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Sample records for cosmid contiguous arrays

  1. Cloning chromosome specific genes by reciprocal probing of arrayed cDNA and cosmid libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, A.; Lee, C.C.; Wehnert, M. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A human gene map will greatly facilitate the association of genes to single locus diseases and provide candidates for genes involved in complex genetic traits. Given the estimated 100,000 human genes an integrated strategy with a high throughput approach for isolation and mapping of expressed sequences is needed to create such a gene map. We have developed an approach that allows high throughput gene isolation and mapping using arrayed genomic and cDNA lambda libraries. Reciprocal probing of the arrayed genomic and cDNA cosmic libraries can rapidly establish cDNA-cosmid associations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosomal mapping and expressed sequence tag/sequence tag site (EST/STS) primers generated from DNA sequence of PCR-based mapping using somatic hybrid cell line mapping panels were utilized to characterize further the hybridization-based cDNA cosmid association. We have applied this approach to chromosome 17 using a placental cDNA library and have identified a total of 30 genes out of which 11 are novel. Furthermore seven cDNAs were mapped to 17q21 in this study, providing novel candidate genes for BRCA-1 gene for early onset breast cancer. The results of our study clearly show that an integration of an expression map into physical and genetic maps can provide candidate genes for human diseases that have been mapped to specific regions. This approach combined with the current physical mapping efforts could efficiently provide a detailed human gene map.

  2. Maintaining Arrays of Contiguous Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael A.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Kamphans, Tom; Schweer, Nils

    In this paper we consider methods for dynamically storing a set of different objects (“modules”) in a physical array. Each module requires one free contiguous subinterval in order to be placed. Items are inserted or removed, resulting in a fragmented layout that makes it harder to insert further modules. It is possible to relocate modules, one at a time, to another free subinterval that is contiguous and does not overlap with the current location of the module. These constraints clearly distinguish our problem from classical memory allocation. We present a number of algorithmic results, including a bound of {Θ}(n^2) on physical sorting if there is a sufficiently large free space and sum up NP-hardness results for arbitrary initial layouts. For online scenarios in which modules arrive one at a time, we present a method that requires O(1) moves per insertion or deletion and amortized cost O(m_i lg hat{m}) per insertion or deletion, where m i is the module’s size, hat{m} is the size of the largest module and costs for moves are linear in the size of a module.

  3. Maintaining Arrays of Contiguous Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Michael A; Kamphans, Tom; Schweer, Nils

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider methods for dynamically storing a set of different objects ("modules") in a physical array. Each module requires one free contiguous subinterval in order to be placed. Items are inserted or removed, resulting in a fragmented layout that makes it harder to insert further modules. It is possible to relocate modules, one at a time, to another free subinterval that is contiguous and does not overlap with the current location of the module. These constraints clearly distinguish our problem from classical memory allocation. We present a number of algorithmic results, including a bound of Theta(n^2) on physical sorting if there is a sufficiently large free space and sum up NP-hardness results for arbitrary initial layouts. For online scenarios in which modules arrive one at a time, we present a method that requires O(1) moves per insertion or deletion and amortized cost O(m_i log M) per insertion or deletion, where m_i is the module's size, M is the size of the largest module and costs for ...

  4. In vivo repackaging of recombinant cosmid molecules for analyses of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus mutans, and mycobacterial genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W R; Barrett, J F; Clark-Curtiss, J E; Curtiss, R

    1986-04-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli K-12 were constructed that permitted the amplification of in vitro-packaged recombinant cosmid-transducing particles by in vivo repackaging of recombinant cosmid molecules. Thermal induction of these thermoinducible, excision-defective lysogens containing recombinant cosmid molecules yielded high titers of packaged recombinant cosmids and low levels of PFU. These strains were used to amplify packaged recombinant cosmid libraries of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium vaccae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Streptococcus mutans DNA. Contiguous and noncontiguous libraries were compared for the successful identification of cloned genes. Construction of noncontiguous libraries allowed the dissociation of desired genes from genes that were deleterious to the survival of a cosmid recombinant and permitted selection for unlinked traits that resulted in a selected phenotype. In vivo repackaging of recombinant cosmids permitted amplification of the original in vitro-packaged collection of transducing particles, storage of cosmid libraries as phage lysates, facilitation of complementation screening, expression analysis of repackaged recombinant cosmids after UV-irradiated cells were infected, in situ enzyme or immunological screening, and facilitation of recovery of recombinant cosmid molecules containing transposon inserts.

  5. Grating Lobe Characteristics of Arrays with Uniformly Illuminated Contiguous Subarrays,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    TR-S3-290 Own smbsr 1963 q~mGRA TING L OBE CHA RA CTER/S T/CS OF SARRA YS WITH UNIFORMLY ILL UMINA TED SCONTIGUOUS SUBA RRA YS Robert J. Mailloux...given by Eq. (10) with u s = u 0 and Af = 0. For arrays with more than 4 subarrays, the grating lobe is so narrow that the sine in the numerator of 10 is

  6. A 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region in 17p11.2-p12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Lupski, J.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-05-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a 1.5-Mb tandem duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-p12, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion at this locus. Both diseases appear to result from an altered copy number of the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene, PMP22, which maps within the critical region. To identify additional genes and characterize chromosomal elements, a 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region was assembled using a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based isolation and binning strategy. Whole YAC probes were used for screening a high-density arrayed chromosome 17-specific cosmid library. Selected cosmids were spotted on dot blots and assigned to bins defined by YACs. This binning of cosmids facilitated the subsequent fingerprint analysis. The 1.5-Mb region was covered by 137 cosmids with a minimum overlap set of 52 cosmids assigned to 17 bins and 9 contigs. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  7. A highly polymorphic locus in human DNA revealed by cosmid-derived probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Litt, M.; White, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Human gene mapping would be greatly facilitated if marker loci with sufficient heterozygosity were generally available. As a source of such markers, we have used cosmids from a human genomic library. We have developed a rapid method for screening random cosmids to identify those that are homologous to genomic regions especially rich in restriction fragment length polymorphisms. This method allows whole cosmids to be used as probes against Southern transfers of genomic DNA; regions of cosmid p...

  8. Isolation of genes (nif/hup cosmids) involved in hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in Rhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, S S; Graham, L A; Maier, R J

    1985-03-01

    Recombinant cosmids containing a Rhizobium japonicum gene involved in both hydrogenase (Hup) and nitrogenase (Nif) activities were isolated. An R. japonicum gene bank utilizing broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR1 was conjugated into Hup- Nif- R. japonicum strain SR139. Transconjugants containing the nif/hup cosmid were identified by their resistance to tetracycline (Tcr) and ability to grow chemoautotrophically (Aut+) with hydrogen. All Tcr Aut+ transconjugants possessed high levels of H2 uptake activity, as determined amperometrically. Moreover, all Hup+ transconjugants tested possessed the ability to reduce acetylene (Nif+) in soybean nodules. Cosmid DNAs from 19 Hup+ transconjugants were transferred to Escherichia coli by transformation. When the cosmids were restricted with EcoRI, 15 of the 19 cosmids had a restriction pattern with 13.2-, 4.0-, 3.0-, and 2.5-kilobase DNA fragments. Six E. coli transformants containing the nif/hup cosmids were conjugated with strain SR139. All strain SR139 transconjugants were Hup+ Nif+. Moreover, one nif/hup cosmid was transferred to 15 other R. japonicum Hup- mutants. Hup+ transconjugants of six of the Hup- mutants appeared at a frequency of 1.0, whereas the transconjugants of the other nine mutants remained Hup-. These results indicate that the nif/hup gene cosmids contain a gene involved in both nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities and at least one and perhaps other hup genes which are exclusively involved in H2 uptake activity.

  9. Isolation of β-globin related genes from a human cosmid library.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G. Grosveld (Frank); H.H.M. Dahl; R.A. Flavell (Richard); E. de Boer (Ernie)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractA human gene library was constructed using an improved cloning technique for cosmid vectors. Human placental DNA was partially digested with restriction endonuclease MboI; size-fractionated and ligated to BamHI-cut and phosphatase-treated cosmid vector pJB8. After packaging in lambda pha

  10. Construction of cosmid genomic libraries for the normal and myopathic Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, J D; Jandreski, M A; Liew, J; Sole, M J; Liew, C C

    1987-11-01

    Cosmid genomic libraries from both normal and myopathic Syrian hamsters have been constructed. MboI was used to generate 35- to 50-kilobase DNA fragments which were isolated from a 5-25% NaCl gradient. The 35- to 50-kilobase DNA fragments were ligated to the cosmid vector pCV108 and packaged into Escherichia coli DK1. Approximately 3 X 10(5) - 4 X 10(5) clones were obtained per microgram of ligated DNA. Thirteen clones have been isolated from 2 X 10(5) colonies using a cardiac myosin heavy chain clone as a probe. Restriction maps of two of these clones are presented here.

  11. Versatile Cosmid Vectors for the Isolation, Expression, and Rescue of Gene Sequences: Studies with the Human α -globin Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yun-Fai; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1983-09-01

    We have developed a series of cosmids that can be used as vectors for genomic recombinant DNA library preparations, as expression vectors in mammalian cells for both transient and stable transformations, and as shuttle vectors between bacteria and mammalian cells. These cosmids were constructed by inserting one of the SV2-derived selectable gene markers-SV2-gpt, SV2-DHFR, and SV2-neo-in cosmid pJB8. High efficiency of genomic cloning was obtained with these cosmids and the size of the inserts was 30-42 kilobases. We isolated recombinant cosmids containing the human α -globin gene cluster from these genomic libraries. The simian virus 40 DNA in these selectable gene markers provides the origin of replication and enhancer sequences necessary for replication in permissive cells such as COS 7 cells and thereby allows transient expression of α -globin genes in these cells. These cosmids and their recombinants could also be stably transformed into mammalian cells by using the respective selection systems. Both of the adult α -globin genes were more actively expressed than the embryonic zeta -globin genes in these transformed cell lines. Because of the presence of the cohesive ends of the Charon 4A phage in the cosmids, the transforming DNA sequences could readily be rescued from these stably transformed cells into bacteria by in vitro packaging of total cellular DNA. Thus, these cosmid vectors are potentially useful for direct isolation of structural genes.

  12. Cloning of a third nitrate reductase gene from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 using a shuttle cosmid library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlemeier, C.J.; Teeuwsen, V.J.P.; Janssen, M.J.T.; Arkel, G.A. van

    1984-01-01

    A strategy for gene cloning in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 was developed which made use of a gene library constructed in a shuttle cosmid vector. The method involved phenotypic complementation of mutants with pooled cosmid DNA. The development of the procedure and its application to the

  13. A chromosome 21-specific cosmid cocktail for the detection of chromosome 21 aberrations in interphase nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); J.O. van Hmel (J.); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); A. van der Heide (Annette); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); P.A. In't Veld (Peter); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 21q11-specific probe (CB21c1) consisting of three non-overlapping cosmids has been applied to interphase amniocytes of pregnancies at increased risk for fetal aneuploidy (N = 78) and to interphase lymphocytes, cultured and uncultured, of pa

  14. A chromosome 21-specific cosmid cocktail for the detection of chromosome 21 aberrations in interphase nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); J.O. van Hmel (J.); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); A. van der Heide (Annette); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); P.A. In't Veld (Peter); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 21q11-specific probe (CB21c1) consisting of three non-overlapping cosmids has been applied to interphase amniocytes of pregnancies at increased risk for fetal aneuploidy (N = 78) and to interphase lymphocytes, cultured and uncultured, of pa

  15. The construction of cosmid libraries which can be used to transform eukaryotic cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G. Grosveld (Frank); T. Lund; E.J. Murray; A.L. Mellor; H.H.M. Dahl; R.A. Flavell (Richard)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractCosmid vectors have been developed which carry selective markers for growth in bacteria (beta lactamase gene) and animal cells (the Herpes Simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, the transposon Tn-5 aminoglycosyl 3' phosphotransferase gene and the E. coli guanine phosphoribosyltransferase g

  16. Isolation of cosmid and cDNA clones in the region surrounding the BTK gene at Xq21.3-q22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorechovsky, I.; Zhou, J.N.; Hammarstroem, L. [Karolinska Institute, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    A regional physical and transcription map involving yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), cosmids, and cDNAs has been constructed for Xq21.3-q22 around the gene BTK (formerly atk or BPK) defective in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). With a positional cloning strategy employing direct cDNA selection, novel cDNAs were found to cluster in the region of approximately 100 kb flanking the XLA and {alpha}-galactosidase A loci. While these widely expressed transcripts are in the area known to contain CpG islands, a less evolutionarily conserved gene, located more than 130 kb distal of DXS178, maps to cosmid clones that could not be digested with rare-cutting restriction enzymes. The presence of transcribed sequences flanking the BTK allowed investigation of their involvement in complex XLA phenotypes. Southern blot analysis using cDNA clones isolated from this region permitted exclusion of a contiguous deletion syndrome as an underlying defect in three patients with XLA and associated growth hormone deficiency. A single XLA patient with torsion dystonia and cosegregating X-linked deafness has been found with a deletion in the 3{prime} part of BTK extending centromerically into the flanking expressed sequence DXS1274E. This suggests a possible involvement of the DXS1274E in this phenotype. The GenBank accession numbers for novel cDNA sequences are as follows: DXS1269E (L20773), DXS1271E (UO1923), DXS1273E (UO1925), and DXS1274E (UO1922). 51 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Versatile broad-host-range cosmids for construction of high quality metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Pinnell, Lee; Engel, Katja; Neufeld, Josh D; Charles, Trevor C

    2014-04-01

    We constructed IncP broad-host-range Gateway® entry cosmids pJC8 and pJC24, which replicate in diverse Proteobacteria. We demonstrate the functionality of these vectors by extracting, purifying, and size-selecting metagenomic DNA from agricultural corn and wheat soils, followed by cloning into pJC8. Metagenomic DNA libraries of 8×10(4) (corn soil) and 9×10(6) (wheat soil) clones were generated for functional screening. The DNA cloned in these libraries can be transferred from these recombinant cosmids to Gateway® destination vectors for specialized screening purposes. Those library clones are available from the Canadian MetaMicroBiome Library project (http://www.cm2bl.org/).

  18. Identification of cDNAs by direct hybridization using cosmid probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, G.G.; Lieuallen, K.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to quickly obtain as many chromosome-specific cDNAs with as much map and sequence detail as possible. Many techniques have been proposed to isolate and identify genes within defined genomic regions; the technique discussed here is direct hybridization of a relatively complex genomic probe, an entire cosmid clone, to cDNA libraries. This method continues to be a straightforward technique with a fair number of successes.

  19. Novel high- and low-copy stable cosmids for use in Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, D R; Novak, S; Kado, C I

    1985-09-01

    Presented are a set of cosmids based on the unit copy Agrobacterium plasmid, pTAR, and the high-copy-number mutant plasmid, pUCD500, of pTiC58. The addition of a par function derived from pTAR to the vectors allowed them to be stably maintained throughout the cell population in the absence of selective pressure. These vectors, designed for Agrobacterium and Rhizobium, also work in Escherichia coli. The vectors can be cotransferred to Rhizobiaceae from E. coli with the helper plasmid, pRK2013. The pTiC58 origin containing vectors, pUCD1000 and pUCD1001 were found to be incompatible with a 250-kb plasmid harbored by R. meliloti RM102Z1. RM102Z1(pUCD1000) was still capable of nodulating roots in alfalfa.

  20. Isolation and characterization of the human collagen α1(I)-like gene from a cosmid library.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Weiss (Elisabeth); K.S.E. Cheah (Kathryn); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); H.H.M. Dahl; E. Solomon; R.A. Flavell (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe have isolated a human collagen alpha 1(I)-like gene from a cosmid library. The clone which contains 37kb of human DNA has been shown to contain this gene by DNA sequencing, hybrid arrest and hybrid selection assays and Northern blot hybridizations. The collagen gene sequence extends

  1. Isolation and characterization of the human collagen α1(I)-like gene from a cosmid library.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Weiss (Elisabeth); K.S.E. Cheah (Kathryn); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); H.H.M. Dahl; E. Solomon; R.A. Flavell (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe have isolated a human collagen alpha 1(I)-like gene from a cosmid library. The clone which contains 37kb of human DNA has been shown to contain this gene by DNA sequencing, hybrid arrest and hybrid selection assays and Northern blot hybridizations. The collagen gene sequence extends t

  2. Island rescue PCR: a rapid and efficient method for isolating transcribed sequences from yeast artificial chromosomes and cosmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, J M; Tagle, D A; Collins, F S

    1994-06-07

    The identification of transcripts from large genomic regions cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) or cosmids continues to be a critical and often rate-limiting step in positional cloning of human disease genes. We have developed a PCR-based method for rapid and efficient generation of probes from YACs or cosmids that can be used for cDNA library screening. The method, which we call island rescue PCR (IRP), is based upon the observation that the 5' ends of many genes are associated with (G+C)-rich regions called CpG islands. In IRP, the YAC of interest is digested with a restriction enzyme that recognizes sequences of high CpG content, and vectorette linkers are ligated to the cleaved ends. The PCR is used to amplify the region extending from the cleaved restriction enzyme site to the nearest SINE (Alu) repeat. In many cases this product contains sequences from the 5' end of the associated gene. cDNA clones isolated with these products are then verified by mapping them back to the original YAC. The method allows rapid screening of > 500 kb of human genomic insert in one experiment, is tolerant of contaminating yeast sequences, and can also be applied to cosmid pools. In a control experiment, the method was able to identify cDNA clones for the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene using a probe generated from a YAC in the region. Application of IRP has yielded nine other genes from YACs isolated from chromosome locations 4p16.3 and 17q21.

  3. Scanning for genes in large genomic regions: cosmid-based exon trapping of multiple exons in a single product.

    OpenAIRE

    Datson, N.A.; Vosse, E van de; Dauwerse, H.G.; Bout, M; van Ommen, G J; J T den Dunnen

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate the scanning of large genomic regions for the presence of exonic gene segments we have constructed a cosmid-based exon trap vector. The vector serves a dual purpose since it is also suitable for contig construction and physical mapping. The exon trap cassette of vector sCOGH1 consists of the human growth hormone gene driven by the mouse mettallothionein-1 promoter. Inserts are cloned in the multicloning site located in intron 2 of the hGH gene. The efficiency of the system is de...

  4. Cloning and expression of core gene cDNA of Chinese hepatitis C virus in cosmid pTM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Long Jiang; Qiao Sheng Lu; Kang Xian Luo

    2000-01-01

    AIM To clone core gene cDNA of Chinese hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) into eukaryotic expression vector cosmid pTM3 and to express HCV core antigen in HepG2 cells. METHODS Core gene cDNA of HCV was introduced into eukaryotic expression vector cosmid pTM3. Using vaccinia virus/bacteriophage T7 hybrid expression system,HepG2 cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid pTM3-Q534 by lipofectin. RESULTS From the transfected bacteria Top10F′, 2 pTM3-Q534 clones containing the recombinant plasmid were identified from randomly selected 10 ampicillin-resistant colonies. By reverse transcription PCR and indirect immunofluorescence technique, HCV RNA and core protein was identified in HepG2 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid.CONCLUSION The construction of a recombinant plasmid and the expression of core gene cDNA of HCV in HepG2 was successful.

