetic brane cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordero, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín
2012-01-01
We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)
, i.e. with the cosmology hidden. Looking Beyond Lambda with the Union Supernova Compilation by Rubin et Matrix Description Covariance Matrix with Systematics Description Full Table of All SNe Description Beyond Lambda Figures Updated 11-18-11 Contact: drubin at physics dot fsu dot edu, saul at lbl dot gov
Kevane, C J
1961-02-24
A cosmological model based on a gravitational plasma of matter and antimatter is discussed. The antigravitational interaction of matter and antimatter leads to segregation and an expansion of the plasma universe. The expansion time scale is controlled by the aggregation time scale.
Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arcidiacono, G.
1986-01-01
This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation
Post-inflationary brane cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumdar, Anupam
2001-01-01
The brane cosmology has invoked new challenges to the usual Big Bang cosmology. In this paper we present a brief account on thermal history of the post-inflationary brane cosmology. We have realized that it is not obvious that the post-inflationary brane cosmology would always deviate from the standard Big Bang cosmology. However, if it deviates some stringent conditions on the brane tension are to be satisfied. In this regard we study various implications on gravitino production and its abundance. We discuss Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis and make some comments on moduli and dilaton problems in this context
Open problems in string cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumbas, N.
2010-01-01
Some of the open problems in string cosmology are highlighted within the context of the recently constructed thermal and quantum superstring cosmological solutions. Emphasis is given on the high temperature cosmological regime, where it is argued that thermal string vacua in the presence of gravito-magnetic fluxes can be used to bypass the Hagedorn instabilities of string gas cosmology. This article is based on a talk given at the workshop on ''Cosmology and Strings'', Corfu, September 6-13, 2009. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters as predicted by general relativity.
Wojtak, Radosław; Hansen, Steen H; Hjorth, Jens
2011-09-28
The theoretical framework of cosmology is mainly defined by gravity, of which general relativity is the current model. Recent tests of general relativity within the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model have found a concordance between predictions and the observations of the growth rate and clustering of the cosmic web. General relativity has not hitherto been tested on cosmological scales independently of the assumptions of the ΛCDM model. Here we report an observation of the gravitational redshift of light coming from galaxies in clusters at the 99 per cent confidence level, based on archival data. Our measurement agrees with the predictions of general relativity and its modification created to explain cosmic acceleration without the need for dark energy (the f(R) theory), but is inconsistent with alternative models designed to avoid the presence of dark matter. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun
2013-04-12
The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).
Cosmological-model-parameter determination from satellite-acquired type Ia and IIP Supernova Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podariu, Silviu; Nugent, Peter; Ratra, Bharat
2000-01-01
We examine the constraints that satellite-acquired Type Ia and IIP supernova apparent magnitude versus redshift data will place on cosmological model parameters in models with and without a constant or time-variable cosmological constant lambda. High-quality data which could be acquired in the near future will result in tight constraints on these parameters. For example, if all other parameters of a spatially-flat model with a constant lambda are known, the supernova data should constrain the non-relativistic matter density parameter omega to better than 1 (2, 0.5) at 1 sigma with neutral (worst case, best case) assumptions about data quality
Cosmological Evolution of the Central Engine in High-Luminosity, High-Accretion Rate AGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Guainazzi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the status of observational studies aiming at probing the cosmological evolution of the central engine in high-luminosity, high-accretion rate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. X-ray spectroscopic surveys, supported by extensive multi-wavelength coverage, indicate a remarkable invariance of the accretion disk plus corona system, and of their coupling up to redshifts z≈6. Furthermore, hard X-ray (E >10 keV surveys show that nearby Seyfert Galaxies share the same central engine notwithstanding their optical classication. These results suggest that the high-luminosity, high accretion rate quasar phase of AGN evolution is homogeneous over cosmological times.
Minihalo model for the low-redshift Lyα absorbers revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lalović A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We reconsider the basic properties of the classical minihalo model of Rees and Milgrom in light of the new work, both observational (on 'dark galaxies' and masses of baryonic haloes and theoretical (on the cosmological mass function and the history of star formation. In particular, we show that more detailed models of ionized gas in haloes of dark matter following isothermal and Navarro-Frenk-White density profile can effectively reproduce particular aspects of the observed column density distribution function in a heterogeneous sample of low- and intermediate-redshift Lyα forest absorption lines.
Minihalo Model for the Low-Redshift Lyman alpha Absorbers Revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lalović, A.
