Towards Forming a Primordial Protostar in a Cosmological AMR Simulation
Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom; O'Shea, Brian W.
2008-03-01
Modeling the formation of the first stars in the universe is a well-posed problem and ideally suited for computational investigation.We have conducted high-resolution numerical studies of the formation of primordial stars. Beginning with primordial initial conditions appropriate for a ΛCDM model, we used the Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement code (Enzo) to achieve unprecedented numerical resolution, resolving cosmological scales as well as sub-stellar scales simultaneously. Building on the work of Abel, Bryan and Norman (2002), we followed the evolution of the first collapsing cloud until molecular hydrogen is optically thick to cooling radiation. In addition, the calculations account for the process of collision-induced emission (CIE) and add approximations to the optical depth in both molecular hydrogen roto-vibrational cooling and CIE. Also considered are the effects of chemical heating/cooling from the formation/destruction of molecular hydrogen. We present the results of these simulations, showing the formation of a 10 Jupiter-mass protostellar core bounded by a strongly aspherical accretion shock. Accretion rates are found to be as high as one solar mass per year.
Comparing AMR and SPH Cosmological Simulations. I. Dark Matter and Adiabatic Simulations
O'Shea, Brian W.; Nagamine, Kentaro; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Norman, Michael L.
2005-09-01
We compare two cosmological hydrodynamic simulation codes in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation: the Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET, and the Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo. Both codes represent dark matter with the N-body method but use different gravity solvers and fundamentally different approaches for baryonic hydrodynamics. The SPH method in GADGET uses a recently developed ``entropy conserving'' formulation of SPH, while for the mesh-based Enzo two different formulations of Eulerian hydrodynamics are employed: the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) extended with a dual energy formulation for cosmology, and the artificial viscosity-based scheme used in the magnetohydrodynamics code ZEUS. In this paper we focus on a comparison of cosmological simulations that follow either only dark matter, or also a nonradiative (``adiabatic'') hydrodynamic gaseous component. We perform multiple simulations using both codes with varying spatial and mass resolution with identical initial conditions. The dark matter-only runs agree generally quite well provided Enzo is run with a comparatively fine root grid and a low overdensity threshold for mesh refinement, otherwise the abundance of low-mass halos is suppressed. This can be readily understood as a consequence of the hierarchical particle-mesh algorithm used by Enzo to compute gravitational forces, which tends to deliver lower force resolution than the tree-algorithm of GADGET at early times before any adaptive mesh refinement takes place. At comparable force resolution we find that the latter offers substantially better performance and lower memory consumption than the present gravity solver in Enzo. In simulations that include adiabatic gasdynamics we find general agreement in the distribution functions of temperature, entropy, and density for gas of moderate to high overdensity, as found inside dark matter halos. However, there are also some significant differences in
Visualization of Octree Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in Astrophysical Simulations
Labadens, M.; Chapon, D.; Pomaréde, D.; Teyssier, R.
2012-09-01
Computer simulations are important in current cosmological research. Those simulations run in parallel on thousands of processors, and produce huge amount of data. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to reduce the computing cost while keeping good numerical accuracy in regions of interest. RAMSES is a cosmological code developed by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (English: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) which uses Octree adaptive mesh refinement. Compared to grid based AMR, the Octree AMR has the advantage to fit very precisely the adaptive resolution of the grid to the local problem complexity. However, this specific octree data type need some specific software to be visualized, as generic visualization tools works on Cartesian grid data type. This is why the PYMSES software has been also developed by our team. It relies on the python scripting language to ensure a modular and easy access to explore those specific data. In order to take advantage of the High Performance Computer which runs the RAMSES simulation, it also uses MPI and multiprocessing to run some parallel code. We would like to present with more details our PYMSES software with some performance benchmarks. PYMSES has currently two visualization techniques which work directly on the AMR. The first one is a splatting technique, and the second one is a custom ray tracing technique. Both have their own advantages and drawbacks. We have also compared two parallel programming techniques with the python multiprocessing library versus the use of MPI run. The load balancing strategy has to be smartly defined in order to achieve a good speed up in our computation. Results obtained with this software are illustrated in the context of a massive, 9000-processor parallel simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy.
Resolution convergence in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations using adaptive mesh refinement
Snaith, Owain N.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan; Rosdahl, Joakim
2018-06-01
We have explored the evolution of gas distributions from cosmological simulations carried out using the RAMSES adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, to explore the effects of resolution on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. It is vital to understand the effect of both the resolution of initial conditions (ICs) and the final resolution of the simulation. Lower initial resolution simulations tend to produce smaller numbers of low-mass structures. This will strongly affect the assembly history of objects, and has the same effect of simulating different cosmologies. The resolution of ICs is an important factor in simulations, even with a fixed maximum spatial resolution. The power spectrum of gas in simulations using AMR diverges strongly from the fixed grid approach - with more power on small scales in the AMR simulations - even at fixed physical resolution and also produces offsets in the star formation at specific epochs. This is because before certain times the upper grid levels are held back to maintain approximately fixed physical resolution, and to mimic the natural evolution of dark matter only simulations. Although the impact of hold-back falls with increasing spatial and IC resolutions, the offsets in the star formation remain down to a spatial resolution of 1 kpc. These offsets are of the order of 10-20 per cent, which is below the uncertainty in the implemented physics but are expected to affect the detailed properties of galaxies. We have implemented a new grid-hold-back approach to minimize the impact of hold-back on the star formation rate.
Theoretical Models of Protostellar Binary and Multiple Systems with AMR Simulations
Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Saigo, Kazuya; Takakuwa, Shigehisa
2017-05-01
We present theoretical models for protostellar binary and multiple systems based on the high-resolution numerical simulation with an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, SFUMATO. The recent ALMA observations have revealed early phases of the binary and multiple star formation with high spatial resolutions. These observations should be compared with theoretical models with high spatial resolutions. We present two theoretical models for (1) a high density molecular cloud core, MC27/L1521F, and (2) a protobinary system, L1551 NE. For the model for MC27, we performed numerical simulations for gravitational collapse of a turbulent cloud core. The cloud core exhibits fragmentation during the collapse, and dynamical interaction between the fragments produces an arc-like structure, which is one of the prominent structures observed by ALMA. For the model for L1551 NE, we performed numerical simulations of gas accretion onto protobinary. The simulations exhibit asymmetry of a circumbinary disk. Such asymmetry has been also observed by ALMA in the circumbinary disk of L1551 NE.
Cosmological N -body simulations including radiation perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Jacob; Rampf, Cornelius; Tram, Thomas
2017-01-01
CosmologicalN-body simulations are the standard tools to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as the ......CosmologicalN-body simulations are the standard tools to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects...
Cosmological simulations of multicomponent cold dark matter.
Medvedev, Mikhail V
2014-08-15
The nature of dark matter is unknown. A number of dark matter candidates are quantum flavor-mixed particles but this property has never been accounted for in cosmology. Here we explore this possibility from the first principles via extensive N-body cosmological simulations and demonstrate that the two-component dark matter model agrees with observational data at all scales. Substantial reduction of substructure and flattening of density profiles in the centers of dark matter halos found in simulations can simultaneously resolve several outstanding puzzles of modern cosmology. The model shares the "why now?" fine-tuning caveat pertinent to all self-interacting models. Predictions for direct and indirect detection dark matter experiments are made.
A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations
Daverio, David; Dirian, Yves; Mitsou, Ermis
2017-12-01
Cosmological simulations involving the fully covariant gravitational dynamics may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking better advantage of the upcoming large scale structure survey data. We propose a new 3 + 1 integration scheme for general relativity in the case where the matter sector contains a minimally-coupled perfect fluid field. The original feature is that we completely eliminate the fluid components through the constraint equations, thus remaining with a set of unconstrained evolution equations for the rest of the fields. This procedure does not constrain the lapse function and shift vector, so it holds in arbitrary gauge and also works for arbitrary equation of state. An important advantage of this scheme is that it allows one to define and pass an adaptation of the robustness test to the cosmological context, at least in the case of pressureless perfect fluid matter, which is the relevant one for late-time cosmology.
Seeding black holes in cosmological simulations
Taylor, P.; Kobayashi, C.
2014-08-01
We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation, and the size-velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is ˜103 M⊙, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that which has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.
Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2015-11-01
The geometrical details of wind turbines determine the structure of the turbulence in the near and far wake and should be taken in account when performing high fidelity calculations. Multi-resolution simulations coupled with an immersed boundary method constitutes a powerful framework for high-fidelity calculations past wind farms located over complex terrains. We develop a 3D Immersed-Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement flow solver (IB-AMR) which enables turbine-resolving LES of wind turbines. The idea of using a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout adopted in the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method (CURVIB) has been successfully incorporated on unstructured meshes and the fractional step method has been employed. The overall performance and robustness of the second order accurate, parallel, unstructured solver is evaluated by comparing the numerical simulations against conforming grid calculations and experimental measurements of laminar and turbulent flows over complex geometries. We also present turbine-resolving multi-scale LES considering all the details affecting the induced flow field; including the geometry of the tower, the nacelle and especially the rotor blades of a wind tunnel scale turbine. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the Sandia National Laboratories.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Donolato, M.; Gobbi, M.; Cantoni, M.
2010-01-01
magnetoresistance effect and hence an electrical signal. In this paper we use micromagnetic simulations to calculate the output signal of a particularly shaped device in the presence of a single synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticle. The calculated magnetoresistive signal is in good agreement with corresponding...
Modeling Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations
Tremmel, Michael
My thesis work has focused on improving the implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) physics in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. SMBHs are ubiquitous in mas- sive galaxies, as well as bulge-less galaxies and dwarfs, and are thought to be a critical component to massive galaxy evolution. Still, much is unknown about how SMBHs form, grow, and affect their host galaxies. Cosmological simulations are an invaluable tool for un- derstanding the formation of galaxies, self-consistently tracking their evolution with realistic merger and gas accretion histories. SMBHs are often modeled in these simulations (generally as a necessity to produce realistic massive galaxies), but their implementations are commonly simplified in ways that can limit what can be learned. Current and future observations are opening new windows into the lifecycle of SMBHs and their host galaxies, but require more detailed, physically motivated simulations. Within the novel framework I have developed, SMBHs 1) are seeded at early times without a priori assumptions of galaxy occupation, 2) grow in a way that accounts for the angular momentum of gas, and 3) experience realistic orbital evolution. I show how this model, properly tuned with a novel parameter optimiza- tion technique, results in realistic galaxies and SMBHs. Utilizing the unique ability of these simulations to capture the dynamical evolution of SMBHs, I present the first self-consistent prediction for the formation timescales of close SMBH pairs, precursors to SMBH binaries and merger events potentially detected by future gravitational wave experiments.
A web portal for hydrodynamical, cosmological simulations
Ragagnin, A.; Dolag, K.; Biffi, V.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Hammer, N. J.; Krukau, A.; Petkova, M.; Steinborn, D.
2017-07-01
This article describes a data centre hosting a web portal for accessing and sharing the output of large, cosmological, hydro-dynamical simulations with a broad scientific community. It also allows users to receive related scientific data products by directly processing the raw simulation data on a remote computing cluster. The data centre has a multi-layer structure: a web portal, a job control layer, a computing cluster and a HPC storage system. The outer layer enables users to choose an object from the simulations. Objects can be selected by visually inspecting 2D maps of the simulation data, by performing highly compounded and elaborated queries or graphically by plotting arbitrary combinations of properties. The user can run analysis tools on a chosen object. These services allow users to run analysis tools on the raw simulation data. The job control layer is responsible for handling and performing the analysis jobs, which are executed on a computing cluster. The innermost layer is formed by a HPC storage system which hosts the large, raw simulation data. The following services are available for the users: (I) CLUSTERINSPECT visualizes properties of member galaxies of a selected galaxy cluster; (II) SIMCUT returns the raw data of a sub-volume around a selected object from a simulation, containing all the original, hydro-dynamical quantities; (III) SMAC creates idealized 2D maps of various, physical quantities and observables of a selected object; (IV) PHOX generates virtual X-ray observations with specifications of various current and upcoming instruments.
Cosmological simulation with dust formation and destruction
Aoyama, Shohei; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shimizu, Ikkoh
2018-06-01
To investigate the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume, we perform hydrodynamic simulations, in which the enrichment of metals and dust is treated self-consistently with star formation and stellar feedback. We consider dust evolution driven by dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by sputtering, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering, and treat small and large grains separately to trace the grain size distribution. After confirming that our model nicely reproduces the observed relation between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity for nearby galaxies, we concentrate on the dust abundance over the cosmological volume in this paper. The comoving dust mass density has a peak at redshift z ˜ 1-2, coincident with the observationally suggested dustiest epoch in the Universe. In the local Universe, roughly 10 per cent of the dust is contained in the intergalactic medium (IGM), where only 1/3-1/4 of the dust survives against dust destruction by sputtering. We also show that the dust mass function is roughly reproduced at ≲ 108 M⊙, while the massive end still has a discrepancy, which indicates the necessity of stronger feedback in massive galaxies. In addition, our model broadly reproduces the observed radial profile of dust surface density in the circum-galactic medium (CGM). While our model satisfies the observational constraints for the dust extinction on cosmological scales, it predicts that the dust in the CGM and IGM is dominated by large (>0.03 μm) grains, which is in tension with the steep reddening curves observed in the CGM.
Compactified cosmological simulations of the infinite universe
Rácz, Gábor; Szapudi, István; Csabai, István; Dobos, László
2018-06-01
We present a novel N-body simulation method that compactifies the infinite spatial extent of the Universe into a finite sphere with isotropic boundary conditions to follow the evolution of the large-scale structure. Our approach eliminates the need for periodic boundary conditions, a mere numerical convenience which is not supported by observation and which modifies the law of force on large scales in an unrealistic fashion. We demonstrate that our method outclasses standard simulations executed on workstation-scale hardware in dynamic range, it is balanced in following a comparable number of high and low k modes and, its fundamental geometry and topology match observations. Our approach is also capable of simulating an expanding, infinite universe in static coordinates with Newtonian dynamics. The price of these achievements is that most of the simulated volume has smoothly varying mass and spatial resolution, an approximation that carries different systematics than periodic simulations. Our initial implementation of the method is called StePS which stands for Stereographically projected cosmological simulations. It uses stereographic projection for space compactification and naive O(N^2) force calculation which is nevertheless faster to arrive at a correlation function of the same quality than any standard (tree or P3M) algorithm with similar spatial and mass resolution. The N2 force calculation is easy to adapt to modern graphics cards, hence our code can function as a high-speed prediction tool for modern large-scale surveys. To learn about the limits of the respective methods, we compare StePS with GADGET-2 running matching initial conditions.
Compactified Cosmological Simulations of the Infinite Universe
Rácz, Gábor; Szapudi, István; Csabai, István; Dobos, László
2018-03-01
We present a novel N-body simulation method that compactifies the infinite spatial extent of the Universe into a finite sphere with isotropic boundary conditions to follow the evolution of the large-scale structure. Our approach eliminates the need for periodic boundary conditions, a mere numerical convenience which is not supported by observation and which modifies the law of force on large scales in an unrealistic fashion. We demonstrate that our method outclasses standard simulations executed on workstation-scale hardware in dynamic range, it is balanced in following a comparable number of high and low k modes and, its fundamental geometry and topology match observations. Our approach is also capable of simulating an expanding, infinite universe in static coordinates with Newtonian dynamics. The price of these achievements is that most of the simulated volume has smoothly varying mass and spatial resolution, an approximation that carries different systematics than periodic simulations. Our initial implementation of the method is called StePS which stands for Stereographically Projected Cosmological Simulations. It uses stereographic projection for space compactification and naive O(N^2) force calculation which is nevertheless faster to arrive at a correlation function of the same quality than any standard (tree or P3M) algorithm with similar spatial and mass resolution. The N2 force calculation is easy to adapt to modern graphics cards, hence our code can function as a high-speed prediction tool for modern large-scale surveys. To learn about the limits of the respective methods, we compare StePS with GADGET-2 running matching initial conditions.
A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heymann Y.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sam- pling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spec- troscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the galactic density curves of the simulations with that of the survey, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology.
Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches.
Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac
2016-07-01
We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code enzo-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/ N -body code gadget-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in gadget-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H 2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ∼ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, gadget-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than enzo-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, I.D.
1979-01-01
Progress made by this Commission over the period 1976-1978 is reviewed. Topics include the Hubble constant, deceleration parameter, large-scale distribution of matter in the universe, radio astronomy and cosmology, space astronomy and cosmology, formation of galaxies, physics near the cosmological singularity, and unconventional cosmological models. (C.F.)
Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Nagamine
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.
IMPLEMENTING THE DC MODE IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS WITH SUPERCOMOVING VARIABLES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Rudd, Douglas H.
2011-01-01
As emphasized by previous studies, proper treatment of the density fluctuation on the fundamental scale of a cosmological simulation volume-the D C mode - is critical for accurate modeling of spatial correlations on scales ∼> 10% of simulation box size. We provide further illustration of the effects of the DC mode on the abundance of halos in small boxes and show that it is straightforward to incorporate this mode in cosmological codes that use the 'supercomoving' variables. The equations governing evolution of dark matter and baryons recast with these variables are particularly simple and include the expansion factor, and hence the effect of the DC mode, explicitly only in the Poisson equation.
ANALYZING AND VISUALIZING COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS WITH ParaView
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodring, Jonathan; Ahrens, James; Heitmann, Katrin; Pope, Adrian; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman
2011-01-01
The advent of large cosmological sky surveys-ushering in the era of precision cosmology-has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.; Kotsakis, D.
1987-01-01
An extensive first part on a wealth of observational results relevant to cosmology lays the foundation for the second and central part of the book; the chapters on general relativity, the various cosmological theories, and the early universe. The authors present in a complete and almost non-mathematical way the ideas and theoretical concepts of modern cosmology including the exciting impact of high-energy particle physics, e.g. in the concept of the ''inflationary universe''. The final part addresses the deeper implications of cosmology, the arrow of time, the universality of physical laws, inflation and causality, and the anthropic principle
Clues to the 'Magellanic Galaxy' from cosmological simulations
Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cooper, Andrew P.; White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina
2011-01-01
We use cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the orbital history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and its potential association with other satellites of the Milky Way (MW). We search for dynamical analogues to the LMC and find a subhalo that matches the LMC position and
Cosmological N-body simulations with generic hot dark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen
2017-01-01
We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N-body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses...
Remapping dark matter halo catalogues between cosmological simulations
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.
2014-05-01
We present and test a method for modifying the catalogue of dark matter haloes produced from a given cosmological simulation, so that it resembles the result of a simulation with an entirely different set of parameters. This extends the method of Angulo & White, which rescales the full particle distribution from a simulation. Working directly with the halo catalogue offers an advantage in speed, and also allows modifications of the internal structure of the haloes to account for non-linear differences between cosmologies. Our method can be used directly on a halo catalogue in a self-contained manner without any additional information about the overall density field; although the large-scale displacement field is required by the method, this can be inferred from the halo catalogue alone. We show proof of concept of our method by rescaling a matter-only simulation with no baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) features to a more standard Λ cold dark matter model containing a cosmological constant and a BAO signal. In conjunction with the halo occupation approach, this method provides a basis for the rapid generation of mock galaxy samples spanning a wide range of cosmological parameters.
Simulating cosmologies beyond ΛCDM with PINOCCHIO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Luca A. [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite Paris-Saclay CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 5th Ave, New York, NY, 10010 (United States); Monaco, Pierluigi [Sezione di Astronomia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Munari, Emiliano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Borgani, Stefano [INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Castorina, Emanuele [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: luca.rizzo@cea.fr, E-mail: fvillaescusa@simonsfoundation.org, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: munari@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: ecastorina@berkeley.edu, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)
2017-01-01
We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: νΛCDM. We analyse the halo mass function, halo two-point correlation function and halo power spectrum, showing that PINOCCHIO reproduces the results from simulations with the same level of precision as the original code (∼ 5–10%). We demonstrate that the abundance of halos in cosmologies with massless and massive neutrinos from PINOCCHIO matches very well the outcome of simulations, and point out that PINOCCHIO can reproduce the Ω{sub ν}–σ{sub 8} degeneracy that affects the halo mass function. We finally show that the clustering properties of the halos from PINOCCHIO matches accurately those from simulations both in real and redshift-space, in the latter case up to k = 0.3 h Mpc{sup −1}. We emphasize that the computational time required by PINOCCHIO to generate mock halo catalogues is orders of magnitude lower than the one needed for N-body simulations. This makes this tool ideal for applications like covariance matrix studies within the standard ΛCDM model but also in cosmologies with massive neutrinos or some modified gravity theories.
Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView
Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian
2011-07-01
The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.
García-Bellido, J
2015-01-01
In these lectures I review the present status of the so-called Standard Cosmological Model, based on the hot Big Bang Theory and the Inflationary Paradigm. I will make special emphasis on the recent developments in observational cosmology, mainly the acceleration of the universe, the precise measurements of the microwave background anisotropies, and the formation of structure like galaxies and clusters of galaxies from tiny primordial fluctuations generated during inflation.
Simulations of structure formation in interacting dark energy cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldi, M.
2009-01-01
The evidence in favor of a dark energy component dominating the Universe, and driving its presently accelerated expansion, has progressively grown during the last decade of cosmological observations. If this dark energy is given by a dynamic scalar field, it may also have a direct interaction with other matter fields in the Universe, in particular with cold dark matter. Such interaction would imprint new features on the cosmological background evolution as well as on the growth of cosmic structure, like an additional long-range fifth-force between massive particles, or a variation in time of the dark matter particle mass. We present here the implementation of these new physical effects in the N-body code GADGET-2, and we discuss the outcomes of a series of high-resolution N-body simulations for a selected family of interacting dark energy models. We interestingly find, in contrast with previous claims, that the inner overdensity of dark matter halos decreases in these models with respect to ΛCDM, and consistently halo concentrations show a progressive reduction for increasing couplings. Furthermore, the coupling induces a bias in the overdensities of cold dark matter and baryons that determines a decrease of the halo baryon fraction below its cosmological value. These results go in the direction of alleviating tensions between astrophysical observations and the predictions of the ΛCDM model on small scales, thereby opening new room for coupled dark energy models as an alternative to the cosmological constant.
Simulation-based marginal likelihood for cluster strong lensing cosmology
Killedar, M.; Borgani, S.; Fabjan, D.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G.; Meneghetti, M.; Planelles, S.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.
2018-01-01
Comparisons between observed and predicted strong lensing properties of galaxy clusters have been routinely used to claim either tension or consistency with Λ cold dark matter cosmology. However, standard approaches to such cosmological tests are unable to quantify the preference for one cosmology over another. We advocate approximating the relevant Bayes factor using a marginal likelihood that is based on the following summary statistic: the posterior probability distribution function for the parameters of the scaling relation between Einstein radii and cluster mass, α and β. We demonstrate, for the first time, a method of estimating the marginal likelihood using the X-ray selected z > 0.5 Massive Cluster Survey clusters as a case in point and employing both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations of clusters. We investigate the uncertainty in this estimate and consequential ability to compare competing cosmologies, which arises from incomplete descriptions of baryonic processes, discrepancies in cluster selection criteria, redshift distribution and dynamical state. The relation between triaxial cluster masses at various overdensities provides a promising alternative to the strong lensing test.
Cosmological simulations using a static scalar-tensor theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Gonzalez-Morales, A X [Departamento Ingenierias, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880 Lomas de Santa Fe, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Gabbasov, R F [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico)
2007-11-15
We present {lambda}CDM N-body cosmological simulations in the framework of of a static general scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Due to the influence of the non-minimally coupled scalar field, the gravitational potential is modified by a Yukawa type term, yielding a new structure formation dynamics. We present some preliminary results and, in particular, we compute the density and velocity profiles of the most massive group.
Vittorio, Nicola
2018-01-01
Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.
Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations
L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan
2014-01-01
Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the infl...
An Investigation of Intracluster Light Evolution Using Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
Tang, Lin; Lin, Weipeng; Cui, Weiguang; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Contini, E.; Yu, Yu
2018-06-01
Intracluster light (ICL) in observations is usually identified through the surface brightness limit (SBL) method. In this paper, for the first time we produce mock images of galaxy groups and clusters, using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to investigate the ICL fraction and focus on its dependence on observational parameters, e.g., the SBL, the effects of cosmological redshift-dimming, point-spread function (PSF), and CCD pixel size. Detailed analyses suggest that the width of the PSF has a significant effect on the measured ICL fraction, while the relatively small pixel size shows almost no influence. It is found that the measured ICL fraction depends strongly on the SBL. At a fixed SBL and redshift, the measured ICL fraction decreases with increasing halo mass, while with a much fainter SBL, it does not depend on halo mass at low redshifts. In our work, the measured ICL fraction shows a clear dependence on the cosmological redshift-dimming effect. It is found that there is more mass locked in the ICL component than light, suggesting that the use of a constant mass-to-light ratio at high surface brightness levels will lead to an underestimate of ICL mass. Furthermore, it is found that the radial profile of ICL shows a characteristic radius that is almost independent of halo mass. The current measurement of ICL from observations has a large dispersion due to different methods, and we emphasize the importance of using the same definition when observational results are compared with theoretical predictions.
MassiveNuS: cosmological massive neutrino simulations
Liu, Jia; Bird, Simeon; Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Hill, J. Colin; Haiman, Zoltán; Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Petri, Andrea; Spergel, David N.
2018-03-01
The non-zero mass of neutrinos suppresses the growth of cosmic structure on small scales. Since the level of suppression depends on the sum of the masses of the three active neutrino species, the evolution of large-scale structure is a promising tool to constrain the total mass of neutrinos and possibly shed light on the mass hierarchy. In this work, we investigate these effects via a large suite of N-body simulations that include massive neutrinos using an analytic linear-response approximation: the Cosmological Massive Neutrino Simulations (MassiveNuS). The simulations include the effects of radiation on the background expansion, as well as the clustering of neutrinos in response to the nonlinear dark matter evolution. We allow three cosmological parameters to vary: the neutrino mass sum Mν in the range of 0–0.6 eV, the total matter density Ωm, and the primordial power spectrum amplitude As. The rms density fluctuation in spheres of 8 comoving Mpc/h (σ8) is a derived parameter as a result. Our data products include N-body snapshots, halo catalogues, merger trees, ray-traced galaxy lensing convergence maps for four source redshift planes between zs=1–2.5, and ray-traced cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps. We describe the simulation procedures and code validation in this paper. The data are publicly available at http://columbialensing.org.
Cosmological N -body simulations with generic hot dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK–8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2017-10-01
We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N -body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses larger than 1 eV, the non-linear relative suppression of power is smaller than in linear theory. We furthermore find that in the non-linear regime, one can map fermionic to bosonic models by performing a simple transformation.
Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Britton; O'Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W.
2013-01-01
Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.
Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Arka; Dalal, Neal, E-mail: abanerj6@illinois.edu, E-mail: dalaln@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)
2016-11-01
We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.
Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Arka; Dalal, Neal
2016-01-01
We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.
Deregulation impacts AMR business cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiebe, M.; Fauth, G.
2001-09-01
Meter reading strategy is being affected in fundamental ways by deregulation. For the utilities attempting to cope with meter reading unbundling, the processes, insights and general rules that had been developed prior to 2000 in the field of Automatic Meter Reading can no longer be relied upon to provide useful lessons. The fundamental impact on Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) business case drivers and the increasing complexity of building the business case model result from deregulation and unbundling. More and more, management has come to rely on rigorous business case analysis to compensate for the magnitude of AMR projects on the utility and the scarcity of financial resources. One can now expect the Chief Financial Officer and the Vice President Finance to become active players on AMR project teams in the fields of business case scrutiny and approval. Increasingly, the normal expertise of AMR personnel does not suffice to build a business case acceptable to finance. The financial and economic analysis skills required are ever more complex.
N-body simulations for coupled scalar-field cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Baojiu; Barrow, John D.
2011-01-01
We describe in detail the general methodology and numerical implementation of consistent N-body simulations for coupled-scalar-field models, including background cosmology and the generation of initial conditions (with the different couplings to different matter species taken into account). We perform fully consistent simulations for a class of coupled-scalar-field models with an inverse power-law potential and negative coupling constant, for which the chameleon mechanism does not work. We find that in such cosmological models the scalar-field potential plays a negligible role except in the background expansion, and the fifth force that is produced is proportional to gravity in magnitude, justifying the use of a rescaled gravitational constant G in some earlier N-body simulation works for similar models. We then study the effects of the scalar coupling on the nonlinear matter power spectra and compare with linear perturbation calculations to see the agreement and places where the nonlinear treatment deviates from the linear approximation. We also propose an algorithm to identify gravitationally virialized matter halos, trying to take account of the fact that the virialization itself is also modified by the scalar-field coupling. We use the algorithm to measure the mass function and study the properties of dark-matter halos. We find that the net effect of the scalar coupling helps produce more heavy halos in our simulation boxes and suppresses the inner (but not the outer) density profile of halos compared with the ΛCDM prediction, while the suppression weakens as the coupling between the scalar field and dark-matter particles increases in strength.
Quantitative and comparative visualization applied to cosmological simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahrens, James; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Ankeny, Lee; McCormick, Patrick; Inman, Jeff; Armstrong, Ryan; Ma, Kwan-Liu
2006-01-01
Cosmological simulations follow the formation of nonlinear structure in dark and luminous matter. The associated simulation volumes and dynamic range are very large, making visualization both a necessary and challenging aspect of the analysis of these datasets. Our goal is to understand sources of inconsistency between different simulation codes that are started from the same initial conditions. Quantitative visualization supports the definition and reasoning about analytically defined features of interest. Comparative visualization supports the ability to visually study, side by side, multiple related visualizations of these simulations. For instance, a scientist can visually distinguish that there are fewer halos (localized lumps of tracer particles) in low-density regions for one simulation code out of a collection. This qualitative result will enable the scientist to develop a hypothesis, such as loss of halos in low-density regions due to limited resolution, to explain the inconsistency between the different simulations. Quantitative support then allows one to confirm or reject the hypothesis. If the hypothesis is rejected, this step may lead to new insights and a new hypothesis, not available from the purely qualitative analysis. We will present methods to significantly improve the Scientific analysis process by incorporating quantitative analysis as the driver for visualization. Aspects of this work are included as part of two visualization tools, ParaView, an open-source large data visualization tool, and Scout, an analysis-language based, hardware-accelerated visualization tool
INTELLIGENT DESIGN: ON THE EMULATION OF COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, Michael D.; Holm, Oskar; Knox, Lloyd
2011-01-01
Simulation design is the choice of locations in parameter space at which simulations are to be run and is the first step in building an emulator capable of quickly providing estimates of simulation results for arbitrary locations in the parameter space. We introduce an alteration to the 'OALHS' design used by Heitmann et al. that reduces the number of simulation runs required to achieve a fixed accuracy in our case study by a factor of two. We also compare interpolation procedures for emulators and find that interpolation via Gaussian process models and via the much-easier-to-implement polynomial interpolation have comparable accuracy. A very simple emulation-building procedure consisting of a design sampled from the parameter prior distribution, combined with interpolation via polynomials also performs well. Although our primary motivation is efficient emulators of nonlinear cosmological N-body simulations, in an appendix we describe an emulator for the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum publicly available as a computer code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, A. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaiser, T. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eder, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Masters, N. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Koniges, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-02-01
Here, we present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite AMR mesh. This approach is suitable for including diffusion based physics modules to hydrocodes that support ALE and AMR capabilities. To illustrate, we proffer our implementations of diffusion based radiation transport and heat conduction in a hydrocode called ALE-AMR. Numerical experiments conducted with the diffusion solver and associated physics packages yield 2nd order convergence in the L_{2} norm.
The Abacus Cosmos: A Suite of Cosmological N-body Simulations
Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Pinto, Philip A.; Weinberg, David H.
2018-06-01
We present a public data release of halo catalogs from a suite of 125 cosmological N-body simulations from the ABACUS project. The simulations span 40 wCDM cosmologies centered on the Planck 2015 cosmology at two mass resolutions, 4 × 1010 h ‑1 M ⊙ and 1 × 1010 h ‑1 M ⊙, in 1.1 h ‑1 Gpc and 720 h ‑1 Mpc boxes, respectively. The boxes are phase-matched to suppress sample variance and isolate cosmology dependence. Additional volume is available via 16 boxes of fixed cosmology and varied phase; a few boxes of single-parameter excursions from Planck 2015 are also provided. Catalogs spanning z = 1.5 to 0.1 are available for friends-of-friends and ROCKSTAR halo finders and include particle subsamples. All data products are available at https://lgarrison.github.io/AbacusCosmos.
Numerical techniques for large cosmological N-body simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M.; Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.