  5. COSMID: A Web-based Tool for Identifying and Validating CRISPR/Cas Off-target Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Cradick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise genome editing using engineered nucleases can significantly facilitate biological studies and disease treatment. In particular, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR with CRISPR-associated (Cas proteins are a potentially powerful tool for modifying a genome by targeted cleavage of DNA sequences complementary to designed guide strand RNAs. Although CRISPR/Cas systems can have on-target cleavage rates close to the transfection rates, they may also have relatively high off-target cleavage at similar genomic sites that contain one or more base pair mismatches, and insertions or deletions relative to the guide strand. We have developed a bioinformatics-based tool, COSMID (CRISPR Off-target Sites with Mismatches, Insertions, and Deletions that searches genomes for potential off-target sites (http://crispr.bme.gatech.edu. Based on the user-supplied guide strand and input parameters, COSMID identifies potential off-target sites with the specified number of mismatched bases and insertions or deletions when compared with the guide strand. For each site, amplification primers optimal for the chosen application are also given as output. This ranked-list of potential off-target sites assists the choice and evaluation of intended target sites, thus helping the design of CRISPR/Cas systems with minimal off-target effects, as well as the identification and quantification of CRISPR/Cas induced off-target cleavage in cells.

  6. Scanning for genes in large genomic regions: cosmid-based exon trapping of multiple exons in a single product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datson, N A; van de Vosse, E; Dauwerse, H G; Bout, M; van Ommen, G J; den Dunnen, J T

    1996-03-15

    To facilitate the scanning of large genomic regions for the presence of exonic gene segments we have constructed a cosmid-based exon trap vector. The vector serves a dual purpose since it is also suitable for contig construction and physical mapping. The exon trap cassette of vector sCOGH1 consists of the human growth hormone gene driven by the mouse mettallothionein-1 promoter. Inserts are cloned in the multicloning site located in intron 2 of the hGH gene. The efficiency of the system is demonstrated with cosmids containing multiple exons of the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy gene. All exons present in the inserts were successfully retrieved and no cryptic products were detected. Up to seven exons were isolated simultaneously in a single spliced product. The system has been extended by a transcription-translation-test protocol to determine the presence of large open reading frames in the trapped products, using a combination of tailed PCR primers directing protein synthesis in three different reading frames, followed by in vitro transcription-translation. Having larger stretches of coding sequence in a single exon trap product rather than small single exons greatly facilitates further analysis of potential genes and offers new possibilities for direct mutation analysis of exon trap material.

  7. A versatile shuttle cosmid vector for the efficient construction of genomic libraries and for the cloning of fungal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiewacz, H D

    1994-07-01

    A shuttle cosmid vector, pANsCos1, has been constructed for Escherichia coli and filamentous fungi. This vector contains two cos sequences separated by a single XbaI restriction site. pANsCos1 allows the efficient construction of representative genomic libraries from as little as 15-20 micrograms of genomic DNA. Due to the presence of a functional hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) transformation of fungal protoplasts with pAN-sCos1, or derivatives of it, results in the formation of hygromycin B-resistant transformants. The T7 and T3 RNA polymerase promoter sequences flanking the cloning site, in combination with two adjacent NotI sites facilitate genomic walking and the rapid construction of restriction maps of cloned inserts.

  8. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k larges...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  9. YAC cosmid contigs spanning the Batten disease (CLN3) region at 16p12.1-p11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervelae, I.E.; Mitchison, H.M.; O`Rawe, A.M.; Munroe, P.B. [Rayne Institute, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-20

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig has been constructed in 16p12.1-p11.2 that encompasses three loci (D16S288, D16S299, and D16S298) closely linked to the gene causing Batten disease or juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN3). The physical map has been ordered using 42 sequence tagged sites. Four genes, interleukin-4 receptor (ILA4R), phenol-preferring phenol sulfotransferase (STP), monoamine preferring phenol sulfotransferase (STM), and sialophorin (SPN), have been mapped to the YAC contig. A partial genomic restriction map has been constructed to confirm the order and distances between D16S288 and STM. This part of the YAC contig is represented in eight cosmid contigs. One of these contains D16S298, predicted to be the locus closest to CLN3. The overlapping genomic clones are a valuable resource for cloning the Batten gene (CLN3) and other genes in the region. 45 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of 342 new cosmid markers including 43 RFLP markers on human chromosome 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazawa, Johji; Ariyama, Takeshi; Abe, Tatsuo (Kyoto Prefectual Univ. of Medicine (Japan)); Saito, Hiroko; Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 17 with 342 cosmid markers, each newly isolated from a cosmid library constructed from a human-mouse hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 17. Direct mapping on R- and/or G-banded (pro)metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized these markers throughout the chromosome, although density was highest in the R-band-dominant regions of 17p13, 17p11.2, 17q11.2-q12, 17q21.3, 17q23, and 17q25. By screening some of the cosmid clones, they identified 71 polymorphic systems with 43 markers; 11 of these are VNTRs. As the high-resolution cytogenetic map contains a large number of markers, it can provide useful landmarks for a contig map of chromosome 17. Furthermore, the map will contribute to positional cloning of aberrant genes responsible for inherited diseases such as Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), and familial early-onset breast cancer, as well as putative tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome. 47 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Insecticidal Toxin “Makes Caterpillars Floppy” in Photorhabdus temperata M1021 Using a Cosmid Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ullah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photorhabdus temperata is an entomopathogenic enterobacterium; it is a nematode symbiont that possesses pathogenicity islands involved in insect virulence. Herein, we constructed a P. temperata M1021 cosmid library in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF` and obtained 7.14 × 105 clones. However, only 1020 physiologically active clones were screened for insect virulence factors by injection of each E. coli cosmid clone into Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor larvae. A single cosmid clone, PtC1015, was consequently selected due to its characteristic virulent properties, e.g., loss of body turgor followed by death of larvae when the clone was injected into the hemocoel. The sequence alignment against the available sequences in Swiss-Prot and NCBI databases, confirmed the presence of the mcf gene homolog in the genome of P. temperata M1021 showing 85% homology and 98% query coverage with the P. luminescens counterpart. Furthermore, a 2932 amino acid long Mcf protein revealed limited similarity with three protein domains. The N-terminus of the Mcf encompassed consensus sequence for a BH3 domain, the central region revealed similarity to toxin B, and the C-terminus of Mcf revealed similarity to the bacterial export domain of ApxIVA, an RTX-like toxin. In short, the Mcf toxin is likely to play a role in the elimination of insect pests, making it a promising model for use in the agricultural field.

  12. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan eOstojic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity. Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain.

  13. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  14. Granger causality and contiguity between stochastic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triacca, Umberto [Universita di L' Aquila, Roio Poggio, I-67040 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: triacca@ec.univaq.it

    2007-03-05

    Although according to many econometricians the definition of causality proposed by Granger differs from other definitions of causation in the philosophy of science, in this Letter we argue that it is not completely lacking in philosophical legitimacy. We attempt to shed new light on the nexus between Granger causality and the concept of contiguity. In particular, we prove that the existence of a Granger causal link between two stochastic processes requires that these be 'contiguous' or that there exist a chain of processes, one contiguous to the next, which link the two processes.

  15. A 350-kb cosmid contig in 3p14.2 that crosses the t(3;8) hereditary renal cell carcinoma translocation breakpoint and 17 aphidicolin-induced FRA3B breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradee, W. [Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Wilke, C.M.; Hoge, A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-11

    The constitutive fragile site at human chromosomal band 3p14.2, FRA3B, has been described as the most active common fragile site in the human genome. Previous work demonstrated that a 1330-kb YAC clone, YC850A6, spans both the t(3;8) translocation and FRA3B and also encompasses FRA3B-associated breakpoints was used to construct a multi-hit cosmid library. Screening of this library resulted in a 350-kb cosmid contig that extends distally from the t(3;8) translocation breakpoint. Seventeen aphidicolin-induced 3p14.2 breakpoints derived from hamster-human hybrids were mapped within this cosmid contig. These breakpoints were found to localize as two distinct clusters, separated by 200 kb, which lie on either side of a region of frequent breakage within FRA3B as defined by FISH analysis using cosmids from the contigs. The distribution of these breakpoints, together with the region of frequent chromosomal breakage mapped by FISH analysis, further confirms the position of FRA3B comprises several hundred kilobases of DNA sequence within 3p14.2. The 350-kb contig and the cosmid library constructed from YAC YC850A6 will be essential for further characterization of the region surrounding FRA3B and in experiments to determine the molecular basis of the fragility of FRA3B.

  16. Construction of 110 cosmid markers and a 4.5-Mb YAC contig on human chromosome 8p12-q11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kumano, Satoshi; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Tottori Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    Microcell hybrids containing various regions of human chromosome 8 were formed by microcell-mediated transfer of neo-tagged chromosome 8 into the cells derived from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse. Thus, 110 cosmid markers were isolated from SV40-transformed SCID fibroblast cell line (SCVA) containing a p12-q11.1 region of human chromosome 8 and were assigned to eight regions in 8p12-q11.1, using a microcell-hybrid panel. For positional cloning of a human gene that restores the DNA-repair defect in a mouse with SCID on 8p11.1-q11.1 (SCID region), we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of about 4.5 Mb. Overlapping YACs were further aligned by restriction mapping, using rare-cutting restriction endonucleases. The cosmids and YAC contig should facilitate isolation of the SCID gene and other genes, such as the Werner syndrome-responsible gene in or near this region. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  17. A Causal Contiguity Effect That Persists across Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Asli; Criss, Amy H.; Howard, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    The contiguity effect refers to the tendency to recall an item from nearby study positions of the just recalled item. Causal models of contiguity suggest that recalled items are used as probes, causing a change in the memory state for subsequent recall attempts. Noncausal models of the contiguity effect assume the memory state is unaffected by…

  18. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  19. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  20. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  1. 一种用于构建红色红曲霉基因组cosmid文库的大片段DNA制备方法%Construct cosmid libraries by isolating large genomie DNA fragments from Monascus ruber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安洋; 杨晶; 徐欣欣; 刘钢

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To isolate large genomic DNA fragments from Monascus ruber for the construction of cosmid libraries. [Methods] Modified phenol-chloroform method was used to isolate genomic DNA. The isolated genomic DNA was digested by Sau3 AI to 40kb fragments on average. Then, the fragments were packaged by Stratagene's Gigapack Ⅲ XL packaging extract. A pair of degenerate primers were used to amplify a fragment of PKS ( polyketide synthase) gene from this cosmid library. [ Results] The average size of genomic DNA isolated by this method was larger than 48 kb, with a concentration of 5 μg/μl. The constructed cosmid libraries had 10 folders coverage of the Monascus spp. genome. A cosmid containing the homologue of PKS gene was obtained by PCR screening. [ Conclusion] This modified method of isolating large fragments genomic DNA of Monascus ruber was efficient and feasible.%[目的]制备用于构建红色红曲霉cosmid文库的大片段基因组DNA.[方法]采用优化的酚氯仿抽提法制备DNA,并利用Sau3AI切割至平均大小为40 kh,然后使用Stratagene包装蛋白构建cosmid文库.基于PCR法使用同源探针从该文库中进行了目的基因的筛选.[结果]制备了浓度为5μg/μL,平均片段大小大于48 kh的红色红曲霉大片段基因组DNA.利用该DNA构建的cosmid文库基因组覆盖倍数为10,并筛选到了含有目的片段的cosmid.[结论]通过该方法制备红色红曲霉大片段基因组DNA简便易行并且完全可以用于构建cosmid文库.

  2. Non-Contiguous Pattern Avoidance in Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Dairyko, Michael; Tyner, Samantha; Wynn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the enumeration of binary trees avoiding non-contiguous binary tree patterns. We begin by computing closed formulas for the number of trees avoiding a single binary tree pattern with 4 or fewer leaves and compare these results to analogous work for contiguous tree patterns. Next, we give an explicit generating function that counts binary trees avoiding a single non-contiguous tree pattern according to number of leaves. In addition, we enumerate binary trees that simultaneously avoid more than one tree pattern. Finally, we explore connections between pattern-avoiding trees and pattern-avoiding permutations.

  3. Room evacuation through two contiguous exits

    CERN Document Server

    Sticco, I M; Dorso, C O

    2016-01-01

    Current regulations demand that at least two exits should be available for a safe evacuation during a panic situation. Although the "faster is slower" effect is expected to take place near the exits, the evacuation time will improve because of the additional exits. However, rooms having contiguous doors not always reduce the leaving time as expected. We investigated the relation between the doors separation and the evacuation performance. We found that there exists a separation distance range that does not really improve the evacuation time, or it can even worsen the process performance. To our knowledge, no attention has been given to this issue in the literature. This work reports how the pedestrians dynamics differ when the separation distance between two exit doors changes and how this affects the overall performance.

  4. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  5. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  6. Spatial neighborhood matrix computation: Inverse distance weighted versus binary contiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Negreiros, J

    2009-01-01

    Paper presented at Geo-Spatial Crossroad GI_Forum, Salzburg, Austria. A particular GIS aspect is the existence of the spatial neighborhood weighted matrix (W) needed for their assessment and commonly setup by the binary or inverse distance weight (IDW)contiguity. This article recommends that if the former approach fulfills W specification quite well, the distance decay contiguity of IDW, by itself, is blinded to its natural neighbors because the exponent of 1/dexp already underlies the con...

  7. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran...

  8. Beam pattern of sparse array for passive sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoqing; WANG Meigang

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at sparse array without grating lobe for passive sonar, in order to increase frequency band of the passive sonar and reduce the cost. According to traditional method, the distance between two contiguous sensors in sonar array should be less than the wavelength of highest frequency of the signal; otherwise the grating lobe appears on beam pattern. The paper realizes that the conclusion of the grating lobe emergence it is not fit to the passive sonar due to the sine wave signal model in traditional method, in fact the input of passive sonar is random signal. From three aspect of the computer simulation, real passive sonar signal and theory analysis, it is revealed that the grating lobe does not appear on beam pattern when the distance between two contiguous sensors in passive sonar array is longer than wavelength of highest frequency. Whitening of the radiated noise can widen the frequency band,to ensure the beam pattern without the grating lobe. The conclusion of the paper is: if the band of radiated noise is wide enough (broader than 1 octave), that the wavelength of signal can be shorter than the distance between two contiguous sensors in passive sonar without grating lobe.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00819-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 61 acaaaatnnacnagntnnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaa 120 Query: 121 tnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccna...||||||||||||| Sbjct: 121 tnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccnagntcnacnagntcnacaaaacc 167 >Contig-U16510-1 (Contig-U16510...aagctcaacaaaatcaacaagctcaacaaaatcaacaagctcaacaaa 2335 Query: 102 atnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccna...uery: 102 atnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccnagntcnacnagntcnac 161 || || || || ||||||| || || |||||||...173 acaaaatnnacnagntnnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaa 114 Query: 121 tnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccna

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14752-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ....done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AY072054_1( AY072054 |pid:none) Prorocentrum minimum...elegans cosmid M02B7, c... 53 3e-06 >AY072054_1( AY072054 |pid:none) Prorocentrum minimum calmodulin mRNA, p

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cosmid B028... 39 0.037 AY763407_1( AY763407 |pid:none) Danio rerio leftover/righton-like ... 35 0.045 BC163...taining protein KCTD16; 36 2.5 AY763408_1( AY763408 |pid:none) Danio rerio leftover/righton-like ... 36 2.5

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11582-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n-2; Short=Ten-2; AltName... 37 4.9 M33753_1( M33753 |pid:none) D.melanogaster crumbs protein mRNA, co... 37...ns Cosmid T01D3, c... 37 4.9 ( P10040 ) RecName: Full=Protein crumbs; AltName: Fu

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15687-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available norhabditis elegans cosmid K08A8, complete seque... 46 6.6 1 ( EF591673 ) Tribolium castaneum Antennagalea a...nd Df(HOMC) bre... 46 6.6 1 ( AY920535 ) Tribolium castaneum Antennagalea breakpoint 3 seq... 46 6.6 1 ( AP0

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11511-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e g... 34 4.6 19 ( AF003740 ) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid C41D11, complete se... 38 5.3 3 ( AC209589 ) Solanum lycopersicum cv. Hei...nz 1706, chromosome 5... 40 5.4 5 ( AB009049 ) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, ch

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03756-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s panic... 38 2e-06 4 ( BW587469 ) Ciona savignyi cDNA, clone:csef030d09, 3'end, sin... 40 3e-06 3 ( AF435805 ) Malus micromalus...tis elegans cosmid F09C12, ... 97 7e-53 AF435805_1( AF435805 |pid:none) Malus micromalus mitogen-activated..

  16. 14 CFR 99.43 - Contiguous U.S. ADIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contiguous U.S. ADIZ. 99.43 Section 99.43... Zones § 99.43 Contiguous U.S. ADIZ. The area bounded by a line from 43°15′N, 65°55′W; 44°21′N; 67°16′W...; 25°58′N; 97°07′W; westward along the U.S./Mexico border to 32°32′03″N, 117°07′25″W; 32°30′N;...

  17. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  18. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    wiring on the back of the panel. Each step increases the potential for occurrence of latent defects, loss of process control, and attrition of components. An EMCSA panel includes an integral cover made from a transparent material. The silicone cover supplants the individual cover glasses on the cells and serves as an additional unitary structural support that offers the advantage, relative to glass, of the robust, forgiving nature of the silcone material. The cover contains pockets that hold the solar cells in place during the lamination process. The cover is coated with indium tin oxide to make its surface electrically conductive, so that it serves as a contiguous, electrically grounded shield over the entire panel surface. The cells are mounted in proximity to metallic printed wiring. The painted-wiring layer comprises metal-film traces on a sheet of Kapton (or equivalent) polyimide. The traces include contact pads on one side of the sheet for interconnecting the cells. Return leads are on the opposite side of the sheet, positioned to form the return currents substantially as mirror images of, and in proximity to, the cell sheet currents, thereby minimizing magnetic moments. The printed-wiring arrangement mimics the back-wiring arrangement of conventional solar arrays, but the current-loop areas and the resulting magnetic moments are much smaller because the return-current paths are much closer to the solar-cell sheet currents. The contact pads are prepared with solder fo electrical and mechanical bonding to the cells. The pocketed cover/shield, the solar cells, the printed-wiring layer, an electrical bonding agent, a mechanical-bonding agent, a composite structural front-side face sheet, an aluminum honeycomb core, and a composite back-side face sheet are all assembled, then contact pads are soldered to the cells and the agents are cured in a single lamination process.

  19. Chemical systems, chemical contiguity and the emergence of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kee, Terrence P.; Monnard, Pierre Alain

    2017-01-01

    to complex chemical systems over specific isolated functional apparatuses. We will summarize the recent advances in system chemistry and show that chemical systems in the geochemical context imply a form of chemical contiguity in the syntheses of the various molecules that precede modern biomolecules....

  20. Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome: report of an autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Yamagata, Takanori; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Itoh, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hironaka, Mitsugu; Honda, Ayako; Momoi, Mariko Y; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome (CADDS) is a contiguous deletion syndrome involving the ABCD1 and DXS1357E/BAP31 genes on Xq28. Although ABCD1 is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), its phenotype differs from that of CADDS, which manifests with many features of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), including severe growth and developmental retardation, liver dysfunction, cholestasis and early infantile death. We report here the fourth case of CADDS, in which a boy had dysmorphic features, including a flat orbital edge, hypoplastic nose, micrognathia, inguinal hernia, micropenis, cryptorchidism and club feet, all of which are shared by ZS. The patient achieved no developmental milestones and died of pneumonia at 8 months. Biochemical studies demonstrated abnormal metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, which was higher than that seen in X-ALD. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot showed the absence of ALD protein (ALDP) despite the presence of other peroxisomal proteins. Pathological studies disclosed a small brain with hypomyelination and secondary hypoxic-ischemic changes. Neuronal heterotopia in the white matter and leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia indicated a neuronal migration disorder. The liver showed fibrosis and cholestasis. The thymus and adrenal glands were hypoplastic. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis suggested that the deletion was a genomic rearrangement in the 90-kb span starting in DXS1357E/BACP31 exon 4 and included ABCD1, PLXNB3, SRPK3, IDH3G and SSR4, ending in PDZD4 exon 8. Thus, the absence of ALDP, when combined with defects in the B-cell antigen receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) and other factors, severely affects VLCFA metabolism on peroxisomal functions and produces ZS-like pathology.