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We reconsider the basic properties of the classical minihalo model of Rees and Milgrom in light of the new work, both observational (on "dark galaxies" and masses of baryonic haloes and theoretical (on the cosmological mass function and the history of star formation. In particular, we show that more detailed models of ionized gas in haloes of dark matter following isothermal and Navarro-Frenk-White density profile can effectively reproduce particular aspects of the observed column density distribution function in a heterogeneous sample of low-and intermediate-redshift Ly$alpha$ forest absorption lines.
Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift
Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.
2014-12-01
There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4
Quantum cosmology - science of Genesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, Thanu
1987-01-01
Quantum cosmology, the marriage between the theories of the microscopic and macroscopic Universe, is examined in an attempt to explain the birth of the Universe in the 'big bang'. A quantum cosmological model of the Universe does not exist, but a rough approximation, or 'poor man's' version of quantum cosmology has been developed. The idea is to combine the theory of quantum mechanics with the classical cosmological solutions to obtain a quantum mechanical version of cosmology. Such a model of quantum cosmology is described -here the quantum universe behaves like a hydrogen atom with the Planck length replacing the Bohr radius. Properties of quantum cosmologies and the significance of the Planck length are both discussed. (UK)
Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars
Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.
1991-01-01
A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.
Automated reliability assessment for spectroscopic redshift measurements
Jamal, S.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Vibert, D.; Schmitt, A.; Surace, C.; Copin, Y.; Garilli, B.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.
2018-03-01
Context. Future large-scale surveys, such as the ESA Euclid mission, will produce a large set of galaxy redshifts (≥106) that will require fully automated data-processing pipelines to analyze the data, extract crucial information and ensure that all requirements are met. A fundamental element in these pipelines is to associate to each galaxy redshift measurement a quality, or reliability, estimate. Aim. In this work, we introduce a new approach to automate the spectroscopic redshift reliability assessment based on machine learning (ML) and characteristics of the redshift probability density function. Methods: We propose to rephrase the spectroscopic redshift estimation into a Bayesian framework, in order to incorporate all sources of information and uncertainties related to the redshift estimation process and produce a redshift posterior probability density function (PDF). To automate the assessment of a reliability flag, we exploit key features in the redshift posterior PDF and machine learning algorithms. Results: As a working example, public data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey is exploited to present and test this new methodology. We first tried to reproduce the existing reliability flags using supervised classification in order to describe different types of redshift PDFs, but due to the subjective definition of these flags (classification accuracy 58%), we soon opted for a new homogeneous partitioning of the data into distinct clusters via unsupervised classification. After assessing the accuracy of the new clusters via resubstitution and test predictions (classification accuracy 98%), we projected unlabeled data from preliminary mock simulations for the Euclid space mission into this mapping to predict their redshift reliability labels. Conclusions: Through the development of a methodology in which a system can build its own experience to assess the quality of a parameter, we are able to set a preliminary basis of an automated reliability assessment for
Progress in semiconductor drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.
1985-01-01
Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements
CTF Void Drift Validation Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
2015-10-26
This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This year's Nobel prize is welcome recognition for cosmology. Back in the 1960s, according to Paul Davies' new book The Goldilocks Enigma (see 'Seeking anthropic answers' in this issue), cynics used to quip that there is 'speculation, speculation squared - and cosmology'. Anyone trying to understand the origin and fate of the universe was, in other words, dealing with questions that were simply impractical - or even impossible - to answer. But that has all changed with the development of new telescopes, satellites and data-processing techniques - to the extent that cosmology is now generally viewed as a perfectly acceptable branch of science. If anyone was in any doubt of cosmology's new status, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences last month gave the subject welcome recognition with the award of this year's Nobel prize to John Mather and George Smoot (see pp6-7; print version only). The pair were the driving force behind the COBE satellite that in 1992 produced the now famous image of the cosmic microwave background. The mission's data almost certainly proved that the universe started with a Big Bang, while tiny fluctuations in the temperature signal between different parts of the sky were shown to be the seeds of the stars and galaxies we see today. These results are regarded by many as the start of a new era of 'precision cosmology'. But for cosmologists, the job is far from over. There are still massive holes in our understanding of the cosmos, notably the nature of dark matter and dark energy, which together account for over 95% of the total universe. Indeed, some regard dark energy and matter as just ad hoc assumptions needed to fit the data. (Hypothetical particles called 'axions' are one possible contender for dark matter (see pp20-23; print version only), but don't bet your house on it.) Some physicists even think it makes more sense to adjust Newtonian gravity rather than invoke dark matter. But the notion that cosmology is in crisis, as argued by some
Photometric classification and redshift estimation of LSST Supernovae
Dai, Mi; Kuhlmann, Steve; Wang, Yun; Kovacs, Eve
2018-04-01
Supernova (SN) classification and redshift estimation using photometric data only have become very important for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), given the large number of SNe that LSST will observe and the impossibility of spectroscopically following up all the SNe. We investigate the performance of a SN classifier that uses SN colors to classify LSST SNe with the Random Forest classification algorithm. Our classifier results in an AUC of 0.98 which represents excellent classification. We are able to obtain a photometric SN sample containing 99% SNe Ia by choosing a probability threshold. We estimate the photometric redshifts (photo-z) of SNe in our sample by fitting the SN light curves using the SALT2 model with nested sampling. We obtain a mean bias () of 0.012 with σ ( z_phot-z_spec/1+z_spec) = 0.0294 without using a host-galaxy photo-z prior, and a mean bias () of 0.0017 with σ ( z_phot-z_spec/1+z_spec) = 0.0116 using a host-galaxy photo-z prior. Assuming a flat ΛCDM model with Ωm = 0.3, we obtain Ωm of 0.305 ± 0.008 (statistical errors only), using the simulated LSST sample of photometric SNe Ia (with intrinsic scatter σint = 0.11) derived using our methodology without using host-galaxy photo-z prior. Our method will help boost the power of SNe from the LSST as cosmological probes.