1985-01-01
We describe and compare techniques for carrying out large N-body simulations of the gravitational evolution of clustering in the fundamental cube of an infinite periodic universe. In particular, we consider both particle mesh (PM) codes and P 3 M codes in which a higher resolution force is obtained by direct summation of contributions from neighboring particles. We discuss the mesh-induced anisotropies in the forces calculated by these schemes, and the extent to which they can model the desired 1/r 2 particle-particle interaction. We also consider how transformation of the time variable can improve the efficiency with which the equations of motion are integrated. We present tests of the accuracy with which the resulting schemes conserve energy and are able to follow individual particle trajectories. We have implemented an algorithm which allows initial conditions to be set up to model any desired spectrum of linear growing mode density fluctuations. A number of tests demonstrate the power of this algorithm and delineate the conditions under which it is effective. We carry out several test simulations using a variety of techniques in order to show how the results are affected by dynamic range limitations in the force calculations, by boundary effects, by residual artificialities in the initial conditions, and by the number of particles employed. For most purposes cosmological simulations are limited by the resolution of their force calculation rather than by the number of particles they can employ. For this reason, while PM codes are quite adequate to study the evolution of structure on large scale, P 3 M methods are to be preferred, in spite of their greater cost and complexity, whenever the evolution of small-scale structure is important
Multi-Scale Initial Conditions For Cosmological Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahn, Oliver; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /HITS, Heidelberg
2011-11-04
We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10{sup -4} for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.
Hydrodynamic Simulation of the Cosmological X-Ray Background
Croft, Rupert A. C.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Davé, Romeel; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark A.; Weinberg, David H.
2001-08-01
We use a hydrodynamic simulation of an inflationary cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant to predict properties of the extragalactic X-ray background (XRB). We focus on emission from the intergalactic medium (IGM), with particular attention to diffuse emission from warm-hot gas that lies in relatively smooth filamentary structures between galaxies and galaxy clusters. We also include X-rays from point sources associated with galaxies in the simulation, and we make maps of the angular distribution of the emission. Although much of the X-ray luminous gas has a filamentary structure, the filaments are not evident in the simulated maps because of projection effects. In the soft (0.5-2 keV) band, our calculated mean intensity of radiation from intergalactic and cluster gas is 2.3×10-12 ergs-1 cm-2 deg-2, 35% of the total softband emission. This intensity is compatible at the ~1 σ level with estimates of the unresolved soft background intensity from deep ROSAT and Chandra measurements. Only 4% of the hard (2-10 keV) emission is associated with intergalactic gas. Relative to active galactic nuclei flux, the IGM component of the XRB peaks at a lower redshift (median z~0.45) and spans a narrower redshift range, so its clustering makes an important contribution to the angular correlation function of the total emission. The clustering on the scales accessible to our simulation (0.1‧-10') is significant, with an amplitude roughly consistent with an extrapolation of recent ROSAT results to small scales. A cross-correlation analysis of the XRB against nearby galaxies taken from a simulated redshift survey also yields a strong signal from the IGM. Our conclusions about the soft background intensity differ from those of some recent papers that have argued that the expected emission from gas in galaxy, group, and cluster halos would exceed the observed background unless much of the gas is expelled by supernova feedback. We obtain reasonable compatibility with
Origin of chemically distinct discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations
Grand, Robert J. J.; Bustamante, Sebastián; Gómez, Facundo A.; Kawata, Daisuke; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Rix, Hans-Walter; Simpson, Christine M.; Sparre, Martin; Springel, Volker
2018-03-01
The stellar disc of the Milky Way shows complex spatial and abundance structure that is central to understanding the key physical mechanisms responsible for shaping our Galaxy. In this study, we use six very high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes to study the prevalence and formation of chemically distinct disc components. We find that our simulations develop a clearly bimodal distribution in the [α/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane. We find two main pathways to creating this dichotomy, which operate in different regions of the galaxies: (a) an early (z > 1) and intense high-[α/Fe] star formation phase in the inner region (R ≲ 5 kpc) induced by gas-rich mergers, followed by more quiescent low-[α/Fe] star formation; and (b) an early phase of high-[α/Fe] star formation in the outer disc followed by a shrinking of the gas disc owing to a temporarily lowered gas accretion rate, after which disc growth resumes. In process (b), a double-peaked star formation history around the time and radius of disc shrinking accentuates the dichotomy. If the early star formation phase is prolonged (rather than short and intense), chemical evolution proceeds as per process (a) in the inner region, but the dichotomy is less clear. In the outer region, the dichotomy is only evident if the first intense phase of star formation covers a large enough radial range before disc shrinking occurs; otherwise, the outer disc consists of only low-[α/Fe] sequence stars. We discuss the implication that both processes occurred in the Milky Way.
Barnes, Luke A.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop
2018-04-01
Models of the very early universe, including inflationary models, are argued to produce varying universe domains with different values of fundamental constants and cosmic parameters. Using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code from the EAGLE collaboration, we investigate the effect of the cosmological constant on the formation of galaxies and stars. We simulate universes with values of the cosmological constant ranging from Λ = 0 to Λ0 × 300, where Λ0 is the value of the cosmological constant in our Universe. Because the global star formation rate in our Universe peaks at t = 3.5 Gyr, before the onset of accelerating expansion, increases in Λ of even an order of magnitude have only a small effect on the star formation history and efficiency of the universe. We use our simulations to predict the observed value of the cosmological constant, given a measure of the multiverse. Whether the cosmological constant is successfully predicted depends crucially on the measure. The impact of the cosmological constant on the formation of structure in the universe does not seem to be a sharp enough function of Λ to explain its observed value alone.
ACCRETION SHOCKS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND THEIR SZ SIGNATURE FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molnar, Sandor M.; Hearn, Nathan; Haiman, Zoltan; Bryan, Greg; Evrard, August E.; Lake, George
2009-01-01
Cold dark matter (CDM) hierarchical structure formation models predict the existence of large-scale accretion shocks between the virial and turnaround radii of clusters of galaxies. Kocsis et al. suggest that the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal associated with such shocks might be observable with the next generation radio interferometer, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array). We study the three-dimensional distribution of accretion shocks around individual clusters of galaxies drawn from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of ΛCDM (dark energy dominated CDM) models. In relaxed clusters, we find two distinct sets of shocks. One set ('virial shocks'), with Mach numbers of 2.5-4, is located at radii 0.9-1.3 R vir , where R vir is the spherical infall estimate of the virial radius, covering about 40%-50% of the total surface area around clusters at these radii. Another set of stronger shocks ( e xternal shocks ) is located farther out, at about 3 R vir , with large Mach numbers (∼100), covering about 40%-60% of the surface area. We simulate SZ surface brightness maps of relaxed massive galaxy clusters drawn from high-resolution AMR runs, and conclude that ALMA should be capable of detecting the virial shocks in massive clusters of galaxies. More simulations are needed to improve estimates of astrophysical noise and to determine optimal observational strategies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Greg L. Bryan
2002-01-01
Full Text Available As an entry for the 2001 Gordon Bell Award in the "special" category, we describe our 3-d, hybrid, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR code Enzo designed for high-resolution, multiphysics, cosmological structure formation simulations. Our parallel implementation places no limit on the depth or complexity of the adaptive grid hierarchy, allowing us to achieve unprecedented spatial and temporal dynamic range. We report on a simulation of primordial star formation which develops over 8000 subgrids at 34 levels of refinement to achieve a local refinement of a factor of 1012 in space and time. This allows us to resolve the properties of the first stars which form in the universe assuming standard physics and a standard cosmological model. Achieving extreme resolution requires the use of 128-bit extended precision arithmetic (EPA to accurately specify the subgrid positions. We describe our EPA AMR implementation on the IBM SP2 Blue Horizon system at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.
Rey, Martin P.; Pontzen, Andrew
2018-02-01
Recent work has studied the interplay between a galaxy's history and its observable properties using `genetically modified' cosmological zoom simulations. The approach systematically generates alternative histories for a halo, while keeping its cosmological environment fixed. Applications to date altered linear properties of the initial conditions, such as the mean overdensity of specified regions; we extend the formulation to include quadratic features, such as local variance, that determines the overall importance of smooth accretion relative to mergers in a galaxy's history. We introduce an efficient algorithm for this new class of modification and demonstrate its ability to control the variance of a region in a one-dimensional toy model. Outcomes of this work are twofold: (i) a clarification of the formulation of genetic modifications and (ii) a proof of concept for quadratic modifications leading the way to a forthcoming implementation in cosmological simulations.
Zhang Yuan Zhong
2002-01-01
This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...
Making marketing a part of AMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roddy, J.
1994-01-01
Increasing competition and the need to meet customer demands are driving forces for change in the utility industry. Strategic application of such technologies as automated meter reading (AMR) and other advanced metering systems will play a large role in shaping new ways for utilities to conduct business and increase market share. And marketing will play a major role in determining both the strategic and tactical benefits of AMR. One problem with evaluating AMR technologies is that the typical evaluation doesn't consider a utility's future business environment. Instead, technology is often the only factor taken into consideration when assessing AMR and how it can improve the way one currently conducts business. For successful implementation of an advanced metering system, one should first consider how the new technology will benefit both the company and the customers. A company's marketing group is the best source for determining this, as well as for promoting these benefits once they decide to deploy a system. This paper establishes a guideline for determining and monitoring the market for AMR in a utility
Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Gaite
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.
Quantification of discreteness effects in cosmological N-body simulations: Initial conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joyce, M.; Marcos, B.
2007-01-01
The relation between the results of cosmological N-body simulations, and the continuum theoretical models they simulate, is currently not understood in a way which allows a quantification of N dependent effects. In this first of a series of papers on this issue, we consider the quantification of such effects in the initial conditions of such simulations. A general formalism developed in [A. Gabrielli, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066131 (2004).] allows us to write down an exact expression for the power spectrum of the point distributions generated by the standard algorithm for generating such initial conditions. Expanded perturbatively in the amplitude of the input (i.e. theoretical, continuum) power spectrum, we obtain at linear order the input power spectrum, plus two terms which arise from discreteness and contribute at large wave numbers. For cosmological type power spectra, one obtains as expected, the input spectrum for wave numbers k smaller than that characteristic of the discreteness. The comparison of real space correlation properties is more subtle because the discreteness corrections are not as strongly localized in real space. For cosmological type spectra the theoretical mass variance in spheres and two-point correlation function are well approximated above a finite distance. For typical initial amplitudes this distance is a few times the interparticle distance, but it diverges as this amplitude (or, equivalently, the initial redshift of the cosmological simulation) goes to zero, at fixed particle density. We discuss briefly the physical significance of these discreteness terms in the initial conditions, in particular, with respect to the definition of the continuum limit of N-body simulations
Halo mass and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in rescaled cosmological N-body simulations
Renneby, Malin; Hilbert, Stefan; Angulo, Raúl E.
2018-05-01
We investigate 3D density and weak lensing profiles of dark matter haloes predicted by a cosmology-rescaling algorithm for N-body simulations. We extend the rescaling method of Angulo & White (2010) and Angulo & Hilbert (2015) to improve its performance on intra-halo scales by using models for the concentration-mass-redshift relation based on excursion set theory. The accuracy of the method is tested with numerical simulations carried out with different cosmological parameters. We find that predictions for median density profiles are more accurate than ˜5 % for haloes with masses of 1012.0 - 1014.5h-1 M⊙ for radii 0.05 baryons, are likely required for interpreting future (dark energy task force stage IV) experiments.
Fast Generation of Ensembles of Cosmological N-Body Simulations via Mode-Resampling
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Schneider, M D; Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Szapudi, I
2011-02-14
We present an algorithm for quickly generating multiple realizations of N-body simulations to be used, for example, for cosmological parameter estimation from surveys of large-scale structure. Our algorithm uses a new method to resample the large-scale (Gaussian-distributed) Fourier modes in a periodic N-body simulation box in a manner that properly accounts for the nonlinear mode-coupling between large and small scales. We find that our method for adding new large-scale mode realizations recovers the nonlinear power spectrum to sub-percent accuracy on scales larger than about half the Nyquist frequency of the simulation box. Using 20 N-body simulations, we obtain a power spectrum covariance matrix estimate that matches the estimator from Takahashi et al. (from 5000 simulations) with < 20% errors in all matrix elements. Comparing the rates of convergence, we determine that our algorithm requires {approx}8 times fewer simulations to achieve a given error tolerance in estimates of the power spectrum covariance matrix. The degree of success of our algorithm indicates that we understand the main physical processes that give rise to the correlations in the matter power spectrum. Namely, the large-scale Fourier modes modulate both the degree of structure growth through the variation in the effective local matter density and also the spatial frequency of small-scale perturbations through large-scale displacements. We expect our algorithm to be useful for noise modeling when constraining cosmological parameters from weak lensing (cosmic shear) and galaxy surveys, rescaling summary statistics of N-body simulations for new cosmological parameter values, and any applications where the influence of Fourier modes larger than the simulation size must be accounted for.
External versus internal triggers of bar formation in cosmological zoom-in simulations
Zana, Tommaso; Dotti, Massimo; Capelo, Pedro R.; Bonoli, Silvia; Haardt, Francesco; Mayer, Lucio; Spinoso, Daniele
2018-01-01
The emergence of a large-scale stellar bar is one of the most striking features in disc galaxies. By means of state-of-the-art cosmological zoom-in simulations, we study the formation and evolution of bars in Milky Way-like galaxies in a fully cosmological context, including the physics of gas dissipation, star formation and supernova feedback. Our goal is to characterize the actual trigger of the non-axisymmetric perturbation that leads to the strong bar observable in the simulations at z = 0, discriminating between an internal/secular and an external/tidal origin. To this aim, we run a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations altering the original history of galaxy-satellite interactions at a time when the main galaxy, though already bar-unstable, does not feature any non-axisymmetric structure yet. We find that the main effect of a late minor merger and of a close fly-by is to delay the time of bar formation and those two dynamical events are not directly responsible for the development of the bar and do not alter significantly its global properties (e.g. its final extension). We conclude that, once the disc has grown to a mass large enough to sustain global non-axisymmetric modes, then bar formation is inevitable.
Modified Baryonic Dynamics: two-component cosmological simulations with light sterile neutrinos
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Angus, G.W.; Gentile, G. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, 1050 Belgium (Belgium); Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 Italy (Italy); Famaey, B. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, Strasbourg, F-67000 France (France); Heyden, K.J. van der, E-mail: garry.angus@vub.ac.be, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: benoit.famaey@astro.unistra.fr, E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be, E-mail: heyden@ast.uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept. of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 South Africa (South Africa)
2014-10-01
In this article we continue to test cosmological models centred on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with light sterile neutrinos, which could in principle be a way to solve the fine-tuning problems of the standard model on galaxy scales while preserving successful predictions on larger scales. Due to previous failures of the simple MOND cosmological model, here we test a speculative model where the modified gravitational field is produced only by the baryons and the sterile neutrinos produce a purely Newtonian field (hence Modified Baryonic Dynamics). We use two-component cosmological simulations to separate the baryonic N-body particles from the sterile neutrino ones. The premise is to attenuate the over-production of massive galaxy cluster halos which were prevalent in the original MOND plus light sterile neutrinos scenario. Theoretical issues with such a formulation notwithstanding, the Modified Baryonic Dynamics model fails to produce the correct amplitude for the galaxy cluster mass function for any reasonable value of the primordial power spectrum normalisation.
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Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Smith, Britton D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Turk, Matthew J.
2011-01-01
Cosmological shocks are a critical part of large-scale structure formation, and are responsible for heating the intracluster medium in galaxy clusters. In addition, they are capable of accelerating non-thermal electrons and protons. In this work, we focus on the acceleration of electrons at shock fronts, which is thought to be responsible for radio relics-extended radio features in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters. By combining high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement/N-body cosmological simulations with an accurate shock-finding algorithm and a model for electron acceleration, we calculate the expected synchrotron emission resulting from cosmological structure formation. We produce synthetic radio maps of a large sample of galaxy clusters and present luminosity functions and scaling relationships. With upcoming long-wavelength radio telescopes, we expect to see an abundance of radio emission associated with merger shocks in the intracluster medium. By producing observationally motivated statistics, we provide predictions that can be compared with observations to further improve our understanding of magnetic fields and electron shock acceleration.
Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations
Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo
2017-12-01
We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.
Taylor, Philip; Federrath, Christoph; Kobayashi, Chiaki
2018-06-01
Integral field spectroscopy surveys provide spatially resolved gas and stellar kinematics of galaxies. They have unveiled a range of atypical kinematic phenomena, which require detailed modelling to understand. We present results from a cosmological simulation that includes stellar and AGN feedback. We find that the distribution of angles between the gas and stellar angular momenta of galaxies is not affected by projection effects. We examine five galaxies (≈6 per cent of well resolved galaxies) that display atypical kinematics; two of the galaxies have kinematically distinct cores (KDC), while the other three have counter-rotating gas and stars. All five form the majority of their stars in the field, subsequently falling into cosmological filaments where the relative orientation of the stellar angular momentum and the bulk gas flow leads to the formation of a counter-rotating gas disc. The accreted gas exchanges angular momentum with pre-existing co-rotating gas causing it to fall to the centre of the galaxy. This triggers low-level AGN feedback, which reduces star formation. Later, two of the galaxies experience a minor merger (stellar mass ratio ˜1/10) with a galaxy on a retrograde orbit compared to the spin of the stellar component of the primary. This produces the KDCs, and is a different mechanism than suggested by other works. The role of minor mergers in the kinematic evolution of galaxies may have been under-appreciated in the past, and large, high-resolution cosmological simulations will be necessary to gain a better understanding in this area.
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Zhang Yuanzhong
2002-06-21
This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and
Simulating quantum effects of cosmological expansion using a static ion trap
Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Olson, S. Jay; Milburn, Gerard J.
2010-09-01
We propose a new experimental test bed that uses ions in the collective ground state of a static trap to study the analogue of quantum-field effects in cosmological spacetimes, including the Gibbons-Hawking effect for a single detector in de Sitter spacetime, as well as the possibility of modeling inflationary structure formation and the entanglement signature of de Sitter spacetime. To date, proposals for using trapped ions in analogue gravity experiments have simulated the effect of gravity on the field modes by directly manipulating the ions' motion. In contrast, by associating laboratory time with conformal time in the simulated universe, we can encode the full effect of curvature in the modulation of the laser used to couple the ions' vibrational motion and electronic states. This model simplifies the experimental requirements for modeling the analogue of an expanding universe using trapped ions, and it enlarges the validity of the ion-trap analogy to a wide range of interesting cases.
Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao
2017-02-01
We investigate the constraint ability of the gravitational wave (GW) as the standard siren on the cosmological parameters by using the third-generation gravitational wave detector: the Einstein Telescope. The binary merger of a neutron with either a neutron or black hole is hypothesized to be the progenitor of a short and intense burst of γ rays; some fraction of those binary mergers could be detected both through electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves. Thus we can determine both the luminosity distance and redshift of the source separately. We simulate the luminosity distances and redshift measurements from 100 to 1000 GW events. We use two different algorithms to constrain the cosmological parameters. For the Hubble constant H0 and dark matter density parameter Ωm, we adopt the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. We find that with about 500-600 GW events we can constrain the Hubble constant with an accuracy comparable to Planck temperature data and Planck lensing combined results, while for the dark matter density, GWs alone seem not able to provide the constraints as good as for the Hubble constant; the sensitivity of 1000 GW events is a little lower than that of Planck data. It should require more than 1000 events to match the Planck sensitivity. Yet, for analyzing the more complex dynamical property of dark energy, i.e., the equation of state w , we adopt a new powerful nonparametric method: the Gaussian process. We can reconstruct w directly from the observational luminosity distance at every redshift. In the low redshift region, we find that about 700 GW events can give the constraints of w (z ) comparable to the constraints of a constant w by Planck data with type-Ia supernovae. Those results show that GWs as the standard sirens to probe the cosmological parameters can provide an independent and complementary alternative to current experiments.
Li, Ming-Hua; Zhu, Weishan; Zhao, Dong
2018-05-01
The gas is the dominant component of baryonic matter in most galaxy groups and clusters. The spatial offsets of gas centre from the halo centre could be an indicator of the dynamical state of cluster. Knowledge of such offsets is important for estimate the uncertainties when using clusters as cosmological probes. In this paper, we study the centre offsets roff between the gas and that of all the matter within halo systems in ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on two kinds of centre offsets: one is the three-dimensional PB offsets between the gravitational potential minimum of the entire halo and the barycentre of the ICM, and the other is the two-dimensional PX offsets between the potential minimum of the halo and the iterative centroid of the projected synthetic X-ray emission of the halo. Haloes at higher redshifts tend to have larger values of rescaled offsets roff/r200 and larger gas velocity dispersion σ v^gas/σ _{200}. For both types of offsets, we find that the correlation between the rescaled centre offsets roff/r200 and the rescaled 3D gas velocity dispersion, σ _v^gas/σ _{200} can be approximately described by a quadratic function as r_{off}/r_{200} ∝ (σ v^gas/σ _{200} - k_2)2. A Bayesian analysis with MCMC method is employed to estimate the model parameters. Dependence of the correlation relation on redshifts and the gas mass fraction are also investigated.
The large-scale environment from cosmological simulations - I. The baryonic cosmic web
Cui, Weiguang; Knebe, Alexander; Yepes, Gustavo; Yang, Xiaohu; Borgani, Stefano; Kang, Xi; Power, Chris; Staveley-Smith, Lister
2018-01-01
Using a series of cosmological simulations that includes one dark-matter-only (DM-only) run, one gas cooling-star formation-supernova feedback (CSF) run and one that additionally includes feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we classify the large-scale structures with both a velocity-shear-tensor code (VWEB) and a tidal-tensor code (PWEB). We find that the baryonic processes have almost no impact on large-scale structures - at least not when classified using aforementioned techniques. More importantly, our results confirm that the gas component alone can be used to infer the filamentary structure of the universe practically un-biased, which could be applied to cosmology constraints. In addition, the gas filaments are classified with its velocity (VWEB) and density (PWEB) fields, which can theoretically connect to the radio observations, such as H I surveys. This will help us to bias-freely link the radio observations with dark matter distributions at large scale.
HOT GAS HALOS AROUND DISK GALAXIES: CONFRONTING COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS
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Rasmussen, Jesper; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Kristian; Toft, Sune; Grove, Lisbeth F.; Benson, Andrew; Bower, Richard G.
2009-01-01
Models of disk galaxy formation commonly predict the existence of an extended reservoir of accreted hot gas surrounding massive spirals at low redshift. As a test of these models, we use X-ray and Hα data of the two massive, quiescent edge-on spirals NGC 5746 and NGC 5170 to investigate the amount and origin of any hot gas in their halos. Contrary to our earlier claim, the Chandra analysis of NGC 5746, employing more recent calibration data, does not reveal any significant evidence for diffuse X-ray emission outside the optical disk, with a 3σ upper limit to the halo X-ray luminosity of 4 x 10 39 erg s -1 . An identical study of the less massive NGC 5170 also fails to detect any extraplanar X-ray emission. By extracting hot halo properties of disk galaxies formed in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we compare these results to expectations for cosmological accretion of hot gas by spirals. For Milky-Way-sized galaxies, these high-resolution simulations predict hot halo X-ray luminosities which are lower by a factor of ∼2 compared to our earlier results reported by Toft et al. We find the new simulation predictions to be consistent with our observational constraints for both NGC 5746 and NGC 5170, while also confirming that the hot gas detected so far around more actively star-forming spirals is in general probably associated with stellar activity in the disk. Observational results on quiescent disk galaxies at the high-mass end are nevertheless providing powerful constraints on theoretical predictions, and hence on the assumed input physics in numerical studies of disk galaxy formation and evolution.
A small-scale dynamo in feedback-dominated galaxies - III. Cosmological simulations
Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain
2017-12-01
Magnetic fields are widely observed in the Universe in virtually all astrophysical objects, from individual stars to entire galaxies, even in the intergalactic medium, but their specific genesis has long been debated. Due to the development of more realistic models of galaxy formation, viable scenarios are emerging to explain cosmic magnetism, thanks to both deeper observations and more efficient and accurate computer simulations. We present here a new cosmological high-resolution zoom-in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, of a dwarf galaxy with an initially weak and uniform magnetic seed field that is amplified by a small-scale dynamo (SSD) driven by supernova-induced turbulence. As first structures form from the gravitational collapse of small density fluctuations, the frozen-in magnetic field separates from the cosmic expansion and grows through compression. In a second step, star formation sets in and establishes a strong galactic fountain, self-regulated by supernova explosions. Inside the galaxy, the interstellar medium becomes highly turbulent, dominated by strong supersonic shocks, as demonstrated by the spectral analysis of the gas kinetic energy. In this turbulent environment, the magnetic field is quickly amplified via a SSD process and is finally carried out into the circumgalactic medium by a galactic wind. This realistic cosmological simulation explains how initially weak magnetic seed fields can be amplified quickly in early, feedback-dominated galaxies, and predicts, as a consequence of the SSD process, that high-redshift magnetic fields are likely to be dominated by their small-scale components.
Halo statistics analysis within medium volume cosmological N-body simulation
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Martinović N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present halo statistics analysis of a ΛCDM N body cosmological simulation (from first halo formation until z = 0. We study mean major merger rate as a function of time, where for time we consider both per redshift and per Gyr dependence. For latter we find that it scales as the well known power law (1 + zn for which we obtain n = 2.4. The halo mass function and halo growth function are derived and compared both with analytical and empirical fits. We analyse halo growth through out entire simulation, making it possible to continuously monitor evolution of halo number density within given mass ranges. The halo formation redshift is studied exploring possibility for a new simple preliminary analysis during the simulation run. Visualization of the simulation is portrayed as well. At redshifts z = 0−7 halos from simulation have good statistics for further analysis especially in mass range of 1011 − 1014 M./h. [176021 ’Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations
On the evolution of galaxy clustering and cosmological N-body simulations
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Fall, S.M.
1978-01-01
Some aspects of the problem of simulating the evolution of galaxy clustering by N-body computer experiments are discussed. The results of four 1000-body experiments are presented and interpreted on the basis of simple scaling arguments for the gravitational condensation of bound aggregates. They indicate that the internal dynamics of condensed aggregates are negligible in determining the form of the pair-correlation function xi. On small scales the form of xi is determined by discreteness effects in the initial N-body distribution and is not sensitive to this distribution. The experiments discussed here test the simple scaling arguments effectively for only one value of the cosmological density parameter (Ω = 1) and one form of the initial fluctuation spectrum (n = 0). (author)
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Juin, Jean-Baptiste
2005-01-01
The goal of my Phd research is to prepare the data analysis of the near future wide-field observations of galaxy clusters detected by Sunyaev Zel'dovitch effect. I set up a complete chain of original tools to carry out this study. These tools allow me to highlight critical and important points of selection effects that has to be taken into account in future analysis. Analysis chain is composed by: a simulation of observed millimeter sky, state-of-the-art algorithms of SZ galaxy clusters extraction from observed maps, a statistical model of selection effects of the whole detection chain and, finally, tools to constrain, from detected SZ sources catalog, the cosmological parameters. I focus myself on multi-channel experiments equipped with large bolometer camera. I use these tools for a prospecting on Olimpo experiment. (author) [fr
Cosmological N-body simulations with a tree code - Fluctuations in the linear and nonlinear regimes
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Suginohara, Tatsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Bouchet, F.R.; Hernquist, L.
1991-01-01
The evolution of gravitational systems is studied numerically in a cosmological context using a hierarchical tree algorithm with fully periodic boundary conditions. The simulations employ 262,144 particles, which are initially distributed according to scale-free power spectra. The subsequent evolution is followed in both flat and open universes. With this large number of particles, the discretized system can accurately model the linear phase. It is shown that the dynamics in the nonlinear regime depends on both the spectral index n and the density parameter Omega. In Omega = 1 universes, the evolution of the two-point correlation function Xi agrees well with similarity solutions for Xi greater than about 100 but its slope is steeper in open models with the same n. 28 refs
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Baushev, A.N.; Valle, L. del; Campusano, L.E.; Escala, A.; Muñoz, R.R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Correo Central, Santiago (Chile); Palma, G.A., E-mail: baushev@gmail.com, E-mail: ldelvalleb@gmail.com, E-mail: luis@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: aescala@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)
2017-05-01
Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal density profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by [1]. We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. The same streams should appear in cosmological N-body simulations, being strong enough to change the shape of the cusp or even to create it. Our analysis, based on the Hernquist model and the standard SPH code, strongly suggests that the UDPs generally found by the cosmological N-body simulations may be a consequence of numerical effects. A much better understanding of the N-body simulation convergency is necessary before a 'core-cusp problem' can properly be used to question the validity of the CDM model.
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Baushev, A.N.; Valle, L. del; Campusano, L.E.; Escala, A.; Muñoz, R.R.; Palma, G.A.
2017-01-01
Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal density profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by [1]. We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. The same streams should appear in cosmological N-body simulations, being strong enough to change the shape of the cusp or even to create it. Our analysis, based on the Hernquist model and the standard SPH code, strongly suggests that the UDPs generally found by the cosmological N-body simulations may be a consequence of numerical effects. A much better understanding of the N-body simulation convergency is necessary before a 'core-cusp problem' can properly be used to question the validity of the CDM model.
HBT+: an improved code for finding subhaloes and building merger trees in cosmological simulations
Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Helly, John
2018-02-01
Dark matter subhalos are the remnants of (incomplete) halo mergers. Identifying them and establishing their evolutionary links in the form of merger trees is one of the most important applications of cosmological simulations. The HBT (Hierachical Bound-Tracing) code identifies haloes as they form and tracks their evolution as they merge, simultaneously detecting subhaloes and building their merger trees. Here we present a new implementation of this approach, HBT+ , that is much faster, more user friendly, and more physically complete than the original code. Applying HBT+ to cosmological simulations, we show that both the subhalo mass function and the peak-mass function are well fitted by similar double-Schechter functions. The ratio between the two is highest at the high-mass end, reflecting the resilience of massive subhaloes that experience substantial dynamical friction but limited tidal stripping. The radial distribution of the most-massive subhaloes is more concentrated than the universal radial distribution of lower mass subhaloes. Subhalo finders that work in configuration space tend to underestimate the masses of massive subhaloes, an effect that is stronger in the host centre. This may explain, at least in part, the excess of massive subhaloes in galaxy cluster centres inferred from recent lensing observations. We demonstrate that the peak-mass function is a powerful diagnostic of merger tree defects, and the merger trees constructed using HBT+ do not suffer from the missing or switched links that tend to afflict merger trees constructed from more conventional halo finders. We make the HBT+ code publicly available.
Truong, N.; Rasia, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Fabjan, D.; Beck, A. M.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.; Gaspari, M.; Granato, G. L.; Murante, G.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Steinborn, L. K.
2018-03-01
We analyse cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to study the X-ray scaling relations between total masses and observable quantities such as X-ray luminosity, gas mass, X-ray temperature, and YX. Three sets of simulations are performed with an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics GADGET-3 code. These consider the following: non-radiative gas, star formation and stellar feedback, and the addition of feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select clusters with M500 > 1014 M⊙E(z)-1, mimicking the typical selection of Sunyaev-Zeldovich samples. This permits to have a mass range large enough to enable robust fitting of the relations even at z ˜ 2. The results of the analysis show a general agreement with observations. The values of the slope of the mass-gas mass and mass-temperature relations at z = 2 are 10 per cent lower with respect to z = 0 due to the applied mass selection, in the former case, and to the effect of early merger in the latter. We investigate the impact of the slope variation on the study of the evolution of the normalization. We conclude that cosmological studies through scaling relations should be limited to the redshift range z = 0-1, where we find that the slope, the scatter, and the covariance matrix of the relations are stable. The scaling between mass and YX is confirmed to be the most robust relation, being almost independent of the gas physics. At higher redshifts, the scaling relations are sensitive to the inclusion of AGNs which influences low-mass systems. The detailed study of these objects will be crucial to evaluate the AGN effect on the ICM.
AX-GADGET: a new code for cosmological simulations of Fuzzy Dark Matter and Axion models
Nori, Matteo; Baldi, Marco
2018-05-01
We present a new module of the parallel N-Body code P-GADGET3 for cosmological simulations of light bosonic non-thermal dark matter, often referred as Fuzzy Dark Matter (FDM). The dynamics of the FDM features a highly non-linear Quantum Potential (QP) that suppresses the growth of structures at small scales. Most of the previous attempts of FDM simulations either evolved suppressed initial conditions, completely neglecting the dynamical effects of QP throughout cosmic evolution, or resorted to numerically challenging full-wave solvers. The code provides an interesting alternative, following the FDM evolution without impairing the overall performance. This is done by computing the QP acceleration through the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) routines, with improved schemes to ensure precise and stable derivatives. As an extension of the P-GADGET3 code, it inherits all the additional physics modules implemented up to date, opening a wide range of possibilities to constrain FDM models and explore its degeneracies with other physical phenomena. Simulations are compared with analytical predictions and results of other codes, validating the QP as a crucial player in structure formation at small scales.