  1. Chemiluminescent detection of sequential DNA hybridizations to high-density, filter-arrayed cDNA libraries: a subtraction method for novel gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiliano, D; Ganatra, M; Ware, J; Parrot, J; Daub, J; Moran, L; Brennecke, H; Foster, J M; Supali, T; Blaxter, M; Scott, A L; Williams, S A; Slatko, B E

    1999-07-01

    A chemiluminescent approach for sequential DNA hybridizations to high-density filter arrays of cDNAs, using a biotin-based random priming method followed by a streptavidin/alkaline phosphatase/CDP-Star detection protocol, is presented. The method has been applied to the Brugia malayi genome project, wherein cDNA libraries, cosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have been gridded at high density onto nylon filters for subsequent analysis by hybridization. Individual probes and pools of rRNA probes, ribosomal protein probes and expressed sequence tag probes show correct specificity and high signal-to-noise ratios even after ten rounds of hybridization, detection, stripping of the probes from the membranes and rehybridization with additional probe sets. This approach provides a subtraction method that leads to a reduction in redundant DNA sequencing, thus increasing the rate of novel gene discovery. The method is also applicable for detecting target sequences, which are present in one or only a few copies per cell; it has proven useful for physical mapping of BAC and cosmid high-density filter arrays, wherein multiple probes have been hybridized at one time (multiplexed) and subsequently "deplexed" into individual components for specific probe localizations.

  2. Update-in-Place Analysis for True Multidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicative languages have been proposed for defining algorithms for parallel architectures because they are implicitly parallel and lack side effects. However, straightforward implementations of applicative-language compilers may induce large amounts of copying to preserve program semantics. The unnecessary copying of data can increase both the execution time and the memory requirements of an application. To eliminate the unnecessary copying of data, the Sisal compiler uses both build-in-place and update-in-place analyses. These optimizations remove unnecessary array copy operations through compile-time analysis. Both build-in-place and update-in-place are based on hierarchical ragged arrays, i.e., the vector-of-vectors array model. Although this array model is convenient for certain applications, many optimizations are precluded, e.g., vectorization. To compensate for this deficiency, new languages, such as Sisal 2.0, have extended array models that allow for both high-level array operations to be performed and efficient implementations to be devised. In this article, we introduce a new method to perform update-in-place analysis that is applicable to arrays stored either in hierarchical or in contiguous storage. Consequently, the array model that is appropriate for an application can be selected without the loss of performance. Moreover, our analysis is more amenable for distributed memory and large software systems.

  3. Global Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  4. Contiguous Uniform Deviation for Multiple Linear Regression in Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriana, A. S.; Prihatmanto, D.; Hidaya, E. M. I.; Supriana, I.; Machbub, C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding images by recognizing its objects is still a challenging task. Face elements detection has been developed by researchers but not yet shows enough information (low resolution in information) needed for recognizing objects. Available face recognition methods still have error in classification and need a huge amount of examples which may still be incomplete. Another approach which is still rare in understanding images uses pattern structures or syntactic grammars describing shape detail features. Image pixel values are also processed as signal patterns which are approximated by mathematical function curve fitting. This paper attempts to add contiguous uniform deviation method to curve fitting algorithm to increase applicability in image recognition system related to object movement. The combination of multiple linear regression and contiguous uniform deviation method are applied to the function of image pixel values, and show results in higher resolution (more information) of visual object detail description in object movement.

  5. Acromioclavicular septic arthritis and sternoclavicular septic arthritis with contiguous pyomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Sally A; Agger, William A; Saterbak, Andrew T

    2015-03-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) and sternoclavicular (SC) septic arthritis with contiguous pyomyositis are rare, especially in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of septic AC joint with pyomyositis of the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles and a separate case with septic SC joint with pyomysitis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Both patients had similar presentations of infections with Staphylococcus aureus and were successfully treated with surgical incision and drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15525-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lasmodium knowlesi strain H chr... 596 e-168 AB367930_1( AB367930 |pid:none) Theileria serge... AF067947 |pid:none) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid T10... 522 e-146 AB367929_1( AB367929 |pid:none) Theileria serge...nti CCTeta gene for... 500 e-139 AB367931_1( AB367931 |pid:none) Theileria serge

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06741-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Soybean BAC Library (pBel... 36 0.58 2 ( AC205202 ) Muntiacus reevesi clone CH245-91M3, WORKING DRAFT... 46... ( AC172700 ) Muntiacus reevesi clone CH245-334G20, WORKING DRA... 38 4.6 4 ( DW346727 ) PP_LEc0010P17f Peac... tam025b06_q1k. 38 3.3 2 ( Z73975 ) Caenorhabditis elegans Cosmid T06E8. 42 3.3 2

  8. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...... with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show...

  9. Method and structure for skewed block-cyclic distribution of lower-dimensional data arrays in higher-dimensional processor grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gunnels, John A.

    2011-11-08

    A method and structure of distributing elements of an array of data in a computer memory to a specific processor of a multi-dimensional mesh of parallel processors includes designating a distribution of elements of at least a portion of the array to be executed by specific processors in the multi-dimensional mesh of parallel processors. The pattern of the designating includes a cyclical repetitive pattern of the parallel processor mesh, as modified to have a skew in at least one dimension so that both a row of data in the array and a column of data in the array map to respective contiguous groupings of the processors such that a dimension of the contiguous groupings is greater than one.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02755-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .d Length = 113 Score = 83.8 bits (42), Expect = 3e-17 Identities = 45/45 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 cactctacatan...|||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 1 cactctacatanacaacacacattgataaaataatagtttctttc 45 >Contig-U11697-1 (Contig-U11697-1...ct = 1e-12 Identities = 44/45 (97%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 1 cactctacatanacaacacacattgataaaataatagtttc

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14893-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ), Expect = 3e-15 Identities = 48/48 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 26 attttcctctaaccccccaaattaaaactanatcntttcan...ttcctctaaccccccaaattaaaactanatcntttcanttttcac 73 >Contig-U11657-1 (Contig-U11657-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U116...entities = 48/48 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 26 attttcctctaaccccccaaattaaaactanatcntttcan...ttttcac 73 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 116 attttcctctaaccccccaaattaaaactanatcntttcan

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02496-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cattcaatgcaaattttggtagtttatttagaactcatacaaacgcaacaatatt 1020 Query: 1021 tgcttcan...cccaanaaa 1037 ||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 1021 tgcttcancccaanaaa 1037 >Contig-U09887-1 (Contig-U09887-1Q) /CSM...tcaatgcaaattttggtagtttatttagaactcatacaaacg 32 Query: 1011 caacaatatttgcttcancccaanaaa 1037 |||||||||||||||||...|||||||||| Sbjct: 31 caacaatatttgcttcancccaanaaa 5 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Mat

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12850-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tcncttnattantttcgtttaaaaatttgtnnnaaacatgntnttgga 133 Query: 134 atcgccnaacntta 14...7 |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 134 atcgccnaacntta 147 >Contig-U13258-1 (Contig-U13258-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13258...ttgtnnnaaacatgntnttgga 27 Query: 134 atcgccnaacntta 147 |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 26 atcgccnaacntta 13 Lambda K

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08421-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Plus / Plus Query: 11 tgatgaatgngntcnatcancaaanaattttccngaaccccnaaaaagnttattagattg 70 |||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 11 tgatgaatgngntcnatcancaaanaattttccngaaccccna...gatgncnataaaacgncagcnca 130 Query: 131 aaatttagccatcgntgntgcnccnaattta 161 ||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 131 aaatttagccatcgntgntgcnccnaattta 161 >Contig-U13983-1 (Contig-U13983-1Q)... (82%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 11 tgatgaatgngntcnatcancaaanaattttccngaaccccnaaaaagnttattagattg 70 ||||||

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14610-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttttangccngnanggaantgttanttttgctttaaaaantgnggaattccnngan 66 Query: 67 cnctnttggccnactggaatagt 89 |||||||||||...|||||||||||| Sbjct: 67 cnctnttggccnactggaatagt 89 >Contig-U12363-1 (Contig-U12363...cngnanggaantgttanttttgctttaaaaantgnggaattccnngan 132 Query: 67 cnctnttggccnactgga...atagt 89 ||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 131 cnctnttggccnactggaatagt 109 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: b

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06096-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |||||||||||| Sbjct: 64 gaaatngatgntncaacnccaacaatggctgcaaanattttttnnccnttttcaattggt 123 Query: 124 ggnaatgttggngatgntacaacnccna...ctt 154 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 124 ggnaatgttggngatgntacaacnccnactt 154 Sc...us Query: 219 atcncaacnatnncaacaacnaactgaatcagaattacnaccnattcaaa 268 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||| Sbjct: 219 atcncaacnatnncaacaacnaactgaatcagaattacnaccnattcaaa 268 >Contig-U11917-1 (Contig-U1191...atgntncaacnccaacaatggctgcaaanattttttnnccnttttcaattggt 147 Query: 124 ggnaatgttggngatgntacaacnccnacttnaaaanaa

  17. Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Seligmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A, multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200× rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000. Among 186 peptides with >8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.

  18. Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A), multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200 × rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000). Among 186 peptides with > 8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.

  19. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13113-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ig-U13113-1 Contig ID Contig-U13113-1 Contig update 2002.12.18 Contig sequence >Contig-U13113-1 (Contig-U131...******* Frame C: xxxxxnnnxnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn own update ---------- Homology vs CSM-cDNA - dna update...arch space: 8947161656352 Effective search space used: 8947161656352 X1: 11 (21.8 bits) S2: 20 (40.1 bits) protein update...H + PRF protein sequence database [Last update Jun/09/2006] 3,762,210 sequences; 1,237,044,461 total letters... Searchingdone ***** No hits found ****** sequence database [Last update Jun/09/2

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10478-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nces; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Contig-U10478...-U10495-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Conti... 32 1.1 >Contig-U10478-1 (Contig-U10478-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U10478-1Q.Seq.d Length = 1022 Score... Query: 943 gtgaaattccctctcctt 960 |||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 943 gtgaaattccctctcctt 960 Score = 412 bits (20...|||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 322 atcaagngaaagtcaaagngcctcaggtcaaaacactgccagc 364 Score = 75.8 bits (38)...|||||| Sbjct: 362 agccaaagttcaagtcaaagtgcaagtcaaagtgcaagtcaaagtgcaagtcaaagtg 419 Score = 61.9 bits (31), Exp

  2. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  3. Mean Monthly Evaporation Atlas for the Contiguous 48 United States (1956-1970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — TR-33: Maps are presented showing the areal distribution in the contiguous 48 states of evaporation (1) observed from Class A pans from from May through October, (2)...

  4. Hebbian Learning is about contingency, not contiguity, and explains the emergence of predictive mirror neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Perrett, David I.; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Hebbian Learning should not be reduced to contiguity, as it detects contingency and causality. Hebbian Learning accounts of mirror neurons make predictions that differ from associative learning: Through Hebbian Learning, mirror neurons become dynamic networks that calculate predictions and predictio

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14477-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vmvvvivfylqviynlriivilmvqlivivf*mglvmvtviiivivii i*rinnnnsnnnnnsnnnkikmif*yqiinrlnnyf*shyqkfiiiqrldfwdyqrler* *hhlyqrlvnqvvivq*fhwisl...amvlaimxxx own update 2004. 6.10 Homology vs CSM-cDNA Query= Contig-U14477-1 (Conti

  6. Change in Total Snowfall in the Contiguous 48 States, 1930-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the average rate of change in total snowfall from 1930 to 2007 at 419 weather stations in the contiguous 48 states. Blue circles represent increased...

  7. Hebbian Learning is about contingency, not contiguity, and explains the emergence of predictive mirror neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Perrett, David I.; Gazzola, Valeria

    Hebbian Learning should not be reduced to contiguity, as it detects contingency and causality. Hebbian Learning accounts of mirror neurons make predictions that differ from associative learning: Through Hebbian Learning, mirror neurons become dynamic networks that calculate predictions and

  8. Clocked combustor can array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Srinivasan, Shiva Kumar

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a clocked combustor can array for coherence reduction in a gas turbine engine. The clocked combustor can array may include a number of combustor cans positioned in a circumferential array. A first set of the combustor cans may have a first orientation and a second set of the combustor cans may have a second orientation.

  9. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  10. Clocked combustor can array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Srinivasan, Shiva Kumar

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a clocked combustor can array for coherence reduction in a gas turbine engine. The clocked combustor can array may include a number of combustor cans positioned in a circumferential array. A first set of the combustor cans may have a first orientation and a second set of the combustor cans may have a second orientation.

  11. Neuropathology of ablation of rat gliosarcomas and contiguous brain tissues using a microplanar beam of synchrotron-wiggler-generated X rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissue, J A; Geiser, G; Spanne, P O; Dilmanian, F A; Gebbers, J O; Geiser, M; Wu, X Y; Makar, M S; Micca, P L; Nawrocky, M M; Joel, D D; Slatkin, D N

    1998-11-23

    Adult-rat-brain tissues display an unusually high resistance to necrosis when serially irradiated with parallel, thin slices of a microplanar (i.e., microscopically thin and macroscopically broad) beam of synchrotron-wiggler-generated, approx. 35-120 keV (median approx. 50 keV) Gd-filtered X rays at skin-entrance absorbed doses of 312 to 5000 Gy per slice. Such microplanar beams were used to irradiate young adult rats bearing right frontocerebral 9L gliosarcomas (approx. 4 mm diameter), through a volume of tissue containing the tumor and contiguous brain tissue, either in a single array or in 2 orthogonally crossed arrays of tissue slices. Each array included 101 parallel microplanar slices, 100 microm center-to-center distance, each slice being approx. 25 microm wide and 12 mm high, with skin-entrance absorbed doses of 312.5 Gy or 625 Gy per slice. Compared with unirradiated controls with a median survival time of 20 days after tumor initiation, the median survival time was extended in irradiated rats by 139 days (625 Gy, crossed arrays), 96 days (312 Gy, crossed arrays) or 24 days (625 Gy, single array). The tumors disappeared in 22 of the 36 irradiated rats, 4/11 even after unidirectional microbeam irradiation. The extent and severity of radiation damage to the normal brain in rats with or without tumor was graded histopathologically. Correlation of those grades with radiation doses shows that loss of tissue structure was confined to beam-crossing regions and that only minor damage was done to zones of the brain irradiated unidirectionally.

  12. Electronic Switch Arrays for Managing Microbattery Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Alahmad, Mahmoud; Sukumar, Vinesh; Zghoul, Fadi; Buck, Kevin; Hess, Herbert; Li, Harry; Cox, David

    2008-01-01

    Integrated circuits have been invented for managing the charging and discharging of such advanced miniature energy-storage devices as planar arrays of microscopic energy-storage elements [typically, microscopic electrochemical cells (microbatteries) or microcapacitors]. The architecture of these circuits enables implementation of the following energy-management options: dynamic configuration of the elements of an array into a series or parallel combination of banks (subarrarys), each array comprising a series of parallel combination of elements; direct addressing of individual banks for charging/or discharging; and, disconnection of defective elements and corresponding reconfiguration of the rest of the array to utilize the remaining functional elements to obtain the desited voltage and current performance. An integrated circuit according to the invention consists partly of a planar array of field-effect transistors that function as switches for routing electric power among the energy-storage elements, the power source, and the load. To connect the energy-storage elements to the power source for charging, a specific subset of switches is closed; to connect the energy-storage elements to the load for discharging, a different specific set of switches is closed. Also included in the integrated circuit is circuitry for monitoring and controlling charging and discharging. The control and monitoring circuitry, the switching transistors, and interconnecting metal lines are laid out on the integrated-circuit chip in a pattern that registers with the array of energy-storage elements. There is a design option to either (1) fabricate the energy-storage elements in the corresponding locations on, and as an integral part of, this integrated circuit; or (2) following a flip-chip approach, fabricate the array of energy-storage elements on a separate integrated-circuit chip and then align and bond the two chips together.

  13. Array Antenna Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, B L G; Hussain, N

    2013-01-01

    This letter defines a physical bound based array figure of merit that provides a tool to compare the performance of both single and multi-band array antennas with respect to return-loss, thickness of the array over the ground-plane, and scan-range. The result is based on a sum-rule result of Rozanov-type for linear polarization. For single-band antennas it extends an existing limit for a given fixed scan-angle to include the whole scan-range of the array, as well as the unit-cell structure in the bound. The letter ends with an investigation of the array figure of merit for some wideband and/or wide-scan antennas with linear polarization. We find arrays with a figure of merit >0.6 that empirically defines high-performance antennas with respect to this measure.

  14. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  15. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  16. Dynamically Reconfigurable Microphone Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Static + 2 Wireless Using only a standard computer sound card, a robot is limited to binaural inputs. Even when using wireless microphones, the audio...Abstract—Robotic sound localization has traditionally been restricted to either on-robot microphone arrays or embedded microphones in aware...a microphone array has a significant impact on the mathematics of sound source localization. Arrays, for instance, are commonly designed to

  17. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  18. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  19. Analysis of VCSEL Array Module Using a Simple Microlens Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hen-Wai; Tsao; Shyh-Lin; Tsao

    2003-01-01

    A simple microlens array is designed between VCSEL array and fiber array for integration of array module. We increase the optical coupling efficiency from -32.057 dBm to -0.9054 dBm by using our designed microlens array.

  20. Analysis of VCSEL Array Module Using a Simple Microlens Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Cheng; Hen-Wai Tsao; Shyh-Lin Tsao

    2003-01-01

    A simple microlens array is designed between VCSEL array and fiber array for integration of array module. We increase the optical coupling efficiency from-32.057 dBm to-0.9054 dBm by using our designed microlens array.

  1. Tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease contiguous gene syndrome with Moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jonathan; Modi, Lopa; Ramai, Daryl; Tortora, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are two diseases sharing close genetic loci on chromosome 16. Due to contiguous gene syndrome, also known as contiguous gene deletion syndrome, the proximity of TSC2 and PKD1 genes increases the risk of co-deletion resulting in a shared clinical presentation. Furthermore, Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare vaso-occlusive disease in the circle of Willis. We present the first case of TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome in a patient with MMD along with detailed histopathologic, radiologic, and cytogenetic analyses. We also highlight the clinical presentation and surgical complications in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  3. Array for detecting microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09973-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d R155... 115 4e-24 BC076785_1( BC076785 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis porcupine-D, mRNA (... 108 7e-22 AB036750...153369 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis porcupine homol... 104 1e-20 AK304748_1( AK304748 |pid:none) Homo sapie...0_2( AF003390 |pid:none) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid R155... 96 5e-18 BC151341_1( BC151341 |pid:none) Bos taurus porcupine... homolog (Dros... 94 1e-17 AF317060_1( AF317060 |pid:none) Homo sapiens porcupine...9 |pid:none) Homo sapiens porcupine isoform B m... 93 2e-17 L08239_1( L08239 |pid:none) Human MG61 mRNA, par

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13167-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sphofructokinase; Short=Pho... 414 e-114 CP001337_2617( CP001337 |pid:none) Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485....|pid:none) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid Y71H... 151 1e-35 AB083368_1( AB083368 |pid:none) Gallus gallus pfk mRNA for phospho......-phosphofructokinase; Short=Pho... 149 9e-35 AE017350_104( AE017350 |pid:none) Cr...yptococcus neoformans var. neo... 148 1e-34 AB061205_1( AB061205 |pid:none) Gallus gallus pfk mRNA for 6-pho...e: Full=6-phosphofructokinase; Short=Pho... 134 2e-30 A55034( A55034 ) 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) -

  6. Photovoltaic array loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Charles

    1986-10-01

    Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.