The Segal chronogeometric redshift - a classical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairchild, E.E. Jr.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo.
1977-01-01
An error is shown to exist in the Segal chronogeometric redshift theory. The redshift distance relation of z=tan 2 (d/2R) derived by Segal using quantum theory violates the classical correspondence limit. The corrected result derived using simple classical arguments is z=tan 2 (d/R). This result gives the same predictions for small redshift objects but differs for large redshift objects such as quasars. The difference is shown to be caused by inconsistencies in the quantum derivation. Correcting these makes the quantum result equal to the classical result as one would expect from the correspondence principle. The impact of the correction on the predictions of the theory is discussed. (orig.) [de
Redshift differences of galaxies in nearby groups
Harrison, E. R.
1975-01-01
It is reported that galaxies in nearby groups exhibit anomalous nonvelocity redshifts. In this discussion, (1) four classes of nearby groups of galacies are analyzed, and no significant nonvelocity redshift effect is found; and (2) it is pointed out that transverse velocities (i.e., velocities transverse to the line of sight of the main galaxy, or center of mass) contribute components to the redshift measurements of companion galaxies. The redshifts of galaxies in nearby groups of appreciable angular size are considerably affected by these velocity projection effects. The transverse velocity contributions average out in rich, isotropic groups, and also in large samples of irregular groups of low membership, as in the four classes referred to in (1), but can introduce apparent discrepancies in small samples (as studied by Arp) of nearby groups of low membership.
Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.
1976-01-01
The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores
A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takada, M
2008-01-01
A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
Towards a superstring cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J.G.
1987-01-01
If superstring theory is a theory of everything then it must give a satisfactory description of the very early evolution of the universe. Since the very early universe is not directly observable, then by satisfactory it is mean that the later evolution following the earlier (pre-Planck time era) phase leads to agreement with prediction for the various observable phenomena such as (B-bar B), inflation, galaxy structure, the cosmological constant (infimum), etc. Moreover it is to be hoped that the initial singularity of classical general relativistic cosmology is also avoided. It is clear that superstring theory is not yet able to tackle these problems. This paper describes what has been done so far to construct very simplified versions of string theory relevant to the early universe, and discusses the critical questions still to be answered
Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology.
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Nunes, Rafael C
2017-01-01
Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + [Formula: see text] observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction.
Bojowald, Martin
2015-02-01
In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.
Elementary particles and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audouze, J.; Paty, M.
2000-01-01
The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)
Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2017-09-15
Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + H{sub 0} observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction. (orig.)
Supersymmetric GUTs and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.
1982-06-01
By examining the behaviour of supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near the superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUTs. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry breaking scale a la Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out. Further constraint on model building appears if global R invariance is employed to resolve the strong CP problem. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1989-01-01
Quantum cosmology is to quantum gravity what the Bohr model is to the full quantum mechanical description of the hydrogen atom. In quantum cosmology one attempts to give a quantum-mechanical meaning to classical solutions of general relativity. This is discussed in this chapter. The approach is illustrated by quantizing only the conformal degree of freedom of the gravitational field, in particular the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. And, as in the hydrogen atom, the classical singularity of general relativity is avoided and one has analogous stationary states in the quantum Universe. The chapter ends with a model of the fundamental role that the Planck length may play as the universal cutoff in all field theories, thus ridding the theory of ultra-violet divergences. Two appendices introduce field theory in the Schroedinger representation and the Schroedinger equation for quantum gravity, namely the Wheeler-De Wit equation. (author). 38 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab
Massive neutrinos and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shandarin, S.F.