THE PRESSURE OF THE STAR-FORMING INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS
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Munshi, Ferah; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Christensen, Charlotte; Wadsley, James; Loebman, Sarah; Shen, Sijing
2014-01-01
We examine the pressure of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) of Milky-Way-sized disk galaxies using fully cosmological SPH+N-body, high-resolution simulations. These simulations include explicit treatment of metal-line cooling in addition to dust and self-shielding, H 2 -based star formation. The four simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times 10 10 to nearly 10 12 solar masses. Using a kinematic decomposition of these galaxies into present-day bulge and disk components, we find that the typical pressure of the star-forming ISM in the present-day bulge is higher than that in the present-day disk by an order of magnitude. We also find that the pressure of the star-forming ISM at high redshift is, on average, higher than ISM pressures at low redshift. This explains why the bulge forms at higher pressures: the disk assembles at lower redshift when the ISM exhibits lower pressure and the bulge forms at high redshift when the ISM has higher pressure. If ISM pressure and IMF variation are tied together, these results could indicate a time-dependent IMF in Milky-Way-like systems as well as a different IMF in the bulge and the disk
Numerical Convergence in the Dark Matter Halos Properties Using Cosmological Simulations
Mosquera-Escobar, X. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.
2017-07-01
Nowadays, the accepted cosmological model is the so called -Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In such model, the universe is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, composed of diverse components as the dark matter and dark energy, where the latter is the most abundant one. Dark matter plays an important role because it is responsible for the generation of gravitational potential wells, commonly called dark matter halos. At the end, dark matter halos are characterized by a set of parameters (mass, radius, concentration, spin parameter), these parameters provide valuable information for different studies, such as galaxy formation, gravitational lensing, etc. In this work we use the publicly available code Gadget2 to perform cosmological simulations to find to what extent the numerical parameters of the simu- lations, such as gravitational softening, integration time step and force calculation accuracy affect the physical properties of the dark matter halos. We ran a suite of simulations where these parameters were varied in a systematic way in order to explore accurately their impact on the structural parameters of dark matter halos. We show that the variations on the numerical parameters affect the structural pa- rameters of dark matter halos, such as concentration, virial radius, and concentration. We show that these modifications emerged when structures become non- linear (at redshift 2) for the scale of our simulations, such that these variations affected the formation and evolution structure of halos mainly at later cosmic times. As a quantitative result, we propose which would be the most appropriate values for the numerical parameters of the simulations, such that they do not affect the halo properties that are formed. For force calculation accuracy we suggest values smaller or equal to 0.0001, integration time step smaller o equal to 0.005 and for gravitational softening we propose equal to 1/60th of the mean interparticle distance, these values, correspond to the
AMRZone: A Runtime AMR Data Sharing Framework For Scientific Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wenzhao; Tang, Houjun; Harenberg, Steven; Byna, Suren; Zou, Xiaocheng; Devendran, Dharshi; Martin, Daniel; Wu, Kesheng; Dong, Bin; Klasky, Scott; Samatova, Nagiza
2017-08-31
Frameworks that facilitate runtime data sharing across multiple applications are of great importance for scientific data analytics. Although existing frameworks work well over uniform mesh data, they can not effectively handle adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) data. Among the challenges to construct an AMR-capable framework include: (1) designing an architecture that facilitates online AMR data management; (2) achieving a load-balanced AMR data distribution for the data staging space at runtime; and (3) building an effective online index to support the unique spatial data retrieval requirements for AMR data. Towards addressing these challenges to support runtime AMR data sharing across scientific applications, we present the AMRZone framework. Experiments over real-world AMR datasets demonstrate AMRZone's effectiveness at achieving a balanced workload distribution, reading/writing large-scale datasets with thousands of parallel processes, and satisfying queries with spatial constraints. Moreover, AMRZone's performance and scalability are even comparable with existing state-of-the-art work when tested over uniform mesh data with up to 16384 cores; in the best case, our framework achieves a 46% performance improvement.
A posteriori error estimator and AMR for discrete ordinates nodal transport methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duo, Jose I.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Zikatanov, Ludmil T.
2009-01-01
In the development of high fidelity transport solvers, optimization of the use of available computational resources and access to a tool for assessing quality of the solution are key to the success of large-scale nuclear systems' simulation. In this regard, error control provides the analyst with a confidence level in the numerical solution and enables for optimization of resources through Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). In this paper, we derive an a posteriori error estimator based on the nodal solution of the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Method of the Nodal type (AHOT-N). Furthermore, by making assumptions on the regularity of the solution, we represent the error estimator as a function of computable volume and element-edges residuals. The global L 2 error norm is proved to be bound by the estimator. To lighten the computational load, we present a numerical approximation to the aforementioned residuals and split the global norm error estimator into local error indicators. These indicators are used to drive an AMR strategy for the spatial discretization. However, the indicators based on forward solution residuals alone do not bound the cell-wise error. The estimator and AMR strategy are tested in two problems featuring strong heterogeneity and highly transport streaming regime with strong flux gradients. The results show that the error estimator indeed bounds the global error norms and that the error indicator follows the cell-error's spatial distribution pattern closely. The AMR strategy proves beneficial to optimize resources, primarily by reducing the number of unknowns solved for to achieve prescribed solution accuracy in global L 2 error norm. Likewise, AMR achieves higher accuracy compared to uniform refinement when resolving sharp flux gradients, for the same number of unknowns
Mesh networks: an optimum solution for AMR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mimno, G.
2003-12-01
Characteristics of mesh networks and the advantage of using them in automatic meter reading equipment (AMR) are discussed. Mesh networks are defined as being similar to a fishing net made of knots and links. In mesh networks the knots represent meter sites and the links are the radio paths between the meter sites and the neighbourhood concentrator. In mesh networks any knot in the communications chain can link to any other and the optimum path is calculated by the network by hopping from meter to meter until the radio message reaches a concentrator. This mesh communications architecture is said to be vastly superior to many older types of radio-based meter reading technologies; its main advantage is that it not only significantly improves the economics of fixed network deployment, but also supports time-of-use metering, remote disconnect services and advanced features, such as real-time pricing, demand response, and other efficiency measures, providing a better return on investment and reliability.
Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Ji, Alexander P.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Frebel, Anna; Scannapieco, Evan; Gómez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.
2018-06-01
The smallest satellites of the Milky Way ceased forming stars during the epoch of reionization and thus provide archaeological access to galaxy formation at z > 6. Numerical studies of these ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) require expensive cosmological simulations with high mass resolution that are carried out down to z = 0. However, if we are able to statistically identify UFD host progenitors at high redshifts with relatively high probabilities, we can avoid this high computational cost. To find such candidates, we analyse the merger trees of Milky Way type haloes from the high-resolution Caterpillar suite of dark matter only simulations. Satellite UFD hosts at z = 0 are identified based on four different abundance matching (AM) techniques. All the haloes at high redshifts are traced forward in time in order to compute the probability of surviving as satellite UFDs today. Our results show that selecting potential UFD progenitors based solely on their mass at z = 12 (8) results in a 10 per cent (20 per cent) chance of obtaining a surviving UFD at z = 0 in three of the AM techniques we adopted. We find that the progenitors of surviving satellite UFDs have lower virial ratios (η), and are preferentially located at large distances from the main MW progenitor, while they show no correlation with concentration parameter. Haloes with favorable locations and virial ratios are ≈3 times more likely to survive as satellite UFD candidates at z = 0.
Investigating the physics and environment of Lyman limit systems in cosmological simulations
Erkal, Denis
2015-07-01
In this work, I investigate the properties of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) using state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological galaxy formation simulations with on the fly radiative transfer, which includes both the cosmic UV background (UVB) and local stellar sources. I compare the simulation results to observations of the incidence frequency of LLSs and the H I column density distribution function over the redshift range z = 2-5 and find good agreement. I explore the connection between LLSs and their host haloes and find that LLSs reside in haloes with a wide range of halo masses with a nearly constant covering fraction within a virial radius. Over the range z = 2-5, I find that more than half of the LLSs reside in haloes with M test a simple model which encapsulates many of their properties. I confirm that LLSs have a characteristic absorption length given by the Jeans length and that they are in photoionization equilibrium at low column densities. Finally, I investigate the self-shielding of LLSs to the UVB and explore how the non-sphericity of LLSs affects the photoionization rate at a given N_{H I}. I find that at z ≈ 3, LLSs have an optical depth of unity at a column density of ˜1018 cm-2 and that this is the column density which characterizes the onset of self-shielding.
Baseline metal enrichment from Population III star formation in cosmological volume simulations
Jaacks, Jason; Thompson, Robert; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Bromm, Volker
2018-04-01
We utilize the hydrodynamic and N-body code GIZMO coupled with our newly developed sub-grid Population III (Pop III) Legacy model, designed specifically for cosmological volume simulations, to study the baseline metal enrichment from Pop III star formation at z > 7. In this idealized numerical experiment, we only consider Pop III star formation. We find that our model Pop III star formation rate density (SFRD), which peaks at ˜ 10- 3 M⊙ yr- 1 Mpc- 1 near z ˜ 10, agrees well with previous numerical studies and is consistent with the observed estimates for Pop II SFRDs. The mean Pop III metallicity rises smoothly from z = 25 to 7, but does not reach the critical metallicity value, Zcrit = 10-4 Z⊙, required for the Pop III to Pop II transition in star formation mode until z ≃ 7. This suggests that, while individual haloes can suppress in situ Pop III star formation, the external enrichment is insufficient to globally terminate Pop III star formation. The maximum enrichment from Pop III star formation in star-forming dark matter haloes is Z ˜ 10-2 Z⊙, whereas the minimum found in externally enriched haloes is Z ≳ 10-7 Z⊙. Finally, mock observations of our simulated IGM enriched with Pop III metals produce equivalent widths similar to observations of an extremely metal-poor damped Lyman alpha system at z = 7.04, which is thought to be enriched by Pop III star formation only.
Dark matter direct detection signals inferred from a cosmological N-body simulation with baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, F.-S.; Nezri, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Teyssier, R.
2010-01-01
We extract at redshift z = 0 a Milky Way sized object including gas, stars and dark matter (DM) from a recent, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation with baryons. Its resolution is sufficient to witness the formation of a rotating disk and bulge at the center of the halo potential, therefore providing a realistic description of the birth and the evolution of galactic structures in the ΛCDM cosmology paradigm. The phase-space structure of the central galaxy reveals that, throughout a thick region, the dark halo is co-rotating on average with the stellar disk. At the Earth's location, the rotating component, sometimes called dark disk in the literature, is characterized by a minimum lag velocity v lag ≅ 75 km/s, in which case it contributes to around 25% of the total DM local density, whose value is ρ DM ≅ 0.37GeV/cm 3 . The velocity distributions also show strong deviations from pure Gaussian and Maxwellian distributions, with a sharper drop of the high velocity tail. We give a detailed study of the impact of these features on the predictions for DM signals in direct detection experiments. In particular, the question of whether the modulation signal observed by DAMA is or is not excluded by limits set by other experiments (CDMS, XENON and CRESST...) is re-analyzed and compared to the case of a standard Maxwellian halo. We consider spin-independent interactions for both the elastic and the inelastic scattering scenarios. For the first time, we calculate the allowed regions for DAMA and the exclusion limits of other null experiments directly from the velocity distributions found in the simulation. We then compare these results with the predictions of various analytical distributions. We find that the compatibility between DAMA and the other experiments is improved. In the elastic scenario, the DAMA modulation signal is slightly enhanced in the so-called channeling region, as a result of several effects that include a departure from a Maxwellian
PENERAPAN FITUR ADAPTIVE MULTI RATE (AMR PADA JARINGAN GSM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdusy Syarif
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Adaptive Mutlirate (AMR is a feature that plays an important role in the efficiency of use of cell/voice channels and GSM networks in overall and it can improve sound quality dynamically based on actual measurements (real time between Mobile Station (MS and Base Transmitter Station (BTS. Resources used as analytical parameters are SQI (Speech Quality Index, MOS (Mean Opinion Score and the sound quality on the network without and with AMR. Measurements using Test Equipment Mobile System (TEMS while locking devices to the single channel and comparing them between the two types of network. Based on test results it is obtained that with voice channels with AMR can increase the value of SQI approximately 40% for fullrate channels and about 60% for half-rate channels producing a remarkable (excellent level, with research and further measuring it is expected to produce better and more perfect sound quality.Kata kunci: AMR, SQI, GSM networkABSTRAK
Valogiannis, Georgios; Bean, Rachel
2017-05-01
We implement an adaptation of the cola approach, a hybrid scheme that combines Lagrangian perturbation theory with an N-body approach, to model nonlinear collapse in chameleon and symmetron modified gravity models. Gravitational screening is modeled effectively through the attachment of a suppression factor to the linearized Klein-Gordon equations. The adapted cola approach is benchmarked, with respect to an N-body code both for the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) scenario and for the modified gravity theories. It is found to perform well in the estimation of the dark matter power spectra, with consistency of 1% to k ˜2.5 h /Mpc . Redshift space distortions are shown to be effectively modeled through a Lorentzian parametrization with a velocity dispersion fit to the data. We find that cola performs less well in predicting the halo mass functions but has consistency, within 1 σ uncertainties of our simulations, in the relative changes to the mass function induced by the modified gravity models relative to Λ CDM . The results demonstrate that cola, proposed to enable accurate and efficient, nonlinear predictions for Λ CDM , can be effectively applied to a wider set of cosmological scenarios, with intriguing properties, for which clustering behavior needs to be understood for upcoming surveys such as LSST, DESI, Euclid, and WFIRST.
Evolutionary Plasticity of AmrZ Regulation in Pseudomonas
Dougherty, Kevin; Diaz, Beatriz; Murillo, Rachel
2018-01-01
ABSTRACT amrZ encodes a master regulator protein conserved across pseudomonads, which can be either a positive or negative regulator of swimming motility depending on the species examined. To better understand plasticity in the regulatory function of AmrZ, we characterized the mode of regulation for this protein for two different motility-related phenotypes in Pseudomonas stutzeri. As in Pseudomonas syringae, AmrZ functions as a positive regulator of swimming motility within P. stutzeri, which suggests that the functions of this protein with regard to swimming motility have switched at least twice across pseudomonads. Shifts in mode of regulation cannot be explained by changes in AmrZ sequence alone. We further show that AmrZ acts as a positive regulator of colony spreading within this strain and that this regulation is at least partially independent of swimming motility. Closer investigation of mechanistic shifts in dual-function regulators like AmrZ could provide unique insights into how transcriptional pathways are rewired between closely related species. IMPORTANCE Microbes often display finely tuned patterns of gene regulation across different environments, with major regulatory changes controlled by a small group of “master” regulators within each cell. AmrZ is a master regulator of gene expression across pseudomonads and can be either a positive or negative regulator for a variety of pathways depending on the strain and genomic context. Here, we demonstrate that the phenotypic outcomes of regulation of swimming motility by AmrZ have switched at least twice independently in pseudomonads, so that AmrZ promotes increased swimming motility in P. stutzeri and P. syringae but represses this phenotype in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since examples of switches in regulatory mode are relatively rare, further investigation into the mechanisms underlying shifts in regulator function for AmrZ could provide unique insights into the
Evolution of N/O ratios in galaxies from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
Vincenzo, Fiorenzo; Kobayashi, Chiaki
2018-04-01
We study the redshift evolution of the gas-phase O/H and N/O abundances, both (i) for individual ISM regions within single spatially-resolved galaxies and (ii) when dealing with average abundances in the whole ISM of many unresolved galaxies. We make use of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation including detailed chemical enrichment, which properly takes into account the variety of different stellar nucleosynthetic sources of O and N in galaxies. We identify 33 galaxies in the simulation, lying within dark matter halos with virial mass in the range 1011 ≤ MDM ≤ 1013 M⊙ and reconstruct how they evolved with redshift. For the local and global measurements, the observed increasing trend of N/O at high O/H can be explained, respectively, (i) as the consequence of metallicity gradients which have settled in the galaxy interstellar medium, where the innermost galactic regions have the highest O/H abundances and the highest N/O ratios, and (ii) as the consequence of an underlying average mass-metallicity relation that galaxies obey as they evolve across cosmic epochs, where - at any redshift - less massive galaxies have lower average O/H and N/O ratios than the more massive ones. We do not find a strong dependence on the environment. For both local and global relations, the predicted N/O-O/H relation is due to the mostly secondary origin of N in stars. We also predict that the O/H and N/O gradients in the galaxy interstellar medium gradually flatten as functions of redshift, with the average N/O ratios being strictly coupled with the galaxy star formation history. Because N production strongly depends on O abundances, we obtain a universal relation for the N/O-O/H abundance diagram whether we consider average abundances of many unresolved galaxies put together or many abundance measurements within a single spatially-resolved galaxy.
Simulations of the WFIRST Supernova Survey and Forecasts of Cosmological Constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hounsell, R. [Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Scolnic, D. [Chicago U., KICP; Foley, R. J. [UC, Santa Cruz; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Miranda, V. [Pennsylvania U.; Avelino, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bohlin, R. C. [Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Filippenko, A. V. [UC, Berkeley; Frieman, J. [Fermilab; Jha, S. W. [Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kelly, P. L. [UC, Berkeley; Kirshner, R. P. [Xerox, Palo Alto; Mandel, K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rest, A. [Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Riess, A. G. [Johns Hopkins U.; Rodney, S. A. [South Carolina U.; Strolger, L. [Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.
2017-02-06
The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) was the highest rankedlarge space-based mission of the 2010 New Worlds, New Horizons decadal survey.It is now a NASA mission in formulation with a planned launch in themid-2020's. A primary mission objective is to precisely constrain the nature ofdark energy through multiple probes, including Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia).Here, we present the first realistic simulations of the WFIRST SN survey basedon current hardware specifications and using open-source tools. We simulate SNlight curves and spectra as viewed by the WFIRST wide-field channel (WFC)imager and integral field channel (IFC) spectrometer, respectively. We examine11 survey strategies with different time allocations between the WFC and IFC,two of which are based upon the strategy described by the WFIRST ScienceDefinition Team, which measures SN distances exclusively from IFC data. Wepropagate statistical and, crucially, systematic uncertainties to predict thedark energy task force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for each strategy. Theincrease in FoM values with SN search area is limited by the overhead times foreach exposure. For IFC-focused strategies the largest individual systematicuncertainty is the wavelength-dependent calibration uncertainty, whereas forWFC-focused strategies, it is the intrinsic scatter uncertainty. We find thatthe best IFC-focused and WFC-exclusive strategies have comparable FoM values.Even without improvements to other cosmological probes, the WFIRST SN surveyhas the potential to increase the FoM by more than an order of magnitude fromthe current values. Although the survey strategies presented here have not beenfully optimized, these initial investigations are an important step in thedevelopment of the final hardware design and implementation of the WFIRSTmission.
Understanding Large-scale Structure in the SSA22 Protocluster Region Using Cosmological Simulations
Topping, Michael W.; Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Naoz, Smadar; Primack, Joel R.
2018-01-01
We investigate the nature and evolution of large-scale structure within the SSA22 protocluster region at z = 3.09 using cosmological simulations. A redshift histogram constructed from current spectroscopic observations of the SSA22 protocluster reveals two separate peaks at z = 3.065 (blue) and z = 3.095 (red). Based on these data, we report updated overdensity and mass calculations for the SSA22 protocluster. We find {δ }b,{gal}=4.8+/- 1.8 and {δ }r,{gal}=9.5+/- 2.0 for the blue and red peaks, respectively, and {δ }t,{gal}=7.6+/- 1.4 for the entire region. These overdensities correspond to masses of {M}b=(0.76+/- 0.17)× {10}15{h}-1 {M}ȯ , {M}r=(2.15+/- 0.32)× {10}15{h}-1 {M}ȯ , and {M}t=(3.19+/- 0.40)× {10}15{h}-1 {M}ȯ for the red, blue, and total peaks, respectively. We use the Small MultiDark Planck (SMDPL) simulation to identify comparably massive z∼ 3 protoclusters, and uncover the underlying structure and ultimate fate of the SSA22 protocluster. For this analysis, we construct mock redshift histograms for each simulated z∼ 3 protocluster, quantitatively comparing them with the observed SSA22 data. We find that the observed double-peaked structure in the SSA22 redshift histogram corresponds not to a single coalescing cluster, but rather the proximity of a ∼ {10}15{h}-1 {M}ȯ protocluster and at least one > {10}14{h}-1 {M}ȯ cluster progenitor. Such associations in the SMDPL simulation are easily understood within the framework of hierarchical clustering of dark matter halos. We finally find that the opportunity to observe such a phenomenon is incredibly rare, with an occurrence rate of 7.4{h}3 {{{Gpc}}}-3. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martel, Hugo [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Barai, Paramita [Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Brito, William [Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC (Canada)
2012-09-20
We combine an N-body simulation algorithm with a subgrid treatment of galaxy formation, mergers, and tidal destruction, and an observed conditional luminosity function {Phi}(L|M), to study the origin and evolution of galactic and extragalactic light inside a cosmological volume of size (100 Mpc){sup 3}, in a concordance {Lambda}CDM model. This algorithm simulates the growth of large-scale structures and the formation of clusters, the evolution of the galaxy population in clusters, the destruction of galaxies by mergers and tides, and the evolution of the intracluster light (ICL). We find that destruction of galaxies by mergers dominates over destruction by tides by about an order of magnitude at all redshifts. However, tidal destruction is sufficient to produce ICL fractions f{sub ICL} that are sufficiently high to match observations. Our simulation produces 18 massive clusters (M{sub cl} > 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) with values of f{sub ICL} ranging from 1% to 58% at z = 0. There is a weak trend of f{sub ICL} to increase with cluster mass. The bulk of the ICL ({approx}60%) is provided by intermediate galaxies of total masses 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} and stellar masses 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} that were tidally destroyed by even more massive galaxies. The contribution of low-mass galaxies to the ICL is small and the contribution of dwarf galaxies is negligible, even though, by numbers, most galaxies that are tidally destroyed are dwarfs. Tracking clusters back in time, we find that their values of f{sub ICL} tend to increase over time, but can experience sudden changes that are sometimes non-monotonic. These changes occur during major mergers involving clusters of comparable masses but very different intracluster luminosities. Most of the tidal destruction events take place in the central regions of clusters. As a result, the ICL is more centrally concentrated than the galactic light. Our results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martel, Hugo; Barai, Paramita; Brito, William
2012-01-01
We combine an N-body simulation algorithm with a subgrid treatment of galaxy formation, mergers, and tidal destruction, and an observed conditional luminosity function Φ(L|M), to study the origin and evolution of galactic and extragalactic light inside a cosmological volume of size (100 Mpc) 3 , in a concordance ΛCDM model. This algorithm simulates the growth of large-scale structures and the formation of clusters, the evolution of the galaxy population in clusters, the destruction of galaxies by mergers and tides, and the evolution of the intracluster light (ICL). We find that destruction of galaxies by mergers dominates over destruction by tides by about an order of magnitude at all redshifts. However, tidal destruction is sufficient to produce ICL fractions f ICL that are sufficiently high to match observations. Our simulation produces 18 massive clusters (M cl > 10 14 M ☉ ) with values of f ICL ranging from 1% to 58% at z = 0. There is a weak trend of f ICL to increase with cluster mass. The bulk of the ICL (∼60%) is provided by intermediate galaxies of total masses 10 11 -10 12 M ☉ and stellar masses 6 × 10 8 M ☉ to 3 × 10 10 M ☉ that were tidally destroyed by even more massive galaxies. The contribution of low-mass galaxies to the ICL is small and the contribution of dwarf galaxies is negligible, even though, by numbers, most galaxies that are tidally destroyed are dwarfs. Tracking clusters back in time, we find that their values of f ICL tend to increase over time, but can experience sudden changes that are sometimes non-monotonic. These changes occur during major mergers involving clusters of comparable masses but very different intracluster luminosities. Most of the tidal destruction events take place in the central regions of clusters. As a result, the ICL is more centrally concentrated than the galactic light. Our results support tidal destruction of intermediate-mass galaxies as a plausible scenario for the origin of the ICL.
The metallicity distribution of H I systems in the EAGLE cosmological simulations
Rahmati, Alireza; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.
2018-06-01
The metallicity of strong H I systems, spanning from damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) to Lyman-limit systems (LLSs), is explored between z = 5 → 0 using the EAGLE high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of galaxy formation. The metallicities of LLSs and DLAs steadily increase with time in agreement with observations. DLAs are more metal rich than LLSs, although the metallicities in the LLS column density range (N_{H I }≈ 10^{17}-10^{20} cm^{-2}) are relatively flat, evolving from a median H I-weighted metallicity of {Z}≲ 10^{-2} Z_{⊙} at z = 3 to ≈10-0.5 Z⊙ by z = 0. The metal content of H I systems tracks the increasing stellar content of the Universe, holding ≈ 5 {per cent} of the integrated total metals released from stars at z = 0. We also consider partial LLS (pLLS, N_{H I}≈ 10^{16}-10^{17} cm^{-2}) metallicities, and find good agreement with Wotta et al. for the fraction of systems above (37 per cent) and below (63 per cent) 0.1 Z⊙. We also find a large dispersion of pLLS metallicities, although we do not reproduce the observed metallicity bimodality and instead we make the prediction that a larger sample will yield more pLLSs around 0.1 Z⊙. We underpredict the median metallicity of strong LLSs, and predict a population of Z 3 that are not observed, which may indicate more widespread early enrichment in the real Universe compared to EAGLE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, Robyn Deborah; JILA, Boulder
2008-01-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in the centers of galaxies. Their formation and subsequent evolution is inextricably linked to that of their host galaxies, and the study of galaxy formation is incomplete without the inclusion of SMBHs. The present work seeks to understand the growth and evolution of SMBHs through their interaction with the host galaxy and its environment. In the first part of the thesis (Chap. 2 and 3), we combine a simple semi-analytic model of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a simulated dark matter density distribution to study the impact of SMBH feedback on cosmological scales. We find that constraints can be placed on the kinetic efficiency of such feedback using observations of the filling fraction of the Lyα forest. We also find that AGN feedback is energetic enough to redistribute baryons over cosmological distances, having potentially significant effects on the interpretation of cosmological data which are sensitive to the total matter density distribution (e.g. weak lensing). However, truly assessing the impact of AGN feedback in the universe necessitates large-dynamic range simulations with extensive treatment of baryonic physics to first model the fueling of SMBHs. In the second part of the thesis (Chap. 4-6) we use a hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulation to follow the growth and evolution of a typical disk galaxy hosting a SMBH, in a cosmological context. The simulation covers a dynamical range of 10 million allowing us to study the transport of matter and angular momentum from super-galactic scales all the way down to the outer edge of the accretion disk around the SMBH. Focusing our attention on the central few hundred parsecs of the galaxy, we find the presence of a cold, self-gravitating, molecular gas disk which is globally unstable. The global instabilities drive super-sonic turbulence, which maintains local stability and allows gas to fuel a SMBH without first fragmenting completely
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cen, Renyue
2014-01-01
An analysis of more than 3000 galaxies resolved at better than 114 h –1 pc at z = 0.62 in a 'LAOZI' cosmological adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulation is performed and insights are gained on star formation quenching and color migration. The vast majority of red galaxies are found to be within three virial radii of a larger galaxy at the onset of quenching, when the specific star formation rate experiences the sharpest decline to fall below ∼10 –2 -10 –1 Gyr –1 (depending on the redshift). Thus, we shall call this mechanism 'environment quenching', which encompasses satellite quenching. Two physical processes are largely responsible: Ram pressure stripping first disconnects the galaxy from the cold gas supply on large scales, followed by a longer period of cold gas starvation taking place in a high velocity-dispersion environment, in which during the early part of the process, the existing dense cold gas in the central region (≤10 kpc) is consumed by in situ star formation. On average, quenching is found to be more efficient (i.e., a larger fraction of galaxies being quenched) but not faster (i.e., the duration being weakly dependent on the environment) in a denser environment. Throughout this quenching period and the ensuing one in the red sequence, galaxies follow nearly vertical tracks in the color-stellar mass diagram. In contrast, individual galaxies of all masses grow most of their stellar masses in the blue cloud, prior to the onset of quenching, and progressively more massive blue galaxies with already relatively older mean stellar ages continue to enter the red sequence. Consequently, correlations among observables of red galaxies—such as the age-mass relation— are largely inherited from their blue progenitors at the onset of quenching. While the color makeup of the entire galaxy population strongly depends on the environment, which is a direct result of environment quenching, physical properties of blue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wainwright, J.
1990-01-01
The workshop on mathematical cosmology was devoted to four topics of current interest. This report contains a brief discussion of the historical background of each topic and a concise summary of the content of each talk. The topics were; the observational cosmology program, the cosmological perturbation program, isotropic singularities, and the evolution of Bianchi cosmologies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue; Natarajan, Priyamvada
2015-01-01
Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ , increasing to 4% at M *, bul ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , and in the cluster it is 4% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ and 23% at 10 12 M ☉ . We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3%. Quantifying the growth due to mergers at these late times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychaudhuri, A.K.
1979-01-01
The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; introduction; Newtonian gravitation and cosmology; general relativity and relativistic cosmology; analysis of observational data; relativistic models not obeying the cosmological principle; microwave radiation background; thermal history of the universe and nucleosynthesis; singularity of cosmological models; gravitational constant as a field variable; cosmological models based on Einstein-Cartan theory; cosmological singularity in two recent theories; fate of perturbations of isotropic universes; formation of galaxies; baryon symmetric cosmology; assorted topics (including extragalactic radio sources; Mach principle). (U.K.)
Bardeen, J. M.
The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.
1986-01-01
The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs
Hierarchical material models for fragmentation modeling in NIF-ALE-AMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, A C; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Gunney, B T N; Wang, P; Becker, R; Dixit, P; Benson, D J
2008-01-01
Fragmentation is a fundamental process that naturally spans micro to macroscopic scales. Recent advances in algorithms, computer simulations, and hardware enable us to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes in a real simulation through a heterogeneous multiscale mathematical model. We apply this model to the problem of predicting how targets in the NIF chamber dismantle, so that optics and diagnostics can be protected from damage. The mechanics of the initial material fracture depend on the microscopic grain structure. In order to effectively simulate the fragmentation, this process must be modeled at the subgrain level with computationally expensive crystal plasticity models. However, there are not enough computational resources to model the entire NIF target at this microscopic scale. In order to accomplish these calculations, a hierarchical material model (HMM) is being developed. The HMM will allow fine-scale modeling of the initial fragmentation using computationally expensive crystal plasticity, while the elements at the mesoscale can use polycrystal models, and the macroscopic elements use analytical flow stress models. The HMM framework is built upon an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability. We present progress in implementing the HMM in the NIF-ALE-AMR code. Additionally, we present test simulations relevant to NIF targets
Hierarchical material models for fragmentation modeling in NIF-ALE-AMR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, A C; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Gunney, B T N; Wang, P; Becker, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Dixit, P; Benson, D J [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla. CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: fisher47@llnl.gov
2008-05-15
Fragmentation is a fundamental process that naturally spans micro to macroscopic scales. Recent advances in algorithms, computer simulations, and hardware enable us to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes in a real simulation through a heterogeneous multiscale mathematical model. We apply this model to the problem of predicting how targets in the NIF chamber dismantle, so that optics and diagnostics can be protected from damage. The mechanics of the initial material fracture depend on the microscopic grain structure. In order to effectively simulate the fragmentation, this process must be modeled at the subgrain level with computationally expensive crystal plasticity models. However, there are not enough computational resources to model the entire NIF target at this microscopic scale. In order to accomplish these calculations, a hierarchical material model (HMM) is being developed. The HMM will allow fine-scale modeling of the initial fragmentation using computationally expensive crystal plasticity, while the elements at the mesoscale can use polycrystal models, and the macroscopic elements use analytical flow stress models. The HMM framework is built upon an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability. We present progress in implementing the HMM in the NIF-ALE-AMR code. Additionally, we present test simulations relevant to NIF targets.