  7. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  8. Synergy between Emissions Verification for Climate and Air Quality: Results from Modeling Analysis over the Contiguous US using CMAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Bambha, R.; Pinto, J. P.; Zeng, T.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The synergy between emissions-verification exercises for fossil-fuel CO2 and traditional air pollutants (TAPs, e.g., NOx, SO2, CO, and PM) stems from the common physical processes underlying the generation, transport, and perturbations of their emissions. Better understanding and characterizing such a synergetic relationship are of great interest and benefit for science and policy. To this end, we have been developing a modeling framework that allows for studying CO2 along with TAPs on regional-through-urban scales. The framework is based on the EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and has been implemented on a domain over the contiguous US, where abundant observational data and complete emissions information is available. In this presentation, we will show results from a comprehensive analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an array of TAPs observed from multiple networks and platforms (in situ and satellite observations) and those simulated by CMAQ over the contiguous US for a full year of 2007. We will first present the model configurations and input data used for CMAQ CO2 simulations and the results from model evaluations [1]. In light of the unique properties of CO2 compared to TAPs, we tested the sensitivity of model-simulated CO2 to different initial and boundary conditions, biosphere-atmosphere bidirectional fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions. We then examined the variability of CO2 and TAPs simulated by CMAQ and observed from the NOAA ESRL tall-tower network, the EPA AQS network, and satellites (e.g., SCIAMACHY and OMI) at various spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we diagnosed in CMAQ the roles of fluxes and transport in regulating the covariance between CO2 and TAPs manifested in both surface concentrations and column-integrated densities. We will discuss the implications from these results on how to understand trends and characteristics fossil-fuel emissions by exploiting and combining currently available observational and modeling

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04993-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SM_Contig/Contig-U04993-1Q.Seq.d (339 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E... 0.001 >Contig-U04993-1 (Contig-U04993-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U04993-1Q.Seq.d Length = 339 Score...|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 286 taactttaatagaaacacataatttattagacaatagtaaattatcatatgacc 339 Score =...: 54 taaattgatttttcaaataataataataccacacccaaacacact 98 Score = 48.1 bits (24), Expect = 6e-06 Identities = 24...tggaacatctttgtagaattaact 186 Score = 42.1 bits (21), Expect = 4e-04 Identities =

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08438-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 05 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Conti...757-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Conti... 28 1.7 >Contig-U14622-1 (Contig-U14622-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U14622-1Q.Seq.d Length = 149 Score...aagntttttttttttnttttt 32 |||||||||||||||| ||||| Sbjct: 87 aaagntttttttttttattttt 66 Score...nttttt 32 ||||||||||| ||||| Sbjct: 136 ttttttttttttttttt 120 Score = 28.2 bits (14), Expect = 1.7 Identities... = 16/17 (94%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 16 tttttttttttnttttt 32 ||||||||||| ||||| Sbjct: 85 ttttttttttttttttt 101 Score

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06756-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ontig/Contig-U06756-1Q.Seq.d (336 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Seq... >Contig-U06756-1 (Contig-U06756-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U06756-1Q.Seq.d Length = 336 Score...125 Query: 126 at 127 || Sbjct: 126 at 127 Score = 69.9 bits (35), Expect = 2e-12 Identities = 35/35 (100%) ...ct: 1 caaaataatgataaatcaaattaaattatttattt 35 Score = 65.9 bits (33), Expect = 3e-11 Identities = 36/36 (100%...|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 253 ttaaaaatnccttttttttttttttggggaaatttt 288 Score = 28.2 bits (14), E

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13336-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g/Contig-U13336-1Q.Seq.d (630 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequenc...Q) /CSM_Contig/Conti... 32 0.69 >Contig-U13336-1 (Contig-U13336-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13336-1Q.Seq.d Length = 630 Score...tgaacaaccaactgaatcatcaaatg 388 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 361 gctgaacaaccaactgaatcatcaaatg 388 Score...|||||||||| Sbjct: 580 gctgaacaaccaactgattcacaacaaccaccagcagaatcatcatcagcc 630 Score = 60.0 bits (30), Expect...|||||||||| Sbjct: 365 aacaaccaactgaatcatcaaatgctgaacaacaacaaactgactcacaacaacca 420 Score = 50.1 bits (25), E

  13. Synthetic Strategies toward Natural Products Containing Contiguous Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschleb, Martin; Dorich, Stéphane; Hanessian, Stephen; Tao, Daniel; Schenthal, Kyle B; Overman, Larry E

    2016-03-18

    Strategies for the total synthesis of complex natural products that contain two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms in their intricate structures are reviewed with 12 representative examples. Emphasis has been put on methods to create quaternary carbon stereocenters, including syntheses of the same natural product by different groups, thereby showcasing the diversity of thought and individual creativity. A compendium of selected natural products containing two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms and key reactions in their total or partial syntheses is provided in the Supporting Information.

  14. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  15. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  16. P systems with array objects and array rewriting rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Subramanian; R. Saravanan; M. Geethalakshmi; P. Helen Chandra; M. Margenstern

    2007-01-01

    Array P systems were introduced by Pǎun Gh. which is linking the two areas of membrane computing and picture grammars. Puzzle grammars were introduced by us for generating connected picture arrays in the two-dimensional plane, motivated by the problem of tiling the plane. On the other hand, incorporating into arrays the developmental type of generation used in the well-known biologically motivated L systems, Siromoney and Siromoney proposed a very general rectangular array generating model, called extended controlled tabled L array system (ECTLAS). In this paper we introduce two variations of the array P system, called BPG array P system and parallel array P system. The former has in the regions array objects and basic puzzle grammar rules (BPG), which are a specific kind of puzzle grammar rules. In the latter, the regions have rectangular array objects and tables of context-free rules. We examine these two types of P systems for their array generative power.

  17. 构建有序排列的除虫链霉菌基因组的柯斯文库用于工业生产菌株的遗传改造%Construction of an ordered cosmid library of S. avermitilis for genetic modification of the industrial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏海洋; 黄隽; 胡敏杰; 沈美娟; 谢鹏飞; 张亮; 王海彬; 覃重军

    2009-01-01

    以容纳DNA大片段的柯斯质粒Supercos-1为载体.构建了除虫链霉菌的基因组文库.对约1000个柯斯质粒上插入片段的两端进行测序,并利用全基因组序列的信息,构建了覆盖约91%基因组的有序排列的柯斯文库.利用入λ-Red高效DNA重组和大肠埃希菌-链霉菌接合转移技术,建立了除虫链霉菌的基因组遗传操作系统.运用该系统可以在除虫链霉菌工业菌株中进行高效、精确的基因敲除工作和连续的基因缺失研究,获得可以用来生产多拉菌素的工程菌株.%A cosmid library of Streptomyces avermitilis genome was constructed by using vector Supercos-1. Sequencing of the insertion ends of nearly 1000 cosmids showed that they covered 91% genomic sequences of the strain. A genetic manipulation system was established by the λ-Red mediated recombination and conjugation from E. coli to Streptomyces. Genes of the strain were knocked out with high efficiency and site-preciseness, and even sequential gene knocking out was also practical. Several industrial strains with modifications of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways, producing doramectin for example, were obtained.

  18. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  19. Flow Cytometric Analysis of DNA Content in Parotid Tumor and Its Contiguous Acini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shengrong; SHAO Lenan; CHEN Weimin; WU Huihua; WANG Xiuli; CHEN Xinming

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between proliferative capacity of salivary gland cells in contiguous acini of parotid tumors and recurrent neoplasma, DNA contents of 30 fresh specimens of parotid were studied by using cytometry in tumors, normal and shallow or deep lobe acini of the masses. The results showed that the DI was 1.369, S % 16.95, PI 26.18 in malignant tumors;DI was 1.171, S % 12.41, PI 15.54 in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma; DI was 1.141, S % 12.74, PI 13.07 in pleomorphic adenoma, DI was 0.999, S % 5.10, PI 8.00 in normal acini. Analysis of variance showed there was a significant difference (P<0.01). The average DNA contents of shallow on deep lobe of contiguous tumors was 1.08 in DI, 10. 65 in S %, 13.49 in PI in malignant tumor, 1.06 in DI, 8.96 in S % and 9.85 in PI in pleomorphic adenoma, which were all higher than in normal acini (P>0.05). It was concluded that the levels of DI and S % of parotid tumor and its contiguous acini are related to degree of malignancy or recurrent condition of the tumors, suggesting contiguous acini of parotid tumors had the strong capacity of proliferation,which might play an important role in recurrent or malignant change of the parotid tumors.

  20. CONTIGuator: a bacterial genomes finishing tool for structural insights on draft genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzicalupo Marco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent developments in sequencing technologies have given the opportunity to sequence many bacterial genomes with limited cost and labor, compared to previous techniques. However, a limiting step of genome sequencing is the finishing process, needed to infer the relative position of each contig and close sequencing gaps. An additional degree of complexity is given by bacterial species harboring more than one replicon, which are not contemplated by the currently available programs. The availability of a large number of bacterial genomes allows geneticists to use complete genomes (possibly from the same species as templates for contigs mapping. Here we present CONTIGuator, a software tool for contigs mapping over a reference genome which allows the visualization of a map of contigs, underlining loss and/or gain of genetic elements and permitting to finish multipartite genomes. The functionality of CONTIGuator was tested using four genomes, demonstrating its improved performances compared to currently available programs. Our approach appears efficient, with a clear visualization, allowing the user to perform comparative structural genomics analysis on draft genomes. CONTIGuator is a Python script for Linux environments and can be used on normal desktop machines and can be downloaded from http://contiguator.sourceforge.net.

  1. Hebbian Learning is about contingency, not contiguity, and explains the emergence of predictive mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian; Perrett, David I; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Hebbian Learning should not be reduced to contiguity, as it detects contingency and causality. Hebbian Learning accounts of mirror neurons make predictions that differ from associative learning: Through Hebbian Learning, mirror neurons become dynamic networks that calculate predictions and prediction errors and relate to ideomotor theories. The social force of imitation is important for mirror neuron emergence and suggests canalization.

  2. Building a Potential Wetland Restoration Indicator for the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands provide key functions in the landscape from improving water quality, to regulating flows, to providing wildlife habitat. Over half of the wetlands in the contiguous United States (CONUS) have been converted to agricultural and urban land uses. However, over the last seve...

  3. Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Barbero; J. T. Abatzoglou; Sim Larkin; C. A. Kolden; B. Stocks

    2015-01-01

    Very large fires (VLFs) have important implications for communities, ecosystems, air quality and fire suppression expenditures. VLFs over the contiguous US have been strongly linked with meteorological and climatological variability. Building on prior modelling of VLFs (>5000 ha), an ensemble of 17 global climate models were statistically downscaled over the US...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07481-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gnttttntgnatnattnnnggaataataaanaaacatttcngt 70 Query: 71 tnntagngccagggncatttcannttttttnttnaccatac 111 |||||...|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 71 tnntagngccagggncatttcannttttttnttnaccatac 111 >Contig-U13902-...ngt 60 Query: 71 tnntagngccagggncatttcannttttttnttnaccatac 111 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbj...ct: 61 tnntagngccagggncatttcannttttttnttnaccatac 101 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 M

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14318-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aaacnann 109 Query: 110 caaggngntncaaaggncncatnaaaagccnancccctttaagaaaac 157 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 110 caaggngntncaaaggncncatnaaaagccnancccctttaagaaaac 157 >Contig-U11143-1 (Contig-U...ttanttttggtggnaaaaaaggntangantantggaaancaanncaaggngn 337 Query: 118 tncaaaggncncatnaaaagccna...ncccctttaagaaa 155 |||||||| ||||| |||||||||||||||||| |||| Sbjct: 338 tncaaaggccncatcaaaagccnanccc...inus Query: 120 caaaggncncatnaaaagccnancccctttaagaaaac 157 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 42 caaaggncncatnaaaagccna

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13193-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 (97%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 13 aatagaggnacccnacatggtgaacttggncaaagaaatcatagatttnaattgaaaatc 72 |||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 13 aatagaggnacccnacatggtgaacttggncaaagaaatcat...| Sbjct: 313 gatgaaaaanaagaagatcnagatgctgatgaagaagaaaatgaagaagatagagcntgg 372 Query: 373 attgatgatattggnttgaatgatgatgatganacccna...||||||||||||| Sbjct: 373 attgatgatattggnttgaatgatgatgatganacccnagttgataattccacc 426 >Contig-U08437-1 (Contig...trand = Plus / Minus Query: 13 aatagaggnacccnacatggtgaacttggncaaagaaatcatagatttnaattgaaaatc 72 |||||||||||||

  7. Improved array illuminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, A W; Sinzinger, S

    1992-09-10

    The job of an array illuminator is to provide an array of optical gates or smart pixels with photon power or with synchronous clock signals. So far it has been common to take the power from one big laser and distribute it to perhaps a million gates. An obvious alternative is to assign one private small source to each gate. We favor an in-between approach: a few medium-size sources share the job of providing photons. This hybrid approach has several advantages, such as better homogeneity, less coherent noise, and a distributed risk of source failure. We propose several setups and present some experimental results. Our concept calls for an array of incoherent point sources. We simulate such an array experimentally with a single source, which is virtually expanded into a source array by grating diffraction. Ordinarily these virtual sources are mutually coherent, which is undesirable for our aims. We destroy the mutual coherence by moving the grating during the photographic recording of the output array.

  8. 9q33.3q34.11 microdeletion: new contiguous gene syndrome encompassing STXBP1, LMX1B and ENG genes assessed using reverse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambot, Sophie; Masurel, Alice; El Chehadeh, Salima; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Marle, Nathalie; Thevenon, Julien; Perez-Martin, Stéphanie; Dulieu, Véronique; Huet, Frédéric; Plessis, Ghislaine; Andrieux, Joris; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Billy-Lopez, Gipsy; Coutton, Charles; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Heron, Delphine; Rooryck, Caroline; Goldenberg, Alice; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Joly-Hélas, Géraldine; Calenda, Patricia; Kuentz, Paul; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Callier, Patrick; Faivre, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    The increasing use of array-CGH in malformation syndromes with intellectual disability could lead to the description of new contiguous gene syndrome by the analysis of the gene content of the microdeletion and reverse phenotyping. Thanks to a national and international call for collaboration by Achropuce and Decipher, we recruited four patients carrying de novo overlapping deletions of chromosome 9q33.3q34.11, including the STXBP1, the LMX1B and the ENG genes. We restrained the selection to these three genes because the effects of their haploinsufficency are well described in the literature and easily recognizable clinically. All deletions were detected by array-CGH and confirmed by FISH. The patients display common clinical features, including intellectual disability with epilepsy, owing to the presence of STXBP1 within the deletion, nail dysplasia and bone malformations, in particular patellar abnormalities attributed to LMX1B deletion, epistaxis and cutaneous-mucous telangiectasias explained by ENG haploinsufficiency and common facial dysmorphism. This systematic analysis of the genes comprised in the deletion allowed us to identify genes whose haploinsufficiency is expected to lead to disease manifestations and complications that require personalized follow-up, in particular for renal, eye, ear, vascular and neurological manifestations.

  9. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.

  10. Evaporating metal nanocrystal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James C.; Zhao, Chenwei; Kim, Jin Ho; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, J. M.; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2017-03-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with a self-ordered triangular array of nanopores provide the means to fabricate multiple forms of nano materials, such as nanowires and nanoparticles. This study focuses on nanostructures that emerge in thin films of metals thermally evaporated onto the surface of AAO. Previous work showed that films of different evaporated metals assume dramatically different structures, e.g. an ordered triangular array of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles forms for lead (Pb) while a polycrystalline nanohoneycomb structure forms for silver (Ag). Here, we present investigations of the effects of substrate temperature and deposition angle that reveal the processes controlling the nano particle array formation. Our findings indicate that arrays form provided the grain nucleation density exceeds the pore density and the atomic mobility is high enough to promote grain coalescence. They introduce a method for producing films with anisotropic grain array structure. The results provide insight into the influence of substrate nano-morphology on thin film growth energetics and kinetics that can be harnessed for creating films with other novel nano-structures.

  11. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  12. Effect of Sintering Temperature of Mo Skeleton on the Contiguity and Compressive Properties of Mo-Cu IPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Cao, Fuhua; Lu, Liwei; Yan, Jianhui

    2017-02-01

    Interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) are interesting materials, in which each phase can contribute its most desirable attributes to the composite as a whole by its contiguous morphology. In the present study, molybdenum-copper (Mo-Cu) composites with interpenetrating microstructure were fabricated by open-celled porous Mo skeleton with infiltration of Cu. Effects of sintering temperature on the Mo-Mo contiguity and compressive properties of the Mo-Cu IPCs were examined. The contiguity of Mo-Mo and compressive strength increase with the sintering temperature increasing from 1473 to 1873 K, and decrease at 2073 K. Volume fraction of Cu infiltrated in Mo skeleton and failure strain of composites decrease with the sintering temperature increasing from 1473 to 1873 K and increase at 2073 K. Mutual dependency of compressive properties and contiguity of Mo-Cu IPCs are illustrated.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Percent of Each 12-Digit HUC in the Contiguous U.S. with Potentially Restorable Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percent of each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) subwatershed in the contiguous U.S. with potentially restorable wetlands. Beginning...

  14. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  15. The Submillimeter Array

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, P T P; Lo, K Y; Ho, Paul T.P.; Moran, James M.; Lo, Kwok Yung

    2004-01-01

    The Submillimeter Array (SMA), a collaborative project of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), has begun operation on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. A total of eight 6-m telescopes comprise the array, which will cover the frequency range of 180-900 GHz. All eight telescopes have been deployed and are operational. First scientific results utilizing the three receiver bands at 230, 345, and 690 GHz have been obtained and are presented in the accompanying papers.

  16. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  17. Analysis of Chinese women with primary ovarian insufficiency by high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Can; FU Fang; YANG Xin; SUN Yi-min; LI Dong-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. The etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency in human female patients is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential genetic causes in primary amenorrhea patients by high resolution array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis.Methods Following the standard karyotyping analysis, genomic DNA from whole blood of 15 primary amenorrhea patients and 15 normal control women was hybridized with Affymetrix cytogenetic 2.7M arrays following the standard protocol. Copy number variations identified by array-CGH were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction.Results All the 30 samples were negative by conventional karyotyping analysis. Microdeletions on chromosome 17q21.31-q21.32 with approximately 1.3 Mb were identified in four patients by high resolution array-CGH analysis. This included the female reproductive secretory pathway related factor N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) gene.Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that there may be critical regions regulating primary ovarian insufficiency in women with a 17q21.31-q21.32 microdeletion. This effect might be due to the loss of function of the NSF gene/genes within the deleted region or to effects on contiguous genes.