1991-01-01
This paper discussed the importance of the consequences of a nonzero neutrino rest mass on cosmology, perhaps, first recognized by Gershtein and Zeldovich, after the discover of the 3-K microwave background radiation MBR. Since the first works on the primordial synthesis of 4 He, it has been known that additional neutrino species increase the rate of expansion of the universe during the epoch of the primordial nucleosynthesis, which increases the yield of 4 He. Combining the results of the theory with astronomical measurements of the 4 He abundance and the estimate of the mass density of MBR, Shvartsman suggested the upper limit on the mass density of all relativistic matter at that epoch: ρ rel ≤ 5ρ MBR which eventually became the upper limit for the number of neutrino species: N ν ≤ 7. At that time, the constraints based on cosmological arguments were much stronger than one based on laboratory experiments
Merritt, David
2017-02-01
I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist' in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift' in the language of Imre Lakatos. I show that the 'concordance' argument, often put forward by cosmologists in support of the current paradigm, is weaker than the convergence arguments that were made in the past in support of the atomic theory of matter or the quantization of energy.
Cosmology, inflation, and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Fischler, W.; Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.; Steinhardt, P.J.
1982-01-01
Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric grand unified models based on the Witten-O'Raifeartaigh potential are discussed. In particular we study the development of the phase transition in the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. We find that in realistic models where light fields feel supersymmetry breaking only through coupling to massive fields, e.g., the Geometric Hierarchy model, the universe does not inflate or reheat. Thus, the standard cosmological flatness, monopole, and horizon problems remain. In addition, we find that the transition is never completed, in the sense that the universe remains dominated by coherent Higgs field energy, resulting in an apparent matter dominated universe with Ω greater than or equal to 10 30
Uncertain Photometric Redshifts with Deep Learning Methods
D'Isanto, A.
2017-06-01
The need for accurate photometric redshifts estimation is a topic that has fundamental importance in Astronomy, due to the necessity of efficiently obtaining redshift information without the need of spectroscopic analysis. We propose a method for determining accurate multi-modal photo-z probability density functions (PDFs) using Mixture Density Networks (MDN) and Deep Convolutional Networks (DCN). A comparison with a Random Forest (RF) is performed.
Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)
2010-02-01
We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breton, Nora
2010-01-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) generalizes Maxwell's theory for strong fields. When coupled to general relativity NLED presents interesting features like the non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor that leads to the possibility of violation of some energy conditions and of acting as a repulsive contribution in the Raychaudhuri equation. This theory is worth to study in cosmological and astrophysical situations characterized by strong electromagnetic and gravitational fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fré, P.; Sorin, A.S.; Trigiante, M.
2014-01-01
The question whether the integrable one-field cosmologies classified in a previous paper by Fré, Sagnotti and Sorin can be embedded as consistent one-field truncations into Extended Gauged Supergravity or in N=1 supergravity gauged by a superpotential without the use of D-terms is addressed in this paper. The answer is that such an embedding is very difficult and rare but not impossible. Indeed, we were able to find two examples of integrable models embedded in supergravity in this way. Both examples are fitted into N=1 supergravity by means of a very specific and interesting choice of the superpotential W(z). The question whether there are examples of such an embedding in Extended Gauged Supergravity remains open. In the present paper, relying on the embedding tensor formalism we classified all gaugings of the N=2 STU model, confirming, in the absence on hypermultiplets, the uniqueness of the stable de Sitter vacuum found several years ago by Fré, Trigiante and Van Proeyen and excluding the embedding of any integrable cosmological model. A detailed analysis of the space of exact solutions of the first supergravity-embedded integrable cosmological model revealed several new features worth an in-depth consideration. When the scalar potential has an extremum at a negative value, the Universe necessarily collapses into a Big Crunch notwithstanding its spatial flatness. The causal structure of these Universes is quite different from that of the closed, positive curved, Universe: indeed, in this case the particle and event horizons do not coincide and develop complicated patterns. The cosmological consequences of this unexpected mechanism deserve careful consideration
Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters
Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali
2005-01-01
I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimek, Z.
1981-01-01
The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result can be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state.
Supersymmetric inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiz-Altaba, M.
1986-06-01
An action is presented, within the framework of supergravity unification, which satisfies all experimental and cosmological constraints. In intermediate scale, around 10 10 - 10 11 GeV, arises from a critical examination of inflation, supersymmetry breaking, fermion masses, proton decay, baryogenesis, and electroweak breaking - including neutrino oscillations and CP violation. Careful consideration is given to some relevant calculations. 86 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimek, Z.