PHoToNs–A parallel heterogeneous and threads oriented code for cosmological N-body simulation
Wang, Qiao; Cao, Zong-Yan; Gao, Liang; Chi, Xue-Bin; Meng, Chen; Wang, Jie; Wang, Long
2018-06-01
We introduce a new code for cosmological simulations, PHoToNs, which incorporates features for performing massive cosmological simulations on heterogeneous high performance computer (HPC) systems and threads oriented programming. PHoToNs adopts a hybrid scheme to compute gravitational force, with the conventional Particle-Mesh (PM) algorithm to compute the long-range force, the Tree algorithm to compute the short range force and the direct summation Particle-Particle (PP) algorithm to compute gravity from very close particles. A self-similar space filling a Peano-Hilbert curve is used to decompose the computing domain. Threads programming is advantageously used to more flexibly manage the domain communication, PM calculation and synchronization, as well as Dual Tree Traversal on the CPU+MIC platform. PHoToNs scales well and efficiency of the PP kernel achieves 68.6% of peak performance on MIC and 74.4% on CPU platforms. We also test the accuracy of the code against the much used Gadget-2 in the community and found excellent agreement.
Application of the Ewald method to cosmological N-body simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernquist, L.; Suto, Yasushi; Bouchet, F.R.
1990-03-01
Fully periodic boundary conditions are incorporated into a gridless cosmological N-body code using the Ewald method. It is shown that the linear evolution of density fluctuations agrees well with analytic calculations, contrary to the case of quasi-periodic boundary conditions where the fundamental mode grows too rapidly. The implementation of fully periodic boundaries is of particular importance to relative comparisons of methods based on hierarchical tree algorithms and more traditional schemes using Fourier techniques such as PM and P 3 M codes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsberg, P.T.; Evans, D.A.
1977-01-01
The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: cosmology -some fundamentals; Newtonian gravitation - some fundamentals; the cosmological differential equation - the particle model and the continuum model; some simple Friedmann models; the classification of the Friedmann models; the steady-state model; universe with pressure; optical effects of the expansion according to various theories of light; optical observations and cosmological models. (U.K.)
Kim, Ji-hoon; Ma, Xiangcheng; Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Wetzel, Andrew; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Murray, Norman
2018-03-01
Using a state-of-the-art cosmological simulation of merging proto-galaxies at high redshift from the FIRE project, with explicit treatments of star formation and stellar feedback in the interstellar medium, we investigate the formation of star clusters and examine one of the formation hypotheses of present-day metal-poor globular clusters. We find that frequent mergers in high-redshift proto-galaxies could provide a fertile environment to produce long-lasting bound star clusters. The violent merger event disturbs the gravitational potential and pushes a large gas mass of ≳ 105-6 M⊙ collectively to high density, at which point it rapidly turns into stars before stellar feedback can stop star formation. The high dynamic range of the reported simulation is critical in realizing such dense star-forming clouds with a small dynamical time-scale, tff ≲ 3 Myr, shorter than most stellar feedback time-scales. Our simulation then allows us to trace how clusters could become virialized and tightly bound to survive for up to ˜420 Myr till the end of the simulation. Because the cluster's tightly bound core was formed in one short burst, and the nearby older stars originally grouped with the cluster tend to be preferentially removed, at the end of the simulation the cluster has a small age spread.
AMR: Serving the needs of distributors and customers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simard, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Metering and Meter-Reading Division, Montreal, PQ (Canada)
2002-10-01
To keep pace with emerging competition in the North-American energy industry, Hydro-Quebec restructured its activities into four separate divisions. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, established in 1977, is the division responsible for energy transmission, whereas Hydro-Quebec Distribution, established in 2001, looks after distribution services. They and the two sister divisions (Hydro-Quebec Production and Hydro-Quebec Equipement) serve 2.8 million residential, institutional and industrial customers, scattered across 587,500 square kilometres. The restructuring provided the opportunity to adapt to new market realities. Automated Meter Reading (AMR) ties in directly with the new business-oriented approach the utility has adopted in the late 1990s. In addition to solving meter accessibility problems and reducing operating costs, automated meter reading provides customers with the opportunity to benefit from new services designed to meet specific needs. To date new services made possible by automated meter reading include customized reading date selection, aggregated billing, consumption tracking and load management. AMR not only translates into greater flexibility and added value for the customer. It also provides greater reliability, accuracy and better system management. In short, AMR paves the way for the optimization of the power supply, new consumption management capabilities, rate options, real-time billing and enhanced fraud detection.
Observable cosmology and cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kardashev, N.S.; Lukash, V.N.; Novikov, I.D.
1987-01-01
Modern state of observation cosmology is briefly discussed. Among other things, a problem, related to Hibble constant and slowdown constant determining is considered. Within ''pancake'' theory hot (neutrino) cosmological model explains well the large-scale structure of the Universe, but does not explain the galaxy formation. A cold cosmological model explains well light object formation, but contradicts data on large-scale structure
Development and validation of measures to assess prevention and control of AMR in hospitals.
Flanagan, Mindy; Ramanujam, Rangaraj; Sutherland, Jason; Vaughn, Thomas; Diekema, Daniel; Doebbeling, Bradley N
2007-06-01
The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the US hospitals poses serious quality and safety problems. Expert panels, identifying strategies for optimizing antibiotic use and preventing AMR spread, have recommended hospitals undertake efforts to implement specific evidence-based practices. To develop and validate a measurement scale for assessing hospitals' efforts to implement recommended AMR prevention and control measures. Surveys were mailed to infection control professionals in a national sample of 670 US hospitals stratified by geographic region, bedsize, teaching status, and VA affiliation. : Four hundred forty-eight infection control professionals participated (67% response rate). Survey items measured implementation of guideline recommendations, practices for AMR monitoring and feedback, AMR-related outcomes (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence and outbreaks [MRSA]), and organizational features. "Derivation" and "validation" samples were randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factors underlying AMR prevention and control efforts. Multiple methods were used for validation. We identified 4 empirically distinct factors in AMR prevention and control: (1) practices for antimicrobial prescription/use, (2) information/resources for AMR control, (3) practices for isolating infected patients, and (4) organizational support for infection control policies. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale was reliable and had content and construct validity. MRSA prevalence was significantly lower in hospitals with higher resource/information availability and broader organizational support. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale offers a simple yet discriminating assessment of AMR prevention and control efforts. Use should complement assessment methods based exclusively on AMR outcomes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin
2015-01-01
We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology
Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia
2017-02-01
We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way-sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *-M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ˜ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ˜ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (I.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccio, A. V.; Stinson, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brook, C. B.; Gibson, B. K. [University of Central Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H. M. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Shen, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Quinn, T., E-mail: maccio@mpia.de, E-mail: stinson@mpia.de [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)
2012-01-15
A clear prediction of the cold dark matter (CDM) model is the existence of cuspy dark matter halo density profiles on all mass scales. This is not in agreement with the observed rotation curves of spiral galaxies, challenging on small scales the otherwise successful CDM paradigm. In this work we employ high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the effects of dissipative processes on the inner distribution of dark matter in Milky Way like objects (M Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }). Our simulations include supernova feedback, and the effects of the radiation pressure of massive stars before they explode as supernovae. The increased stellar feedback results in the expansion of the dark matter halo instead of contraction with respect to N-body simulations. Baryons are able to erase the dark matter cuspy distribution, creating a flat, cored, dark matter density profile in the central several kiloparsecs of a massive Milky-Way-like halo. The profile is well fit by a Burkert profile, with fitting parameters consistent with the observations. In addition, we obtain flat rotation curves as well as extended, exponential stellar disk profiles. While the stellar disk we obtain is still partially too thick to resemble the Milky Way thin disk, this pilot study shows that there is enough energy available in the baryonic component to alter the dark matter distribution even in massive disk galaxies, providing a possible solution to the long-standing problem of cusps versus cores.
MULTI-PARAMETRIC STUDY OF RISING 3D BUOYANT FLUX TUBES IN AN ADIABATIC STRATIFICATION USING AMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando
2015-01-01
We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vorticity in the main body of the tube of opposite sign on the opposite sides of the apex. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the azimuthal component of the field on the flux surfaces. The lift force associated with this global vorticity makes the flanks of the tube move away from their initial vertical plane in an antisymmetric fashion. The trajectories have an oscillatory motion superimposed, due to the shedding of vortex rolls to the wake, which creates a Von Karman street
MULTI-PARAMETRIC STUDY OF RISING 3D BUOYANT FLUX TUBES IN AN ADIABATIC STRATIFICATION USING AMR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Cheung, Mark C. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Moreno-Insertis, Fernando [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)
2015-11-20
We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vorticity in the main body of the tube of opposite sign on the opposite sides of the apex. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the azimuthal component of the field on the flux surfaces. The lift force associated with this global vorticity makes the flanks of the tube move away from their initial vertical plane in an antisymmetric fashion. The trajectories have an oscillatory motion superimposed, due to the shedding of vortex rolls to the wake, which creates a Von Karman street.
Memory of AMR coded speech distorted by packet loss
Nykänen, Arne; Lindegren, David; Wruck, Louisa; Ljung, Robert; Odelius, Johan; Möller, Sebastian
2014-01-01
Previous studies have shown that free recall of spoken word lists is impaired if the speech is presented in background noise, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is kept at a level allowing full word identification. The objective of this study was to examine recall rates for word lists presented in noise and word lists coded by an AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) telephone codec distorted by packet loss. Twenty subjects performed a word recall test. Word lists consisting of ten words were played to th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orban, Chris
2013-01-01
In setting up initial conditions for ensembles of cosmological N-body simulations there are, fundamentally, two choices: either maximizing the correspondence of the initial density field to the assumed fourier-space clustering or, instead, matching to real-space statistics and allowing the DC mode (i.e. overdensity) to vary from box to box as it would in the real universe. As a stringent test of both approaches, I perform ensembles of simulations using power law and a ''powerlaw times a bump'' model inspired by baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), exploiting the self-similarity of these initial conditions to quantify the accuracy of the matter-matter two-point correlation results. The real-space method, which was originally proposed by Pen 1997 [1] and implemented by Sirko 2005 [2], performed well in producing the expected self-similar behavior and corroborated the non-linear evolution of the BAO feature observed in conventional simulations, even in the strongly-clustered regime (σ 8 ∼>1). In revisiting the real-space method championed by [2], it was also noticed that this earlier study overlooked an important integral constraint correction to the correlation function in results from the conventional approach that can be important in ΛCDM simulations with L box ∼ −1 Gpc and on scales r∼>L box /10. Rectifying this issue shows that the fourier space and real space methods are about equally accurate and efficient for modeling the evolution and growth of the correlation function, contrary to previous claims. An appendix provides a useful independent-of-epoch analytic formula for estimating the importance of the integral constraint bias on correlation function measurements in ΛCDM simulations
Jones, Bernard J. T.
2017-04-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.
Dissipative N-body simulations of the formation of single galaxies in a cold dark-matter cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ewell, M.W. Jr.
1988-01-01
The details of an N-body code designed specifically to study the collapse of a single protogalaxy are presented. This code uses a spherical harmonic expansion to model the gravity and a sticky-particle algorithm to model the gas physics. It includes external tides and cosmologically realistic boundary conditions. The results of twelve simulations using this code are given. The initial conditions for these runs use mean-density profiles and r.m.s. quadrupoles and tides taken from the CDM power spectrum. The simulations start when the center of the perturbation first goes nonlinear, and continue until a redshift Z ∼ 1-2. The resulting rotation curves are approximately flat out to 100 kpc, but do show some structure. The circular velocity is 200 km/sec around a 3σ peak. The final systems have λ approx-equal .03. The angular momentum per unit mass of the baryons implies disk scale lengths of 1-3 kpc. The tidal forces are strong enough to profoundly influence the collapse geometry. In particular, the usual assumption, that tidal torques produce a system approximately in solid-body rotation, is shown to be seriously in error
Sanchez, Natalie; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly
2016-01-01
With the use of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-type galaxies, we identify the preferential source of gas that is accreted by the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) they host. We examine simulations of two Milky Way analogs, each distinguished by a differing merger history. One galaxy is characterized by several major mergers and the other has a more quiescent history. By examining and comparing these two galaxies, which have a similar structure at z=0, we asses the importance of merger history on black hole accretion. This study is an extension of Bellovary et. al. 2013, which studied accretion onto SMBHs in massive, high redshift galaxies. Bellovary found that the fraction of gas accreted by the galaxy was proportional to that which was accreted by its SMBH. Contrary to Bellovary's previous results, we found that though the gas accreted by a quiescent galaxy will mirror the accretion of its central SMBH, a galaxy that is characterized by an active merger history will have a SMBH that preferentially accretes gas gained through mergers. We move forward by examining the angular momentum of the gas accreted by these Milky Way-type galaxies to better understand the mechanisms fueling their central SMBH.
On estimating cosmology-dependent covariance matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, Christopher B.; Schneider, Michael D.
2013-01-01
We describe a statistical model to estimate the covariance matrix of matter tracer two-point correlation functions with cosmological simulations. Assuming a fixed number of cosmological simulation runs, we describe how to build a 'statistical emulator' of the two-point function covariance over a specified range of input cosmological parameters. Because the simulation runs with different cosmological models help to constrain the form of the covariance, we predict that the cosmology-dependent covariance may be estimated with a comparable number of simulations as would be needed to estimate the covariance for fixed cosmology. Our framework is a necessary first step in planning a simulations campaign for analyzing the next generation of cosmological surveys
Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E
2005-01-01
I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic
Effects of the Size of Cosmological N-body Simulations on Physical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Apart from N-body simulations, an analytical prescription given by Press & ...... Little, B., Weinberg, D. H., Park, C. 1991, MNRAS, 253, 295. Ma, C.-P. ... Padmanabhan, T. 1993, Structure Formation in the Universe, Cambridge University Press.
Simulations and cosmological inference: A statistical model for power spectra means and covariances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, Michael D.; Knox, Lloyd; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; Nakhleh, Charles
2008-01-01
We describe an approximate statistical model for the sample variance distribution of the nonlinear matter power spectrum that can be calibrated from limited numbers of simulations. Our model retains the common assumption of a multivariate normal distribution for the power spectrum band powers but takes full account of the (parameter-dependent) power spectrum covariance. The model is calibrated using an extension of the framework in Habib et al. (2007) to train Gaussian processes for the power spectrum mean and covariance given a set of simulation runs over a hypercube in parameter space. We demonstrate the performance of this machinery by estimating the parameters of a power-law model for the power spectrum. Within this framework, our calibrated sample variance distribution is robust to errors in the estimated covariance and shows rapid convergence of the posterior parameter constraints with the number of training simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoubian, Julien
2012-01-01
The observations of the supernovae, the cosmic microwave background, and more recently the measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations and the weak lensing effects, converge to a Lambda CDM model, with an accelerating expansion of the today Universe. This model need two dark components to fit the observations, the dark matter and the dark energy. Two approaches seem particularly promising to measure both geometry of the Universe and growth of dark matter structures, the analysis of the weak distortions of distant galaxies by gravitational lensing and the study of the baryon acoustic oscillations. Both methods required a very large sky surveys of several thousand square degrees. In the context of the spectroscopic survey of the space mission EUCLID, dedicated to the study of the dark side of the universe, I developed a pixel simulation tool for analyzing instrumental performances. The proposed method can be summarized in three steps. The first step is to simulate the observables, i.e. mainly the sources of the sky. I work up a new method, adapted for spectroscopic simulations, which allows to mock an existing survey of galaxies in ensuring that the distribution of the spectral properties of galaxies are representative of current observations, in particular the distribution of the emission lines. The second step is to simulate the instrument and produce images which are equivalent to the expected real images. Based on the pixel simulator of the HST, I developed a new tool to compute the images of the spectroscopic channel of EUCLID. The new simulator have the particularity to be able to simulate PSF with various energy distributions and detectors which have different pixels. The last step is the estimation of the performances of the instrument. Based on existing tools, I set up a pipeline of image processing and performances measurement. My main results were: 1) to validate the method by simulating an existing survey of galaxies, the WISP survey, 2) to determine the
On the interplay between cosmological shock waves and their environment
Martin-Alvarez, Sergio; Planelles, Susana; Quilis, Vicent
2017-05-01
Cosmological shock waves are tracers of the thermal history of the structures in the Universe. They play a crucial role in redistributing the energy within the cosmic structures and are also amongst the main ingredients of galaxy and galaxy cluster formation. Understanding this important function requires a proper description of the interplay between shocks and the different environments where they can be found. In this paper, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) Eulerian cosmological simulation is analysed by means of a shock-finding algorithm that allows to generate shock wave maps. Based on the population of dark matter halos and on the distribution of density contrast in the simulation, we classify the shocks in five different environments. These range from galaxy clusters to voids. The shock distribution function and the shocks power spectrum are studied for these environments dynamics. We find that shock waves on different environments undergo different formation and evolution processes, showing as well different characteristics. We identify three different phases of formation, evolution and dissipation of these shock waves, and an intricate migration between distinct environments and scales. Shock waves initially form at external, low density regions and are merged and amplified through the collapse of structures. Shock waves and cosmic structures follow a parallel evolution. Later on, shocks start to detach from them and dissipate. We also find that most of the power that shock waves dissipate is found at scales of k ˜0.5 Mpc^{-1}, with a secondary peak at k ˜8 Mpc^{-1}. The evolution of the shocks power spectrum confirms that shock waves evolution is coupled and conditioned by their environment.
Multiscale Simulations of Magnetic Island Coalescence
Dorelli, John C.
2010-01-01
We describe a new interactive parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) framework written in the Python programming language. This new framework, PyAMR, hides the details of parallel AMR data structures and algorithms (e.g., domain decomposition, grid partition, and inter-process communication), allowing the user to focus on the development of algorithms for advancing the solution of a systems of partial differential equations on a single uniform mesh. We demonstrate the use of PyAMR by simulating the pairwise coalescence of magnetic islands using the resistive Hall MHD equations. Techniques for coupling different physics models on different levels of the AMR grid hierarchy are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leibundgut, B.
2005-01-01
Supernovae have developed into a versatile tool for cosmology. Their impact on the cosmological model has been profound and led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion. The current status of the cosmological model as perceived through supernova observations will be presented. Supernovae are currently the only astrophysical objects that can measure the dynamics of the cosmic expansion during the past eight billion years. Ongoing experiments are trying to determine the characteristics of the accelerated expansion and give insight into what might be the physical explanation for the acceleration. (author)
Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Rasia, E.; Murante, G.; Fabjan, D.; Gaspari, M.
2018-05-01
The uniformity of the intracluster medium (ICM) enrichment level in the outskirts of nearby galaxy clusters suggests that chemical elements were deposited and widely spread into the intergalactic medium before the cluster formation. This observational evidence is supported by numerical findings from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, as presented in Biffi et al., including the effect of thermal feedback from active galactic nuclei. Here, we further investigate this picture, by tracing back in time the spatial origin and metallicity evolution of the gas residing at z = 0 in the outskirts of simulated galaxy clusters. In these regions, we find a large distribution of iron abundances, including a component of highly enriched gas, already present at z = 2. At z > 1, the gas in the present-day outskirts was distributed over tens of virial radii from the main cluster and had been already enriched within high-redshift haloes. At z = 2, about 40 {per cent} of the most Fe-rich gas at z = 0 was not residing in any halo more massive than 10^{11} h^{-1} M_{⊙} in the region and yet its average iron abundance was already 0.4, w.r.t. the solar value by Anders & Grevesse. This confirms that the in situ enrichment of the ICM in the outskirts of present-day clusters does not play a significant role, and its uniform metal abundance is rather the consequence of the accretion of both low-metallicity and pre-enriched (at z > 2) gas, from the diffuse component and through merging substructures. These findings do not depend on the mass of the cluster nor on its core properties.
Innovative Language-Based & Object-Oriented Structured AMR Using Fortran 90 and OpenMP
Norton, C.; Balsara, D.
1999-01-01
Parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is an important numerical technique that leads to the efficient solution of many physical and engineering problems. In this paper, we describe how AMR programing can be performed in an object-oreinted way using the modern aspects of Fortran 90 combined with the parallelization features of OpenMP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berstein, J.
1984-01-01
These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalatnikov, I.M.; Belinskij, V.A.
1984-01-01
Application of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems to analysis of homogeneous cosmological models is described. Together with the well-known cases, requiring ideal liquid, the properties of cosmological evolution of matter with dissipative processes due to viscosity are considered. New cosmological effects occur, when viscosity terms being one and the same order with the rest terms in the equations of gravitation or even exceeding them. In these cases the description of the dissipative process by means of only two viscosity coefficients (volume and shift) may become inapplicable because all the rest decomposition terms of dissipative addition to the energy-momentum in velocity gradient can be large application of equations with hydrodynamic viscosty should be considered as a model of dissipative effects in cosmology
Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio
2013-01-01
The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.
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Zeldovich, Y.B.
1983-01-01
This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)
Cosmological Simulations with Scale-Free Initial Conditions. I. Adiabatic Hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owen, J.M.; Weinberg, D.H.; Evrard, A.E.; Hernquist, L.; Katz, N.
1998-01-01
We analyze hierarchical structure formation based on scale-free initial conditions in an Einstein endash de Sitter universe, including a baryonic component with Ω bary = 0.05. We present three independent, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, performed at two resolutions (32 3 and 64 3 dark matter and baryonic particles) and with two different SPH codes (TreeSPH and P3MSPH). Each simulation is based on identical initial conditions, which consist of Gaussian-distributed initial density fluctuations that have a power spectrum P(k) ∝ k -1 . The baryonic material is modeled as an ideal gas subject only to shock heating and adiabatic heating and cooling; radiative cooling and photoionization heating are not included. The evolution is expected to be self-similar in time, and under certain restrictions we identify the expected scalings for many properties of the distribution of collapsed objects in all three realizations. The distributions of dark matter masses, baryon masses, and mass- and emission-weighted temperatures scale quite reliably. However, the density estimates in the central regions of these structures are determined by the degree of numerical resolution. As a result, mean gas densities and Bremsstrahlung luminosities obey the expected scalings only when calculated within a limited dynamic range in density contrast. The temperatures and luminosities of the groups show tight correlations with the baryon masses, which we find can be well represented by power laws. The Press-Schechter (PS) approximation predicts the distribution of group dark matter and baryon masses fairly well, though it tends to overestimate the baryon masses. Combining the PS mass distribution with the measured relations for T(M) and L(M) predicts the temperature and luminosity distributions fairly accurately, though there are some discrepancies at high temperatures/luminosities. In general the three simulations agree well for the properties of resolved groups, where a group
Evaluating Galactic Habitability Using High Resolution Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation
Forgan, Duncan; Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam
2015-01-01
D. F. acknowledges support from STFC consolidated grant ST/J001422/1, and the ‘ECOGAL’ ERC Advanced Grant. P. D. acknowledges the support of the Addison Wheeler Fellowship awarded by the Institute of Advanced Study at Durham University. N. I. L. is supported by the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft (DFG). We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of local group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which...
de la Torre, Sylvain; Peacock, John A.
2012-01-01
We present a method for populating dark matter simulations with haloes of mass below the resolution limit. It is based on stochastically sampling a field derived from the density field of the halo catalogue, using constraints from the conditional halo mass function n(m|{\\delta}). We test the accuracy of the method and show its application in the context of building mock galaxy samples. We find that this technique allows precise reproduction of the two-point statistics of galaxies in mock samp...
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Gullage, R.
2009-01-01
AMR Process specializes in oil and gas process engineering. The small company which is headquartered in Leduc, Alberta provides oil and gas packages, proprietary licensed designs and process engineering services in Brazil, China, Iraq and more than a dozen other countries. AMR's expertise includes troubleshooting, de-bottlenecking and process train upgrading. They help clients avoid complicated, costly changes to a project by targeting potential problems at a project's inception. The president and founder of AMR credits the company's success in part to the Nisku-Leduc Economic Development Authority (EDA) which brought AMR together with I. Matheson and Company Ltd., a steel manufacturer in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. Pressure vessels are one of Matheson's primary products. This article described how AMR Process Inc. has worked with Matheson to secure contracts to build equipment used in oil processing, for markets around the world. 1 fig
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Zeldovich, Ya.
1984-01-01
The knowledge is summed up of contemporary cosmology on the universe and its development resulting from a great number of highly sensitive observations and the application of contemporary physical theories to the entire universe. The questions are assessed of mass density in the universe, the structure and origin of the universe, its baryon asymmetry and the quantum explanation of the origin of the universe. Physical problems are presented which should be resolved for the future development of cosmology. (Ha)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.
Quasars at the Cosmic Dawn: effects on Reionization properties in cosmological simulations
Garaldi, Enrico; Compostella, Michele; Porciani, Cristiano
2018-05-01
We study a model of cosmic reionization where quasars (QSOs) are the dominant source of ionizing photons at all relevant epochs. We employ a suite of adaptive hydrodynamical simulations post-processed with a multi-wavelength Monte Carlo radiative-transfer code and calibrate them in order to accurately reproduce the observed quasar luminosity function and emissivity evolution. Our results show that the QSO-only model fails in reproducing key observables linked to the Helium reionization, as the temperature evolution of the inter-galactic medium (IGM) and the HeII effective optical depth in synthetic Lyα spectra. Nevertheless, we find hints that an increased quasar contribution can explain recent measurements of a large inhomogeneity in the IGM at redshift z ~ 5. Finally, we devise a method capable of constraining the QSOs contribution to the reionization from the properties of the HeII Lyα forest at z ~ 3.5.
van de Voort, Freeke; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André
2015-02-01
We quantify the stellar abundances of neutron-rich r-process nuclei in cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-mass galaxy from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. The galaxy is enriched with r-process elements by binary neutron star (NS) mergers and with iron and other metals by supernovae. These calculations include key hydrodynamic mixing processes not present in standard semi-analytic chemical evolution models, such as galactic winds and hydrodynamic flows associated with structure formation. We explore a range of models for the rate and delay time of NS mergers, intended to roughly bracket the wide range of models consistent with current observational constraints. We show that NS mergers can produce [r-process/Fe] abundance ratios and scatter that appear reasonably consistent with observational constraints. At low metallicity, [Fe/H] ≲ -2, we predict there is a wide range of stellar r-process abundance ratios, with both supersolar and subsolar abundances. Low-metallicity stars or stars that are outliers in their r-process abundance ratios are, on average, formed at high redshift and located at large galactocentric radius. Because NS mergers are rare, our results are not fully converged with respect to resolution, particularly at low metallicity. However, the uncertain rate and delay time distribution of NS mergers introduce an uncertainty in the r-process abundances comparable to that due to finite numerical resolution. Overall, our results are consistent with NS mergers being the source of most of the r-process nuclei in the Universe.
The IRX-β dust attenuation relation in cosmological galaxy formation simulations
Narayanan, Desika; Davé, Romeel; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Thompson, Robert; Conroy, Charlie; Geach, James
2018-02-01
We utilize a series of galaxy formation simulations to investigate the relationship between the ultraviolet (UV) slope, β, and the infrared excess (IRX) in the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies. Our main goals are to understand the origin of and scatter in the IRX-β relation; to assess the efficacy of simplified stellar population synthesis screen models in capturing the essential physics in the IRX-β relation; and to understand systematic deviations from the canonical local IRX-β relations in particular populations of high-redshift galaxies. Our main results follow. Young galaxies with relatively cospatial UV and IR emitting regions and a Milky Way-like extinction curve fall on or near the standard Meurer relation. This behaviour is well captured by simplified screen models. Scatter in the IRX-β relation is dominated by three major effects: (i) older stellar populations drive galaxies below the relations defined for local starbursts due to a reddening of their intrinsic UV SEDs; (ii) complex geometries in high-z heavily star-forming galaxies drive galaxies towards blue UV slopes owing to optically thin UV sightlines; (iii) shallow extinction curves drive galaxies downwards in the IRX-β plane due to lowered near-ultraviolet/far-ultraviolet extinction ratios. We use these features of the UV slopes of galaxies to derive a fitting relation that reasonably collapses the scatter back towards the canonical local relation. Finally, we use these results to develop an understanding for the location of two particularly enigmatic populations of galaxies in the IRX-β plane: z ˜ 2-4 dusty star-forming galaxies and z > 5 star-forming galaxies.
Is the cosmological singularity compulsory
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Bekenstein, J.D.; Meisels, A.
1980-01-01
The cosmological singularity is inherent in all conventional general relativistic cosmological models. There can be no question that it is an unphysical feature; yet there does not seem to be any convervative way of eliminating it. Here we present singularity-free isotropic cosmological models which are indistinguishable from general relativistic ones at late times. They are based on the general theory of variable rest masses that we developed recently. Outside cosmology this theory simulates general relativity well. Thus it provides a framework incorporating those features which have made geneal relativity so sucessful while providing a way out of singularity dilemma. The cosmological models can be made to incorporate Dirac's large numbers hypothesis. G(now)/G(0)approx.10 -38
Rajantie, Arttu
2018-03-06
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
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Wesson, P.S.
1979-01-01
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution
Rajantie, Arttu
2018-01-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.
Martinet, Nicolas; Schneider, Peter; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Shan, HuanYuan; Asgari, Marika; Dietrich, Jörg P.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Nakajima, Reiko
2018-02-01
We study the statistics of peaks in a weak-lensing reconstructed mass map of the first 450 deg2 of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450). The map is computed with aperture masses directly applied to the shear field with an NFW-like compensated filter. We compare the peak statistics in the observations with that of simulations for various cosmologies to constrain the cosmological parameter S_8 = σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}, which probes the (Ωm, σ8) plane perpendicularly to its main degeneracy. We estimate S8 = 0.750 ± 0.059, using peaks in the signal-to-noise range 0 ≤ S/N ≤ 4, and accounting for various systematics, such as multiplicative shear bias, mean redshift bias, baryon feedback, intrinsic alignment, and shear-position coupling. These constraints are ˜ 25 per cent tighter than the constraints from the high significance peaks alone (3 ≤ S/N ≤ 4) which typically trace single-massive haloes. This demonstrates the gain of information from low-S/N peaks. However, we find that including S/N KiDS-450. Combining shear peaks with non-tomographic measurements of the shear two-point correlation functions yields a ˜20 per cent improvement in the uncertainty on S8 compared to the shear two-point correlation functions alone, highlighting the great potential of peaks as a cosmological probe.
Sanders, Robert H
2016-01-01
The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...
A rotary permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator based on AMR cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aprea, C.; Cardillo, G.; Greco, A.; Maiorino, A.; Masselli, C.
2016-01-01
Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative refrigeration). In order to demonstrate the potential of magnetic refrigeration to provide useful cooling in the near room temperature range, a novel Rotary Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator (RPMMR) is described in this paper. Gadolinium has been selected as magnetic refrigerant and demineralized water has been employed as regenerating fluid. The total mass of gadolinium (1.20 kg), shaped as packed bed spheres, is housed in 8 regenerators. A magnetic system, based on a double U configuration of permanent magnets, provides a magnetic flux density of 1.25 T with an air gap of 43 mm. A rotary vane pump forces the regenerating fluid through the regenerators. The operational principle of the magnetic refrigerator and initial experimental results are reported and analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickau, Jonathan J.
2009-01-01
The use of fractals and fractal-like forms to describe or model the universe has had a long and varied history, which begins long before the word fractal was actually coined. Since the introduction of mathematical rigor to the subject of fractals, by Mandelbrot and others, there have been numerous cosmological theories and analyses of astronomical observations which suggest that the universe exhibits fractality or is by nature fractal. In recent years, the term fractal cosmology has come into usage, as a description for those theories and methods of analysis whereby a fractal nature of the cosmos is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romeo Velonà, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Cielo, S.
2013-01-01
We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M * plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active galaxies
The Architecture of WiFi-Based WSN for AMR System and E-HWMP Routing Protocol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li LI
2014-02-01
Full Text Available With the development of SoC technology in recent years, the ultra-low power WiFi System on SoC Chip has emerged. As a result, WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks come into use, especially used in Automatic Meter Reading. While because the nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks have limited energy supply, smaller storage capability and slower calculation ability, the current WiFi technology cannot be directly applied to WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks. The protocols should be upgraded and the security algorithms should be improved to meet the new requests. Firstly, this article describes the network architecture of WiFi-based WSN for AMR system and discusses the reason for using this analogous Mesh architecture. Secondly, the new Hardware architecture of WiFi-based WSN node is designed to realize the AMR system and verify the research work. The node can collect the data of power meter by WiFi and can be powered by a Lithium Battery. Thirdly, on the basis of study work of WiFi original routing protocol HWMP, a new method on improving the energy saving ability of HWMP to adapt the new features of WiFi-based WSN is proposed. And the simulation work on the new routing protocol E-HWMP has been done with NS2 and the simulation results show that the life cycle of the network has been extended to some degree.
Enqvist, K
2012-01-01
The very basics of cosmological inflation are discussed. We derive the equations of motion for the inflaton field, introduce the slow-roll parameters, and present the computation of the inflationary perturbations and their connection to the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background.