  18. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  19. Bandwidth Reconfigurable Metamaterial Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial structures provide innovative ways to manipulate electromagnetic wave responses to realize new applications. This paper presents a conformal wideband metamaterial array that achieves as much as 10 : 1 continuous bandwidth. This was done by using interelement coupling to concurrently achieve significant wave slow-down and cancel the inductance stemming from the ground plane. The corresponding equivalent circuit of the resulting array is the same as that of classic metamaterial structures. In this paper, we present a wideband Marchand-type balun with validation measurements demonstrating the metamaterial (MTM array’s bandwidth from 280 MHz to 2800 MHz. Bandwidth reconfiguration of this class of array is then demonstrated achieving a variety of band-pass or band-rejection responses within its original bandwidth. In contrast with previous bandwidth and frequency response reconfigurations, our approach does not change the aperture’s or ground plane’s geometry, nor does it introduce external filtering structures. Instead, the new responses are realized by making simple circuit changes into the balanced feed integrated with the wideband MTM array. A variety of circuit changes can be employed using MEMS switches or variable lumped loads within the feed and 5 example band-pass and band-rejection responses are presented. These demonstrate the potential of the MTM array’s reconfiguration to address a variety of responses.

  20. Visible Genotype Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Imai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A visible sensor array system for simultaneous multiple SNP genotyping has been developed using a new plastic base with specific surface chemistry. Discrimination of SNP alleles is carried out by an allele-specific extension reaction using immobilized oligonucleotide primers. The 3’-ends of oligonucleotide primers are modified with a locked nucleic acid to enhance their efficiency in allelic discrimination. Biotin-dUTPs included in the reaction mixture are selectively incorporated into extending primer sequences and are utilized as tags for alkaline phosphatase-mediated precipitation of colored chemical substrates onto the surface of the plastic base. The visible precipitates allow immediate inspection of typing results by the naked eye and easy recording by a digital camera equipped on a commercial mobile phone. Up to four individuals can be analyzed on a single sensor array and multiple sensor arrays can be handled in a single operation. All of the reactions can be performed within one hour using conventional laboratory instruments. This visible genotype sensor array is suitable for “focused genomics” that follows “comprehensive genomics”.

  1. Extended Array Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-31

    irregular structure of the Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) underneath the NORSAR array. • Time delay anomalies (deviation from plane wave propagation...appears that most of the amplitude vari- ations may be explained by scattering effects due to the irregular structure of the Mohorovicic discontinuity

  2. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  3. TANGO Array.. 2. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.

    2004-01-01

    The angular and energy resolutions of the TANGO Array were obtained using extensive Monte Carlo simulations performed with a double purpose: (1) to determine the appropriate parameters for the array fitting to the desired range of sensitivity (the knee energy region), and (2) to construct a reliable shower database required for reference in the analysis of experimental data. The AIRES code, with the SIBYLL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (assuming protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 10 14 to 10 18 eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detectors (water Cherenkov detectors), including the electronics, pickup noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cables. The trigger stage was considered in the simulations in order to estimate the trigger efficiency of the array and to verify the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper delineates the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and describes the simulated data. The results of these simulations suggest that we can expect an error in the energy of the primary cosmic-ray of ˜60% of the estimated value and that the error in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as ˜4°. The present simulations also indicate that unambiguous assignments of the primary energy cannot be obtained because of the uncertainty in the nature of the primary cosmic ray.

  4. TANGO Array. 2. Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P. E-mail: pablo.bauleo@colostate.edu; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A

    2004-01-11

    The angular and energy resolutions of the TANGO Array were obtained using extensive Monte Carlo simulations performed with a double purpose: (1) to determine the appropriate parameters for the array fitting to the desired range of sensitivity (the knee energy region), and (2) to construct a reliable shower database required for reference in the analysis of experimental data. The AIRES code, with the SIBYLL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (assuming protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detectors (water Cherenkov detectors), including the electronics, pickup noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cables. The trigger stage was considered in the simulations in order to estimate the trigger efficiency of the array and to verify the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper delineates the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and describes the simulated data. The results of these simulations suggest that we can expect an error in the energy of the primary cosmic-ray of {approx}60% of the estimated value and that the error in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as {approx}4 deg. . The present simulations also indicate that unambiguous assignments of the primary energy cannot be obtained because of the uncertainty in the nature of the primary cosmic ray.

  5. The Murchison Widefield Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Daniel A.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Ord, Stephen M.; Bernardi, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the excellent Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory site allows the Murchison Widefield Array to employ a simple RFI blanking scheme and still calibrate visibilities and form images in the FM radio band. The techniques described are running autonomously in our calibration and imagin

  6. Microelectronic Stimulator Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-09

    retinal prosthesis test device. Figure 3b shows an enlarged view of a nano-channel glass (NCG) electrode array. Figure 4 shows a conceptual layout (floor...against a visual cortex. 10 This involves invasive brain surgery through the cranium . From a surgical point of view, the intra ocular approach is

  7. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  8. Anisotropic diffusion of macromolecules in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid during eukaryotic cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nisha; Donth, Claudia; Weiss, Matthias

    2014-08-18

    Character and rapidity of protein diffusion in intracellular fluids are key determinants of the dynamics and steady state of a plethora of biochemical reactions. So far, an anomalous diffusion in cytoplasmic fluids with viscoelastic and even glassy characteristics has been reported in a variety of organisms on several length scales and timescales. Here, we show that the contiguous fluid of former cytoplasm and nucleoplasm features an anisotropically varying diffusion of macromolecules during eukaryotic cell division. In metaphase, diffusion in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid appears less anomalous along the spindle axis as compared to perpendicular directions. As a consequence, the long-time diffusion of macromolecules preferentially points along the spindle axis, leading to prolonged residence of macromolecules in the spindle region. Based on our experimental data, we suggest that anisotropic diffusion facilitates the encounter and interaction of spindle-associated proteins, e.g., during the formation of a dynamic spindle matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Handover Performance over a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in the LTE-Advanced System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Shayea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various carrier aggregation deployment scenarios (CADSs have been introduced in the LTE-Advanced system, issues related to insufficient eNB coverage that leads to low throughput and high drop call have yet to be solved. This paper proposes a new deployment scenario called coordinated contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS, which utilizes two-component carriers (CCs that operate on two frequencies located in a contiguous band. Each CC antenna is directed to a cell boundary of the other CC. The handover performance of users with various mobility speeds under CC-CADS has been investigated and compared with various deployment scenarios proposed by 3GPP. Simulation results show that the received signal reference power (RSRP enhancement and performed handover, ping-pong, drop call, and outage probabilities reductions in CC-CADS outperformed the 3GPP’s CADSs, thus leading to reduced interruption time, improved spectral efficiency, and seamless handover.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14990-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lekhlkkskkinikqi*k*kcqvvemvvii*kilaiilkkllfnhqkkqlql*ynkil milkq*hhh*sqnplvavlvki...nl*sskyswyfsnsfny**nxik**lk*kktl Frame B: gllekhlkkskkinikqi*k*kcqvvemvvii*kilaiilkkllfnhqkkqlql*ynkil milkq...qfvqvvqvkmhvnhk liilikrvlkle*kllkiryw*chqrvvlvnqqfhpcyhmvfqreiitppkyly*mlifa vrqfqs*wvlinckl*iqsmvgfhqrcnkqimilk...4 Query: 992 NHDIKVMSVGFLLGTPDAPVIWKGPRKTTMIRRFLKDTFWGKQDYLIIDTPPGTSDEHLS 1171 ++...Contig-U14990-1 no gap 1568 4 3104178 3102621 MINUS 5 8 U14990 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

  11. Effects of the contiguity between the extinction and the reinforcement components in observing-response procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Escobar; Carlos A. Bruner

    2008-01-01

    The role of the stimulus correlated with extinction (S-) in observing-response procedures has been ambiguous. Although the S- is associated with extinction, some studies demonstrated that it effectively sustained observing behavior. To explore the conditions responsible for the S- to function as a conditioned reinforcer, the present experiment showed whether observing responses during an extinction component are controlled by the temporal contiguity between S- presentation and the reinforceme...

  12. Thoracic cord compression caused by contiguous multilevel ossification of ligamentum flavum in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kai; CHEN Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiology and surgical treatment outcome in Chinese patients with myelopathy caused by contiguous multilevel ossification of ligamentum flavum.Methods: Medical notes and imaging data of 18 Chinese patients (14 males and 4 females, aged 43-72 years, mean: 57 years ) with myelopathy caused by contiguous multilevel ossification of ligamentum flavum were studied retrospectively in this article. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination, X-ray films, computerized tomography ( CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning results and pathological results. Sixteen patients were treated by laminectomy and two by laminoplasty. The average follow-up duration was 34 months ( range, 28-49 months ). The outcome was evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedics Association (JOA) score.Results: The average time for occurring clinical symptoms was 7.5 months (range, 2 days-16 months). All the 18 cases presented with clinical evidences of chronic and progressive thoracic spinal cord compression, which included bilateral leg weakness, spastic gait, numbness in lower limbs, paresthesia in terminal and perineum, and urinary incontinence. Neurological examination revealed severe spastic paraparesis, absence of abdominal reflexes, and reduction of the sensory function below the compression level. The mean JOA score before operation was 3. 6 (range, 0-6). MRI and CT scans of the thoracic spine confirmed the presence of contiguous multilevel ossification of the ligamentum flavum. The mean recovery rate after surgery in terms of JOA score was 66.3% (range, 33.3%-100%), with a mean final JOA score of 8. 3. Thoracic decompression laminectomy or laminoplasty could result in a good postoperative outcome.Conclusions: Contiguous multilevel ossification of the ligamentum flavum is not a common cause of myelopathy in Chinese population and should be treated as early as possible. MRI and CT scan examinations may diagnose the presence of

  13. In vitro, long-range sequence information for de novo genome assembly via transposase contiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Andrew; Kitzman, Jacob O; Burton, Joshua N; Daza, Riza; Kumar, Akash; Christiansen, Lena; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Amini, Sasan; Gunderson, Kevin L; Steemers, Frank J; Shendure, Jay

    2014-12-01

    We describe a method that exploits contiguity preserving transposase sequencing (CPT-seq) to facilitate the scaffolding of de novo genome assemblies. CPT-seq is an entirely in vitro means of generating libraries comprised of 9216 indexed pools, each of which contains thousands of sparsely sequenced long fragments ranging from 5 kilobases to > 1 megabase. These pools are "subhaploid," in that the lengths of fragments contained in each pool sums to ∼5% to 10% of the full genome. The scaffolding approach described here, termed fragScaff, leverages coincidences between the content of different pools as a source of contiguity information. Specifically, CPT-seq data is mapped to a de novo genome assembly, followed by the identification of pairs of contigs or scaffolds whose ends disproportionately co-occur in the same indexed pools, consistent with true adjacency in the genome. Such candidate "joins" are used to construct a graph, which is then resolved by a minimum spanning tree. As a proof-of-concept, we apply CPT-seq and fragScaff to substantially boost the contiguity of de novo assemblies of the human, mouse, and fly genomes, increasing the scaffold N50 of de novo assemblies by eight- to 57-fold with high accuracy. We also demonstrate that fragScaff is complementary to Hi-C-based contact probability maps, providing midrange contiguity to support robust, accurate chromosome-scale de novo genome assemblies without the need for laborious in vivo cloning steps. Finally, we demonstrate CPT-seq as a means of anchoring unplaced novel human contigs to the reference genome as well as for detecting misassembled sequences.

  14. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  15. Analysis of changes in the magnitude, frequency, and seasonality of heavy precipitation over the contiguous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Iman; Villarini, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    Auc(bstract) Gridded daily precipitation observations over the contiguous USA are used to investigate the past observed changes in the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation, and to examine its seasonality. Analyses are based on the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) daily precipitation data from 1948 to 2012. We use a block maxima approach to identify changes in the magnitude of heavy precipitation and a peak-over-threshold (POT) approach for the changes in the frequency. The results of this study show that there is a stronger signal of change in the frequency rather than in the magnitude of heavy precipitation events. Also, results show an increasing trend in the frequency of heavy precipitation over large areas of the contiguous USA with the most notable exception of the US Northwest. These results indicate that over the last 65 years, the stronger storms are not getting stronger, but a larger number of heavy precipitation events have been observed. The annual maximum precipitation and annual frequency of heavy precipitation reveal a marked seasonality over the contiguous USA. However, we could not find any evidence suggesting shifting in the seasonality of annual maximum precipitation by investigating whether the day of the year at which the maximum precipitation occurs has changed over time. Furthermore, we examine whether the year-to-year variations in the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation can be explained in terms of climate variability driven by the influence of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our findings indicate that the climate variability of both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans can exert a large control on the precipitation frequency and magnitude over the contiguous USA. Also, the results indicate that part of the spatial and temporal features of the relationship between climate variability and heavy precipitation magnitude and frequency can be described by one or more of the climate indices considered here.

  16. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  17. Large contiguous gene deletions in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstad, Holly; Carney, Gael; S'aulis, Dana; Rise, Janae; Sanger, Warren G; Rudd, M Katharine; Richard, Gabriele; Carr, Christopher W; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Rizzo, William B

    2011-11-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of fatty aldehyde to fatty acid. More than 70 mutations have been identified in SLS patients, including small deletions or insertions, missense mutations, splicing defects and complex nucleotide changes. We now describe 2 SLS patients whose disease is caused by large contiguous gene deletions of the ALDH3A2 locus on 17p11.2. The deletions were defined using long distance inverse PCR and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. A 24-year-old SLS female was homozygous for a 352-kb deletion involving ALDH3A2 and 4 contiguous genes including ALDH3A1, which codes for the major soluble protein in cornea. Although lacking corneal disease, she showed severe symptoms of SLS with uncommon deterioration in oral motor function and loss of ambulation. The other 19-month-old female patient was a compound heterozygote for a 1.44-Mb contiguous gene deletion and a missense mutation (c.407C>T, P136L) in ALDH3A2. These studies suggest that large gene deletions may account for up to 5% of the mutant alleles in SLS. Geneticists should consider the possibility of compound heterozygosity for large deletions in patients with SLS and other inborn errors of metabolism, which has implications for carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis.

  18. [Analysis of Microsatellite DNA in Rodents from Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace Zone and Contiguous Territories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, S B; Grigorkina, E B; Olenev, G V

    2016-04-01

    The variability of four microsatellite loci of rodents, caught from the head part of Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT), along with the rodents inhabiting contiguous zone with background radiation level and distant-reference territory, was analyzed forthe first time. Differences in the parameters of genetic diversity between northern red-backed voles from the EURT zone and from the reference population were detected. An increase in some indices of genetic diversity in animals from a contiguous to the EURT zone was found; this is probably associated with animal migration and configuration of the area of pollution. A transfer of radiation-induced effects to the contiguous territories and a decrease in the possibility of fixation of adaptations in a series of generations of mobile rodent species in the area of local radioactive pollution are consequences of migrations. The results of the study make it possible to recommend microsatellite markers for the analysis of radiation-induced effects in rodents as model objects of radioecological monitoring.

  19. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  20. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  1. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masao; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high performance of the ACA antenna has been extensively evaluated at the Site Erection Facility area at an altitude of about 2900 meters. Test results of pointing performance, surface performance, and fast motion capability are demonstrated.

  2. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort dedicated to the design and operation of the next-generation ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (VERITAS, H.E.S.S., and MAGIC) in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV, and will extend the viability of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) down to tens of GeV and above 100 TeV. In order to achieve such improved performance at both a northern and southern CTA site, four 23m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LST) optimized for low energy gamma rays will be deployed close to the centre of the array. A larger number of Medium Size Telescopes (MST) will be optimized for the core IACT energy range. The southern site will include 25 12m single-mirror MSTs and a US contribution of up to 24 novel dual-mirror design Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) type MSTs with a primary mirror of 9.5m diameter, and will also include an array of Small Size Telescopes (SST) to observe the highest-energy gamma rays from galactic sources. The SSTs can be smaller and more widely separated because more energetic gamma rays produce a larger Cherenkov light pool with many photons. The SSTs achieve a large collection area by covering a wide (10 sq km) footprint on the ground. The CTA project is finishing its preparatory phase, and the pre-production phase will start this year. I will review the status and the expected performance of CTA as well as the main scientific goals for the observatory.

  3. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  4. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  5. YBCO Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-14

    40, 489 (1961). [8] W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical recipes: the art of scientific computing (Cambridge...has recently become a commercial product. He has developed processes for depositing state-of-the art YBCO films on buffered sapphire substrates. His...technology can most improve and on what subsystems would benefit most from the pt.. .imance available from these arrays. Aqppoved f or publicO re󈧎OSI AIR

  6. Pulsar Timing Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the use of an ensemble of radio pulsars to constrain the characteristic strain caused by a stochastic gravitational wave background has advanced the cause of detection of very low frequency gravitational waves significantly. This electromagnetic means of gravitational wave detection, called Pulsar Timing Array(PTA), is reviewed in this article. The principle of operation of PTA, the current operating PTAs and their status is presented along-with a discussion of the main ch...

  7. The TALE Infill Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The TALE Infill Array in conjunction with the TALE Tower Detector will provide hybrid coverage of the cosmic ray energy spectrum down to 3x10^16 eV. It will consist of about 100, two square meter scintillators on the surface spaced at 400 m; and 24 buried twelve square meter scintillators. The combination of surface and underground detectors will allow for the determination of the muon content of showers and thus give a handle on cosmic ray composition.

  8. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  9. DSN Array Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikidjian, Raffi; Mackey, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The DSN Array Simulator (wherein 'DSN' signifies NASA's Deep Space Network) is an updated version of software previously denoted the DSN Receive Array Technology Assessment Simulation. This software (see figure) is used for computational modeling of a proposed DSN facility comprising user-defined arrays of antennas and transmitting and receiving equipment for microwave communication with spacecraft on interplanetary missions. The simulation includes variations in spacecraft tracked and communication demand changes for up to several decades of future operation. Such modeling is performed to estimate facility performance, evaluate requirements that govern facility design, and evaluate proposed improvements in hardware and/or software. The updated version of this software affords enhanced capability for characterizing facility performance against user-defined mission sets. The software includes a Monte Carlo simulation component that enables rapid generation of key mission-set metrics (e.g., numbers of links, data rates, and date volumes), and statistical distributions thereof as functions of time. The updated version also offers expanded capability for mixed-asset network modeling--for example, for running scenarios that involve user-definable mixtures of antennas having different diameters (in contradistinction to a fixed number of antennas having the same fixed diameter). The improved version also affords greater simulation fidelity, sufficient for validation by comparison with actual DSN operations and analytically predictable performance metrics.

  10. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  11. TANGO ARRAY II: Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.

    The angular and energy resolution of the TANGO Array has been obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. The AIRES code, with the SYBILL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 1014 eV to 1018 eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detector stations (water ˇCerenkov detectors), including the electronics, pick up noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cabling. The trigger stage is taken into account in order to produce estimates of the trigger efficiency of the array and to check the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper describes the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and presents the simulated data. These simulations indicate that the accuracy of the cosmic ray primary energy determination is expected to be ˜ 60 % and the precision in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as ˜ 4 degrees.

  12. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  13. Compact Transducers and Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Soc. Am., 104, pp.64-71 44 25.Decarpigny, J.N., J.C. Debus, B. Tocquet & D. Boucher. 1985. "In-Air Analysis Of Piezoelectric Tonpilz Transducers In A... Transducers and Arrays Final Report May 2005 Contacts: Dr. Robert E. Newnham The Pennsylvania State University, 251 MRL, University Park, PA 16802 phone...814) 865-1612 fax: (814) 865-2326 email: ....c xx.....i.i.....ht.. .u a.p.u..c.e.du. Dr. Richard J. Meyer, Jr. Systems Engineering ( Transducers ), ARL

  14. Nonlinear phased array imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.

    2016-04-01

    A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.