1981-01-01
The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state. (author)
Topics in inflationary cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahajan, S.
1986-04-01
Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs
Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanquin, J.-L.
1984-01-01
The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effenberger, R.
1974-09-01
The author summarizes some of the many questions and answers which have been raised over the years regarding the nature of matter, the origin of its forms and the associated concept of cosmology including the formation of the universe, our place in it and its course of evolution. An examination of the development of the classical concept of matter and its subsequent transformations within the space-time fields of relativity and quantum theory is also presented
GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)
2015-12-17
Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.
The effect of peculiar velocities on supernova cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davis, Tamara Maree; Hui, Lam; Frieman, Joshua A.
2011-01-01
We analyze the effect that peculiar velocities have on the cosmological inferences we make using luminosity distance indicators, such as Type Ia supernovae. In particular we study the corrections required to account for (1) our own motion, (2) correlations in galaxy motions, and (3) a possible lo...... when future surveys aim for percent-level accuracy and we recommend our statistical approach to down-weighting peculiar velocities as a more robust option than a sharp low-redshift cut....... local under- or overdensity. For all of these effects we present a case study showing the impact on the cosmology derived by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). Correcting supernova (SN) redshifts for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole slightly overcorrects...... nearby SNe that share some of our local motion. We show that while neglecting the CMB dipole would cause a shift in the derived equation of state of ¿w ~ 0.04 (at fixed O m ), the additional local-motion correction is currently negligible (¿w
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2002-01-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1987-01-01
If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amsterdamski, P.
1986-01-01
The standard cosmological model is reviewed and shown not to be self-sufficient in that it requires initial conditions most likely to be supplied by quantum cosmology. The possible approaches to the issue of initial conditions for cosmology are then discussed. In this thesis, the author considers three separate problems related to this issue. First, the possibility of inflation is investigated in detail by analyzing the evolution of metric perturbations and fluctuations in the expectation value of a scalar field prior to a phase transition; finite temperature effects are also included. Since the inhomogeneities were damped well before the onset of a phase transition. It is concluded that an inflation was possible. Next, the effective action of neutrino and photon fields is calculated for homogeneous spacetimes with small anisotropy; it is shown that quantum corrections to the action due to these fields influence the evolution of an early Universe in the Same way as do the analogous correction terms arising from a conformally invariant scalar which has been previously studied. Finally, the question of an early anisotropy is also discussed in a framework of Hartle-Hawking wave function of the Universe. A wave function of a Bianchi IX type Universe is calculated in a semiclassical approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fliche, H.-H.; Souriau, J.-M.
1978-03-01
On the basis of colorimetric data a composite spectrum of quasars is established from the visible to the Lyman's limit. Its agreement with the spectrum of the quasar 3C273, obtained directly, confirms the homogeneity of these objects. The compatibility of the following hypotheses: negligible evolution of quasars, Friedmann type model of the universe with cosmological constant, is studied by means of two tests: a non-correlation test adopted to the observation conditions and the construction of diagrams (absolute magnitude, volume) using the K-correction deduced from the composite spectrum. This procedure happens to give relatively well-defined values of the parameters; the central values of the density parameter, the reduced curvature and the reduced cosmological constant are: Ω 0 =0.053, k 0 =0.245, lambda-zero=1.19, which correspond to a big bang model, eternally expanding, spatially finite, in which Hubble's parameter H is presently increasing. This model responds well to different cosmological tests: density of matter, diameter of radio sources, age of the universe. Its characteristics suggest various cosmogonic mechanisms, espacially mass formation by growth of empty spherical bubbles [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelmini, G.B.
1996-01-01
These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called open-quote open-quote crisis close-quote close-quote (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelmini, Graciela B.
1996-01-01
These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called ''crisis'' (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos
2007-01-01
We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions
Inflation and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1990-01-01
We investigate an interplay between elementary particle physics, quantum cosmology and inflation. These results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. In particular, we discuss relations between the stochastic approach to inflationary cosmology and the approaches based on the investigation of the Hartle-Hawking and tunneling wave functions of the universe. We argue that neither of these wave functions can be used for a complete description of the inflationary universe, but in certain cases they can be used for a description of some particular stages of inflation. It is shown that if the present vacuum energy density ρ υ exceeds some extremely small critical value ρ c (ρ c ∼ 10 -107 ) g cm -3 for chaotic inflation in the theory 1/2m 2 φ 2 ), then the lifetime of mankind in the inflationary universe should be finite, even though the universe as a whole will exist without end. A possible way to justify the anthropic principle in the context of the baby universe theory and to apply it to the evaluation of masses of elementary particles, of their coupling constants and of the vacuum energy density is also discussed. (author)
A varying-α brane world cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youm, Donam
2001-08-01
We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilicki, Maciej; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Steward, Louise; Peacock, John A.