Ellis, G F R
1993-01-01
Many topics were covered in the submitted papers, showing much life in this subject at present. They ranged from conventional calculations in specific cosmological models to provocatively speculative work. Space and time restrictions required selecting from them, for summarisation here; the book of Abstracts should be consulted for a full overview.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, Nathan; Khoury, Justin
2009-01-01
We study the cosmology of a galileon scalar-tensor theory, obtained by covariantizing the decoupling Lagrangian of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Poratti (DGP) model. Despite being local in 3+1 dimensions, the resulting cosmological evolution is remarkably similar to that of the full 4+1-dimensional DGP framework, both for the expansion history and the evolution of density perturbations. As in the DGP model, the covariant galileon theory yields two branches of solutions, depending on the sign of the galileon velocity. Perturbations are stable on one branch and ghostlike on the other. An interesting effect uncovered in our analysis is a cosmological version of the Vainshtein screening mechanism: at early times, the galileon dynamics are dominated by self-interaction terms, resulting in its energy density being suppressed compared to matter or radiation; once the matter density has redshifted sufficiently, the galileon becomes an important component of the energy density and contributes to dark energy. We estimate conservatively that the resulting expansion history is consistent with the observed late-time cosmology, provided that the scale of modification satisfies r c > or approx. 15 Gpc.
Grant, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partridge, R.B.
1977-01-01
Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)
the Universe About Cosmology Planck Satellite Launched Cosmology Videos Professor George Smoot's group conducts research on the early universe (cosmology) using the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB science goals regarding cosmology. George Smoot named Director of Korean Cosmology Institute The GRB
Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Poci, Adriano; McDermid, Richard; Alabi, Adebusola; Chevalier, Leonie; Adams, Caitlin; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Wasserman, Asher; Pandya, Viraj
2018-06-01
We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yangrae Cho
Full Text Available Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8 caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of Δamr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The Δamr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.
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Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.
2012-05-01
Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.
1991-01-01
We analyse a class of cosmological models in magnetohydrodynamic regime extending and completing the results of a previous paper. The material content of the models is a perfect fluid plus electromagnetic fields. The fluid is neutral in average but admits an electrical current which satisfies Ohm's law. All models fulfil the physical requirements of near equilibrium thermodynamics and can be favourably used as a more realistic description of the interior of a collapsing star in a magnetohydrodynamic regime with or without a magnetic field. (author)
Boeyens, Jan CA
2010-01-01
The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp
Page, Don N.
2006-01-01
A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...
Religion, theology and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John T. Fitzgerald
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, L P; Forte, M; Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L
2011-01-01
In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R
2006-09-21
We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R
2007-03-02
We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory
The influence of non-magnetocaloric properties on the AMR performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian; Smith, Anders
2012-01-01
The performance of Active Magnetic Regenerators (AMR) does not depend solely on the magnetocaloric effect of their constituents. Rather, it depends on several additional parameters, including, magnetic field, geometry (hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area, regenerator length etc.), thermal pr...... a strong dependence on the orientation of the applied field and the regenerator geometry. Finally, the flow maldistribution of non-uniform regenerator geometries is found to degrade the AMR performance even at minor deviations from perfectly homogeneous regenerator matrices.......The performance of Active Magnetic Regenerators (AMR) does not depend solely on the magnetocaloric effect of their constituents. Rather, it depends on several additional parameters, including, magnetic field, geometry (hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area, regenerator length etc.), thermal...... properties (conductivity, specific heat and mass density) and operating parameters (utilization, frequency, number of transfer units etc.). In this paper we focus on the influence of three parameters on regenerator performance: 1) Solid thermal conductivity, 2) magnetostatic demagnetization and 3) flow...
Testing the accelerating moment release (AMR) hypothesis in areas of high stress
Guilhem, Aurélie; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Ali, Syed Tabrez
2013-11-01
Several retrospective analyses have proposed that significant increases in moment release occurred prior to many large earthquakes of recent times. However, the finding of accelerating moment release (AMR) strongly depends on the choice of three parameters: (1) magnitude range, (2) area being considered surrounding the events and (3) the time period prior to the large earthquakes. Consequently, the AMR analysis has been criticized as being a posteriori data-fitting exercise with no new predictive power. As AMR has been hypothesized to relate to changes in the state of stress around the eventual epicentre, we compare here AMR results to models of stress accumulation in California. Instead of assuming a complete stress drop on all surrounding fault segments implied by a back-slip stress lobe method, we consider that stress evolves dynamically, punctuated by the occurrence of earthquakes, and governed by the elastic and viscous properties of the lithosphere. We study the seismicity of southern California and extract events for AMR calculations following the systematic approach employed in previous studies. We present several sensitivity tests of the method, as well as grid-search analyses over the region between 1955 and 2005 using fixed magnitude range, radius of the search area and period of time. The results are compared to the occurrence of large events and to maps of Coulomb stress changes. The Coulomb stress maps are compiled using the coseismic stress from all M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1812, their subsequent post-seismic relaxation, and the interseismic strain accumulation. We find no convincing correlation of seismicity rate changes in recent decades with areas of high stress that would support the AMR hypothesis. Furthermore, this indicates limited utility for practical earthquake hazard analysis in southern California, and possibly other regions.
Development and Experimental Results from a 1 kW Prototype AMR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan
2012-01-01
containing an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) bed. As outlined in Pryds et al. (2009) a small scale AMR test device has been used for materials choice and optimising operation, with each component being thoroughly characterised and tested before implementation. The prototype design facilitates easy......A novel rotary magnetic refrigeration device has been designed and constructed following the concepts recently outlined in Bahl et al. (2011). The magnet and flow system design allow for almost continuous usage of both the magnetic field and the magnetocaloric material in 24 cassettes, each...
Improved Frame Mode Selection for AMR-WB+ Based on Decision Tree
Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Nam Soo
In this letter, we propose a coding mode selection method for the AMR-WB+ audio coder based on a decision tree. In order to reduce computation while maintaining good performance, decision tree classifier is adopted with the closed loop mode selection results as the target classification labels. The size of the decision tree is controlled by pruning, so the proposed method does not increase the memory requirement significantly. Through an evaluation test on a database covering both speech and music materials, the proposed method is found to achieve a much better mode selection accuracy compared with the open loop mode selection module in the AMR-WB+.
Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslanka, K.
1983-01-01
The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.
1984-01-01
The subject of these lectures is quantum effects in cosmology. The author deals first with situations in which the gravitational field can be treated as a classical, unquantized background on which the quantum matter fields propagate. This is the case with inflation at the GUT era. Nevertheless the curvature of spacetime can have important effects on the behaviour of the quantum fields and on the development of long-range correlations. He then turns to the question of the quantization of the gravitational field itself. The plan of these lectures is as follows: Euclidean approach to quantum field theory in flat space; the extension of techniques to quantum fields on a curved background with the four-sphere, the Euclidean version of De Sitter space as a particular example; the GUT era; quantization of the gravitational field by Euclidean path integrals; mini superspace model. (Auth.)
Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián
2012-01-01
Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.
Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu
2002-01-01
The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.
Hydrodynamics in full general relativity with conservative AMR
East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans; Stephens, Branson C.
2011-01-01
There is great interest in numerical relativity simulations involving matter due to the likelihood that binary compact objects involving neutron stars will be detected by gravitational wave observatories in the coming years, as well as to the possibility that binary compact object mergers could explain short-duration gamma-ray bursts. We present a code designed for simulations of hydrodynamics coupled to the Einstein field equations targeted toward such applications. This code has recently be...
Forero-Romero, J. E.
2017-07-01
This talk summarizes different algorithms that can be used to trace the cosmic web both in simulations and observations. We present different applications in galaxy formation and cosmology. To finalize, we show how the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) could be a good place to apply these techniques.
Development and experimental results from a 1 kW prototype AMR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan
2014-01-01
containing an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) bed. The prototype design facilitates easy exchange of the 24 cassettes, allowing the testing of different material amounts and compositions. Operating with 2.8 kg of commercial grade Gd spheres a maximum no-span cooling power of 1010 W and a maximum zero load...
Dimensional cosmological principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chi, L.K.
1985-01-01
The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1985-01-01
The author reviews the standard cosmology, focusing on primordial nucleosynthesis, and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is examined in which the B, C, CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-baryon ratio. Monoposes, cosmology and astrophysics are reviewed. The author also discusses supersymmetry/supergravity and cosmology, superstrings and cosmology in extra dimensions, and axions, astrophics, and cosmology
Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rani, Sarita; Singh, J.K.; Altaibayeva, A.; Myrzakulov, R.; Shahalam, M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H 0 (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not with H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on i.e. H 0 average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → −1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.
1991-01-01
This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1985-01-01
Two Friedman's cosmological papers (1922, 1924) and his own interpretation of the obtained results are briefly reviewed. Discussion follows of Friedman's role in the early development of relativistic cosmology. 18 refs. (author)
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2016-12-20
Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.
Roos, Matts
2015-01-01
The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Schramm, D.N.
1985-01-01
During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe
The Benefits of Adaptive Partitioning for Parallel AMR Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steensland, Johan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Advanced Software Research and Development
2008-07-01
Parallel adaptive mesh refinement methods potentially lead to realistic modeling of complex three-dimensional physical phenomena. However, the dynamics inherent in these methods present significant challenges in data partitioning and load balancing. Significant human resources, including time, effort, experience, and knowledge, are required for determining the optimal partitioning technique for each new simulation. In reality, scientists resort to using the on-board partitioner of the computational framework, or to using the partitioning industry standard, ParMetis. Adaptive partitioning refers to repeatedly selecting, configuring and invoking the optimal partitioning technique at run-time, based on the current state of the computer and application. In theory, adaptive partitioning automatically delivers superior performance and eliminates the need for repeatedly spending valuable human resources for determining the optimal static partitioning technique. In practice, however, enabling frameworks are non-existent due to the inherent significant inter-disciplinary research challenges. This paper presents a study of a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning and discusses implied potential benefits from the perspective of common groups of users within computational science. The study is based on a large set of data derived from experiments including six real-life, multi-time-step adaptive applications from various scientific domains, five complementing and fundamentally different partitioning techniques, a large set of parameters corresponding to a wide spectrum of computing environments, and a flexible cost function that considers the relative impact of multiple partitioning metrics and diverse partitioning objectives. The results show that even a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning can automatically generate results statistically equivalent to the best static partitioning. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate the problem of determining the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ColIn, Pedro; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ceverino, Daniel
2010-01-01
We present numerical simulations aimed at exploring the effects of varying the sub-grid physics parameters on the evolution and the properties of the galaxy formed in a low-mass dark matter halo (∼7 x 10 10 h -1 M sun at redshift z = 0). The simulations are run within a cosmological setting with a nominal resolution of 218 pc comoving and are stopped at z = 0.43. For simulations that cannot resolve individual molecular clouds, we propose the criterion that the threshold density for star formation, n SF , should be chosen such that the column density of the star-forming cells equals the threshold value for molecule formation, N ∼ 10 21 cm -2 , or ∼8 M sun pc -2 . In all of our simulations, an extended old/intermediate-age stellar halo and a more compact younger stellar disk are formed, and in most cases, the halo's specific angular momentum is slightly larger than that of the galaxy, and sensitive to the SF/feedback parameters. We found that a non-negligible fraction of the halo stars are formed in situ in a spheroidal distribution. Changes in the sub-grid physics parameters affect significantly and in a complex way the evolution and properties of the galaxy: (1) lower threshold densities n SF produce larger stellar effective radii R e , less peaked circular velocity curves V c (R), and greater amounts of low-density and hot gas in the disk mid-plane; (2) when stellar feedback is modeled by temporarily switching off radiative cooling in the star-forming regions, R e increases (by a factor of ∼2 in our particular model), the circular velocity curve becomes flatter, and a complex multi-phase gaseous disk structure develops; (3) a more efficient local conversion of gas mass to stars, measured by a stellar particle mass distribution biased toward larger values, increases the strength of the feedback energy injection-driving outflows and inducing burstier SF histories; (4) if feedback is too strong, gas loss by galactic outflows-which are easier to produce in low
Phantom cosmologies and fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M
2008-01-01
Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the 'phantomization' process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes. As an application we analyze the cosmological constant group for a fermionic seed fluid
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Turner, M.S.
1982-06-01
work is described in these areas: cosmological baryon production; cosmological production of free quarks and other exotic particle species; the quark-hadron transition in the early universe; astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties; massive neutrinos; phase transitions in the early universe; and astrophysical implications of an axion-like particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1989-01-01
Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one
. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Nobelist George Smoot to Direct Korean Cosmology Institute Nobel Laureate George Smoot has been appointed director of a new cosmology institute in South Korea that will work closely with the year-old Berkeley the Early Universe (IEU) at EWHA Womans University in Seoul, Korea will provide cosmology education
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P.
1991-01-01
The main concepts of cosmology are discussed, and some of the misconceptions are clarified. The features of big bang cosmology are examined, and it is noted that the existence of the cosmic background radiation provides welcome confirmation of the big bang theory. Calculations of relative abundances of the elements conform with observations, further strengthening the confidence in the basic ideas of big bang cosmology
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2001-01-01
Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.
CERN. Geneva
1999-01-01
Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langer, M.
2007-01-01
This is a very concise introductory lecture to Cosmology. We start by reviewing the basics of homogeneous and isotropic cosmology. We then spend some time on the description of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Finally, a small section is devoted to the discussion of the cosmological constant and of some of the related problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosa, Reinaldo Roberto; Gomes, Vitor; Araujo, Amarisio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Clua, Esteban [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: Turbulent-like behaviour is an important and recent ingredient in the investigation of large-scale structure formation in the observable universe. Recently, an established statistical method was used to demonstrate the importance of considering chaotic advection (or Lagrange turbulence) in combination with gravitational instabilities in the {Lambda}-CDM simulations performed from the Virgo Consortium (VC). However, the Hubble volumes simulated from GADGET-VC algorithm have some limitations for direct Lagrangian data analysis due to the large amount of data and no real time computation for particle kinetic velocity along the dark matter structure evolution. Hence, the Lab for Computing and Applied Mathematics at INPE, Brazil, has been working for the past two years in computational environments to achieve the so-called COsmic LAgrangian TUrbulence Simulator (COLATUS) allowing N-body simulation from a Lagrangian perspective. The COLATUS prototype, as usual packages, computes gravitational forces with a hierarchical tree algorithm in combination with a local particle kinetic velocity vector in a particle-mesh scheme for long-range gravitational forces. In the present work we show preliminary simulations for 106 particles showing Lagrangian power spectra for individual particles converging to a stable power-law of S(v) {approx} v{sup 5}. The code may be run on an arbitrary number of processors, with a restriction to powers of two. COLATUS has a potential to evaluate complex kinematics of a single particle in a simulated N-body gravitational system. However, to introduce this method as a GNU software further improvements and investigations are necessary. Then, the mapping techniques for the N-body problem incorporating radiation pressure and fluid characteristics by means of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are discussed. Finally, we focus on the all-pairs computational kernel and its future GPU implementation using the NVIDIA CUDA programming model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, Reinaldo Roberto; Gomes, Vitor; Araujo, Amarisio; Clua, Esteban
2011-01-01
Full text: Turbulent-like behaviour is an important and recent ingredient in the investigation of large-scale structure formation in the observable universe. Recently, an established statistical method was used to demonstrate the importance of considering chaotic advection (or Lagrange turbulence) in combination with gravitational instabilities in the Λ-CDM simulations performed from the Virgo Consortium (VC). However, the Hubble volumes simulated from GADGET-VC algorithm have some limitations for direct Lagrangian data analysis due to the large amount of data and no real time computation for particle kinetic velocity along the dark matter structure evolution. Hence, the Lab for Computing and Applied Mathematics at INPE, Brazil, has been working for the past two years in computational environments to achieve the so-called COsmic LAgrangian TUrbulence Simulator (COLATUS) allowing N-body simulation from a Lagrangian perspective. The COLATUS prototype, as usual packages, computes gravitational forces with a hierarchical tree algorithm in combination with a local particle kinetic velocity vector in a particle-mesh scheme for long-range gravitational forces. In the present work we show preliminary simulations for 106 particles showing Lagrangian power spectra for individual particles converging to a stable power-law of S(v) ∼ v 5 . The code may be run on an arbitrary number of processors, with a restriction to powers of two. COLATUS has a potential to evaluate complex kinematics of a single particle in a simulated N-body gravitational system. However, to introduce this method as a GNU software further improvements and investigations are necessary. Then, the mapping techniques for the N-body problem incorporating radiation pressure and fluid characteristics by means of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are discussed. Finally, we focus on the all-pairs computational kernel and its future GPU implementation using the NVIDIA CUDA programming model. (author)
The influence of non-magnetocaloric properties on the performance in parallel-plate AMRs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders
2014-01-01
a strong dependence on the orientation of the applied field and the regenerator geometry. Finally, the flow maldistribution of non-uniform regenerator geometries is found to degrade the AMR performance even at minor deviations from perfectly homogeneous regenerator matrices. This paper reflects a summary......The performance of Active Magnetic Regenerators (AMR) does not depend solely on the magnetocaloric effect of their constituents. Rather, it depends on several additional parameters, including, magnetic field, geometry (hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area, regenerator length etc.), thermal...... properties (conductivity, specific heat and mass density) and operating parameters (utilization, frequency, number of transfer units etc.). In this paper we focus on the influence of three parameters on regenerator performance: 1) Solid thermal conductivity, 2) magnetostatic demagnetization and 3) flow...
Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon
2017-04-01
Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O
Construction and Application of an AMR Algorithm for Distributed Memory Computers
Deiterding, Ralf
2003-01-01
While the parallelization of blockstructured adaptive mesh refinement techniques is relatively straight-forward on shared memory architectures, appropriate distribution strategies for the emerging generation of distributed memory machines are a topic of on-going research. In this paper, a locality-preserving domain decomposition is proposed that partitions the entire AMR hierarchy from the base level on. It is shown that the approach reduces the communication costs and simplifies the im...
Philosophical Roots of Cosmology
Ivanovic, M.
2008-10-01
We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.
A Novel AMR-WB Speech Steganography Based on Diameter-Neighbor Codebook Partition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junhui He
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Steganography is a means of covert communication without revealing the occurrence and the real purpose of communication. The adaptive multirate wideband (AMR-WB is a widely adapted format in mobile handsets and is also the recommended speech codec for VoLTE. In this paper, a novel AMR-WB speech steganography is proposed based on diameter-neighbor codebook partition algorithm. Different embedding capacity may be achieved by adjusting the iterative parameters during codebook division. The experimental results prove that the presented AMR-WB steganography may provide higher and flexible embedding capacity without inducing perceptible distortion compared with the state-of-the-art methods. With 48 iterations of cluster merging, twice the embedding capacity of complementary-neighbor-vertices-based embedding method may be obtained with a decrease of only around 2% in speech quality and much the same undetectability. Moreover, both the quality of stego speech and the security regarding statistical steganalysis are better than the recent speech steganography based on neighbor-index-division codebook partition.
An Efficient VQ Codebook Search Algorithm Applied to AMR-WB Speech Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Yu Yeh
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB speech codec is widely used in modern mobile communication systems for high speech quality in handheld devices. Nonetheless, a major disadvantage is that vector quantization (VQ of immittance spectral frequency (ISF coefficients takes a considerable computational load in the AMR-WB coding. Accordingly, a binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ algorithm is adopted to efficiently reduce the complexity of ISF quantization in AMR-WB. This search algorithm is done through a fast locating technique combined with lookup tables, such that an input vector is efficiently assigned to a subspace where relatively few codeword searches are required to be executed. In terms of overall search performance, this work is experimentally validated as a superior search algorithm relative to a multiple triangular inequality elimination (MTIE, a TIE with dynamic and intersection mechanisms (DI-TIE, and an equal-average equal-variance equal-norm nearest neighbor search (EEENNS approach. With a full search algorithm as a benchmark for overall search load comparison, this work provides an 87% search load reduction at a threshold of quantization accuracy of 0.96, a figure far beyond 55% in the MTIE, 76% in the EEENNS approach, and 83% in the DI-TIE approach.
Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro
1994-01-01
We calculate reduced moments (xi bar)(sub q) of the matter density fluctuations, up to order q = 5, from counts in cells produced by particle-mesh numerical simulations with scale-free Gaussian initial conditions. We use power-law spectra P(k) proportional to k(exp n) with indices n = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1. Due to the supposed absence of characteristic times or scales in our models, all quantities are expected to depend on a single scaling variable. For each model, the moments at all times can be expressed in terms of the variance (xi bar)(sub 2), alone. We look for agreement with the hierarchical scaling ansatz, according to which ((xi bar)(sub q)) proportional to ((xi bar)(sub 2))(exp (q - 1)). For n less than or equal to -2 models, we find strong deviations from the hierarchy, which are mostly due to the presence of boundary problems in the simulations. A small, residual signal of deviation from the hierarchical scaling is however also found in n greater than or equal to -1 models. The wide range of spectra considered and the large dynamic range, with careful checks of scaling and shot-noise effects, allows us to reliably detect evolution away from the perturbation theory result.
Patel, Ekta; Besla, Gurtina; Mandel, Kaisey
2017-07-01
In the era of high-precision astrometry, space observatories like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Gaia are providing unprecedented 6D phase-space information of satellite galaxies. Such measurements can shed light on the structure and assembly history of the Local Group, but improved statistical methods are needed to use them efficiently. Here we illustrate such a method using analogues of the Local Group's two most massive satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Triangulum (M33), from the Illustris dark-matter-only cosmological simulation. We use a Bayesian inference scheme combining measurements of positions, velocities and specific orbital angular momenta (j) of the LMC/M33 with importance sampling of their simulated analogues to compute posterior estimates of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda's (M31) halo masses. We conclude that the resulting host halo mass is more susceptible to bias when using measurements of the current position and velocity of satellites, especially when satellites are at short-lived phases of their orbits (I.e. at pericentre). Instead, the j value of a satellite is well conserved over time and provides a more reliable constraint on host mass. The inferred virial mass of the MW (M31) using j of the LMC (M33) is {{M}}_{vir, MW} = 1.02^{+0.77}_{-0.55} × 10^{12} M⊙ ({{M}}_{vir, M31} = 1.37^{+1.39}_{-0.75} × 10^{12} M⊙). Choosing simulated analogues whose j values are consistent with the conventional picture of a previous (<3 Gyr ago), close encounter (<100 kpc) of M33 about M31 results in a very low virial mass for M31 (˜1012 M⊙). This supports the new scenario put forth in Patel, Besla & Sohn, wherein M33 is on its first passage about M31 or on a long-period orbit. We conclude that this Bayesian inference scheme, utilizing satellite j, is a promising method to reduce the current factor of 2 spread in the mass range of the MW and M31. This method is easily adaptable to include additional satellites as new 6D
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Musa Mulongo
manufacturers and other organizations, as well as early involvement of regulatory ... and veterinary health, food and feed production systems and agro-ecological ... integrated into the design and implementation of the proposed research.
Extending cosmology: the metric approach
Mendoza, S.
2012-01-01
Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balbi Amedeo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.
Inflation and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1991-01-01
In this article a review of the present status of inflationary cosmology is given. We start with a discussion of the simplest version of the chaotic inflation scenario. Then we discuss some recent develoments in the inflationary cosmology, including the theory of a self-reproducing inflationary universe (eternal chaotic inflation). We do it with the help of stochastic approach to inflation. The results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. (WL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surdin, M.
1980-01-01
It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)
Adams, Marissa; Jennings, Christopher; Slutz, Stephen; Peterson, Kyle; Gourdain, Pierre; U. Rochester-Sandia Collaboration
2017-10-01
Magnetic Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments incorporate a laser to preheat a deuterium filled capsule before compression via a magnetically imploding liner. In this work, we focus on the blast wave formed in the fuel during the laser preheat component of MagLIF, where approximately 1kJ of energy is deposited in 3ns into the capsule axially before implosion. To model blast waves directly relevant to experiments such as MagLIF, we inferred deposited energy from shadowgraphy of laser-only experiments preformed at the PECOS target chamber using the Z-Beamlet laser. These energy profiles were used to initialize 2-dimensional simulations using by the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. Gradients or asymmetries in the energy deposition may seed instabilities that alter the fuel's distribution, or promote mix, as the blast wave interacts with the liner wall. The AMR capabilities of FLASH allow us to study the development and dynamics of these instabilities within the fuel and their effect on the liner before implosion. Sandia Natl Labs is managed by NTES of Sandia, LLC., a subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc, for the U.S. DOEs NNSA under contract DE-NA0003525.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Jonathan L.
2005-01-01
Cosmology now provides unambiguous, quantitative evidence for new particle physics. I discuss the implications of cosmology for supersymmetry and vice versa. Topics include: motivations for supersymmetry; supersymmetry breaking; dark energy; freeze out and WIMPs; neutralino dark matter; cosmologically preferred regions of minimal supergravity; direct and indirect detection of neutralinos; the DAMA and HEAT signals; inflation and reheating; gravitino dark matter; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; and the cosmic microwave background. I conclude with speculations about the prospects for a microscopic description of the dark universe, stressing the necessity of diverse experiments on both sides of the particle physics/cosmology interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Misao
1983-01-01
We review the recent status of the inflationary cosmology. After exhibiting the essence of difficulties associated with the horizon, flatness and baryon number problems in the standard big-bang cosmology, we discuss that the inflationary universe scenario is one of the most plausible solutions to these fundamental cosmological problems. Since there are two qualitatively different versions of the inflationary universe scenario, we review each of them separately and discuss merits and demerits of each version. The Hawking radiation in de Sitter space is also reviewed since it may play an essential role in the inflationary cosmology. (author)
Roos, Matts
2003-01-01
The Third Edition of the hugely successful Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, general relativity, black holes, cosmological models, particles and symmetries, and phase transitions. Extensively revised, this latest edition includes broader and updated coverage of distance measures, gravitational lensing and waves, dark energy and quintessence, the thermal history of the Universe, inflation,
Axions in inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1991-01-01
The problem of the cosmological constraints on the axion mass is re-examined. It is argued that in the context of inflationary cosmology the constraint m a > or approx.10 -5 eV can be avoided even when the axion perturbations produced during inflation are taken into account. It is shown also that in most axion models the effective parameter f a rapidly changes during inflation. This modifies some earlier statements concerning isothermal perturbations in the axion cosmology. A hybrid inflation scenario is proposed which combines some advantages of chaotic inflation with specific features of new and/or extended inflation. Its implications for the axion cosmology are discussed. (orig.)
Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain
2012-03-01
We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion
The influence of the magnetic field on the performance of an active magnetic regenerator (AMR)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Engelbrecht, Kurt
2011-01-01
The influence of the time variation of the magnetic field, termed the magnetic field profile, on the performance of a magnetocaloric refrigeration device using the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle is studied for a number of process parameters for both a parallel plate and packed bed...... temperature span and the maximum cooling capacity of 20–40% for both parallel plate and packed bed regenerators. The maximum cooling capacity is shown to depend very weakly on the ramp rate of the magnetic field. Reducing the temporal width of the high field portion of the magnetic field profile by 10% leads...
Online AMR Domestic Load Profile Characteristic Change Monitor to Support Ancillary Demand Services
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stephen, Bruce; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn; Galloway, Stuart
2014-01-01
of small loads is presented. This would allow them to be assessed for their availability to provide demand services to the grid. In the method presented, significant changes in behavior are detected using Bayesian changepoint analysis which tracks a multivariate Gaussian representation of a residential...... in remote rural communities, are currently modeled with homogenous and coarse load profiles developed from aggregated data. An objective of AMR deployment is to clarify the nature and variability of the residential LV customer. In this paper, an algorithm for tracking the consistency of the behavior...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.
1988-10-01
We review Coleman's wormhole mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. We find a discouraging result that wormholes much bigger than the Planck size are generated. We also consider the implications of the wormhole theory for cosmology. 7 refs., 2 figs
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.
1983-01-01
The authors describe the connection between cosmology and particle physics in an introductory way. In this connection the big bang theory and unified gauge models of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions are considered. Furthermore cosmological nucleosynthesis is discussed in this framework, and the problem of cosmic neutrinos is considered with special regards to its rest mass. (HSI).
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1986-01-01
Progress in cosmology has become linked to progress in elementary particle physics. In these six lectures, the author illustrates the two-way nature of the interplay between these fields by focusing on a few selected topics. In the next section the author reviews the standard cosmology, especially concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Grand Unification makes two striking predictions: (i) B non-conservation; (ii) the existence of stable, superheavy magnetic monopoles. Both have had great cosmological impact. In the following section the author discusses baryogenesis, the very attractive scenario in which the B,C,CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-photon ratio. Monopoles are a cosmological disaster and an astrophysicist's delight. In Section 4 discusses monopoles, cosmology, and astrophysics. In the fourth lecture the author discusses how a very early (t≤10/sup -34/ sec) phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) has the potential to explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts, facts which can be accommodated by the standard cosmology, but which are not ''explained'' by it. The fifth lecture is devoted to a discussion of structure formation in the universe
van de Weygaert, Rien; van Albada, Tjeerd S.
1996-01-01
A detailed account of the ways in which a square kilometer array could further cosmological research. Observational and theoretical studies of the large scale structure and morphology of the local universe are reviewed against the potential capabilities of a new generation telescope. Cosmological
Barkana, Rennan; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Kim, Jihn E; Nagamine, Kentaro
2018-01-01
The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, in four volumes, is a major, long-lasting, seminal reference at the graduate student level, laid out by the most prominent, respected researchers in the general field of Cosmology. These volumes will be a comprehensive review of the most important concepts and current status in the field, covering both theory and observation.
Astroparticle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Thompson, G.
2001-01-01
In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, γ-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2010-01-01
The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilenkin, Alexander
2010-01-01
The n ew standard cosmology , based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.
Astroparticle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senjanovic, G; Smirnov, A Yu; Thompson, G [eds.
2001-11-15
In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, {gamma}-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses two aspects of antimatter and cosmology: 1. the fundamental cosmological question as to whether antimatter plays an equally important role as matter in the universe (overall baryon symmetry), and 2. cosmic-ray antimatter tests for the nature of the dark matter in the universe. (orig.)
Cosmological Reionization Simulations for LOFAR
Thomas, Rajat Mani
2009-03-01
In de duisternis van de nacht is de hemel gevuld met miljoenen sterren. We weten dat deze sterren erg oud zijn en dat ze al lange tijd hebben bestaan. Ook zien we verschillende manieren waaop de sterren hun leven kunnen beëindigen: suomige exploderen als supernovae, anderen krijgen een enorme dichtheid, zoals bij neutronenstenen. Ook al hebben we vandaag de dag een schat aan kennis over de fysische processen die de vorming en evolutie van sterren aangedreven hebben, toch is het antwoord op de meest basale vragen nog onbekend: "Wat waren de eerste sterren die zijn ontstaan in het universum?", "Hoe zien deze eruit?", "Hoe hebben deze hun omgeving beinvloed?" en "Heeft de levensloop van deze bronnen de evolutie van het universum waarin wij leven bëinvloed?" Deze vragen klinken elementair, maar wetenschappers kunnen enkel nog maar gissen naar de juiste antwoorden. De aandacht van mijn proefschrift en, in een bredere contetext, van het LOFAR-EoR experiment, zal besteed worden aan het verkrijgen van inzicht in deze vragen over het universum.
Lesgourgues, Julien
2012-01-01
Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verde, L.
2011-01-01
This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)
Classical and quantum cosmology
Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-01-01
This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...
Verde, L.
2013-06-27
This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gekman, O.
1982-01-01
The brief essay of the development of the main ideas of relativistic cosmology is presented. The Einstein's cosmological work about the Universe - ''Cosmological considerations in connection with the general relativity theory'' - gave the basis to all further treatments in this field. In 1922 A. Friedman's work appeared, in which the first expanding Universe model was proposed as a solution of the Einstein field equations. The model was spherically closed, but its curvature radius was a function of time. About 1955 the searches for anisotropic homogeneous solutions to Einstein field equation began. It turned out that isotropic cosmological models are unstable in general. The predominant part of them transform to anisotropic at insignificant breaking of isotropy. The discovery of isotropic background cosmic radiation in 1965, along with the Hubble low of the Universe expansion, served as the direct confirmation of cosmology based on the Einstein theory
Cosmological Structure Formation: From Dawn till Dusk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heneka, Caroline Samantha
Cosmology has entered an era where a plethora data is available on structure formation to constrain astrophysics and underlying cosmology. This thesis strives to both investigate new observables and modeling of the Epoch of Reionization, as well as to constrain dark energy phenomenology with mass......Cosmology has entered an era where a plethora data is available on structure formation to constrain astrophysics and underlying cosmology. This thesis strives to both investigate new observables and modeling of the Epoch of Reionization, as well as to constrain dark energy phenomenology...... with massive galaxy clusters, traveling from the dawn of structure formation, when the first galaxies appear, to its dusk, when a representative part of the mass in the Universe is settled in massive structures. This hunt for accurate constraints on cosmology is complemented with the demonstration of novel...... Bayesian statistical tools and kinematical constraints on dark energy. Starting at the dawn of structure formation, we study emission line fluctuations, employing semi-numerical simulations of cosmological volumes of their line emission, in order to cross-correlate fluctuations in brightness. This cross...