  15. Microplasma generating array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Chen; Hoskinson, Alan R.; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-10-04

    A microplasma generator includes first and second conductive resonators disposed on a first surface of a dielectric substrate. The first and second conductive resonators are arranged in line with one another with a gap defined between a first end of each resonator. A ground plane is disposed on a second surface of the dielectric substrate and a second end of each of the first and second resonators is coupled to the ground plane. A power input connector is coupled to the first resonator at a first predetermined distance from the second end chosen as a function of the impedance of the first conductive resonator. A microplasma generating array includes a number of resonators in a dielectric material substrate with one end of each resonator coupled to ground. A micro-plasma is generated at the non-grounded end of each resonator. The substrate includes a ground electrode and the microplasmas are generated between the non-grounded end of the resonator and the ground electrode. The coupling of each resonator to ground may be made through controlled switches in order to turn each resonator off or on and therefore control where and when a microplasma will be created in the array.

  16. Unusual presentation of Kallmannn syndrome with contiguous gene deletion in three siblings of a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Sri Venkat; Kant, Saket; Holla, Vikram Venkappayya; Arora, Rakesh; Rathi, Sahaj

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of 3 brothers aged 34, 24, and 22 years, unmarried, who presented to our endocrinology clinic with absence of secondary sexual characters. There was no such history in other siblings, but their maternal uncle had similar complaints. On examination, all 3 had pre-pubertal appearance, voice, and genitalia along with anosmia and bimanual synkinesia. Cryptorchidism was noticed in 2 while third person had small hypoplastic testes. It was also noted that all 3 patients had icthyosis mainly involving trunk, back, and limbs. The hormonal assays were consistent with isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. IQ testing revealed mental retardation in the 2 patients. Ultrasound showed ectopic right kidney in one patient, atrophic right kidney in the second patient while the third patient had normal kidneys. MRI brain of all the patients showed poorly visualized olfactory tract and bulb. Kallmann syndrome (KS) was diagnosed based on hormonal evaluation and MRI results. Of the four types of KS: Synkinesia, renal anomaly, and X-linked pedigree pattern in our patients pointed towards X-linked type 1 KS as the possible cause. But, icthyosis and mental retardation are not usual presentation of type 1 KS. They are usually seen as a result of contiguous gene deletion of KAL1, steroid sulfatase (STS), and mental retardation (MRX) gene on X chromosome. Hence, the possible gene defect in our cases is inherited defect in contiguous gene deletion. The contiguous gene deletion as the cause of KS in 3 patients of same family is very rare and worth reporting. Also, the significance of phenotype-genotypic association in Kallmann syndrome is discussed.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05779-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tig/Contig-U05779-1Q.Seq.d (181 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Seque...-U05779-1 (Contig-U05779-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U05779-1Q.Seq.d Length = 181 Score...||| Sbjct: 99 tttttaatttttttt 113 Score = 28.2 bits (14), Expect = 2.9 Identities... = 14/14 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 1 tttttttttttttt 14 |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 175 tttttttttttttt 162 Score...tt 14 |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 174 tttttttttttttt 161 Score = 28.2 bits (14), Expect

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14424-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 424-1Q.Seq.d (129 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing... (Contig-U14424-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U14424-1Q.Seq.d Length = 129 Score = 58.0 bits (29), Expect = 2e-09 I...ttttttttt 35 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 1 aaaaaaaccccnaaaaaaaantttttttttttttt 35 Score = 34....35 |||||||| ||||||||||||| Sbjct: 88 aaaaaaaacnttttttttttttt 110 Score = 34.2 bits (17), Expect = 0.033 Ident...||||| |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 104 aaaaaaangtttttttttttttt 82 Score = 32.2 bits (16), Expect = 0.13 Identities

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16573-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available U16573-1Q.Seq.d (1612 letters) Database: CSM 8402 sequences; 8,075,542 total letters Score E Sequences produ...-U16575-1 (Contig-U16575-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U16575-1Q.Seq.d Length = 1462 Score...||||||||||||| Sbjct: 350 ttcatcaacttcattattatcagcacaagcaatttcagcc 389 Score = 109 bits (55), Expect = 1e-23 ...aagaaaaagagttggctgagaaatta 869 Score = 67.9 bits (34), Expect = 5e-11 Identities ...|||||||||||||| Sbjct: 752 attggctgataaacttgaaaaggaacgtttagat 785 Score = 67.9 bits (34), Expect = 5e-11 Iden

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15995-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nnqllppppppplplvahkll*pmkpiqphvhsvvvlsqpwifqiitq lvn*skimisqkelklhsihyvllkllnmislkkslkninhllnyqtqsmkfqnlqkllv klsknskmilk...2416 ) RPCI44_377O10.f RPCI-44 Sus scrofa genomic clone ... 46 3.8 1 ( DW488282 ) GH_RMIRS_068_G03_R Cotton ...Contig-U15995-1 gap included 1478 2 3965902 3964425 MINUS 5 8 U15995 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 ...int 3964425 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) MINUS Number of clones 5 Number of EST 8 Link to ...3.8 1 ( CP000576 ) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301, complete g... 46 3.8 1

  1. Integrated Common Radio Resource Management with Spectrum Aggregation over Non-Contiguous Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Orlando; Meucci, Filippo; Mihovska, Albena D.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated Common Radio Resource Management (iCRRM). The iCRRM performs classic CRRM functionalities jointly with Spectrum Aggregation (SA), being able to switch users between non-contiguous frequency bands. The SA scheduling is obtained with an optimised General Multi......-Band Scheduling (GMBS) algorithm with the aim of cell throughput maximisation. In particular, we investigate the dependence of the throughput on the cell coverage distance for the allocation of users over the 2 and 5 GHz bands for a single operator scenario under a constant average Signal to Interference...

  2. Molecular analysis of contiguous exons of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene: identification of a new PKU mutation.

    OpenAIRE

    Dianzani, I; Camaschella, C.; Saglio, G; Ferrero, G B; Ramus, S; Ponzone, A; Cotton, R G

    1993-01-01

    A modified application of the chemical cleavage of mismatch (CCM) method has been used to screen three contiguous exons (exons 9, 10, and 11) of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in 17 Italian PKU patients. A new nonsense heterozygous C-->G transversion within exon 11 (S359X) was identified in a single patient. Only one of the four mutations previously reported in this DNA region in Caucasians was found. This lesion, IVS X-546, was detected in five of the 34 PKU alleles examined. Our results...

  3. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  4. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  5. The Receiver System for the Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. R. Subrahmanya; P. Prasad; B. S. Girish; R. Somashekar; P. K. Manoharan; A. K. Mittal

    2017-03-01

    The legacy Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) is being reconfigured as a 264-element synthesis telescope, called the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA). Its antenna elements are the contiguous 1.92 m sections of the parabolic cylinder. It will operate in a 38-MHz frequency band centred at 326.5 MHz and will be equipped with a digital receiver including a 264-element spectral correlator with a spectral resolution of 48 kHz. OWFA is designed to retain the benefits of equatorial mount, continuous 9-hour tracking ability and large collecting area of the legacy telescope and use of modern digital techniques to enhance the instantaneous field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude. OWFA has unique advantages for contemporary investigations related to large scale structure, transient events and space weather watch. In this paper, we describe the RF subsystems, digitizers and fibre optic communication of OWFA and highlight some specific aspects of the system relevant for the observations planned during the initial operation.

  6. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....

  7. The Submillimeter Array Polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marrone, Daniel P

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Submillimeter Array (SMA) Polarimeter, a polarization converter and feed multiplexer installed on the SMA. The polarimeter uses narrow-band quarter-wave plates to generate circular polarization sensitivity from the linearly-polarized SMA feeds. The wave plates are mounted in rotation stages under computer control so that the polarization handedness of each antenna is rapidly selectable. Positioning of the wave plates is found to be highly repeatable, better than 0.2 degrees. Although only a single polarization is detected at any time, all four cross correlations of left- and right-circular polarization are efficiently sampled on each baseline through coordinated switching of the antenna polarizations in Walsh function patterns. The initial set of anti-reflection coated quartz and sapphire wave plates allows polarimetry near 345 GHz; these plates have been have been used in observations between 325 and 350 GHz. The frequency-dependent cross-polarization of each antenna, largely due to the varia...

  8. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  9. Array biosensor: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joel P.; Rowe-Taitt, Chris A.; Feldstein, Mark J.; Ligler, Frances S.

    1999-05-01

    A fluorescence-based immunosensor has been developed for simultaneous analyses of multiple samples for 1 to 6 different antigens. A patterned array of recognition antibodies immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide is used to 'capture' analyte present in samples. Bound analyte is then quantified by means of fluorescent detector molecules. Upon excitation of the fluorescent label by a small diode laser, a CCD camera detects the pattern of fluorescent antigen:antibody complexes on the sensor surface. Image analysis software correlates the position of fluorescent signals with the identity of the analyte. A new design for a fluidics distribution system is shown, as well as results from assays for physiologically relevant concentrations of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), F1 antigen from Yersinia pestis, and D- dimer, a marker of sepsis and thrombotic disorders.

  10. Studies on the lethal phenomenon to heterologous hosts caused by a cosmid from Streptomyces sparsogenes genomic library%稀疏链霉菌基因文库柯斯质粒对异源宿主致死现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张章; 徐飞; 林双君; 张利平

    2012-01-01

    目的 对稀疏链霉菌基因文库中编号为13F2:pJTU2463的柯斯质粒对异源宿主的致死现象进行探索性研究.方法 通过构建若干克隆及相应的接合转移实验,限制性内切酶酶切图谱分析,质粒测序及序列分析,从若干角度探讨这一质粒发挥致死作用的可能性及途径.结果 编号为13F2:pJTU2463的柯斯质粒中包含致死基因的核酸片段被缩小至亚克隆lth24;将lth24测序并分析其可能编码的蛋白,检索相关文献并进行生物信息学分析,推测三组基因可能与致死现象具有关联.这三组基因可能分别负责编码蛋白酶,双组分激酶系统中的双组分感应激酶和双组分调节因子,ABC转运系统中的ABC转运蛋白和ATP结合蛋白.结论 虽然没有完全阐明致死现象的具体机制,但目前的研究已经可以推断该致死现象是由一种新颖且仍未充分阐明的机制造成,并为后续研究奠定了信息学和遗传学操作的基础.%Objective The lethal phenomenon to heterologous hosts caused by a cosmid, 13F2:pJTU2463, from Streptomyces sparsogenes genomic library was studied. Methods The study comprising clone constructions, conjugation experiments, restriction endonuclease digestion analysis, plasmid sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, has explored several possible mechanisms of this lethal phenomenon. Results A sub-clone, Ith24, with its lethal phenomenon confirmed was constructed by narrowing down from the cosmid 13F2:pJTU2463 and sequenced. Then the sequence data of Ith24 were analyzed and three sets of genes were found potentially involved in this lethal phenomenon. These three sets of genes were responsible for coding zinc protease, two-component kinase system comprising two-component sensor kinase, TCSs response regulator and TCSs regulatory protein, and ABC transport system comprising putative ABC transporter and ABC transport system ATP-binding protein. Conclusion Although the details of the lethal

  11. Temporally contiguous pencast instruction promotes meaningful learning for dental and dental hygiene students in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Smartpens allow for the creation of computerized "pencasts" that combine voice narration with handwritten notes and illustrations. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of voluntary participation in extracurricular instruction with a pencast on student learning. Dental and dental hygiene students were given instruction in a complex physiological topic using lecture and static slides. An Internet link to a pencast that covered the complex topic in a more temporally contiguous fashion was also provided for voluntary review. The students were given a multiple-choice exam that consisted of retention and transfer test questions. Sixty-nine percent of the students who did not watch the pencast and 89 percent of the students who watched the pencast answered the retention test question correctly (p=0.08). Fifty-four percent of the students who did not watch the pencast and 90 percent of the students who watched the pencast answered the transfer test question correctly (p=0.005). This finding indicates that students who watched the pencast performed better on a transfer test, a measurement of meaningful learning, than students who received only the narrated instruction with static images. This supports the hypothesis that temporally contiguous instruction promotes more meaningful learning than lecture accompanied only by static slide images.

  12. Animal models for human contiguous gene syndromes and other genomic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina Walz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic disorders refer to a group of syndromes caused by DNA rearrangements, such as deletions and duplications, which result in an alteration of normal gene dosage. The chromosomal rearrangements are usually relatively small and often difficult to detect cytogenetically. In a subset of such conditions the rearrangements comprise multiple unrelated contiguous genes that are physically linked and thus have been referred to as contiguous gene syndromes (CGS. In general, each syndrome presents a complex clinical phenotype that has been attributed generally to dosage sensitive gene(s present in the responsible chromosomal interval. A common mechanism for CGS resulting from interstitial deletion/duplication has recently been elucidated. The DNA rearrangements result from nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR utilizing flanking low-copy repeats (LCRs as recombination substrates. The resulting rearrangements often involve the same genomic region, a common deletion or duplication, making it difficult to assign a specific phenotype or endophenotype to a single responsible gene. The human and mouse genome sequencing projects, in conjunction with the ability to engineer mouse chromosome rearrangements, have enabled the production of mouse models for CGS and genomic disorders. In this review we present an overview of different techniques utilized to generate mouse models for selected genomic disorders. These models foment novel insights into the specific genes that convey the phenotype by dosage and/or position effects and provide opportunities to explore therapeutic options.

  13. Spatial contiguity analysis. A method for describing spatial structures of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 Av. de Bois-Preau, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France); Cailly, F. [Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    We apply spatial contiguity analysis (SCA) to study spatial structures contained in seismic images. Compared to classical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), SCA is more efficient for multivariate description and spatial filtering of this kind of images. We present SCA according to geostatistic formalism defined by Matheron. A preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables is required. Made with the help of variogram curves, this permits to underline spatial properties of these variables and defines contiguity distance and direction to apply SCA. A series of mathematical tools is defined. They allow quantifying the information held by initial variables and factorial components in terms of variance and spatial variability and exhibit data spatial structures on different scales. The method is applied to analyse a seismic data set. We compare PCA and SCA results. This data set gives us the opportunity to show the interest of preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables, and the effects of spatial direction and distance on the data decomposition in elementary structures.

  14. Novel Handover Optimization with a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Shayea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrier aggregation (CA technique and Handover Parameters Optimization (HPO function have been introduced in LTE-Advanced systems to enhance system performance in terms of throughput, coverage area, and connection stability and to reduce management complexity. Although LTE-Advanced has benefited from the CA technique, the low spectral efficiency and high ping-pong effect with high outage probabilities in conventional Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (CADSs have become major challenges for cell edge User Equipment (UE. Also, the existing HPO algorithms are not optimal for selecting the appropriate handover control parameters (HCPs. This paper proposes two solutions by deploying a Coordinated Contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS and a Novel Handover Parameters Optimization algorithm that is based on the Weight Performance Function (NHPO-WPF. The CC-CADS uses two contiguous component carriers (CCs that have two different beam directions. The NHPO-WPF automatically adjusts the HCPs based on the Weight Performance Function (WPF, which is evaluated as a function of the Signal-to-Interference Noise Ratio (SINR, cell load, and UE’s velocity. Simulation results show that the CC-CADS and the NHPO-WPF algorithm provide significant enhancements in system performance over that of conventional CADSs and HPO algorithms from the literature, respectively. The integration of both solutions achieves even better performance than scenarios in which each solution is considered independently.

  15. A contiguity-enhanced k-means clustering algorithm for unsupervised multispectral image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, J.; Gisler, G.

    1997-07-01

    The recent and continuing construction of multi and hyper spectral imagers will provide detailed data cubes with information in both the spatial and spectral domain. This data shows great promise for remote sensing applications ranging from environmental and agricultural to national security interests. The reduction of this voluminous data to useful intermediate forms is necessary both for downlinking all those bits and for interpreting them. Smart onboard hardware is required, as well as sophisticated earth bound processing. A segmented image (in which the multispectral data in each pixel is classified into one of a small number of categories) is one kind of intermediate form which provides some measure of data compression. Traditional image segmentation algorithms treat pixels independently and cluster the pixels according only to their spectral information. This neglects the implicit spatial information that is available in the image. We will suggest a simple approach; a variant of the standard k-means algorithm which uses both spatial and spectral properties of the image. The segmented image has the property that pixels which are spatially contiguous are more likely to be in the same class than are random pairs of pixels. This property naturally comes at some cost in terms of the compactness of the clusters in the spectral domain, but we have found that the spatial contiguity and spectral compactness properties are nearly orthogonal, which means that we can make considerable improvements in the one with minimal loss in the other.

  16. Application of Spatial Regression Models to Income Poverty Ratios in Middle Delta Contiguous Counties in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F Higazi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Regression analysis depends on several assumptions that have to be satisfied. A major assumption that is never satisfied when variables are from contiguous observations is the independence of error terms. Spatial analysis treated the violation of that assumption by two derived models that put contiguity of observations into consideration. Data used are from Egypt's 2006 latest census, for 93 counties in middle delta seven adjacent Governorates. The dependent variable used is the percent of individuals classified as poor (those who make less than 1$ daily. Predictors are some demographic indicators. Explanatory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA is performed to examine the existence of spatial clustering and spatial autocorrelation between neighboring counties. The ESDA revealed spatial clusters and spatial correlation between locations. Three statistical models are applied to the data, the Ordinary Least Square regression model (OLS, the Spatial Error Model (SEM and the Spatial Lag Model (SLM.The Likelihood Ratio test and some information criterions are used to compare SLM and SEM to OLS. The SEM model proved to be better than the SLM model. Recommendations are drawn regarding the two spatial models used.

  17. Drought Occurrences and Their Characteristics across Selected Spatial Scales in the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaratnam Leelaruban

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of drought occurrences and their characteristics such as intensity, duration, frequency, and areal coverage, and their variations on different spatial scales, is crucial to plan for droughts in different regions and in different sized areas. This study investigated the variations of spatio-temporal characteristics of droughts under selected spatial scales: National (Contiguous U.S., regional (High Plains, state (North Dakota, ND, climatic division (South Central, ND, and county (Grant, ND. Weekly drought area coverage data for the period spanning the years 2000–2014 from the U.S. Drought Monitor of the National Drought Mitigation Center were used. The study captured the areal coverages and occurrence frequency of droughts with different intensity levels for the years 2000 to 2014 for the contiguous U.S. Year to year variability in spatial distribution of the areal coverages of droughts with different intensity levels were also analysed. The study further investigated how the weekly percentage area under different intensity categories varied along time, and extracted the spatio-temporal characteristics of different drought intensity categories at different spatial scales. The study identified areas that are frequently affected by droughts of different intensity categories in the U.S. at the national scale, and reported the spatial scale dependence of drought characteristics.

  18. Automated Solar-Array Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  19. The OncoArray Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Christopher I; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wi...