2014-01-01
Key cosmological applications require the three-dimensional (3D) galaxy distribution on the entire celestial sphere. These include measuring the gravitational pull on the Local Group, estimating the large-scale bulk flow, and testing the Copernican principle. However, the largest all-sky redshift surveys—the 2MASS Redshift Survey and IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey—have median redshifts of only z = 0.03 and sample the very local universe. All-sky galaxy catalogs exist that reach much deeper—SuperCOSMOS in the optical, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-IR, and WISE in the mid-IR—but these lack complete redshift information. At present, the only rapid way toward larger 3D catalogs covering the whole sky is through photometric redshift techniques. In this paper we present the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) containing one million galaxies, constructed by cross-matching Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC), WISE, and SuperCOSMOS all-sky samples and employing the artificial neural network approach (the ANNz algorithm), trained on such redshift surveys as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 6dFGS, and 2dFGRS. The derived photometric redshifts have errors nearly independent of distance, with an all-sky accuracy of σ z = 0.015 and a very small percentage of outliers. In this way, we obtain redshift estimates with a typical precision of 12% for all the 2MASS XSC galaxies that lack spectroscopy. In addition, we have made an early effort toward probing the entire 3D sky beyond 2MASS, by pairing up WISE with SuperCOSMOS and training the ANNz on GAMA redshift data currently reaching to z med ∼ 0.2. This has yielded photo-z accuracies comparable to those in the 2MPZ. These all-sky photo-z catalogs, with a median z ∼ 0.1 for the 2MPZ, and significantly deeper for future WISE-based samples, will be the largest and most complete of their kind for the foreseeable future
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cawthon, R.; et al.
2017-12-19
We present calibrations of the redshift distributions of redMaGiC galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 data. These results determine the priors of the redshift distribution of redMaGiC galaxies, which were used for galaxy clustering measurements and as lenses for galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements in DES Y1 cosmological analyses. We empirically determine the bias in redMaGiC photometric redshift estimates using angular cross-correlations with Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) galaxies. For DES, we calibrate a single parameter redshift bias in three photometric redshift bins: $z \\in[0.15,0.3]$, [0.3,0.45], and [0.45,0.6]. Our best fit results in each bin give photometric redshift biases of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. To further test the redMaGiC algorithm, we apply our calibration procedure to SDSS redMaGiC galaxies, where the statistical precision of the cross-correlation measurement is much higher due to a greater overlap with BOSS galaxies. For SDSS, we also find best fit results of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. We compare our results to other analyses of redMaGiC photometric redshifts.
Testing cosmology with galaxy clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rapetti Serra, David Angelo
2011-01-01
PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory and cosmo......PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory...... and cosmology. There will be an emphasis on timely interdisciplinary topics: • critical tests of inflationary cosmology • advances in fundamental cosmology • applications of string theory (AdS/CMT) • particle and string phenomenology • new experimental particle physics results • and cosmological probes...
Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel
2014-05-01
We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.
Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.
1972-01-01
Following the big-bang baryon symmetric cosmology of Omnes, the redshift was calculated to be on the order of 500-600. It is show that, at these redshifts, annihilation pressure at the boundaries between regions of matter and antimatter drives large scale supersonic turbulence which can trigger galaxy formation. This picture is consistent with the gamma-ray background observations discussed previously. Gravitational binding of galaxies then occurs at a redshift of about 70, at which time vortical turbulent velocities of about 3 x 10 to the 7th power cm/s lead to angular momenta for galaxies comparable with measured values.