The cosmological principle is not in the sky
Park, Chan-Gyung; Hyun, Hwasu; Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan
2017-08-01
The homogeneity of matter distribution at large scales, known as the cosmological principle, is a central assumption in the standard cosmological model. The case is testable though, thus no longer needs to be a principle. Here we perform a test for spatial homogeneity using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) sample by counting galaxies within a specified volume with the radius scale varying up to 300 h-1 Mpc. We directly confront the large-scale structure data with the definition of spatial homogeneity by comparing the averages and dispersions of galaxy number counts with allowed ranges of the random distribution with homogeneity. The LRG sample shows significantly larger dispersions of number counts than the random catalogues up to 300 h-1 Mpc scale, and even the average is located far outside the range allowed in the random distribution; the deviations are statistically impossible to be realized in the random distribution. This implies that the cosmological principle does not hold even at such large scales. The same analysis of mock galaxies derived from the N-body simulation, however, suggests that the LRG sample is consistent with the current paradigm of cosmology, thus the simulation is also not homogeneous in that scale. We conclude that the cosmological principle is neither in the observed sky nor demanded to be there by the standard cosmological world model. This reveals the nature of the cosmological principle adopted in the modern cosmology paradigm, and opens a new field of research in theoretical cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.
2016-01-01
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Oikonomou, V K
2016-01-01
We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein–Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2016-05-25
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
Neutrino properties from cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannestad, S.
2013-01-01
In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1982-01-01
A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the Universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters. (Auth.)
Cosmology and particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steigman, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bartol Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware (USA))
1982-01-29
The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses.
Neutrino properties from cosmology
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Future, massive large-scale structure survey have been presented and approved.On the theory side, a significant effort has bene devoted to achieve better modeling of small scale clustering that is of cosmological non-linearities. As a result it has become clear that forthcoming cosmological data have enough statitsical power to detect the effect of non-zero neutrino mass (even at the lower mass scale limit imposed by oscillations) and to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale.Cosmological data can also constrain the numb...
Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot
2016-01-01
ï¿½ 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group (LG) of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on Feedback in Realistic Environments (FI...
Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aprea, C.; Greco, A.; Maiorino, A.; Masselli, C.
2015-01-01
This paper describes a two-dimensional (2D) multiphysics model of a packed bed regenerator made of magnetocaloric material. The regenerator operates as a refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator operating at room temperature on the strength of an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) cycle. The model is able to simulate the thermofluidodynamic behavior of the magnetocaloric material and the magnetocaloric effect of the refrigerant. The model has been validated by means of experimental results. Different magnetic materials have been tested with the model as refrigerants: pure gadolinium, second order phase magnetic transition Pr_0_._4_5Sr_0_._3_5MnO_3 and first order phase magnetic transition alloys Gd_5(Si_xGe_1_−_x)_4, LaFe_1_1_._3_8_4Mn_0_._3_5_6Si_1_._2_6H_1_._5_2, LaFe_1_1_._0_5Co_0_._9_4Si_1_._1_0 and MnFeP_0_._4_5As_0_._5_5. The tests were performed with fixed fluid flow rate (5 l/min), AMR cycle frequency (1.25 Hz) and cold heat exchanger temperature (288 K) while the hot heat exchanger temperature was varied in the range 295–302 K. The results, generated for a magnetic induction which varies from 0 to 1.5 T, are presented in terms of temperature span, refrigeration power and coefficient of performance. From a global point of view (performances and cost), the most promising materials are LaFeSi compounds which are really cheaper than rare earth compounds and they give a performance sufficiently higher than gadolinium. - Graphical abstract: • Active Magnetic Refrigeration (AMR) cycle; • First Order Transition magnetic materials (FOMT); • Second Order Transition magnetic materials (SOMT). - Highlights: • Comparison between different magnetic materials. • 2D model of an Active Magnetic Regenerative refrigeration cycle. • Validation of the model with experimental data. • Gd_5(Si_xGe_1_−_x)_4 is the most performant magnetic material. • The most promising are LaFeSi compounds which are cheaper and they give high performances.
The cosmological constant problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.
1989-05-01
A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs
Time in contemporary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavrides, Stamatia
1980-01-01
Cosmological time is defined, as is coordinated universal time against local times of special relativity. The problems of time and matter, age of the universe, Goedel models, arrow of time, are also discussed [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coule, D H
2005-01-01
We contrast the initial condition requirements of various contemporary cosmological models including inflationary and bouncing cosmologies. Canonical quantization of general relativity is used, as a first approximation to full quantum gravity, to determine whether suitable initial conditions are present. Various proposals such as Hartle-Hawking's 'no boundary' or tunnelling boundary conditions are assessed on grounds of naturalness and fine tuning. Alternatively, a quiescent initial state or an initial closed timelike curve 'time machine' is considered. Possible extensions to brane models are also addressed. Further ideas about universe creation from a meta-universe are outlined. Semiclassical and time asymmetry requirements of cosmology are briefly discussed and contrasted with the black-hole final-state proposal. We compare the recent loop quantum cosmology of Bojowald and co-workers with these earlier schemes. A number of possible difficulties and limitations are outlined. (topical review)
Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Khlopov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, Michael S.
1999-01-01
For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology!
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg
1984-07-01
Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)
Lachieze-Rey, Marc
This book delivers a quantitative account of the science of cosmology, designed for a non-specialist audience. The basic principles are outlined using simple maths and physics, while still providing rigorous models of the Universe. It offers an ideal introduction to the key ideas in cosmology, without going into technical details. The approach used is based on the fundamental ideas of general relativity such as the spacetime interval, comoving coordinates, and spacetime curvature. It provides an up-to-date and thoughtful discussion of the big bang, and the crucial questions of structure and galaxy formation. Questions of method and philosophical approaches in cosmology are also briefly discussed. Advanced undergraduates in either physics or mathematics would benefit greatly from use either as a course text or as a supplementary guide to cosmology courses.
Ryden, Barbara
2017-01-01
This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.
Tensors, relativity, and cosmology
Dalarsson, Mirjana
2015-01-01
Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finamore, E. P.
2004-02-01
The control of electrical system outages is discussed. The principal argument advanced is that traditional stand-alone methods of outage response will no longer get the job done without utility companies integrating their outage management systems with other system assets such as GIS (geographic information system) and AMR (advanced metering systems). Many meter reading systems, while primarily supporting customer billing, can also provide outage alarm and some are also capable of service restoration notification, which is an invaluable benefit to service operators since it obviates the need for verifying system restoration by labour-intensive on-site visits or customer call-backs. If successfully leveraged, optimization of all utility assets and improvements in labour productivity can results in improved outage management performance gains without affecting performance in other areas.
Donmez, Orhan
We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.
Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Cosmology
Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas
2007-09-01
We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, both in the Newtonian and the general-relativistic limit, as regards a viscous magnetized fluid of finite conductivity and discuss instability criteria. In addition, we explore the excitation of cosmological perturbations in anisotropic spacetimes, in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. Acoustic, electromagnetic (e/m) and fast-magnetosonic modes, propagating normal to the magnetic field, can be excited, resulting in several implications of cosmological significance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, I.D.
1999-01-01
In this talk a brief survey has been carried out on the development of cosmology from the days Leopold Infeld was active in the field up to the present. Attention in particular is paid to the history of our knowledge of Hubble's expansion, of the cosmological constant, of the average density of matter and its distribution, and of the related issue of possible types of matter in the Universe. (author)
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1993-10-01
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.
Cosmological Models and Stability
Andersson, Lars
Principles in the form of heuristic guidelines or generally accepted dogma play an important role in the development of physical theories. In particular, philosophical considerations and principles figure prominently in the work of Albert Einstein. As mentioned in the talk by Jiří Bičák at this conference, Einstein formulated the equivalence principle, an essential step on the road to general relativity, during his time in Prague 1911-1912. In this talk, I would like to discuss some aspects of cosmological models. As cosmology is an area of physics where "principles" such as the "cosmological principle" or the "Copernican principle" play a prominent role in motivating the class of models which form part of the current standard model, I will start by comparing the role of the equivalence principle to that of the principles used in cosmology. I will then briefly describe the standard model of cosmology to give a perspective on some mathematical problems and conjectures on cosmological models, which are discussed in the later part of this paper.
BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology
Howell, Dale Andrew
2013-04-01
Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations
Cosmological Constraints on Mirror Matter Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallemacq, Quentin; Ciarcelluti, Paolo
2014-01-01
Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter, and the primordial perturbations are scalar adiabatic and in linear regime. A statistical analysis using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method allows to obtain constraints of the cosmological parameters. As a result, we show that a Universe with pure mirror dark matter is statistically equivalent to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. The upper limits for the ratio of the temperatures of ordinary and mirror sectors are around 0.3 for both the cosmological models, which show the presence of a dominant fraction of mirror matter, 0.06≲Ω_m_i_r_r_o_rh"2≲0.12.
Constraining holographic cosmology using Planck data
Afshordi, Niayesh; Gould, Elizabeth; Skenderis, Kostas
2017-06-01
Holographic cosmology offers a novel framework for describing the very early Universe in which cosmological predictions are expressed in terms of the observables of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). This framework includes conventional slow-roll inflation, which is described in terms of a strongly coupled QFT, but it also allows for qualitatively new models for the very early Universe, where the dual QFT may be weakly coupled. The new models describe a universe which is nongeometric at early times. While standard slow-roll inflation leads to a (near-) power-law primordial power spectrum, perturbative super-renormalizable QFTs yield a new holographic spectral shape. Here, we compare the two predictions against cosmological observations. We use CosmoMC to determine the best fit parameters, and MultiNest for Bayesian evidence, comparing the likelihoods. We find that the dual QFT should be nonperturbative at the very low multipoles (l ≲30 ), while for higher multipoles (l ≳30 ) the new holographic model, based on perturbative QFT, fits the data just as well as the standard power-law spectrum assumed in Λ CDM cosmology. This finding opens the door to applications of nonperturbative QFT techniques, such as lattice simulations, to observational cosmology on gigaparsec scales and beyond.
Stability analysis in tachyonic potential chameleon cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farajollahi, H.; Salehi, A.; Tayebi, F.; Ravanpak, A.
2011-01-01
We study general properties of attractors for tachyonic potential chameleon scalar-field model which possess cosmological scaling solutions. An analytic formulation is given to obtain fixed points with a discussion on their stability. The model predicts a dynamical equation of state parameter with phantom crossing behavior for an accelerating universe. We constrain the parameters of the model by best fitting with the recent data-sets from supernovae and simulated data points for redshift drift experiment generated by Monte Carlo simulations
Stability analysis in tachyonic potential chameleon cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farajollahi, H.; Salehi, A.; Tayebi, F.; Ravanpak, A., E-mail: hosseinf@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: a.salehi@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: ftayebi@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: aravanpak@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-05-01
We study general properties of attractors for tachyonic potential chameleon scalar-field model which possess cosmological scaling solutions. An analytic formulation is given to obtain fixed points with a discussion on their stability. The model predicts a dynamical equation of state parameter with phantom crossing behavior for an accelerating universe. We constrain the parameters of the model by best fitting with the recent data-sets from supernovae and simulated data points for redshift drift experiment generated by Monte Carlo simulations.
On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances
Belinski, V. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.
2018-03-01
We show that solitonic cosmological gravitational waves propagated through the Friedmann universe and generated by the inhomogeneities of the gravitational field near the Big Bang can be responsible for increase of cosmological distances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.
1992-01-01
The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-01-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Belinski, Vladimir
2018-01-01
Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...
Tomaschitz, R
1994-01-01
Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skaanes, Thea
2015-01-01
Abstract: This article concerns Hadza cosmology examined through objects, rituals and the Hadza concept of epeme. A brief background to the Hadza and the eldwork that informs this study is followed by a close analysis of three key objects that are central to the argument presented. The objects...... are intimately linked to women and to aspects of the social and cosmological identity of the individual makers. one object is a materi- alisation of the woman’s name and it leads to an examination by interview of naming practices more generally. Naming a child gives it a spirit and places the child in a strong...... of ethnographic research indicating the potential and need for further examination of the power and role of objects in Hadza society. Keywords: Hadza, epeme, ritual, cosmology, power objects...
Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon
2017-01-01
Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.
Cosmology and the early universe
Di Bari, Pasquale
2018-01-01
This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.
Non equilibrium relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.
1982-01-01
A certain systematization through the discussion of results already known on cosmology and the presentation of new ones is given. In section 2 a brief review of the necessary mathematical background is also given. The theory of perturbation of Friedmann-like Universes is presented in section 3. The reduction of Einstein's equations for homogeneous Universes to an autonomous planar system of differential equations is done in section 4. Finally in section 5 the alternative gravitational non-minimal coupling and its consequences to cosmology are discussed. (Author) [pt
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
Most of the puzzles with standard big bang cosmology can be avoided if the big bang is NOT identified with the beginning of time. The short-distance cutoff and duality symmetries of superstring theory suggest a new (so-called pre-big bang) cosmology in which the birth of our Universe is the result of a long classical evolution characterized by a gravitational instability. I will motivate and describe this heretical scenario and compare its phenomenological implications with those of ortodox (post-big bang) inflation.
Exploring Cosmology with Supernovae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xue
distribution of strong gravitational lensing is developed. For Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia), the rate is lower than core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). The rate of SNe Ia declines beyond z 1:5. Based on these reasons, we investigate a potential candidate to measure cosmological distance: GRB......-SNe. They are a subclass of CC SNe. Light curves of GRB-SNe are obtained and their properties are studied. We ascertain that the properties of GRB-SNe make them another candidate for standardizable candles in measuring the cosmic distance. Cosmological parameters M and are constrained with the help of GRB-SNe. The first...
2012-01-01
This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.
Silk, Joseph
2011-01-01
Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p
Relativistic Cosmology Revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity
Tkachev, Igor
2017-01-01
This lecture course covers cosmology from the particle physicist perspective. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the evidence for the new physics in cosmological and astrophysical data together with minimal theoretical frameworks needed to understand and appreciate the evidence. I review the case for non-baryonic dark matter and describe popular models which incorporate it. In parallel, the story of dark energy will be developed, which includes accelerated expansion of the Universe today, the Universe origin in the Big Bang, and support for the Inflationary theory in CMBR data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabell, R.
1979-01-01
Einstein applied his gravitation theory to a universe model with positively curved space in 1917. In order to maintain a static universe he introduced the cosmological constant, which in the light of later nonstatic universe models, he described as his life's greatest mistake. The best known such model is the Einstein-de Sitter model, which is here discussed in some detail. The 'big bang' theory is also discussed leading to the cosmic background radiation. The early phase of the 'big bang' cosmology, the first ten seconds, and the first minutes are discussed, leading to the transparent stage. (JIW)
Cosmological models without singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, W.
1981-01-01
A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)
Difficulties with inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, R.
1989-01-01
According to the author, the idea of inflationary cosmology is an ingenious attempt to solve some of the major puzzles of cosmology, most notably the flatness problem, the homogeneity (horizon) problem, and the monopole problem. The homogeneity problem, in particular, is intimately connected with a largely unappreciated, but profound puzzle presented by the second law of thermodynamics. The author argues that the mechanism of inflation does not, by itself, come to terms with this and consequently, comes nowhere close to providing an understanding of the large-scale homogeneity of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marrakchi, A.E.L.; Tapia, V.
1992-05-01
Some cosmological implications of the recently proposed fourth-rank theory of gravitation are studied. The model exhibits the possibility of being free from the horizon and flatness problems at the price of introducing a negative pressure. The field equations we obtain are compatible with k obs =0 and Ω obs t clas approx. 10 20 t Planck approx. 10 -23 s. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. Hence, an interpretation of the negative pressure hypothesis is provided. (author). 8 refs
Cosmological constants and variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D
2005-01-01
We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates
Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martig, Marie
2010-01-01
This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr
Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology
Bzowski, A.W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of
Quintessence and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.
2003-01-01
Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant
Continuum Kinetic Plasma Modeling Using a Conservative 4th-Order Method with AMR
Vogman, Genia; Colella, Phillip
2012-10-01
When the number of particles in a Debye sphere is large, a plasma can be accurately represented by a distribution function, which can be treated as a continuous incompressible fluid in phase space. In the most general case the evolution of such a distribution function is described by the 6D Boltzmann-Maxwell partial differential equation system. To address the challenges associated with solving a 6D hyperbolic governing equation, a simpler 3D Vlasov-Poisson system is considered. A 4th-order accurate Vlasov-Poisson model has been developed in one spatial and two velocity dimensions. The governing equation is cast in conservation law form and is solved with a finite volume representation. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to allow for efficient use of computational resources while maintaining desired levels of resolution. The model employs a flux limiter to remedy non-physical effects such as numerical dispersion. The model is tested on the two-stream, beam-plasma, and Dory-Guest-Harris instabilities. All results are compared with linear theory.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in quality, quantity, and the scope of cosmological observations. While the ob- ... In this article, I summarize both the oral and poster presentations made at the workshop. ... the angular spectrum of CMB anisotropy with recent measurements of the power spectrum of ..... A thermodynamical treatment within the framework of.
Primack, Joel R.
2000-01-01
The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\
Culture and Children's Cosmology
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
2004-01-01
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Cosmological dynamical systems
Leon, Genly
2011-01-01
In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1995-01-01
Primordial nucleosynthesis has established itself as one of the three pillars of Big Bang cosmology. Many of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis reactions involve unstable nuclei. Hence there is a tight relationship hetween the subject of this conference and cosmology. The prime role of unstable nuclei in cosmology is related to lithium synthesis and the lack of cosmological synthesis of Be and B. These nuclei will thus be focused upon. Nucleosynthesis involves comparing calculated abundances with observed abundances. In general, abundance determinations are dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors, and work on bounding systematics is crucial. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ω b are possible vis-a-vis the homogeneous model; hence the robustness of Ω b ∼0.05 is now apparent. (These calculations depend critically on unstable nuclei.) The above argues that the bulk of the baryons in the universe are not producing visible light. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ω b ∼1 seems to be definitely excluded, so if Ω TOTAL =1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required. The implications of the recently reported halo microlensing events are discussed. In summary, it is argued that the physics of unstable nuclei affects the fundamental dark matter argument. ((orig.))
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin; Pueblas, Sebastian; Scoccimarro, Roman; /CCPP, New York
2006-04-01
The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies. They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.
McFadden, P.; Skenderis, K.
2010-01-01
We propose a holographic description of four-dimensional single-scalar inflationary universes, and show how cosmological observables, such as the primordial power spectrum, are encoded in the correlation functions of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). The holographic description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.; Torres, J.; Oliveira, H.P. de
1989-01-01
A set of spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological geometries generated by a class of non-perfect is investigated fluids. The irreversibility if this system is studied in the context of causal thermodynamics which provides a useful mechanism to conform to the non-violation of the causal principle. (author) [pt
Solitons in relativistic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pullin, J.
1988-08-01
The application to the construction of solitonic cosmologies in General Relativity of the Inverse Scattering Technique of Belinskii an Zakharov is analyzed. Three improvements to the mentioned technique are proposed: the inclusion of higher order poles in the scattering matrix, a new renormalization technique for diagonal metrics and the extension of the technique to include backgrounds with material content by means of a Kaluza-Klein formalism. As a consequence of these improvements, three new aspects can be analyzed: a) The construction of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models which can mimic the formation of halos and voids, due to the presence of a material content. The new renormalization technique allows to construct an exact perturbation theory. b) The analysis of the dynamics of models with cosmological constant (inflationary models) and their perturbations. c) The study of interaction of gravitational solitonic waves on material backgrounds. Moreover, some additional works, connected with the existance of 'Crack of doom' type singularities in Kaluza-Klein cosmologies, stochastic perturbations in inflationary universes and inflationary phase transitions in rotating universes are described. (Author) [es
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This report is based on a recent work in collaboration with Bagla and Padmanabhan. [1]. In this paper, we construct cosmological models with homogeneous tachyon matter [2] to provide the dark energy component which drives acceleration of the universe (for a recent review of dark energy models, see [3]). We assume that.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1986-01-01
It is proposed to understand cosmology as a non-local physics. Non-local methods, when developed from locally performed observations, imply a considerable extrapolation, which in turn is possible without some unverifiable assumptions. Cosmology is, therefore, not only a science on the Universe but also about assumptions that render such a science possible. As far as theoretical aspects of cosmology are concerned, cosmology can be treated as a theory of the space of all solutions to Einstein's field equations (called the ensemble of universes). The very distinction is touched upon between solutions of differential equations, expressing laws of nature, and boundary conditions identifying particular instances of the law's operation. Both observational and theoretical studies demonstrate that our Universe occupies a distinguished position within the ensemble of universes. This fact remains in a close relationship with the existence and developing of structures in the Universe. Possible philosophies aimed at justifying or neutralizing our distinguished situation in the ensemble of universes are discussed at some length. 60 refs. (author)
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehners, Jean-Luc
2008-01-01
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Michael S
1999-03-01
For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology{exclamation_point}.
Excessive extrapolations in cosmology
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.
2016-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 270-280 ISSN 0202-2893 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : cosmology * friedmann equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289316030105
Modified geodetic brane cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordero, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín
2012-01-01
We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)
, i.e. with the cosmology hidden. Looking Beyond Lambda with the Union Supernova Compilation by Rubin et Matrix Description Covariance Matrix with Systematics Description Full Table of All SNe Description Beyond Lambda Figures Updated 11-18-11 Contact: drubin at physics dot fsu dot edu, saul at lbl dot gov
Kevane, C J
1961-02-24
A cosmological model based on a gravitational plasma of matter and antimatter is discussed. The antigravitational interaction of matter and antimatter leads to segregation and an expansion of the plasma universe. The expansion time scale is controlled by the aggregation time scale.
Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arcidiacono, G.
1986-01-01
This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation
Post-inflationary brane cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumdar, Anupam
2001-01-01
The brane cosmology has invoked new challenges to the usual Big Bang cosmology. In this paper we present a brief account on thermal history of the post-inflationary brane cosmology. We have realized that it is not obvious that the post-inflationary brane cosmology would always deviate from the standard Big Bang cosmology. However, if it deviates some stringent conditions on the brane tension are to be satisfied. In this regard we study various implications on gravitino production and its abundance. We discuss Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis and make some comments on moduli and dilaton problems in this context
Open problems in string cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumbas, N.
2010-01-01
Some of the open problems in string cosmology are highlighted within the context of the recently constructed thermal and quantum superstring cosmological solutions. Emphasis is given on the high temperature cosmological regime, where it is argued that thermal string vacua in the presence of gravito-magnetic fluxes can be used to bypass the Hagedorn instabilities of string gas cosmology. This article is based on a talk given at the workshop on ''Cosmology and Strings'', Corfu, September 6-13, 2009. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Platou, Rikke Stoud; Sleire, Maren
2011-01-01
This thesis aims to map out the current state of the Norwegian power industry and reveal opportunities that can serve as a fundament for the formation of new business models in the industry post AMR implementation.Demand side management (DSM) arouse to include end customers and give them incentives for having a power consumption pattern which also benefits the power system. Market structure; lack of ICT infrastructure and understanding of the solutions; costs and competitiveness, as well as t...
The Cosmological Dependence of Galaxy Cluster Morphologies
Crone, Mary Margaret
1995-01-01
Measuring the density of the universe has been a fundamental problem in cosmology ever since the "Big Bang" model was developed over sixty years ago. In this simple and successful model, the age and eventual fate of the universe are determined by its density, its rate of expansion, and the value of a universal "cosmological constant". Analytic models suggest that many properties of galaxy clusters are sensitive to cosmological parameters. In this thesis, I use N-body simulations to examine cluster density profiles, abundances, and degree of subclustering to test the feasibility of using them as cosmological tests. The dependence on both cosmology and initial density field is examined, using a grid of cosmologies and scale-free initial power spectra P(k)~ k n. Einstein-deSitter ( Omegao=1), open ( Omegao=0.2 and 0.1) and flat, low density (Omegao=0.2, lambdao=0.8) models are studied, with initial spectral indices n=-2, -1 and 0. Of particular interest are the results for cluster profiles and substructure. The average density profiles are well fit by a power law p(r)~ r ^{-alpha} for radii where the local density contrast is between 100 and 3000. There is a clear trend toward steeper slopes with both increasing n and decreasing Omegao, with profile slopes in the open models consistently higher than Omega=1 values for the range of n examined. The amount of substructure in each model is quantified and explained in terms of cluster merger histories and the behavior of substructure statistics. The statistic which best distinguishes models is a very simple measure of deviations from symmetry in the projected mass distribution --the "Center-of-Mass Shift" as a function of overdensity. Some statistics which are quite sensitive to substructure perform relatively poorly as cosmological indicators. Density profiles and the Center-of-Mass test are both well-suited for comparison with weak lensing data and galaxy distributions. Such data are currently being collected and should
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bing-Jhih Yao
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB code is a speech codec developed on the basis of an algebraic code-excited linear-prediction (ACELP coding technique, and has a double advantage of low bit rates and high speech quality. This coding technique is widely used in modern mobile communication systems for a high speech quality in handheld devices. However, a major disadvantage is that a vector quantization (VQ of immittance spectral frequency (ISF coefficients occupies a significant computational load in the AMR-WB encoder. Hence, this paper presents a triangular inequality elimination (TIE algorithm combined with a dynamic mechanism and an intersection mechanism, abbreviated as the DI-TIE algorithm, to remarkably improve the complexity of ISF coefficient quantization in the AMR-WB speech codec. Both mechanisms are designed in a way that recursively enhances the performance of the TIE algorithm. At the end of this work, this proposal is experimentally validated as a superior search algorithm relative to a conventional TIE, a multiple TIE (MTIE, and an equal-average equal-variance equal-norm nearest neighbor search (EEENNS approach. With a full search algorithm as a benchmark for search load comparison, this work provides a search load reduction above 77%, a figure far beyond 36% in the TIE, 49% in the MTIE, and 68% in the EEENNS approach.
Quantum cosmology - science of Genesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, Thanu
1987-01-01
Quantum cosmology, the marriage between the theories of the microscopic and macroscopic Universe, is examined in an attempt to explain the birth of the Universe in the 'big bang'. A quantum cosmological model of the Universe does not exist, but a rough approximation, or 'poor man's' version of quantum cosmology has been developed. The idea is to combine the theory of quantum mechanics with the classical cosmological solutions to obtain a quantum mechanical version of cosmology. Such a model of quantum cosmology is described -here the quantum universe behaves like a hydrogen atom with the Planck length replacing the Bohr radius. Properties of quantum cosmologies and the significance of the Planck length are both discussed. (UK)
Numerical cosmology: Revealing the universe using computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Centrella, J.; Matzner, R.A.; Tolman, B.W.
1986-01-01
In this paper the authors present two research projects which study the evolution of different periods in the history of the universe using numerical simulations. The first investigates the synthesis of light elements in an inhomogeneous early universe dominated by shocks and non-linear gravitational waves. The second follows the evolution of large scale structures during the later history of the universe and calculates their effect on the 3K background radiation. Their simulations are carried out using modern supercomputers and make heavy use of multidimensional color graphics, including film to elucidate the results. Both projects provide the authors the opportunity to do experiments in cosmology and assess their results against fundamental cosmological observations
Modelling non-dust fluids in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christopherson, Adam J.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Malik, Karim A.
2013-01-01
Currently, most of the numerical simulations of structure formation use Newtonian gravity. When modelling pressureless dark matter, or 'dust', this approach gives the correct results for scales much smaller than the cosmological horizon, but for scenarios in which the fluid has pressure this is no longer the case. In this article, we present the correspondence of perturbations in Newtonian and cosmological perturbation theory, showing exact mathematical equivalence for pressureless matter, and giving the relativistic corrections for matter with pressure. As an example, we study the case of scalar field dark matter which features non-zero pressure perturbations. We discuss some problems which may arise when evolving the perturbations in this model with Newtonian numerical simulations and with CMB Boltzmann codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This year's Nobel prize is welcome recognition for cosmology. Back in the 1960s, according to Paul Davies' new book The Goldilocks Enigma (see 'Seeking anthropic answers' in this issue), cynics used to quip that there is 'speculation, speculation squared - and cosmology'. Anyone trying to understand the origin and fate of the universe was, in other words, dealing with questions that were simply impractical - or even impossible - to answer. But that has all changed with the development of new telescopes, satellites and data-processing techniques - to the extent that cosmology is now generally viewed as a perfectly acceptable branch of science. If anyone was in any doubt of cosmology's new status, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences last month gave the subject welcome recognition with the award of this year's Nobel prize to John Mather and George Smoot (see pp6-7; print version only). The pair were the driving force behind the COBE satellite that in 1992 produced the now famous image of the cosmic microwave background. The mission's data almost certainly proved that the universe started with a Big Bang, while tiny fluctuations in the temperature signal between different parts of the sky were shown to be the seeds of the stars and galaxies we see today. These results are regarded by many as the start of a new era of 'precision cosmology'. But for cosmologists, the job is far from over. There are still massive holes in our understanding of the cosmos, notably the nature of dark matter and dark energy, which together account for over 95% of the total universe. Indeed, some regard dark energy and matter as just ad hoc assumptions needed to fit the data. (Hypothetical particles called 'axions' are one possible contender for dark matter (see pp20-23; print version only), but don't bet your house on it.) Some physicists even think it makes more sense to adjust Newtonian gravity rather than invoke dark matter. But the notion that cosmology is in crisis, as argued by some
Sehgal, Neelima; Trac, Hy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard;
2010-01-01
We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148 GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives (sigma)8 = 0.851 +/- 0.115 and w = -1.14 +/- 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find (sigma)8 + 0.821 +/- 0.044 and w = -1.05 +/- 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernova which give (sigma)8 = 0.802 +/- 0.038 and w = -0.98 +/- 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sehgal, N.
2011-01-01
We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zeldovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives σ 8 = 0.851 ± 0.115 and w = -1.14 ± 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find σ 8 = 0.821 ± 0.044 and w = -1.05 ± 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernoava which give σ 8 = 0.802 ± 0.038 and w = -0.98 ± 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
Towards a superstring cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J.G.
1987-01-01
If superstring theory is a theory of everything then it must give a satisfactory description of the very early evolution of the universe. Since the very early universe is not directly observable, then by satisfactory it is mean that the later evolution following the earlier (pre-Planck time era) phase leads to agreement with prediction for the various observable phenomena such as (B-bar B), inflation, galaxy structure, the cosmological constant (infimum), etc. Moreover it is to be hoped that the initial singularity of classical general relativistic cosmology is also avoided. It is clear that superstring theory is not yet able to tackle these problems. This paper describes what has been done so far to construct very simplified versions of string theory relevant to the early universe, and discusses the critical questions still to be answered
Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology.
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Nunes, Rafael C
2017-01-01
Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + [Formula: see text] observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction.
Bojowald, Martin
2015-02-01
In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.
Elementary particles and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audouze, J.; Paty, M.
2000-01-01
The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)
Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2017-09-15
Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + H{sub 0} observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction. (orig.)
Supersymmetric GUTs and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.
1982-06-01
By examining the behaviour of supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near the superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUTs. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry breaking scale a la Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out. Further constraint on model building appears if global R invariance is employed to resolve the strong CP problem. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1989-01-01
Quantum cosmology is to quantum gravity what the Bohr model is to the full quantum mechanical description of the hydrogen atom. In quantum cosmology one attempts to give a quantum-mechanical meaning to classical solutions of general relativity. This is discussed in this chapter. The approach is illustrated by quantizing only the conformal degree of freedom of the gravitational field, in particular the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. And, as in the hydrogen atom, the classical singularity of general relativity is avoided and one has analogous stationary states in the quantum Universe. The chapter ends with a model of the fundamental role that the Planck length may play as the universal cutoff in all field theories, thus ridding the theory of ultra-violet divergences. Two appendices introduce field theory in the Schroedinger representation and the Schroedinger equation for quantum gravity, namely the Wheeler-De Wit equation. (author). 38 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab
Massive neutrinos and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shandarin, S.F.