  20. Tremor as observed by the Array of Arrays in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.; Creager, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    We are capturing the intimate details of tremor activity in Cascadia with 8 small-aperture seismic arrays in northwestern Washington. The Array of Arrays (AoA) focuses on the tremor-active megathrust, including the area we previously imaged with a solo seismic array in 2008 [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009, 2010]. Each array consists of 10 to 20 three-component sensors recording in continuous mode. Since it became operational in June 2009, the AoA has recorded several minor tremor episodes, and the recent episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event in August 2010. During the ETS event, each array was augmented by 10 additional single-channel, vertical-component sensors. We have already started to analyze seismic data for tremor episodes in July 2009, and March 2010. At each array, we apply a beamforming technique to stack the seismic energy at every 0.2 Hz from 2 to 15 Hz. During active tremor, the arrays show stable slowness, and azimuth over time, and up to 15 Hz energy on vertical channels, and 6 Hz on horizontals, with slowness consistent with the P and S waves respectively (Figure 1). Vidale et al. in this meeting provide a detailed description of a weeklong tremor episode in March 2010. The ETS started early second week of August about 60 km south of our arrays, and in a week or so, migrated along-strike to the north passing directly underneath the arrays. Strong tremor is still active about 50 km north of the arrays as we write this abstract. We will imminently analyze this data, and by the time of AGU, have preliminary results to present. Currently, we are developing an algorithm to focus as many arrays as possible to locate the tremor sources. With fine tremor detection capability and good azimuthal coverage, our AoA will better resolve the various confounding features of tremor spatiotemporal distribution (e.g., tremor patches, bands, streaks, rapid tremor reversals, low frequency earthquakes) that have been recently discovered in Cascadia. The AoA is poised to provide

  1. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  2. Nanocoax Arrays for Sensing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Binod

    We have adapted a nanocoax array architecture for high sensitivity, all-electronic, chemical and biological sensing. Arrays of nanocoaxes with various dielectric annuli were developed using polymer replicas of Si nanopillars made via soft lithography. These arrays were implemented in the development of two different kinds of chemical detectors. First, arrays of nanocoaxes constructed with different porosity dielectric annuli were employed to make capacitive detectors for gaseous molecules and to investigate the role of dielectric porosity in the sensitivity of the device. Second, arrays of nanocoaxes with partially hollowed annuli were used to fabricate three-dimensional electrochemical biosensors within which we studied the role of nanoscale gap between electrodes on device sensitivity. In addition, we have employed a molecular imprint technique to develop a non-conducting molecularly imprinted polymer thin film of thickness comparable to size of biomolecules as an "artificial antibody" architecture for the detection of biomolecules.

  3. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  4. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  5. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  6. Array gain for a cylindrical array with baffle scatter effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilone, Derek C; Killeen, Damien S; Bao, Chaoying

    2007-11-01

    Cylindrical arrays used in sonar for passive underwater surveillance often have sensors surrounding a cylindrical metal baffle. In some operational sonars, the phones in each stave (i.e., each line of phones aligned with the cylinder axis) are hardwired together so that the array is equivalent to a baffled circular array of directional elements, where each element corresponds to a line array of omnidirectional phones steered to broadside. In this paper a model is introduced for computing the array gain of such an array at high frequencies, which incorporates baffle scatter using infinite, rigid cylinder scattering theory, and with ambient noise described by an angular spectral density function. In practice the phones are often offset from the baffle surface, and the acoustic field sampled by the staves is distorted at high frequencies due to interference between the incident and scattered fields. Examples are given to illustrate the resulting array gain degradation, using three noise distributions that are frequently used in sonar performance modeling: three-dimensional isotropic, two-dimensional isotropic, and surface dipole noise.

  7. The Long Wavelength Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. B.

    2006-08-01

    The Long Wavelength Array (LWA) will be a new, open, user-oriented astronomical instrument operating in the poorly explored window from 20-80 MHz at arcsecond level resolution and mJy level sensitivity. Key science drivers include (1) acceleration, propagation, and turbulence in the ISM, including the space-distribution and spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays, supernova remnants, and pulsars; (2) the high redshift universe, including the most distant radio galaxies and clusters - tools for understanding the earliest black holes and the cosmological evolution of Dark Matter and Dark Energy; (3) planetary, solar, and space science, including space weather prediction and extra-solar planet searches; and (4) the radio transient universe: including the known (e.g., SNe, GRBs) and the unknown. Because the LWA will explore one of the last and least investigated regions of the spectrum, the potential for new discoveries, including new classes of physical phenomena, is high, and there is a strong synergy with exciting new X-ray and Gamma-ray measurements, e.g. for cosmic ray acceleration, transients, and galaxy clusters. Operated by the University of New Mexico on behalf of the South West Consortium (SWC) the LWA will also provide a unique training ground for the next generation of radio astronomers. Students may also put skills learned on the LWA to work in computer science, electrical engineering, and the communications industry, among others. The development of the LWA will follow a phased build, which benefits from lessons learned at each phase. Four university-based Scientific Testing and Evaluation (ST&E) teams with different areas of concentration (1. High resolution imaging and particle acceleration; 2. Wide field imaging and large scale structures; 3. Ionosphere, and 4. RFI suppression and transient detection) will provide the feedback needed to assure that science objectives are met as the build develops. Currently in its first year of construction funding, the LWA

  8. HAT: Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays with application to promoter-GeneChip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Bas J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiling-arrays are applicable to multiple types of biological research questions. Due to its advantages (high sensitivity, resolution, unbiased, the technology is often employed in genome-wide investigations. A major challenge in the analysis of tiling-array data is to define regions-of-interest, i.e., contiguous probes with increased signal intensity (as a result of hybridization of labeled DNA in a region. Currently, no standard criteria are available to define these regions-of-interest as there is no single probe intensity cut-off level, different regions-of-interest can contain various numbers of probes, and can vary in genomic width. Furthermore, the chromosomal distance between neighboring probes can vary across the genome among different arrays. Results We have developed Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays (HAT, and first evaluated its performance for tiling-array datasets from a Chromatin Immunoprecipitation study on chip (ChIP-on-chip for the identification of genome-wide DNA binding profiles of transcription factor Cebpa (used for method comparison. Using this assay, we can refine the detection of regions-of-interest by illustrating that regions detected by HAT are more highly enriched for expected motifs in comparison with an alternative detection method (MAT. Subsequently, data from a retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen were used to examine the performance of HAT among different applications of tiling-array datasets. In both studies, detected regions-of-interest have been validated with (qPCR. Conclusions We demonstrate that HAT has increased specificity for analysis of tiling-array data in comparison with the alternative method, and that it accurately detects regions-of-interest in two different applications of tiling-arrays. HAT has several advantages over previous methods: i as there is no single cut-off level for probe-intensity, HAT can detect regions-of-interest at various thresholds, ii it can

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Series And Finite Element Solutions For Flow In Multi-layer Aquifers With Contiguous Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Craig, J. R.

    2009-05-01

    Recently, Wong S. & J.R. Craig [Computational Methods in Water Resources XVII International Conference, 2008] have developed a semi-analytic series (SAS) solution method for simulating 2D steady-state groundwater flow in multi-layer aquifers with natural unconformity. The advantages of the approach include the capability to predict groundwater flow in aquifer systems with a geometrically complex structure, i.e., layers that are contiguous but vary (sometimes dramatically) in thickness across the modelled domain. The SAS approach is unorthodox compared to numerical scheme such as finite element (FE) method when handling an aquifer basin with contiguous layers. This research attempts to compare the robustness of the SAS solution with that of the FE solution under variety of different geometric conditions, including the increasing of system aspect ratios and the inclusion of pinching layers. It was found that the SAS approach is a useful benchmarking tool and that for contiguous layers, both FE methods continue to be highly accurate at even large aspect ratios. Based on the benchmarking experiments, some rules of thumb for mesh generation in FE models of regional aquifer systems with both contiguous and discontiguous layering are identified.

  10. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indications that the known sources represent only the tip of the iceberg. A major step in sensitivity is needed to increase the number of detected sources, observe short time-scale variability and improve morphological studies of extended sources. An extended energy coverage is advisable to observe far-away extragalactic objects and improve spectral analysis. CTA aims to increase the sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred o...

  11. Imaging Properties of Planar Microlens Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The planar microlens arrays is a two-dimensional array of optical component which is fabricated monolithically available. Imaging properties of planar microlens arrays are described, which provide both image multiplexer and erect, unit magnification images.

  12. Antenna arrays a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of antenna array topics that are becoming increasingly important in wireless applications, particularly in design and computer modeling. Signal processing and numerical modeling algorithms are explored, and MATLAB computer codes are provided for many of the design examples. Pictures of antenna arrays and components provided by industry and government sources are presented with explanations of how they work. Antenna Arrays is a valuable reference for practicing engineers and scientists in wireless communications, radar, and remote sensing, and an excellent textbook for advanced antenna courses.

  13. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  14. Fiber Optic Geophysics Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowski, Lucjan

    1989-01-01

    The distributed optical sensor arrays are analysed in view of specific needs of 3-D seismic explorations methods. There are compared advantages and disadventages of arrays supported by the sensors which are modulated in intensity and phase. In these systems all-fiber optic structures and their compabilities with digital geophysic formats are discussed. It was shown that the arrays based on TDM systems with the intensity modulated sensors are economically and technically the best matched for geophysic systems supported by a large number of the sensors.

  15. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applications in the design of low-loss, large dynamic range amplitude modulation, and surface plasmon based terahertz devices.

  16. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  17. The Square Kilometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, James M.

    2006-06-01

    The SKA is an observatory for m/cm wavelengths that will provide quantum leaps in studies of the early universe, the high-energy universe, and astrobiology. Key science areas include:(1) Galaxy Evolution and Large-Scale Structure, including Dark Energy;(2) Probing the Dark Ages through studies of highly redshifted hydrogen and carbon monoxide;(3) Cosmic magnetism;(4) Probing Gravity with Pulsars and Black Holes; and(5) The Cradle of Life, including real-time images of protoplanetary disks, inventory of organic molecules, and the search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence.From a phase-space point of view, the SKA will expand enormously our ability to discover new and known phenomena, including transient sources with time scales from nano-seconds to years. Particular examples include coherent emissions from extrasolar planets and gamma-ray burst afterglows, detectable at levels 100 times smaller than currently. Specifications needed to meet the science requirements are technically quite challenging: a frequency range of approximately 0.1 to 25 GHz; wide field of view, tens of square degrees (frequency dependent); high dynamic range and image fidelity; flexibility in imaging on scales from sub-mas to degrees; and sampling the time-frequency domain as demanded by transient objects. Meeting these specifications requires collaboration of a world-wide group of engineers and scientists. For this and other reasons, the SKA will be realized internationally. Initially, several concepts have been explored for building inexpensive collecting area that provides broad frequency coverage. The Reference Design now specifies an SKA based on a large number of small-diameter dish antennas with "smart feeds." Complementary to the dishes is a phased aperture array that will provide very wide-field capability. I will discuss the Reference Design, along with a timeline for developing the technology, building the first 10% of the SKA, and finishing the full SKA, along with the

  18. Fracture characterisation using geoelectric null-arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Pierik; Negro, François; Szalai, Sándor; Milnes, Ellen

    2013-06-01

    The term "geoelectric null-array" is used for direct current electrode configurations yielding a potential difference of zero above a homogeneous half-space. This paper presents a comparative study of the behaviour of three null-arrays, midpoint null-array (MAN), Wenner-γ null-array and Schlumberger null-array in response to a fracture, both in profiling and in azimuthal mode. The main objective is to determine which array(s) best localise fractures or best identify their orientation. Forward modelling of the three null-arrays revealed that the Wenner-γ and Schlumberger null-arrays localise vertical fractures the most accurately, whilst the midpoint null-array combined with the Schlumberger null-array allows accurate orientation of a fracture. Numerical analysis then served as a basis to interpret the field results. Field test measurements were carried out above a quarry in Les Breuleux (Switzerland) with the three null-arrays and classical arrays. The results were cross-validated with quarry-wall geological mapping. In real field circumstances, the Wenner-γ null-array proved to be the most efficient and accurate in localising fractures. The orientations of the fractures according to the numerical results were most efficiently determined with the midpoint null-array, whilst the Schlumberger null-array adds accuracy to the results. This study shows that geoelectrical null-arrays are more suitable than classical arrays for the characterisation of fracture geometry.

  19. 3 Contiguous Experiments on a Design Historical Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    and demonstrate that it can inform and produce relevant knowledge to practice-based research and research through design. It is the assumption that – by forming the basis for making an epistemic artefact – a design historical case can construct knowledge on how to transform statistics into visualisations......This paper contributes to the field of practicebased research and includes insights from research through design, both research perspectives that apply methods and processes from design practice as basis for knowledge generation. The objective of the paper is to introduce a design historical case....... It is also the assumption that the combination of design history and designerly experiments can extend the theoretical scope of practice-based research, which is normally defined by focusing on the present and the future. Three contiguous experiments are demonstrated through dynamic research sketching, a new...

  20. GPC light shaper for speckle-free one- and two-photon contiguous pattern excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson;

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions useful in diverse applications such as static beam shaping, optical manipulation and recently, for excitation in two-photon optogenetics. To fully utilize typical Gaussian lasers......, such as a circle and different rectangles commonly used in industrial or commercial applications. We also show simple and efficient beam shaping of arbitrary shapes geared towards biophotonics research and other contemporary applications. Optimized GPC configurations consistently give ~84% efficiency and ~3x...... in such applications, we analytically derive conditions for photon efficient light shaping with GPC. When combined with the conditions for optimal contrast developed in previous works, our analysis further simplifies GPCx2019;s implementation. The results of our analysis are applied to practical illumination shapes...

  1. Case Presentation of Concomitant and Contiguous Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor and Focal Cemento-Ossifying Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Gita; Donoghue, Mandana; Reichart, Peter A; Pazuhi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year-old male was presented for the diagnosis of an asymptomatic bony expansion in relation to the right maxillary canine and first premolar. The unilocular radiolucent lesion with central foci of calcification had caused divergence of canine and first premolar roots without any resorption. This case report details a diagnosis of two distinct disease processes of different cellular origin namely, focal cemento-ossifying dysplasia and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a previously unreported concomitant and contiguous relationship. The diagnosis was determined by a combination of clinical, radiographic, histopathological and surgical evidence. This case highlights two points, first the need to examine all mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions with advanced imaging techniques to assess the number and extent of the lesions prior to treatment planning. Second a likely role of periodontal ligament as the tissue source for odontogenic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells required for the development of odontogenic tumors and cemento-osseous dysplasias.

  2. Braddock-Carey syndrome: A 21q22 contiguous gene syndrome encompassing RUNX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Stephen R; South, Sarah T; Schiffman, Joshua D; Longhurst, Maria; Rowe, Leslie R; Carey, John C

    2016-10-01

    In 1994, Braddock and Carey first reported two unrelated girls with a new multiple malformation syndrome. The primary features included Pierre Robin sequence, persistent neonatal-onset thrombocytopenia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, a distinctive facies, enamel hypoplasia, and severe developmental delay. Since that time, there have been multiple other reported patients with a similar phenotype. In addition, several reports of thrombocytopenia and developmental delay have been documented in association with deletions in the Down syndrome critical region at 21q22. The similarity of the reported cases with deletions involving 21q22 with the clinical presentation of the two patients with Braddock-Carey syndrome resulted in a reinvestigation of the genetic etiology of these two patients 20 years after the original study. This investigation provides evidence that the etiology of this and other "Fanconi-like" disorders represent a newly recognized contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving 21q22 and specifically, the RUNX1 gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Goodwin, Lynne A; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

    2013-07-30

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI's Community Sequencing Program.

  4. Epithelioid Hemangioma Involving Three Contiguous Bones: a Case Report with a Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikulchayanonta, Vorachai; Jinawath, Arthit; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan [Mahidol University, Ramathibodi Hospital Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    An epithelioid hemangioma involving three contiguous bones in continuity has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported in the literature. A case of a 48-year-old man presented with radiating pain to the lower thoracic region for two years. A radiograph and CT scan revealed both permeative osteolytic and multiple trabeculated lesions involving the left posterior part of the 10th rib as well as the 9th and 10th vertebral bodies in continuity and was misled as a malignant or infectious lesion. The histopathology and immuno-histochemistry of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of an epithelioid hemangioma. The lesion was still stable as of three years after surgery

  5. Contiguous gene syndromes due to deletions in the distal short arm of the human X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballabio, A.; Andria, G. (Univ. of Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro (Italy)); Bardoni, B.; Fraccaro, M.; Maraschio, P.; Zuffardi, O.; Guioli, S.; Camerino, G. (Univ. of Pavia (Italy)); Carrozzo, R. (Univ. of Naples (Italy)); Bick, D.; Campbell, L. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (USA)); Hamel, B. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (England)); Gimelli, G. (G. Gaslini Institute, Genoa (Italy))

    1989-12-01

    Mendelian inherited disorders to deletions of adjacent genes on a chromosome have been described as contiguous gene syndromes. Short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and Kallmann syndrome have been found as isolated entities or associated in various combination in 27 patients with interstitial and terminal deletions involving the distal short are of the X chromosome. The use of cDNA and genomic probes from the Xp22-pter region allowed us to identify 12 different deletion intervals and to confirm, and further refine, the chromosomal assignment of X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata and Kallmann syndrome genes. A putative pseudoautosomal gene affecting height and an X-linked nonspecific mental retardation gene have been tentatively assigned to specific intervals. The deletion panel described is a useful tool for mapping new sequences and orienting chromosome walks in the region.

  6. First contiguous gene deletion causing biotinidase deficiency: The enzyme deficiency in three Sri Lankan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Nadeen Senanayake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report three symptomatic children with profound biotinidase deficiency from Sri Lanka. All three children presented with typical clinical features of the disorder. The first is homozygous for a missense mutation in the BTD gene (c.98_104 del7insTCC; p.Cys33PhefsX36 that is commonly seen in the western countries, the second is homozygous for a novel missense mutation (p.Ala439Asp, and the third is the first reported instance of a contiguous gene deletion causing the enzyme deficiency. In addition, this latter finding exemplifies the importance of considering a deletion within the BTD gene for reconciling enzymatic activity with genotype, which can occur in asymptomatic children who are identified by newborn screening.

  7. Anthrax and the geochemistry of soils in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Silvestri, Erin E.; Bowling, Charlena Y.; Boe, Timothy; Smith, David B.; Nichols, Tonya L.

    2014-01-01

    Soil geochemical data from sample sites in counties that reported occurrences of anthrax in wildlife and livestock since 2000 were evaluated against counties within the same states (MN, MT, ND, NV, OR, SD and TX) that did not report occurrences. These data identified the elements, calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and strontium (Sr), as having statistically significant differences in concentrations between county type (anthrax occurrence versus no occurrence). Tentative threshold values of the lowest concentrations of each of these elements (Ca = 0.43 wt %, Mn = 142 mg/kg, P = 180 mg/kg and Sr = 51 mg/kg) and average concentrations (Ca = 1.3 wt %, Mn = 463 mg/kg, P = 580 mg/kg and Sr = 170 mg/kg) were identified from anthrax-positive counties as prospective investigative tools in determining whether an outbreak had “potential” or was “likely” at any given geographic location in the contiguous United States.

  8. Unusual contiguous soft tissue spread of advanced malignant mesothelioma detected by FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Edwards, Jamie; Williams, Hadyn; Hao, Zhong Lin; Khleif, Samir; Pucar, Darko [Medical College of Georgia at Augusta UniversityAugusta (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumor of mesodermal origin that arises from the serosa of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium or tunica vaginalis. MPM is well known to have a poor prognosis with a median survival time of 12 months. Accurate diagnosis, staging and restaging of MPM are crucial with [18F] flurodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET/CT) playing an increasingly important role. Here we report a case of MPM with unusual contiguous soft tissue spread of the tumor along the dermal and fascial planes characterized by PET/CT. Given that the loco-regional tumor in the thorax was under control on PET/CT, the death of the patient was most likely associated with physiologic or metabolic causes associated with an extra-thoracic tumor.