CLUSTER LENSING PROFILES DERIVED FROM A REDSHIFT ENHANCEMENT OF MAGNIFIED BOSS-SURVEY GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coupon, Jean; Umetsu, Keiichi; Broadhurst, Tom
2013-01-01
We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveys, totaling 5000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift toward the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition, we find similar but noisier behavior for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey, we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M 200 ∼ 1.4-1.8 × 10 14 M ☉ for the optically detected cluster samples, and M 200 ∼ 5.0 × 10 14 M ☉ for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkachev, Igor
1993-01-01
When the common ground between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology started to become a developing area, the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences had the foresight in 1981 to institute the Baksan Schools on Particles and Cosmology. This now traditional event, held biannually in the Baksan Valley, has gone on to attract international participation. The site is close to the INR Baksan Neutrino Observatory with its underground and surface installations, including the SAGE gallium solar neutrino detector, the Underground Scintillation Telescope, and the 'Carpet' extensive air shower array. Participation is mainly from experimentalists working in non accelerator particle physics and particle astrophysics. The most recent School, held from April 21 to 28, began with an opening address by INR Director V. A. Matveev. J.Frieman reviewed standard big bang cosmology, emphasizing how the recent COBE results and the observations of large scale galaxy clustering fit into a standard cosmology framework. For inflationary cosmology, he showed how different models may be tested through their predictions for large-scale galactic structure and for cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A.Stebbins presented details of the large scale distribution of galaxies which, combined with velocity information and microwave background anisotropy data, provide strong constraints on theories of the origin of primordial inhomogeneities. Inflation requires, and theories of the large scale structure strongly favour the critical value for the cosmic mass density, while, as D.Seckel explained in his lecture on nucleosynthesis and abundances of the light elements, the baryon contribution to this density has to be tens of times smaller. A general review on the observational evidence for dark matter, dark matter particle candidates and the strategy of dark matter searches was given by I. Tkachev, who stressed the gravitational microlensing MACHO
Wang, Shao-Jiang; Guo, Qi; Cai, Rong-Gen
2017-12-01
We investigate the impact of different redshift distributions of random samples on the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements of D_V(z)r_d^fid/r_d from the two-point correlation functions of galaxies in the Data Release 12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Big surveys, such as BOSS, usually assign redshifts to the random samples by randomly drawing values from the measured redshift distributions of the data, which would necessarily introduce fiducial signals of fluctuations into the random samples, weakening the signals of BAO, if the cosmic variance cannot be ignored. We propose a smooth function of redshift distribution that fits the data well to populate the random galaxy samples. The resulting cosmological parameters match the input parameters of the mock catalogue very well. The significance of BAO signals has been improved by 0.33σ for a low-redshift sample and by 0.03σ for a constant-stellar-mass sample, though the absolute values do not change significantly. Given the precision of the measurements of current cosmological parameters, it would be appreciated for the future improvements on the measurements of galaxy clustering.
Hannachi, Zitouni; Guessoum, Nidhal; Azzam, Walid
2016-07-01
Context: We use the correlation relations between the energy emitted by the GRBs in their prompt phases and the X-ray afterglow fluxes, in an effort to constrain cosmological parameters and construct a Hubble diagram at high redshifts, i.e. beyond those found in Type Ia supernovae. Methods: We use a sample of 128 Swift GRBs, which we have selected among more than 800 ones observed until July 2015. The selection is based on a few observational constraints: GRB flux higher than 0.4 photons/cm^2/s in the band 15-150 keV; spectrum fitted with simple power law; redshift accurately known and given; and X-ray afterglow observed and flux measured. The statistical method of maximum likelihood is then used to determine the best cosmological parameters (Ω_M, Ω_L) that give the best correlation between the isotropic gamma energies E_{iso} and the afterglow fluxes at the break time t_{b}. The χ^2 statistical test is also used as a way to compare results from two methods. Results & Conclusions: Although the number of GRBs with high redshifts is rather small, and despite the notable dispersion found in the data, the results we have obtained are quite encouraging and promising. The values of the cosmological parameters obtained here are close to those currently used.
Simulating cosmologies beyond ΛCDM with PINOCCHIO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Luca A. [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite Paris-Saclay CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 5th Ave, New York, NY, 10010 (United States); Monaco, Pierluigi [Sezione di Astronomia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Munari, Emiliano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Borgani, Stefano [INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Castorina, Emanuele [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: luca.rizzo@cea.fr, E-mail: fvillaescusa@simonsfoundation.org, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: munari@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: ecastorina@berkeley.edu, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)
2017-01-01
We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: νΛCDM. We analyse the halo mass function, halo two-point correlation function and halo power spectrum, showing that PINOCCHIO reproduces the results from simulations with the same level of precision as the original code (∼ 5–10%). We demonstrate that the abundance of halos in cosmologies with massless and massive neutrinos from PINOCCHIO matches very well the outcome of simulations, and point out that PINOCCHIO can reproduce the Ω{sub ν}–σ{sub 8} degeneracy that affects the halo mass function. We finally show that the clustering properties of the halos from PINOCCHIO matches accurately those from simulations both in real and redshift-space, in the latter case up to k = 0.3 h Mpc{sup −1}. We emphasize that the computational time required by PINOCCHIO to generate mock halo catalogues is orders of magnitude lower than the one needed for N-body simulations. This makes this tool ideal for applications like covariance matrix studies within the standard ΛCDM model but also in cosmologies with massive neutrinos or some modified gravity theories.
Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data
Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis
2000-01-01
We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.
Cosmology for high energy physicists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.
1987-11-01
The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs
Is there a cosmological cosmic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montmerle, Thierry.
1977-01-01
The possibility that cosmological cosmic rays ('CCR': protons and α particles) may have existed in the post recombination era of the early universe (z approximately 100) is examined. In this context, the CCR interact with the ambient gaseous medium. High energy collisions (> 1 GeV/n) give rise to diffuse background γ-rays via π 0 decay, and low energy collisions (10-100 MeV/n) give rise to light nuclei: 6 Li, 7 Li and 7 Be (via the α+α reaction), D and 3 He (via p + α reactions). Taking expansion and ionization losses into account, a system of coupled time-dependent transport equations is solved in the case of a CCR burst. The 1-100 MeV γ-ray background spectrum and the light element abundances are then taken as observational constraints on the CCR hypothesis. It is found that, in this framework, it is possible to account simultaneously for the γ-ray background spectrum and for the 7 Li/H ratio, but there are some difficulties with the 7 Li/ 6 Li ratio. To avoid these, it is possible, because of the spread in the γ-ray data, to lower the CCR flux, so that the CCR hypothesis cannot be ruled out on this basis at present. The theoretical possibility of observing in 1-100 MeV γ-ray background some definite features (e.g. matter antimatter regions annihilating) at any redshift up to z sub(c) approximately 100 is, in the case of π 0 -decay theories, rather restricted with present experiments, and this is shown by the introduction of a 'visibility function' which folds the theoretical γ-ray background intensity as a function of redshift through the efficiency of a given experiment [fr
Perturbations in loop quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, W; Agullo, I; Ashtekar, A
2014-01-01
The era of precision cosmology has allowed us to accurately determine many important cosmological parameters, in particular via the CMB. Confronting Loop Quantum Cosmology with these observations provides us with a powerful test of the theory. For this to be possible, we need a detailed understanding of the generation and evolution of inhomogeneous perturbations during the early, quantum gravity phase of the universe. Here, we have described how Loop Quantum Cosmology provides a completion of the inflationary paradigm, that is consistent with the observed power spectra of the CMB
An introduction to modern cosmology
Liddle, Andrew
2015-01-01
An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Khlopov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.
Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiaogang; Biesiada, Marek; Qi, Jingzhao; Chen, Yun; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-09-01
Context. Ultra-compact structure in radio sources (especially in quasars that can be observed up to very high redshifts), with milliarcsecond angular sizes measured by very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI), is becoming an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and the physical properties of AGN. Aims: We present a newly compiled data set of 120 milliarcsec. compact radio sources representing intermediate-luminosity quasars covering the redshift range 0.46 RDE) or the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) brane-world scenario. While no significant change in w with redshift is detected, there is still considerable room for evolution in w and the transition redshift at which w departing from -1 is located at z 2.0. Our results demonstrate that the method extensively investigated in our work on observational radio quasar data can be used to effectively derive cosmological information. Finally, we find the combination of high-redshift quasars and low-redshift clusters may provide an important source of angular diameter distances, considering the redshift coverage of these two astrophysical probes.
Redshift-space limits of bound structures
Duenner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andres; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hernan
2007-01-01
An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called 'island universes'. This new scenario reformulates the question
New observational constraints on f(T) cosmology from radio quasars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Jing-Zhao; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); University of Silesia, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland)
2017-08-15
Using a new recently compiled milliarcsecond compact radio data set of 120 intermediate-luminosity quasars in the redshift range 0.46 < z < 2.76, whose statistical linear sizes show negligible dependence on redshifts and intrinsic luminosity and thus represent standard rulers in cosmology, we constrain three viable and most popular f(T) gravity models, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallel gravity. Our analysis reveals that constraining power of the quasars data (N = 120) is comparable to the Union2.1 SN Ia data (N = 580) for all three f(T) models. Together with other standard ruler probes such as cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, the present value of the matter density parameter Ω{sub m} obtained by quasars is much larger than that derived from other observations. For one of the models considered (f{sub 1}CDM) a small but noticeable deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is present, while in the framework of f{sub 3}CDM the effective equation of state may cross the phantom divide line at lower redshifts. These results indicate that intermediate-luminosity quasars could provide an effective observational probe comparable to SN Ia at much higher redshifts, and f(T) gravity is a reasonable candidate for the modified gravity theory. (orig.)