1991-01-01
This paper discussed the importance of the consequences of a nonzero neutrino rest mass on cosmology, perhaps, first recognized by Gershtein and Zeldovich, after the discover of the 3-K microwave background radiation MBR. Since the first works on the primordial synthesis of 4 He, it has been known that additional neutrino species increase the rate of expansion of the universe during the epoch of the primordial nucleosynthesis, which increases the yield of 4 He. Combining the results of the theory with astronomical measurements of the 4 He abundance and the estimate of the mass density of MBR, Shvartsman suggested the upper limit on the mass density of all relativistic matter at that epoch: ρ rel ≤ 5ρ MBR which eventually became the upper limit for the number of neutrino species: N ν ≤ 7. At that time, the constraints based on cosmological arguments were much stronger than one based on laboratory experiments
Merritt, David
2017-02-01
I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist' in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift' in the language of Imre Lakatos. I show that the 'concordance' argument, often put forward by cosmologists in support of the current paradigm, is weaker than the convergence arguments that were made in the past in support of the atomic theory of matter or the quantization of energy.
Cosmology, inflation, and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Fischler, W.; Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.; Steinhardt, P.J.
1982-01-01
Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric grand unified models based on the Witten-O'Raifeartaigh potential are discussed. In particular we study the development of the phase transition in the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. We find that in realistic models where light fields feel supersymmetry breaking only through coupling to massive fields, e.g., the Geometric Hierarchy model, the universe does not inflate or reheat. Thus, the standard cosmological flatness, monopole, and horizon problems remain. In addition, we find that the transition is never completed, in the sense that the universe remains dominated by coherent Higgs field energy, resulting in an apparent matter dominated universe with Ω greater than or equal to 10 30
Nonlinear electrodynamics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breton, Nora
2010-01-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) generalizes Maxwell's theory for strong fields. When coupled to general relativity NLED presents interesting features like the non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor that leads to the possibility of violation of some energy conditions and of acting as a repulsive contribution in the Raychaudhuri equation. This theory is worth to study in cosmological and astrophysical situations characterized by strong electromagnetic and gravitational fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fré, P.; Sorin, A.S.; Trigiante, M.
2014-01-01
The question whether the integrable one-field cosmologies classified in a previous paper by Fré, Sagnotti and Sorin can be embedded as consistent one-field truncations into Extended Gauged Supergravity or in N=1 supergravity gauged by a superpotential without the use of D-terms is addressed in this paper. The answer is that such an embedding is very difficult and rare but not impossible. Indeed, we were able to find two examples of integrable models embedded in supergravity in this way. Both examples are fitted into N=1 supergravity by means of a very specific and interesting choice of the superpotential W(z). The question whether there are examples of such an embedding in Extended Gauged Supergravity remains open. In the present paper, relying on the embedding tensor formalism we classified all gaugings of the N=2 STU model, confirming, in the absence on hypermultiplets, the uniqueness of the stable de Sitter vacuum found several years ago by Fré, Trigiante and Van Proeyen and excluding the embedding of any integrable cosmological model. A detailed analysis of the space of exact solutions of the first supergravity-embedded integrable cosmological model revealed several new features worth an in-depth consideration. When the scalar potential has an extremum at a negative value, the Universe necessarily collapses into a Big Crunch notwithstanding its spatial flatness. The causal structure of these Universes is quite different from that of the closed, positive curved, Universe: indeed, in this case the particle and event horizons do not coincide and develop complicated patterns. The cosmological consequences of this unexpected mechanism deserve careful consideration
Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters
Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali
2005-01-01
I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimek, Z.
1981-01-01
The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result can be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state.
Supersymmetric inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiz-Altaba, M.
1986-06-01
An action is presented, within the framework of supergravity unification, which satisfies all experimental and cosmological constraints. In intermediate scale, around 10 10 - 10 11 GeV, arises from a critical examination of inflation, supersymmetry breaking, fermion masses, proton decay, baryogenesis, and electroweak breaking - including neutrino oscillations and CP violation. Careful consideration is given to some relevant calculations. 86 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimek, Z.
1981-01-01
The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state. (author)
Topics in inflationary cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahajan, S.
1986-04-01
Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs
Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanquin, J.-L.
1984-01-01
The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effenberger, R.
1974-09-01
The author summarizes some of the many questions and answers which have been raised over the years regarding the nature of matter, the origin of its forms and the associated concept of cosmology including the formation of the universe, our place in it and its course of evolution. An examination of the development of the classical concept of matter and its subsequent transformations within the space-time fields of relativity and quantum theory is also presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2002-01-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1987-01-01
If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amsterdamski, P.
1986-01-01
The standard cosmological model is reviewed and shown not to be self-sufficient in that it requires initial conditions most likely to be supplied by quantum cosmology. The possible approaches to the issue of initial conditions for cosmology are then discussed. In this thesis, the author considers three separate problems related to this issue. First, the possibility of inflation is investigated in detail by analyzing the evolution of metric perturbations and fluctuations in the expectation value of a scalar field prior to a phase transition; finite temperature effects are also included. Since the inhomogeneities were damped well before the onset of a phase transition. It is concluded that an inflation was possible. Next, the effective action of neutrino and photon fields is calculated for homogeneous spacetimes with small anisotropy; it is shown that quantum corrections to the action due to these fields influence the evolution of an early Universe in the Same way as do the analogous correction terms arising from a conformally invariant scalar which has been previously studied. Finally, the question of an early anisotropy is also discussed in a framework of Hartle-Hawking wave function of the Universe. A wave function of a Bianchi IX type Universe is calculated in a semiclassical approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desert, F.-Xavier
2004-01-01
After an introduction comprising some definitions, an historical overview, and a discussion of the paradoxical Universe, this course proposes a presentation of fundamental notions and theories, i.e. the restrained relativity and the universal gravitation. The next part addresses the general relativity with the following notions: space-time metrics and principle of generalised covariance, basics of tensor analysis, geodesics, energy-pulse tensor, curvature, Einstein equations, Newtonian limit, Schwarzschild metrics, gravitational waves, gravitational redshift. The next part addresses the standard cosmology with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations of the evolution of the Universe. The Universe expansion is then addressed: distances and horizons, Hubble law, determination of the Hubble constant. The next chapter deals with the constituents of the Universe: light matter, baryonic dark matter, black matter, supernovae, Universe acceleration and black energy. Then comes the nuclear evolution of the Universe: thermodynamics of the primordial Universe, the matter-antimatter asymmetry, from quarks to atoms, cosmic abundance, neutron cosmological background, matter-radiation equality, cosmo-chronology or the age of the Universe. The next chapter addresses the cosmological background at 3 K: sky electromagnetic spectrum, measurement of CMB anisotropies, interpretation of anisotropies, growth of perturbations. The last chapter addresses the quantum field theory and inflation: paradoxes of the standard Big Bang, the simple inflation, noticeable consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fliche, H.-H.; Souriau, J.-M.
1978-03-01
On the basis of colorimetric data a composite spectrum of quasars is established from the visible to the Lyman's limit. Its agreement with the spectrum of the quasar 3C273, obtained directly, confirms the homogeneity of these objects. The compatibility of the following hypotheses: negligible evolution of quasars, Friedmann type model of the universe with cosmological constant, is studied by means of two tests: a non-correlation test adopted to the observation conditions and the construction of diagrams (absolute magnitude, volume) using the K-correction deduced from the composite spectrum. This procedure happens to give relatively well-defined values of the parameters; the central values of the density parameter, the reduced curvature and the reduced cosmological constant are: Ω 0 =0.053, k 0 =0.245, lambda-zero=1.19, which correspond to a big bang model, eternally expanding, spatially finite, in which Hubble's parameter H is presently increasing. This model responds well to different cosmological tests: density of matter, diameter of radio sources, age of the universe. Its characteristics suggest various cosmogonic mechanisms, espacially mass formation by growth of empty spherical bubbles [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelmini, G.B.
1996-01-01
These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called open-quote open-quote crisis close-quote close-quote (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelmini, Graciela B.
1996-01-01
These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called ''crisis'' (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos
2007-01-01
We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions
Inflation and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1990-01-01
We investigate an interplay between elementary particle physics, quantum cosmology and inflation. These results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. In particular, we discuss relations between the stochastic approach to inflationary cosmology and the approaches based on the investigation of the Hartle-Hawking and tunneling wave functions of the universe. We argue that neither of these wave functions can be used for a complete description of the inflationary universe, but in certain cases they can be used for a description of some particular stages of inflation. It is shown that if the present vacuum energy density ρ υ exceeds some extremely small critical value ρ c (ρ c ∼ 10 -107 ) g cm -3 for chaotic inflation in the theory 1/2m 2 φ 2 ), then the lifetime of mankind in the inflationary universe should be finite, even though the universe as a whole will exist without end. A possible way to justify the anthropic principle in the context of the baby universe theory and to apply it to the evaluation of masses of elementary particles, of their coupling constants and of the vacuum energy density is also discussed. (author)
A varying-α brane world cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youm, Donam
2001-08-01
We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)
Testing cosmology with galaxy clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rapetti Serra, David Angelo
2011-01-01
PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory and cosmo......PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory...... and cosmology. There will be an emphasis on timely interdisciplinary topics: • critical tests of inflationary cosmology • advances in fundamental cosmology • applications of string theory (AdS/CMT) • particle and string phenomenology • new experimental particle physics results • and cosmological probes...
Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel
2014-05-01
We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkachev, Igor
1993-01-01
When the common ground between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology started to become a developing area, the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences had the foresight in 1981 to institute the Baksan Schools on Particles and Cosmology. This now traditional event, held biannually in the Baksan Valley, has gone on to attract international participation. The site is close to the INR Baksan Neutrino Observatory with its underground and surface installations, including the SAGE gallium solar neutrino detector, the Underground Scintillation Telescope, and the 'Carpet' extensive air shower array. Participation is mainly from experimentalists working in non accelerator particle physics and particle astrophysics. The most recent School, held from April 21 to 28, began with an opening address by INR Director V. A. Matveev. J.Frieman reviewed standard big bang cosmology, emphasizing how the recent COBE results and the observations of large scale galaxy clustering fit into a standard cosmology framework. For inflationary cosmology, he showed how different models may be tested through their predictions for large-scale galactic structure and for cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A.Stebbins presented details of the large scale distribution of galaxies which, combined with velocity information and microwave background anisotropy data, provide strong constraints on theories of the origin of primordial inhomogeneities. Inflation requires, and theories of the large scale structure strongly favour the critical value for the cosmic mass density, while, as D.Seckel explained in his lecture on nucleosynthesis and abundances of the light elements, the baryon contribution to this density has to be tens of times smaller. A general review on the observational evidence for dark matter, dark matter particle candidates and the strategy of dark matter searches was given by I. Tkachev, who stressed the gravitational microlensing MACHO
Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data
Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis
2000-01-01
We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.
Cosmology for high energy physicists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.
1987-11-01
The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs
High energy physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.
1989-01-01
This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge
[High energy physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.
1988-01-01
This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge
Perturbations in loop quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, W; Agullo, I; Ashtekar, A
2014-01-01
The era of precision cosmology has allowed us to accurately determine many important cosmological parameters, in particular via the CMB. Confronting Loop Quantum Cosmology with these observations provides us with a powerful test of the theory. For this to be possible, we need a detailed understanding of the generation and evolution of inhomogeneous perturbations during the early, quantum gravity phase of the universe. Here, we have described how Loop Quantum Cosmology provides a completion of the inflationary paradigm, that is consistent with the observed power spectra of the CMB
An introduction to modern cosmology
Liddle, Andrew
2015-01-01
An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Khlopov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.
Relativistic numerical cosmology with silent universes
Bolejko, Krzysztof
2018-01-01
Relativistic numerical cosmology is most often based either on the exact solutions of the Einstein equations, or perturbation theory, or weak-field limit, or the BSSN formalism. The silent universe provides an alternative approach to investigate relativistic evolution of cosmological systems. The silent universe is based on the solution of the Einstein equations in 1 + 3 comoving coordinates with additional constraints imposed. These constraints include: the gravitational field is sourced by dust and cosmological constant only, both rotation and magnetic part of the Weyl tensor vanish, and the shear is diagnosable. This paper describes the code simsilun (free software distributed under the terms of the reposi General Public License), which implements the equations of the silent universe. The paper also discusses applications of the silent universe and it uses the Millennium simulation to set up the initial conditions for the code simsilun. The simulation obtained this way consists of 16 777 216 worldlines, which are evolved from z = 80 to z = 0. Initially, the mean evolution (averaged over the whole domain) follows the evolution of the background ΛCDM model. However, once the evolution of cosmic structures becomes nonlinear, the spatial curvature evolves from ΩK =0 to ΩK ≈ 0.1 at the present day. The emergence of the spatial curvature is associated with ΩM and Ω_Λ being smaller by approximately 0.05 compared to the ΛCDM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.; Eder, E.; Liu, W.; Barnard, J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, G.; Fisher, A.; Masers, N.; Bertozzi, A.
2011-01-01
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li+ ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion) of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. The ALE-AMR code does not have any export control restrictions and is currently running at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at LBNL and has been shown to scale well to thousands of CPUs. New surface tension models that are being implemented and applied to WDM experiments. Some of the approaches use a diffuse interface surface tension model that is based on the advective Cahn-Hilliard equations, which allows for droplet breakup in divergent velocity fields without the need for imposed perturbations. Other methods require seeding or other methods for droplet breakup. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related
Bojowald, Martin
2008-01-01
Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-4.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bojowald Martin
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bojowald Martin
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.
Cosmology from quantum potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada)
2015-02-04
It was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). In this article we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.
Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.
1990-09-01
If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.
1991-01-01
If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10 -6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, θ 1 approx-lt[m a /10 -6 eV 0.59 .] We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative
Wright, Rosemary
1995-01-01
The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh.The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcil
Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.
2018-03-01
The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann
2006-01-01
We construct simple exact solutions to the E 10 /K(E 10 ) coset model by exploiting its integrability. Using the known correspondences with the bosonic sectors of maximal supergravity theories, these exact solutions translate into exact cosmological solutions. In this way, we are able to recover some recently discovered solutions of M-theory exhibiting phases of accelerated expansion, or, equivalently, S-brane solutions, and thereby accommodate such solutions within the E 10 /K(E 10 ) model. We also discuss the situation regarding solutions with non-vanishing (constant) curvature of the internal manifold
Quintessential brane cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, K.E.; Vazquez-Mozo, M.A.
2002-01-01
We study a class of braneworlds where the cosmological evolution arises as the result of the movement of a three-brane in a five-dimensional static dilatonic bulk, with and without reflection symmetry. The resulting four-dimensional Friedmann equation includes a term which, for a certain range of the parameters, effectively works as a quintessence component, producing an acceleration of the universe at late times. Using current observations and bounds derived from big-bang nucleosynthesis, we estimate the parameters that characterize the model
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srednicki, M.
1990-01-01
At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs
Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M; Goulart, E; Salim, J M; Bergliaffa, S E Perez
2007-01-01
It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology
Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gu Je-An
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.
Neutrino physics and precision cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannestad, Steen
2016-01-01
I review the current status of structure formation bounds on neutrino properties such as mass and energy density. I also discuss future cosmological bounds as well as a variety of different scenarios for reconciling cosmology with the presence of light sterile neutrinos....
Modified General Relativity and Cosmology
Abdel-Rahman, A.-M. M.
1997-10-01
Aspects of the modified general relativity theory of Rastall, Al-Rawaf and Taha are discussed in both the radiation- and matter-dominated flat cosmological models. A nucleosynthesis constraint on the theory's free parameter is obtained and the implication for the age of the Universe is discussed. The consistency of the modified matter- dominated model with the neoclassical cosmological tests is demonstrated.
Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology
Sriramkumar, L
2012-01-01
This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.
Kerr metric in cosmological background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics
1977-06-01
A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.
Introduction to gravity and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauneau, L.
1988-09-01
Relativity principles, equivalence principles, and the general covariance principle are introduced. Curved space analysis via tensor calculus and absolute differential calculus is outlined. Einstein's equations are presented. The Schwarzschild solution; tests of general relativity; and black holes are discussed. Application of general relativity to cosmology is considered. The Standard Model of cosmology and its extensions are reviewed
Highlights in gravitation and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyer, B.R.; Kembhavi, Ajit; Narlikar, J.V.; Vishveshwara, C.V.
1988-01-01
This book assesses research into gravitation and cosmology by examining the subject from various viewpoints: the classical and quantum pictures, along with the cosmological and astrophysical applications. There are 35 articles by experts of international standing. Each defines the state of the art and contains a concise summary of our present knowledge of a facet of gravitational physics. These edited papers are based on those first given at an international conference held in Goa, India at the end of 1987. The following broad areas are covered: classical relativity, quantum gravity, cosmology, black holes, compact objects, gravitational radiation and gravity experiments. In this volume there are also summaries of discussions on the following special topics: exact solutions of cosmological equations, mathematical aspects of general relativity, the early universe, and quantum gravity. For research workers in cosmology and gravitation this reference book provides a broad view of present achievements and current problems. (author)
Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n + 1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n + 1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n + 1 dimensional model and the 3 + 1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lachieze-Rey, Marc
2005-01-01
After having recalled that the Platonist and Aristotelian views were the basis of cosmology during the Antiquity and the Middle-Age, the author indicates that these views have been put into question again by Copernicus, Giordano Bruno, Kepler, Galileo and others whose works resulted in Newton physics. The author then follows and comments this history with the emergence of contemporary physics (relativistic and quantum physics) and new concepts for matter, space and time, light, energy, and the Universe with a relativistic cosmology. After having commented these last issues, the author evokes how new results confirmed big-bang models. He also outlines problems to be solved or addressed: observations related to the hidden mass, issue of unification, technological issues to obtain information about what went on more than 13 billions years ago. The author comments the issue of other universes, and issues regarding science, metaphysics and religion raised by these theoretical developments. He also comments the emergence of new physics (supersymmetry, quantum gravity)
Topics in inflationary cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahn, R.N.
1985-01-01
This thesis examines several topics in the theory of inflationary cosmology. It first proves the existence of Hawking Radiation during the slow-rolling period of a new inflationary universe. It then derives and somewhat extends Bardeen's gauge invariant formalism for calculating the growth of linear gravitational perturbations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background. This formalism is then applied, first to several new inflationary universe models all of which show a Zel'dovich spectrum of fluctuations, but with amplitude sigma(100 4 ) above observational limits. The general formalism is next applied to models that exhibit primordial inflation. Fluctuations in these models also exhibit a Zel'dovich spectrum here with an acceptable amplitude. Finally the thesis presents the results of new, numerical calculations. A classical, (2 + 1) dimensional computer model is developed that includes a Higgs field (which drives inflation) along with enough auxiliary fields to generate dynamically not only a thermal bath, but also the fluctuations that naturally accompany that bath. The thesis ends with a discussion of future prospects
Green, Dan
2016-01-01
This volume makes explicit use of the synergy between cosmology and high energy physics, for example, supersymmetry and dark matter, or nucleosynthesis and the baryon-to-photon ratio. In particular the exciting possible connection between the recently discovered Higgs scalar and the scalar field responsible for inflation is explored.The recent great advances in the accuracy of the basic cosmological parameters is exploited in that no free scale parameters such as h appear, rather the basic calculations are done numerically using all sources of energy density simultaneously. Scripts are provided that allow the reader to calculate exact results for the basic parameters. Throughout MATLAB tools such as symbolic math, numerical solutions, plots and 'movies' of the dynamical evolution of systems are used. The GUI package is also shown as an example of the real time manipulation of parameters which is available to the reader.All the MATLAB scripts are made available to the reader to explore examples of the uses of ...
Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pajin Dušan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1986-10-01
This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs
Perkins, D. K.
2006-08-01
Microbes swarming on a sand grain planet or integral complex organisms evolving consciousness at the forefront of cosmic evolution? How is our new cosmology contributing to redefining who we see ourselves to be at the edge of the 21^st century, as globalization and capitalism speed forward? How is the evolution of stardust and the universe offering new paradigms of process and identity regarding the role, function and emergence of life in space-time? What are the cultural and philosophical questions that are arising and how might astronomy be contributing to the creation of new visions for cooperation and community at a global scale? What is the significance of including astronomy in K-12 education and what can it offer youth regarding values in light of the present world situation? Exploring our new cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales may offer much of valuable orientation toward reframing the human role in global evolution. Considering new insight from astrobiology each diverse species has a definitive role to play in the facilitation and functioning of the biosphere. Thus the question may arise: Is there any sort of ethic implied by natural science and offered by our rapidly expanding cosmic frontier?
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salati, P.
1986-01-01
If the hot Big Bang model is correct, the very early universe provides us with a good laboratory to test our ideas on particle physics. The temperature and the density at that time are so high that each known particle must exist in chemical and in thermal equilibrium with the others. When the universe cools, the particles freeze out, leaving us today with a cosmic background. Such a kind of relic is of great interest because we can probe the Big Bang Model by studying the fossilized gas of a known particle. Conversely we can use that model to derive information about a hypothetical particle. Basically the freezing of a gas occurs a temperature T o and may be thermal or chemical. Studying the decoupling of a stable neutrino brings information on its mass: if the mass M ν lies in the forbidden range, the neutrino has to be unstable and its lifetime is constrained by cosmology. As for the G.U.T. Monopole, cosmology tells us that its present mass density is either to big or to small (1 monopole/observable universe) owing to a predicted flux far from the Parker Limit. Finally, the super red-giant star life time constrains the axion or the Higgs to be more massive than .2 MeV [fr
Scalar cosmological perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John
2012-01-01
Scalar perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies can be analyzed in a variety of ways using Einstein's field equations, the Ricci and Bianchi identities, or the conservation equations for the stress-energy tensor, and possibly introducing a timelike reference congruence. The common ground is the use of gauge invariants derived from the metric tensor, the stress-energy tensor, or from vectors associated with a reference congruence, as basic variables. Although there is a complication in that there is no unique choice of gauge invariants, we will show that this can be used to advantage. With this in mind our first goal is to present an efficient way of constructing dimensionless gauge invariants associated with the tensors that are involved, and of determining their inter-relationships. Our second goal is to give a unified treatment of the various ways of writing the governing equations in dimensionless form using gauge-invariant variables, showing how simplicity can be achieved by a suitable choice of variables and normalization factors. Our third goal is to elucidate the connection between the metric-based approach and the so-called 1 + 3 gauge-invariant approach to cosmological perturbations. We restrict our considerations to linear perturbations, but our intent is to set the stage for the extension to second-order perturbations. (paper)
Mahootian, F.
2009-12-01
The rapid convergence of advancing sensor technology, computational power, and knowledge discovery techniques over the past decade has brought unprecedented volumes of astronomical data together with unprecedented capabilities of data assimilation and analysis. A key result is that a new, data-driven "observational-inductive'' framework for scientific inquiry is taking shape and proving viable. The anticipated rise in data flow and processing power will have profound effects, e.g., confirmations and disconfirmations of existing theoretical claims both for and against the big bang model. But beyond enabling new discoveries can new data-driven frameworks of scientific inquiry reshape the epistemic ideals of science? The history of physics offers a comparison. The Bohr-Einstein debate over the "completeness'' of quantum mechanics centered on a question of ideals: what counts as science? We briefly examine lessons from that episode and pose questions about their applicability to cosmology. If the history of 20th century physics is any indication, the abandonment of absolutes (e.g., space, time, simultaneity, continuity, determinacy) can produce fundamental changes in understanding. The classical ideal of science, operative in both physics and cosmology, descends from the European Enlightenment. This ideal has for over 200 years guided science to seek the ultimate order of nature, to pursue the absolute theory, the "theory of everything.'' But now that we have new models of scientific inquiry powered by new technologies and driven more by data than by theory, it is time, finally, to relinquish dreams of a "final'' theory.
Cosmology with decaying particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1984-09-01
We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons β -1 identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (β) family of solutions; physically β -1 approx. = (Ω/sub R//Ω/sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references
Cosmology with decaying particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, M.S.
1984-09-01
We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons ..beta../sup -1/ identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (..beta..) family of solutions; physically ..beta../sup -1/ approx. = (..cap omega../sub R//..cap omega../sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginzburg, V.L.
1981-01-01
The problem of establishing boundaries between cosmology and philosophy is discussed. It is stated that the theoretic knowledge and observation data do not contradict the selection of one of non-stationary homogenous and isotropic relativistic models, which are also called the Friedmann models. In this model (with a zero Λ - member) there is a critical value of the substance density which is 10 -29 g/cm 2 . The determination of the average density of the Universe substance relatively to this value enables to choose between a closed and an open Universe model. Nowadays, this problem is not yet solved. But some philosophic theses reject the closed cosmological model without any naturally scientific argumentation. Critical remarks about such an approach to the problem studied are presented. The conclusion is made that the problems of the Universe volume infinity of finity, laws of its evolution in time or the like are not philosophic and should be considered taking into account the data of astronomic observations and modern physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartle, J.B.
1990-01-01
Our observations of the world give us specific facts. Here, there is a galaxy; there is none. Today, there is a supernova explosion; yesterday, there was a star. Here, there are fission fragments; before, there was a uranium nucleus. The task of physics is to compress the message which describes these facts into a shorter form -to compress it, in particular, to a form where the message consists of just a few observed facts together with simple universal laws of nature from which the rest can be deduced. In the past, physics has concentrated on finding dynamical laws which correlate facts at different times. Such laws predict later evolution given observed initial conditions. However, there is no logical reason why we could not look for laws which correlate facts at the same time. Such laws would be, in effect, laws of initial conditions. It was the limited nature of our observations which led to our focus on dynamical laws. Now, however, in cosmology, in the observations of the early universe and even on familiar scales, it is possible to discern regularities of the world which may find a compressed expression in a simple, testable, theory of the initial conditions of the universe as a whole. The search for this law of the initial conditions is the subject of quantum cosmology and the subject whose recent development is reviewed. (author)
Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. I. Methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyaizu, Hiroaki
2008-01-01
We introduce the method and the implementation of a cosmological simulation of a class of metric-variation f(R) models that accelerate the cosmological expansion without a cosmological constant and evade solar-system bounds of small-field deviations to general relativity. Such simulations are shown to reduce to solving a nonlinear Poisson equation for the scalar degree of freedom introduced by the f(R) modifications. We detail the method to efficiently solve the nonlinear Poisson equation by using a Newton-Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme coupled with the multigrid method to accelerate the convergence. The simulations are shown to satisfy tests comparing the simulated outcome to analytical solutions for simple situations, and the dynamics of the simulations are tested with orbital and Zeldovich collapse tests. Finally, we present several static and dynamical simulations using realistic cosmological parameters to highlight the differences between standard physics and f(R) physics. In general, we find that the f(R) modifications result in stronger gravitational attraction that enhances the dark matter power spectrum by ∼20% for large but observationally allowed f(R) modifications. A more detailed study of the nonlinear f(R) effects on the power spectrum are presented in a companion paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.; Liu, W.; Barnard, J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, G.; Eder, D.; Fisher, A.; Masters, N.; Bertozzi, A.
2013-01-01
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li + ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion) of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related computational changes on general modeling codes in fusion. (authors)
Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology
Mantz, Adam
2013-01-01
The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.
The cosmological perturbation theory in loop cosmology with holonomy corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jian-Pin; Ling, Yi
2010-01-01
In this paper we investigate the scalar mode of first-order metric perturbations over spatially flat FRW spacetime when the holonomy correction is taken into account in the semi-classical framework of loop quantum cosmology. By means of the Hamiltonian derivation, the cosmological perturbation equations is obtained in longitudinal gauge. It turns out that in the presence of metric perturbation the holonomy effects influence both background and perturbations, and contribute the non-trivial terms S h1 and S h2 in the cosmological perturbation equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)
2007-02-07
These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbour, J B
2007-01-01
These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern
Fossil Groups as Cosmological Labs
D'Onghia, Elena
Optical and X-ray measurements of fossil groups (FGs) suggest that they are old and relaxed systems. If FGs are assembled at higher redshift, there is enough time for intermediate-luminosity galaxies to merge, resulting in the formation of the brightest group galaxy (BGG). We carry out the first, systematic study of a large sample of FGs, the "FOssil Group Origins'' (FOGO) based on an International Time Project at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory. For ten FOGO FGs we have been awarded time at SUZAKU Telescope to measure the temperature of the hot intragroup gas (IGM). For these systems we plan to evaluate and correlate their X-ray luminosity and X-ray temperature, Lx-Tx, optical luminosity and X-ray temperature, Lopt-Tx, and group velocity dispersion with their X-ray temperature, sigma V-Tx, as compared to the non fossil systems. By combining these observations with state-of-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations we will open a new window into the study of the IGM and the nature of fossil systems. Our proposed work will be of direct relevance for the understanding and interpretation of data from several NASA science missions. Specifically, the scaling relations obtained from these data combined with our predictions obtained using state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulation numerical adopting a new hydrodynamical scheme will motivate new proposal on CHANDRA X-ray telescope for fossil groups and clusters. We will additionally create a public Online Planetarium Show. This will be an educational site, containing an interactive program called: "A Voyage to our Universe''. In the show we will provide observed images of fossil groups and similar images and movies obtained from the numerical simulations showing their evolution. The online planetarium show will be a useful reference and an interactive educational tool for both students and the public.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent
2003-01-01
The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the
Inflationary cosmologies from compactification?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2004-01-01
We consider the compactification of (d+n)-dimensional pure gravity and of superstring or M-theory on an n-dimensional internal space to a d-dimensional Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology, with a spatial curvature k=0,±1, in the Einstein conformal frame. The internal space is taken to be a product of Einstein spaces, each of which is allowed to have arbitrary curvature and a time-dependent volume. By investigating the effective d-dimensional scalar potential, which is a sum of exponentials, it is shown that such compactifications, in the k=0,+1 cases, do not lead to large amounts of accelerating expansion of the scale factor of the resulting FLRW universe, and, in particular, do not lead to inflation. The case k=-1 admits solutions with eternal accelerating expansion for which the acceleration, however, tends to zero at late times
Lyth, David
2016-01-01
Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.
BMSSM implications for cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernal, Nicolas; Blum, Kfir; Nir, Yosef; Losada, Marta
2009-01-01
The addition of non-renormalizable terms involving the Higgs fields to the MSSM (BMSSM) ameliorates the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM. We analyze in detail the two main cosmological issues affected by the BMSSM: dark matter and baryogenesis. The regions for which the relic abundance of the LSP is consistent with WMAP and collider constraints are identified, showing that the bulk region and other previously excluded regions are now permitted. Requiring vacuum stability limits the allowed regions. Based on a two-loop finite temperature effective potential analysis, we show that the electroweak phase transition can be sufficiently first order in regions that for the MSSM are incompatible with the LEP Higgs mass bound, including parameter values of tan β∼ t -tilde 1 >m t , m Q < < TeV.
Cosmological disformal invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Naruko, Atsushi, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: naruko@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2015-10-01
The invariance of physical observables under disformal transformations is considered. It is known that conformal transformations leave physical observables invariant. However, whether it is true for disformal transformations is still an open question. In this paper, it is shown that a pure disformal transformation without any conformal factor is equivalent to rescaling the time coordinate. Since this rescaling applies equally to all the physical quantities, physics must be invariant under a disformal transformation, that is, neither causal structure, propagation speed nor any other property of the fields are affected by a disformal transformation itself. This fact is presented at the action level for gravitational and matter fields and it is illustrated with some examples of observable quantities. We also find the physical invariance for cosmological perturbations at linear and high orders in perturbation, extending previous studies. Finally, a comparison with Horndeski and beyond Horndeski theories under a disformal transformation is made.
LHC, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giulio Auriemma
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the impact on cosmology of recent results obtained by the LHC (Large Hadron Collider experiments in the 2011-2012 runs, respectively at √s = 7 and 8 TeV. The capital achievement of LHC in this period has been the discovery of a spin-0 particle with mass 126 GeV/c2, very similar to the Higgs boson of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Less exciting, but not less important, negative results of searches for Supersymmetric particles or other exotica in direct production or rare decays are discussed in connection with particles and V.H.E. astronomy searches for Dark Matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayler, R.J.
1983-01-01
The standard model of the hot big bang cosmological theory, which appears to be in agreement, at least qualitatively, with the observed properties of the Universe, assumes that the early Universe was homogeneous and isotropic and that it has been continuously expanding from a state characterized by very high temperature and density, where matter and radiation were to a good approximation in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. In this standard model, it is assumed that baryon number, charge number and the various lepton numbers are all conserved. Only the baryon number is non-zero and this, expressed as the ratio of the net number of baryons (baryons minus antibaryons) to the number of photons per unit volume is the undefined parameter in the model. The author discusses the importance of knowing how many types of neutrinos there are with regard to the He 4 abundance, and the implication of a small, non-zero neutrino mass. (Auth.)
White, S
1994-01-01
Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...
Decoherence in quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halliwell, J.J.
1989-01-01
We discuss the manner in which the gravitational field becomes classical in quantum cosmology. This involves two steps. First, one must show that the quantum state of the gravitational field becomes strongly peaked about a set of classical configurations. Second, one must show that the system is in one of a number of states of a relatively permanent nature that have negligible interference with each other. This second step involves decoherence---destruction of the off-diagonal terms in the density matrix, representing interference. To introduce the notion of decoherence, we discuss it in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, following the environment-induced superselection approach of Zurek. We then go on to discuss the application of these ideas to quantum cosmology. We show, in a simple homogeneous isotropic model, that the density matrix of the Universe will decohere if the long-wavelength modes of an inhomogeneous massless scalar field are traced out. These modes effectively act as an environment which continuously ''monitors'' the scale factor. The coherence width is very small except in the neighborhood of a classical bounce. This means that one cannot really say that a classical solution bounces because the notion of classical spacetime does not apply. The coherence width decreases as the scale factor increases, which has implications for the arrow of time. We also show, using decoherence arguments, that the WKB component of the wave function of the Universe which represents expanding universes has negligible interference with the collapsing component. This justifies the usual assumption that they may be treated separately
Cosmological and supernova neutrinos
Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.
2014-06-01
The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.
Cosmological and supernova neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)
2014-06-24
The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs
An efficient numerical scheme for the simulation of parallel-plate active magnetic regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Torregrosa-Jaime, Bárbara; Corberán, José M.; Payá, Jorge
2015-01-01
A one-dimensional model of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is presented in this work. The model is based on an efficient numerical scheme which has been developed after analysing the heat transfer mechanisms in the regenerator bed. The new finite difference scheme optimally com...... to the fully implicit scheme, the proposed scheme achieves more accurate results, prevents numerical errors and requires less computational effort. In AMR simulations the new scheme can reduce the computational time by 88%....
A new cosmological paradigm: the cosmological constant and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krauss, L.M.
1998-01-01
The Standard Cosmological Model of the 1980 close-quote s is no more. I describe the definitive evidence that the density of matter is insufficient to result in a flat universe, as well as the mounting evidence that the cosmological constant is not zero. I finally discuss the implications of these results for particle physics and direct searches for non-baryonic dark matter. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
The cosmological term and a modified Brans-Dicke cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endo, M.; Fukui, T.
1977-01-01
Adding the cosmological term Λ, which is assumed to be variable in this paper, to the Brans-Dicke Lagrangian, an attempt is made to understand the meaning of the term and to relate it to the mass of the universe. The Dirac large-number hypothesis is considered, applying the results obtained from the application of the present theory to a uniform cosmological model. (author)
Cosmological applications in Kaluza—Klein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wanas, M.I.; Nashed, Gamal G. L.; Nowaya, A.A.
2012-01-01
The field equations of Kaluza—Klein (KK) theory have been applied in the domain of cosmology. These equations are solved for a flat universe by taking the gravitational and the cosmological constants as a function of time t. We use Taylor's expansion of cosmological function, Λ(t), up to the first order of the time t. The cosmological parameters are calculated and some cosmological problems are discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Heavy ion collisions and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floerchinger, Stefan
2016-12-15
There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.
Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L.F.; Zhu, J.Y.
2009-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. Moreover, the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but also are actually found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.
Modernism and cosmology absurd lights
Ebury, Katherine
2014-01-01
Through examining the work of W. B. Yeats, James Joyce, and Samuel Beckett, Katherine Ebury shows cosmology had a considerable impact on modernist creative strategies, developing alternative reading models of difficult texts such as Finnegans Wake and 'The Trilogy'.
Newtonian cosmology Newton would understand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemons, D.S.
1988-01-01
Isaac Newton envisioned a static, infinite, and initially uniform, zero field universe that was gravitationally unstable to local condensations of matter. By postulating the existence of such a universe and using it as a boundary condition on Newtonian gravity, a new field equation for gravity is derived, which differs from the classical one by a time-dependent cosmological term proportional to the average mass density of the universe. The new field equation not only makes Jeans' analysis of the gravitational instability of a Newtonian universe consistent, but also gives rise to a family of Newtonian evolutionary cosmologies parametrized by a time-invariant expansion velocity. This Newtonian cosmology contrasts with both 19th-century ones and with post general relativity Newtonian cosmology
Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.
Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R
2008-08-28
At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.
Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, E.R.
1974-01-01
The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)
Cosmology and unified gauge theory
Oraifeartaigh, L.
1981-09-01
Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.
Evolution in bouncing quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2012-01-01
We present the method of describing an evolution in quantum cosmology in the framework of the reduced phase space quantization of loop cosmology. We apply our method to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model coupled to a massless scalar field. We identify the physical quantum Hamiltonian that is positive-definite and generates globally a unitary evolution of the considered quantum system. We examine the properties of expectation values of physical observables in the process of the quantum big bounce transition. The dispersion of evolved observables is studied for the Gaussian state. Calculated relative fluctuations enable an examination of the semi-classicality conditions and possible occurrence of the cosmic forgetfulness. Preliminary estimations based on the cosmological data suggest that there was no cosmic amnesia. Presented results are analytical, and numerical computations are only used for the visualization purposes. Our method may be generalized to sophisticated cosmological models including the Bianchi-type universes. (paper)
Precision cosmology and the landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael
2006-01-01
After reviewing the cosmological constant problem--why is Lambda not huge?--I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments
Chaos, decoherence and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calzetta, Esteban
2012-01-01
In this topical review we discuss the connections between chaos, decoherence and quantum cosmology. We understand chaos as classical chaos in systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, decoherence as environment induced decoherence and quantum cosmology as the theory of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation or else the consistent history formulation thereof, first in mini super spaces and later through its extension to midi super spaces. The overall conclusion is that consideration of decoherence is necessary (and probably sufficient) to sustain an interpretation of quantum cosmology based on the wavefunction of the Universe adopting a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin form for large Universes, but a definitive account of the semiclassical transition in classically chaotic cosmological models is not available in the literature yet. (topical review)
Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology.
Anninos, Peter
1998-01-01
In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.
Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Anninos
1998-01-01
Full Text Available In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark--hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.
Three Studies in Epicurean Cosmology
Bakker, F.A.
2010-01-01
This dissertation consists of three studies dealing with various aspects of Epicurean cosmology. The first study discusses the Epicurean practice of explaining astronomical and meteorological phenomena by multiple alternative theories. The second study compares the meteorological accounts of
Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yashar Akrami
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, Mf, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to ΛCDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find Mf should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis. We further show that in this limit the helicity-0 mode is no longer strongly-coupled at low energy scales.
Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves Renyi Ma1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves. Renyi Ma1,2,∗ ... ratio of CR to thermal energy in the ICM and WHIM based on numerical simulations and diffusive shock ... Hence, the nonthermal radiation of CRs may provide us a.
HAWKING'S Theory of Quantum Cosmology
Zhi, Fang Li; Chao, Wu Zhong
The most important problem in cosmology is the birth of the universe. Recently Hartle and Hawking put forward a ground state proposal for the quantum state of the universe which incorporates the idea that the universe must come from nothing. Many models have been discussed in quantum cosmology with this boundary condition. It has been shown that every model is a step towards to a realistic universe, i.e. a 4-dimensional isotropic universe with a long inflationary stage.
Quantum cosmology on the worldsheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, A.R.; Susskind, L.; Thorlacius, L.
1991-08-01
Two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to conformally invariant matter central c > 25 provides a toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions. Two-dimensional quantum cosmology can thus be studied in terms of string theory in background fields. The large scale cosmological constant depends on non-linear dynamics in the string theory target space and does not appear to be suppressed by wormhole effects. 13 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minssen, Timo
2014-01-01
– enabled to target only specific bacteria. This technology was recently presented by MIT researchers at the 2014 American Society for Microbiology Meeting. The researchers led by Timothy Lu had genetically engineered phages that use a DNA-editing system called CRISPR to target and kill only antibiotic...... solutions. These are alternative models for recovering R&D costs in drugs & devices. Delinkage relies on prizes and grants instead of patent-protected sales above marginal cost. Delinkage models can take various shapes and may be characterized by a wide array of different financial and organizational...... be as complex as the problem of AMR itself. There seems to be no “one size fits all” solution, but rather a variety of options that need to be combined and optimized for various cases. But the danger is imminent and initiatives are necessary. This requires new ways of thinking including both reactive...
Roberts, Alex
2016-08-01
Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. We elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein. We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1) X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gX, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)X. This induces an irreducible rate, sigmaBR, for pp → X → ll relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (sigmaBR, mX), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated X boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent 'litmus test' for this broad
Was Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent?
Vickers, Peter
This paper follows up a debate as to the consistency of Newtonian cosmology. Whereas Malament [(1995). Is Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62, 489-510] has shown that Newtonian cosmology is not inconsistent, to date there has been no analysis of Norton's claim [(1995). The force of Newtonian cosmology: Acceleration is relative. Philosophy of Science 62, 511-522.] that Newtonian cosmology was inconsistent prior to certain advances in the 1930s, and in particular prior to Seeliger's seminal paper of Seeliger [(1895). Über das Newton'sche Gravitationsgesetz. Astronomische Nachrichten 137 (3273), 129-136.] In this paper I agree that there are assumptions, Newtonian and cosmological in character, and relevant to the real history of science, which are inconsistent. But there are some important corrections to make to Norton's account. Here I display for the first time the inconsistencies-four in total-in all their detail. Although this extra detail shows there to be several different inconsistencies, it also goes some way towards explaining why they went unnoticed for 200 years.
Quantum cosmology and baby universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishchuk, L.P.
1990-01-01
The contributed papers presented to the workshop on ''Quantum Cosmology and Baby Universes'' have demonstrated the great interest in, and rapid development of, the field of quantum cosmology. In my view, there are at least three areas of active research at present. The first area can be defined as that of practical calculations. Here researchers are dealing with the basic quantum cosmological equation, which is the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. They try to classify all possible solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation or seek a specific integration contour in order to select one particular wave function or generalize the simple minisuperspace models to more complicated cases, including various inhomogeneities, anisotropies, etc. The second area of research deals with the interpretational issues of quantum cosmology. There are still many questions about how to extract the observational consequences from a given cosmological wave function, the role of time in quantum cosmology, and how to reformulate the rules of quantum mechanics in such a way that they could be applicable to the single system which is our Universe. The third area of research is concerned with the so-called ''third quantization'' of gravity. In this approach a wave function satisfying the Wheeler-DeWitt equation becomes an operator acting on a Wave Function of the many-universes system. Within this approach one operates with Euclidean worm-holes joining different Lorentzian universes. (author)
Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanghai, Viraj A A; Clifton, Timothy
2017-01-01
Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC). (paper)
Cosmology of a charged universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, A.
1979-01-01
The Proca generalization of electrodynamics admits the possibility that the universe could possess a net electric charge uniformly distributed throughout space, while possessing no electric field. A charged intergalactic (and intragalactic) medium of this kind could contain enough energy to be of cosmological importance. A general-relativistic model of cosmological expansion dominated by such a charged background has been calculated, and is consistent with present observational limits on the Hubble constant, the decleration parameter, and the age of the universe. However, if this cosmology applied at the present epoch, the very early expansion of the universe would have been much more rapid than in conventional ''big bang'' cosmologies, too rapid for cosmological nucleosynthesis or thermalization of the background radiation to have occurred. Hence, domination of the present expansion by background charge appears to be incompatible with the 3 K background and big-bang production of light elements. If the present background charge density were sufficiently small (but not strictly zero), expansion from the epoch of nucleosynthesis would proceed according to the conventional scenario, but the energy due to the background charge would have dominated at some earlier epoch. This last possibility leads to equality of pressure and energy density in the primordial universe, a condition of special significance in certain cosmological theories
Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology
Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy
2017-03-01
Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).
The effective field theory of nonsingular cosmology: II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Yong; Li, Hai-Guang [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Qiu, Taotao [Central China Normal University, Institute of Astrophysics, Wuhan (China); Piao, Yun-Song [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)
2017-06-15
Based on the effective field theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations, we explicitly clarify the pathology in nonsingular cubic Galileon models and show how to cure it in EFT with new insights into this issue. With the least set of EFT operators that are capable to avoid instabilities in nonsingular cosmologies, we construct a nonsingular model dubbed the Genesis-inflation model, in which a slowly expanding phase (namely, Genesis) with increasing energy density is followed by slow-roll inflation. The spectrum of the primordial perturbation may be simulated numerically, which shows itself a large-scale cutoff, as the large-scale anomalies in CMB might be a hint for. (orig.)
Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals
Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.
2011-11-01
Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non
Cosmological Particle Data Compression in Practice
Zeyen, M.; Ahrens, J.; Hagen, H.; Heitmann, K.; Habib, S.
2017-12-01
In cosmological simulations trillions of particles are handled and several terabytes of unstructured particle data are generated in each time step. Transferring this data directly from memory to disk in an uncompressed way results in a massive load on I/O and storage systems. Hence, one goal of domain scientists is to compress the data before storing it to disk while minimizing the loss of information. To prevent reading back uncompressed data from disk, this can be done in an in-situ process. Since the simulation continuously generates data, the available time for the compression of one time step is limited. Therefore, the evaluation of compression techniques has shifted from only focusing on compression rates to include run-times and scalability.In recent years several compression techniques for cosmological data have become available. These techniques can be either lossy or lossless, depending on the technique. For both cases, this study aims to evaluate and compare the state of the art compression techniques for unstructured particle data. This study focuses on the techniques available in the Blosc framework with its multi-threading support, the XZ Utils toolkit with the LZMA algorithm that achieves high compression rates, and the widespread FPZIP and ZFP methods for lossy compressions.For the investigated compression techniques, quantitative performance indicators such as compression rates, run-time/throughput, and reconstruction errors are measured. Based on these factors, this study offers a comprehensive analysis of the individual techniques and discusses their applicability for in-situ compression. In addition, domain specific measures are evaluated on the reconstructed data sets, and the relative error rates and statistical properties are analyzed and compared. Based on this study future challenges and directions in the compression of unstructured cosmological particle data were identified.
Crucial test of the Dirac cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.
1978-01-01
In a cosmology consistent with the Cosmological Principle (large scale, statistical isotropy and homogeneity of the universe), a Planck spectrum is not preserved as the universe evolves unless the number of photons in a comoving volume is conserved. It is shown that a large class of cosmological models based on Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis (LNH) violate this constraint. The observed isotropy and spectral distribution of the microwave background radiation thus provide a crucial test of such cosmologies. After reviewing the LNH, the general evolution of radiation spectra in cosmologies consistent with the cosmological principle is outlined. It is shown that the predicted deviations from a Planck spectrum for Dirac cosmologies (as well as for ''tired-light'' cosmologies) are enormous. The Planckian (or near-Planckian) spectral form for the microwave radiation provides a crucial test, failed by such cosmologies
Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo
2010-01-01
We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E M Savicheva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Amr Mussa is one of the most experienced diplomats with rich experience in international organizations. In 1958 Mr. Moussa joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt, where he worked in several departments and Egyptian missions including Egypt’s UN mission (1985-1972. In 1974-1977 Amr Moussa was an Assistant and Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt. In 1977-1981 and 1986-1990 he held office of the Department of International Organizations as the Director in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt. In 1981-1983 Mr. Moussa was an Alternate Permanent Representative of Egypt to the United Nations in New York. In 1983-1986 he worked as Ambassador to India. Amr Moussa worked as Permanent Representative of the Arab Republic of Egypt to the United Nations in 1990-1991. In 1991-2001 he was a head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt. In 2001-2011 he worked as Secretary General of the League of Arab States. In his interview, Mr. Amr Moussa talks about the role of international organizations in the developing world, the peculiarities of regional political and economic integration of developing countries. Particular attention is paid to the problems of peacekeeping activities at the regional level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.
Perlov, Delia
2017-01-01
This book is an introductory text for all those wishing to learn about modern views of the cosmos. Our universe originated in a great explosion – the big bang. For nearly a century cosmologists have studied the aftermath of this explosion: how the universe expanded and cooled down, and how galaxies were gradually assembled by gravity. The nature of the bang itself has come into focus only relatively recently. It is the subject of the theory of cosmic inflation, which was developed in the last few decades and has led to a radically new global view of the universe. Students and other interested readers will find here a non-technical but conceptually rigorous account of modern cosmological ideas - describing what we know, and how we know it. One of the book's central themes is the scientific quest to find answers to the ultimate cosmic questions: Is the universe finite or infinite? Has it existed forever? If not, when and how did it come into being? Will it ever end? The book is based on the undergraduate cour...
Entropy, matter, and cosmology.
Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J
1986-09-01
The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-04-01
We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.
Cosmology with exponential potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehagias, Alex; Kofinas, Georgios
2004-01-01
We examine in the context of general relativity the dynamics of a spatially flat Robertson-Walker universe filled with a classical minimally coupled scalar field φ of exponential potential V(φ) ∼ exp(-μφ) plus pressureless baryonic matter. This system is reduced to a first-order ordinary differential equation for Ω φ (w φ ) or q(w φ ), providing direct evidence on the acceleration/deceleration properties of the system. As a consequence, for positive potentials, passage into acceleration not at late times is generically a feature of the system for any value of μ, even when the late-times attractors are decelerating. Furthermore, the structure formation bound, together with the constraints Ω m0 ∼ 0.25 - 0.3, -1 ≤ w φ0 ≤ -0.6, provides, independently of initial conditions and other parameters, the necessary condition 0 N , while the less conservative constraint -1 ≤ w φ ≤ -0.93 gives 0 N . Special solutions are found to possess intervals of acceleration. For the almost cosmological constant case w φ ∼ -1, the general relation Ω φ (w φ ) is obtained. The generic (nonlinearized) late-times solution of the system in the plane (w φ , Ω φ ) or (w φ , q) is also derived
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1989-12-01
Nuclear physics has provided one of the 2 critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. This paper reviews the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He--C and He--N and He--O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as 2 D plus 3 He are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N ν , is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of τ n = 890 ± 4s (τ 1/2 = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N ν = 2.6 ± 0.3 (1σ) providing a reasonable fit (1.3σ) to 3 families but making a fourth light (m ν approx-lt 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedingly unlikely (approx-gt 4.7σ) (barring significant systematic errors either in D + 3 He, and Li and/or 4 He and/or τ n ). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-hadron phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions. 21 refs., 3 figs
Cosmological quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C
2012-01-01
We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this transition in a rigorous way and discuss the importance of entanglement and decoherence in this process. We conclude with some prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area. These include extensions of current theoretical efforts, possible future observational pursuits, and experimental analogues that emulate these cosmic effects in a laboratory setting. (paper)
Schramm, David N.
1989-01-01
Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.
Cosmological helium production simplified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.
1988-01-01
We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a new scenario of the early universe that contains a pre-big bang ekpyrotic phase. By combining this with a ghost condensate, the theory explicitly violates the null energy condition without developing any ghostlike instabilities. Thus the contracting universe goes through a nonsingular bounce and evolves smoothly into the expanding post-big bang phase. The curvature perturbation acquires a scale-invariant spectrum well before the bounce in this scenario. It is sourced by the scale-invariant entropy perturbation engendered by two ekpyrotic scalar fields, a mechanism recently proposed by Lehners et al. Since the background geometry is nonsingular at all times, the curvature perturbation remains nearly constant on superhorizon scales. It emerges from the bounce unscathed and imprints a scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations in the matter-radiation fluid at the onset of the hot big bang phase. The ekpyrotic potential can be chosen so that the spectrum has a red tilt, in accordance with the recent data from WMAP. As in the original ekpyrotic scenario, the model predicts a negligible gravity wave signal on all observable scales. As such ''new ekpyrotic cosmology'' provides a consistent and distinguishable alternative to inflation to account for the origin of the seeds of large-scale structure
Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant
Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia
2016-02-01
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N -body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.
Cosmological abundance of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons
Kitajima, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Fuminobu
2018-06-01
We study the cosmological evolution of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons. For a moderately strong coupling, the motion of the axion field leads to an explosive production of hidden photons by tachyonic instability. We use lattice simulations to evaluate the cosmological abundance of the QCD axion. In doing so, we incorporate the backreaction of the produced hidden photons on the axion dynamics, which becomes significant in the non-linear regime. We find that the axion abundance is suppressed by at most O (102) for the decay constant fa =1016GeV, compared to the case without the coupling. For a sufficiently large coupling, the motion of the QCD axion becomes strongly damped, and as a result, the axion abundance is enhanced. Our results show that the cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by a few hundred for a certain range of the coupling to hidden photons.
Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.
Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia
2016-02-26
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rami, El-Nabulsi Ahmad
2009-01-01
Higher dimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant term are analyzed. Three independent cosmological models are explored mainly: 1) In the first model, the effective cosmological constant was chosen to decay with times like Δ effective = Ca -2 + D(b/a I ) 2 where a I is an arbitrary scale factor characterizing the isotropic epoch which proceeds the graceful exit period. Further, the extra-dimensional scale factor decays classically like b(t) approx. a x (t), x is a real negative number. 2) In the second model, we adopt in addition to Δ effective = Ca -2 + D(b/a I ) 2 the phenomenological law b(t) = a(t)exp( -Qt) as we expect that at the origin of time, there is no distinction between the visible and extra dimensions; Q is a real number. 3) In the third model, we study a Δ - decaying extra-dimensional cosmology with a static traversable wormhole in which the four-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime is subject to the conventional perfect fluid while the extra-dimensional part is endowed by an exotic fluid violating strong energy condition and where the cosmological constant in (3+n+1) is assumed to decays like Δ(a) = 3Ca -2 . The three models are discussed and explored in some details where many interesting points are revealed. (author)
Arbitrary scalar-field and quintessence cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Mak, M.K.
2014-01-01
The mechanism of the initial inflationary scenario of the Universe and of its late-time acceleration can be described by assuming the existence of some gravitationally coupled scalar fields φ, with the inflaton field generating inflation and the quintessence field being responsible for the late accelerated expansion. Various inflationary and late-time accelerated scenarios are distinguished by the choice of an effective self-interaction potential V(φ), which simulates a temporarily non-vanishing cosmological term. In this work, we present a new formalism for the analysis of scalar fields in flat isotropic and homogeneous cosmological models. The basic evolution equation of the models can be reduced to a first-order non-linear differential equation. Approximate solutions of this equation can be constructed in the limiting cases of the scalar-field kinetic energy and potential energy dominance, respectively, as well as in the intermediate regime. Moreover, we present several new accelerating and decelerating exact cosmological solutions, based on the exact integration of the basic evolution equation for scalar-field cosmologies. More specifically, exact solutions are obtained for exponential, generalized cosine hyperbolic, and power-law potentials, respectively. Cosmological models with power-law scalar field potentials are also analyzed in detail. (orig.)
Cluster cosmology with next-generation surveys.
Ascaso, B.
2017-03-01
The advent of next-generation surveys will provide a large number of cluster detections that will serve the basis for constraining cos mological parameters using cluster counts. The main two observational ingredients needed are the cluster selection function and the calibration of the mass-observable relation. In this talk, we present the methodology designed to obtain robust predictions of both ingredients based on realistic cosmological simulations mimicking the following next-generation surveys: J-PAS, LSST and Euclid. We display recent results on the selection functions for these mentioned surveys together with others coming from other next-generation surveys such as eROSITA, ACTpol and SPTpol. We notice that the optical and IR surveys will reach the lowest masses between 0.3
Cosmological tests of modified gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.
Partial rip scenario - a cosmology with a growing cosmological term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefancic, H.
2004-01-01
A cosmology with the growing cosmological term is considered. If there is no exchange of energy between vacuum and matter components, the requirement of general covariance implies the time dependence of the gravitational constant G. Irrespectively of the exact functional form of the cosmological term growth, the universe ends in a de Sitter regime with a constant asymptotic Λ, but vanishing G. Although there is no divergence of the scale factor in finite time, such as in the 'Big Rip' scenario, gravitationally bound systems eventually become unbound. In the case of systems bound by non-gravitational forces, there is no unbounding effect, as the asymptotic Λ is insufficiently large to disturb these systems
Zucker, M. H.
This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own
Cosmological tests of coupled Galileons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Gubitosi, Giulia
2015-01-01
We investigate the cosmological properties of Galileon models which admit Minkowski space as a stable solution in vacuum. This is motivated by stable, positive tension brane world constructions that give rise to Galileons. We include both conformal and disformal couplings to matter and focus on constraints on the theory that arise because of these couplings. The disformal coupling to baryonic matter is extremely constrained by astrophysical and particle physics effects. The disformal coupling to photons induces a cosmological variation of the speed of light and therefore distorsions of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum which are known to be very small. The conformal coupling to baryons leads to a variation of particle masses since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is also tightly constrained. We consider the background cosmology of Galileon models coupled to Cold Dark Matter (CDM), photons and baryons and impose that the speed of light and particle masses respect the observational bounds on cosmological time scales. We find that requiring that the equation of state for the Galileon models must be close to -1 now restricts severely their parameter space and can only be achieved with a combination of the conformal and disformal couplings. This leads to large variations of particle masses and the speed of light which are not compatible with observations. As a result, we find that cosmological Galileon models are viable dark energy theories coupled to dark matter but their couplings, both disformal and conformal, to baryons and photons must be heavily suppressed making them only sensitive to CDM
Relic gravitons and viscous cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Mella, Patricio
2006-01-01
Previously it was shown that there exists a class of viscous cosmological models which violate the dominant energy condition for a limited amount of time after which they are smoothly connected to the ordinary radiation era (which preserves the dominant energy conditions). This violation of the dominant energy condition at an early cosmological epoch may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons that might be of experimental relevance. However, the bulk viscosity coefficient of these cosmologies became negative during the ordinary radiation era, and then the entropy of the sources driving the geometry decreases with time. We show that in the presence of viscous sources with a linear barotropic equation of state p=γρ we get viscous cosmological models with positive bulk viscous stress during all their evolution, and hence the matter entropy increases with the expansion time. In other words, in the framework of viscous cosmologies, there exist isotropic models compatible with the standard second law of thermodynamics which also may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sehgal, Neelima; Trac, Hy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A.R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L.Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J.Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Doriese, W.Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.
2011-08-18
We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zeldovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.851 {+-} 0.115 and w = -1.14 {+-} 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.821 {+-} 0.044 and w = -1.05 {+-} 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernoava which give {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.802 {+-} 0.038 and w = -0.98 {+-} 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.
Cosmology in one dimension: Vlasov dynamics.
Manfredi, Giovanni; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Miller, Bruce; Shiozawa, Yui
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of self-gravitating systems are generally based on N-body codes, which solve the equations of motion of a large number of interacting particles. This approach suffers from poor statistical sampling in regions of low density. In contrast, Vlasov codes, by meshing the entire phase space, can reach higher accuracy irrespective of the density. Here, we perform one-dimensional Vlasov simulations of a long-standing cosmological problem, namely, the fractal properties of an expanding Einstein-de Sitter universe in Newtonian gravity. The N-body results are confirmed for high-density regions and extended to regions of low matter density, where the N-body approach usually fails.
Cosmological simulations of the first galaxies
Latif, M. A.
The study of the cosmos has mesmerized humans since many centuries. Our present knowledge of the Universe is based on the standard Big Bang theory. The detection of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the strongest evidences of the Big Bang model. The isotropy of the CMB shows that the
Second viscosity effects in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potupa, A.S.
1978-01-01
The object of the investigation is to draw attention to two important aspects in the choice of a substance model, namely an allowance for the viscosity and behaviour of the metrics at the later stages of cosmological evolution. It is shown that in homogeneous cosmological models taking into account the viscosity there are solutions which realize interpolation between the Fridman and steady-state regimes. In a closed model a solution is obtained which corresponds to the ''curvature compensation'' regime with an unboundedly increasing radius. The problem of compensation of singularity at t → o is discussed as well as the choice of the equations of state for the early (hadron) stages of cosmological evolution in connection with the hydrodynamic theory of multiple hadron production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert
2015-01-01
We derive the modified Friedmann equations for a generalization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model in which the brane has one additional compact dimension. The main new feature is the emission of gravitational waves into the bulk. We study two classes of solutions: first, if the compact dimension is stabilized, the waves vanish and one exactly recovers DGP cosmology. However, a stabilization by means of physical matter is not possible for a tension-dominated brane, thus implying a late time modification of 4D cosmology different from DGP. Second, for a freely expanding compact direction, we find exact attractor solutions with zero 4D Hubble parameter despite the presence of a 4D cosmological constant. The model hence constitutes an explicit example of dynamical degravitation at the full nonlinear level. Without stabilization, however, there is no 4D regime and the model is ruled out observationally, as we demonstrate explicitly by comparing to supernova data
Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos
2013-01-01
Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe. While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models. ...
Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group ... origin of the accelerating Universe: Dark energy and particle cosmology by Y-Y Keum, .... Neutrino oscillations with two and three mass varying supernova neutrinos ...
The current status of observational cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in quality, quantity and the scope of cosmological observations. The measurement .... In this article, we limit our attention to the simplest case of a cosmological ... On the large angular scales, the CMB anisotropy directly probes the primordial.
A philosophy for big-bang cosmology.
McCrea, W H
1970-10-03
According to recent developments in cosmology we seem bound to find a model universe like the observed universe, almost independently of how we suppose it started. Such ideas, if valid, provide fresh justification for the procedures of current cosmological theory.
Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.
2007-01-01
The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis
Particle accelerators test cosmological theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Steigman, G.
1988-01-01
Over the past decade two subfields of science, cosmology and elementary-particle physics, have become married in a symbiotic relationship that has produced a number of exciting offspring. These offspring are beginning to yield insights on the creation of spacetime and matter at epochs as early as 10 to the minus 43 to 10 to the minus 35 second after the birth of the universe in the primordial explosion known as the big bang. Important clues to the nature of the big bang itself may even come from a theory currently under development, known as the ultimate theory of everything (T.E.O.). A T.E.O. would describe all the interactions among the fundamental particles in a single bold stroke. Now that cosmology ahs begun to make predictions about elementary-particle physics, it has become conceivable that those cosmological predictions could be checked with carefully controlled accelerator experiments. It has taken more than 10 years for accelerators to reach the point where they can do the appropriate experiments, but the experiments are now in fact in progress. The preliminary results confirm the predictions of cosmology. The cosmological prediction the authors have been concerned with pertains to setting limits on the number of fundamental particles of matter. It appears that there are 12 fundamental particles, as well as their corresponding antiparticles. Six of the fundamental particles are quarks. The other six are leptons. The 12 particles are grouped in three families, each family consisting of four members. Cosmology suggests there must be a finite number of families and, further limits the possible range of to small values: only three or at most four families exist. 7 figs
Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew
2016-01-01
We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.
Brane cosmology with curvature corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios
2003-01-01
We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)
Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-01-01
It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)
Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamanini, Nicola [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wright, Matthew, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: matthew.wright.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2016-04-01
We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.
The Higgs Portal and Cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assamagan, Ketevi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Chien-Yi [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada); Chou, John Paul [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Curtin, David [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fedderke, Michael A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Gershtein, Yuri [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); He, Xiao-Gang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Klute, Markus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kozaczuk, Jonathon [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kotwal, Ashutosh [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Lowette, Steven [Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium); No, Jose Miguel [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Plehn, Tilman [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Qian, Jianming [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ramsey-Musolf, Michael [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Safonov, Alexei [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shelton, Jessie [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Spannowsky, Michael [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Su, Shufang [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Walker, Devin G. E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Willocq, Stephane [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Winslow, Peter [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
2016-04-18
Higgs portal interactions provide a simple mechanism for addressing two open problems in cosmology: dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. In the latter instance, Higgs portal interactions may contain the ingredients for a strong first-order electroweak phase transition as well as new CP-violating interactions as needed for electroweak baryogenesis. These interactions may also allow for a viable dark matter candidate. We survey the opportunities for probing the Higgs portal as it relates to these questions in cosmology at the LHC and possible future colliders.
Cosmology in the plasma universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfven, H.
1987-05-01
Space observations have opened the spectral regions of X-rays and γ-rays, which are produced by plasma processes. The Plasma Universe derived from observations in these regions is drastically different from the now generally accepted 'Visual Light Universe' based on visual light observations alone. Historically this transitions can be compared only to the transition from the geocentric to the heliocentric cosmology. The purpose of this paper is to discuss what criteria a cosmological theory must satisfy in order to be acceptable in the Plasma Universe. (author)
Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.
2009-01-01
function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with langzrang = 0.55 derived from 400 deg2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ≈ 0.05 clusters...