  9. CMOS-Based Biosensor Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Thewes, R; Schienle, M; Hofmann, F; Frey, A; Brederlow, R; Augustyniak, M; Jenkner, M; Eversmann, B; Schindler-Bauer, P; Atzesberger, M; Holzapfl, B; Beer, G; Haneder, T; Hanke, H -C

    2011-01-01

    CMOS-based sensor array chips provide new and attractive features as compared to today's standard tools for medical, diagnostic, and biotechnical applications. Examples for molecule- and cell-based approaches and related circuit design issues are discussed.

  10. Bolometric Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E.; Serrano, A.; Torres-Jácome, A.

    2009-11-01

    During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin films have been developed at INAOE, specifically boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible configurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit specifically designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  11. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  12. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Ord, S M; Emrich, D; Pallot, D; Wayth, R B; Clark, M A; Tremblay, S E; Arcus, W; Barnes, D; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, N D R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; deSouza, L; Ewell-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, H; Jacobs, D; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Pathikulangara, J; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Remillard, R A; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio--astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia (WA). The MWA consists of 4096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and others by Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 TFLOPS (Tera FLoating point Operations Per Second). The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB/day of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper we outline the correlator design, signal path, and proce...

  13. Integrated Spatial Filter Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel Integrated Spatial...

  14. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  15. Thermopile Area Array Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA/JPL thermopile detector linear arrays, wire bonded to Black Forest Engineering (BFE) CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs), have been utilized in NASA...

  16. POLARIS: A 30-meter probabilistic soil series map of the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel W; Wood, Eric F; McBratney, Alexander B; Hempel, Jonathan W; Nauman, Travis; Brungard, Colby W.; Odgers, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    A new complete map of soil series probabilities has been produced for the contiguous United States at a 30 m spatial resolution. This innovative database, named POLARIS, is constructed using available high-resolution geospatial environmental data and a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm (DSMART-HPC) to remap the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database. This 9 billion grid cell database is possible using available high performance computing resources. POLARIS provides a spatially continuous, internally consistent, quantitative prediction of soil series. It offers potential solutions to the primary weaknesses in SSURGO: 1) unmapped areas are gap-filled using survey data from the surrounding regions, 2) the artificial discontinuities at political boundaries are removed, and 3) the use of high resolution environmental covariate data leads to a spatial disaggregation of the coarse polygons. The geospatial environmental covariates that have the largest role in assembling POLARIS over the contiguous United States (CONUS) are fine-scale (30 m) elevation data and coarse-scale (~ 2 km) estimates of the geographic distribution of uranium, thorium, and potassium. A preliminary validation of POLARIS using the NRCS National Soil Information System (NASIS) database shows variable performance over CONUS. In general, the best performance is obtained at grid cells where DSMART-HPC is most able to reduce the chance of misclassification. The important role of environmental covariates in limiting prediction uncertainty suggests including additional covariates is pivotal to improving POLARIS' accuracy. This database has the potential to improve the modeling of biogeochemical, water, and energy cycles in environmental models; enhance availability of data for precision agriculture; and assist hydrologic monitoring and forecasting to ensure food and water security.

  17. The contiguous domains of Arctic Ocean advection: Trails of life and death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, P.; Kosobokova, K. N.; Slagstad, D.; Drinkwater, K. F.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Moore, S. E.; Ellingsen, I.; Nelson, R. J.; Carmack, E.; Popova, E.; Berge, J.

    2015-12-01

    The central Arctic Ocean is not isolated, but tightly connected to the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Advection of nutrient-, detritus- and plankton-rich waters into the Arctic Ocean forms lengthy contiguous domains that connect subarctic with the arctic biota, supporting both primary production and higher trophic level consumers. In turn, the Arctic influences the physical, chemical and biological oceanography of adjacent subarctic waters through southward fluxes. However, exports of biomass out of the Arctic Ocean into both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are thought to be far smaller than the northward influx. Thus, Arctic Ocean ecosystems are net biomass beneficiaries through advection. The biotic impact of Atlantic- and Pacific-origin taxa in arctic waters depends on the total supply of allochthonously-produced biomass, their ability to survive as adults and their (unsuccessful) reproduction in the new environment. Thus, advective transport can be thought of as trails of life and death in the Arctic Ocean. Through direct and indirect (mammal stomachs, models) observations this overview presents information about the advection and fate of zooplankton in the Arctic Ocean, now and in the future. The main zooplankton organisms subjected to advection into and inside the Arctic Ocean are (a) oceanic expatriates of boreal Atlantic and Pacific origin, (b) oceanic Arctic residents and (c) neritic Arctic expatriates. As compared to the Pacific gateway the advective supply of zooplankton biomass through the Atlantic gateways is 2-3 times higher. Advection characterises how the main planktonic organisms interact along the contiguous domains and shows how the subarctic production regimes fuel life in the Arctic Ocean. The main differences in the advective regimes through the Pacific and Atlantic gateways are presented. The Arctic Ocean is, at least in some regions, a net heterotrophic ocean that - during the foreseeable global warming trend - will more and more rely

  18. Advancing marine conservation in European and contiguous seas with the MarCons Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative human impacts have led to the degradation of marine ecosystems and the decline of biodiversity in the European and contiguous seas. Effective conservation measures are urgently needed to reverse these trends. Conservation must entail societal choices, underpinned by human values and worldviews that differ between the countries bordering these seas. Social, economic and political heterogeneity adds to the challenge of balancing conservation with sustainable use of the seas. Comprehensive macro-regional coordination is needed to ensure effective conservation of marine ecosystems and biodiversity of this region. Under the European Union Horizon 2020 framework programme, the MarCons COST action aims to promote collaborative research to support marine management, conservation planning and policy development. This will be achieved by developing novel methods and tools to close knowledge gaps and advance marine conservation science. This action will provide support for the development of macro-regional and national policies through six key actions: to develop tools to analyse cumulative human impacts; to identify critical scientific and technical gaps in conservation efforts; to improve the resilience of the marine environment to global change and biological invasions; to develop frameworks for integrated conservation planning across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments; to coordinate marine conservation policy across national boundaries; and to identify effective governance approaches for marine protected area management. Achieving the objectives of these actions will facilitate the integration of marine conservation policy into macro-regional maritime spatial planning agendas for the European and contiguous seas, thereby offsetting the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in this region.

  19. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  20. Tent Shaped Phased Array Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    AD-A113 191 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION SY-ETC Fi 20/11TENT SHAPED PHASED ARRAY TESTS.(U JAN 82 C A CHUANG F19628-79-C-T173...821714f1 45 0 +450 SCAN PLANE ARRAY PATTERNS FIG. B-31 B- 31 AD-AL13 191 HARRS CRP PMELBOURNE FLY GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC F/6 20/14 TENT SHAPED

  1. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  2. Nonrecurrent PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene deletions arise from replication-based mechanisms and result in Smith-Magenis syndrome with evident peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Neira, Juanita; Gu, Shen; Harel, Tamar; Liu, Pengfei; Briceño, Ignacio; Elsea, Sarah H; Gómez, Alberto; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are genomic disorders associated with deletion copy number variants involving chromosome 17p12 and 17p11.2, respectively. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated recurrent deletions are responsible for the majority of HNPP and SMS cases; the rearrangement products encompass the key dosage-sensitive genes PMP22 and RAI1, respectively, and result in haploinsufficiency for these genes. Less frequently, nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements occur at this locus. Contiguous gene duplications encompassing both PMP22 and RAI1, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 duplications, have been investigated, and replication-based mechanisms rather than NAHR have been proposed for these rearrangements. In the current study, we report molecular and clinical characterizations of six subjects with the reciprocal phenomenon of deletions spanning both genes, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 deletions. Molecular studies utilizing high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint junction sequencing identified mutational signatures that were suggestive of replication-based mechanisms. Systematic clinical studies revealed features consistent with SMS, including features of intellectual disability, speech and gross motor delays, behavioral problems and ocular abnormalities. Five out of six subjects presented clinical signs and/or objective electrophysiologic studies of peripheral neuropathy. Clinical profiling may improve the clinical management of this unique group of subjects, as the peripheral neuropathy can be more severe or of earlier onset as compared to SMS patients having the common recurrent deletion. Moreover, the current study, in combination with the previous report of PMP22-RAI1 duplications, contributes to the understanding of rare complex phenotypes involving multiple dosage-sensitive genes from a genetic mechanistic standpoint.

  3. Hemocompatibility of titania nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara S; Yoriya, Sorachon; Grissom, Laura; Grimes, Craig A; Popat, Ketul C

    2010-11-01

    Hemocompatibility is a key consideration for the long-term success of blood contacting biomaterials; hence, there is a critical need to understand the physiological response elicited from blood/nano-biomaterial interactions. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of key blood serum proteins, in vitro adhesion and activation of platelets, and clotting kinetics of whole blood on titania nanotube arrays. Previous studies have demonstrated improved mesenchymal stem cell functionality, osteoblast phenotypic behavior, localized drug delivery, and the production of endothelial cell ECM on titania nanotube arrays. Furthermore, these titania nanotube arrays have elicited minimal levels of monocyte activation and cytokine secretion, thus exhibiting a very low degree of immunogenicity. Titania nanotube arrays were fabricated using anodization technique and the surface morphology was examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline phases were identified using glancing angled X-ray diffraction (GAXRD). Nanoindentation and scratch tests were used to characterize the mechanical properties of titania nanotube arrays. The adsorption of key blood proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin-g) was evaluated using a micro-BCA assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion and activation of platelets was investigated using live-cell staining, MTT assay, and SEM. Whole blood clotting kinetics was evaluated by measuring the free hemoglobin concentration, and SEM was used to visualize the clot formation. Our results indicate increased blood serum protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and activation, and whole blood clotting kinetics on titania nanotube arrays.

  4. Array imaging system for lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirner, Raoul; Mueller, Kevin; Malaurie, Pauline; Vogler, Uwe; Noell, Wilfried; Scharf, Toralf; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    We present an integrated array imaging system based on a stack of microlens arrays. The microlens arrays are manufactured by melting resist and reactive ion etching (RIE) technology on 8'' wafers (fused silica) and mounted by wafer-level packaging (WLP)1. The array imaging system is configured for 1X projection (magnification m = +1) of a mask pattern onto a planar wafer. The optical system is based on two symmetric telescopes, thus anti-symmetric wavefront aberrations like coma, distortion, lateral color are minimal. Spherical aberrations are reduced by using microlenses with aspherical lens profiles. In our system design approach, sub-images of individual imaging channels do not overlap to avoid interference. Image superposition is achieved by moving the array imaging system during the exposure time. A tandem Koehler integrator illumination system (MO Exposure Optics) is used for illumination. The angular spectrum of the illumination light underfills the pupils of the imaging channels to avoid crosstalk. We present and discuss results from simulation, mounting and testing of a first prototype of the investigated array imaging system for lithography.

  5. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4 array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

  6. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  7. Modeling of phased array transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rais; Kundu, Tribikram; Placko, Dominique

    2005-04-01

    Phased array transducers are multi-element transducers, where different elements are activated with different time delays. The advantage of these transducers is that no mechanical movement of the transducer is needed to scan an object. Focusing and beam steering is obtained simply by adjusting the time delay. In this paper the DPSM (distributed point source method) is used to model the ultrasonic field generated by a phased array transducer and to study the interaction effect when two phased array transducers are placed in a homogeneous fluid. Earlier investigations modeled the acoustic field for conventional transducers where all transducer points are excited simultaneously. In this research, combining the concepts of delayed firing and the DPSM, the phased array transducers are modeled semi-analytically. In addition to the single transducer modeling the ultrasonic fields from two phased array transducers placed face to face in a fluid medium is also modeled to study the interaction effect. The importance of considering the interaction effect in multiple transducer modeling is discussed, pointing out that neighboring transducers not only act as ultrasonic wave generators but also as scatterers.

  8. Wavenumber response of Shanghai Seismic Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Seismic array can be traced back to 1950s when it mainly aimed at detecting and distinguishing the signals of nuclear explosion and seismic signals. The research on seismic array includes seismic array techniques and applications of array in geophysics. Array techniques involve array design and data processing methods (Anne, 1990). Nowadays, the continuous development of seismic array¢s theory could relate to many scientific issues in geophysical field (Tormod, 1989; Mykkeltveit, Bungum, 1984). Seismic array is mainly applied to detect weak events. The response characteristic of array is an important indication of array¢s detection ability. Therefore, when we study an array or construct an array, one of the neces-sary works is to calculate the response characteristics of the array (Harjes, 1990). The aperture and layout of array are two dominating geometrical features. The typical aperture of interna-tional array is generally from several to tens kilometers. For instance, arrays with aperture of dozens kilometers aperture are KSA, WRA, YKA, etc, while arrays with several kilometer aperture are ARC, FIN, GEE, etc. Moreo-ver, in the view of array¢s layout, NOR, GER, etc have circle layout, while WRA, YKA, etc have decussating layout. This paper mainly discusses the relation between deployment of array and wavenumber response. With the example of constructing Shanghai Seismic Array, this paper provides one practical solution to search the proper array deployment. In this paper, the simple delay beam technique is adopted to calculate the response characteris-tics of array. Certainly, the different processing methods have different result, but the result from the simple delay beam processing could be enough to reflect the feature of an array.

  9. Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: Frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated island in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, D.H.; Ledbetter, S.A.; vanTuinen, P.; Summers, K.M.; Robinson, T.J.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Wolff, R.; White, R.; Barker, D.F.; Wallace, M.R.; Collins, F.S.; Dobyns, W.B. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), composed of characteristic facial abnormalities and a severe neuronal migration disorder affecting the cerebral cortex, is caused by visible or submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 17p13. Twelve anonymous DNA markers were tested against a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing 17p deletions from seven MDS patients. All patients, including three with normal karyotypes, are deleted for a variable set of 5-12 markers. Two highly polymorphic VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) probes, YNZ22 and YNH37, are codeleted in all patients tested and make molecular diagnosis for this disorder feasible. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, YNZ22 and YNH37 were shown to be within 30 kilobases (kb) of each other. Cosmid clones containing both VNTR sequences were identified, and restriction mapping showed them to be <15 kb apart. Three overlapping cosmids spanning >100 kb were completely deleted in all patients, providing a minimum estimate of the size of the MDS critical region. A hypomethylated island and evolutionarily conserved sequences were identified within this 100-kb region, indications of the presence of one or more expressed sequences potentially involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The conserved sequences were mapped to mouse chromosome 11 by using mouse-rat somatic cell hybrids, extending the remarkable homology between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 by 30 centimorgans, into the 17p telomere region.

  10. Mathematical Simulating Model of Phased-Array Antenna in Multifunction Array Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical simulating model of phased-array antenna in multifunction array radar has been approached in this paper, including the mathematical simulating model of plane phased-array pattern, the mathematical simulating model of directionality factor, the mathematical simulating model of array factor, the mathematical simulating model of array element factor and the mathematical simulating model of beam steering.

  11. Ligand-enabled multiple absolute stereocontrol in metal-catalysed cycloaddition for construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmatsu, Kohsuke; Imagawa, Naomichi; Ooi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The development of a general catalytic method for the direct and stereoselective construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres remains a formidable challenge in chemical synthesis. Here, we report a highly enantio- and diastereoselective [3+2] annulation reaction of 5-vinyloxazolidinones and activated trisubstituted alkenes catalysed by a palladium complex bearing a newly devised phosphine ligand with a chiral ammonium salt component, which enables the single-step construction of three contiguous stereocentres, including vicinal all-carbon quaternary stereocentres, in a five-membered heterocyclic framework. This stereoselective cycloaddition protocol relies on the remarkable ability of the chiral ligand to rigorously control the absolute stereochemistry of each chiral centre associated with the multiple bond-forming events, and provides a reliable catalytic process for the asymmetric synthesis of densely functionalized pyrrolidines.

  12. Imaging features of tuberous sclerosis complex with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: a contiguous gene syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Susan J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kilborn, Tracy [University of Cape Town, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Kaplan, Bernard S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Nephrology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Genes for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) type 2 and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) type 1 are both encoded over a short segment of chromosome 16. When deletions involve both genes, an entity known as the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, variable phenotypes of TSC and ADPKD are exhibited. This syndrome has not been reviewed in the radiology literature. Unlike renal cysts in TSC, cystic disease in TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome results in hypertension and renal failure. A radiologist might demonstrate polycystic kidney disease before the patient develops other stigmata of TSC. Conversely, in patients with known TSC, enlarged and polycystic kidneys should signal the possibility of the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome and not simply TSC. Distinguishing these diagnoses has implications in prognosis, treatment and genetic counseling. To describe the clinical and imaging findings of tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease in seven pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed renal and brain imaging of children and young adults with genetically proven or high clinical suspicion for TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. We included seven pediatric patients from two referral institutions. Ages ranged from birth to 21 years over the course of imaging. The mean follow-up period was 9 years 8 months (4 years 6 months to 20 years 6 months). No child progressed to end-stage renal disease during this period. Three patients were initially imaged for stigmata of TSC, three for abdominal distension and one for elevated serum creatinine concentration. All patients developed enlarged, polycystic kidneys. The latest available imaging studies demonstrated that in 12 of the 14 kidneys 50% or more of the parenchyma was ultimately replaced by >15 cysts, resulting in significant cortical thinning. The largest cysts in each kidney ranged from 2.4 cm to 9.3 cm. Echogenic lesions were present in 13 of the 14 kidneys, in keeping with

  13. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  14. 10-kilowatt Photovoltaic Concentrator Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, R.L.; Broadbent, S.

    1978-05-01

    Martin Marietta has designed a Photovoltaic Concentrator Array (PCA) for Sandia Laboratories, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. The PCA is based on the use of an acrylic Fresnel lens to concentrate sunlight on high intensity solar cells. The objective of the development was to obtain economical photovoltaic power generation by replacing relatively high priced solar cells with low cost lenses. Consequently, a major task of the program was to optimize the design for minimum cost per unit power output. Major design aspects considered for optimization were the concentration ratio, size and shape of the Fresnel lens, array size and shape, structure minimization, tracking and control and the practical aspects of operation and maintenance. In addition to design of the complete array, several porototype photovoltaic concentrator module subassemblies were fabricated and delivered to Sandia for evaluation. These prototypes exceed the 9.0% efficiency requirement established for this program.

  15. Optical phased-array ladar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Juan; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Hatch, Robert; Payson, Harold

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a ladar with 0.5 m class range resolution obtained by integrating a continuous-wave optical phased-array transmitter with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode receiver array. In contrast with conventional ladar systems, an array of continuous-wave sources is used to effectively pulse illuminate a target by electro-optically steering far-field fringes. From the reference frame of a point in the far field, a steered fringe appears as a pulse. Range information is thus obtained by measuring the arrival time of a pulse return from a target to a receiver pixel. This ladar system offers a number of benefits, including broad spectral coverage, high efficiency, small size, power scalability, and versatility.

  16. Coherent magnetic semiconductor nanodot arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Faxian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In searching appropriate candidates of magnetic semiconductors compatible with mainstream Si technology for future spintronic devices, extensive attention has been focused on Mn-doped Ge magnetic semiconductors. Up to now, lack of reliable methods to obtain high-quality MnGe nanostructures with a desired shape and a good controllability has been a barrier to make these materials practically applicable for spintronic devices. Here, we report, for the first time, an innovative growth approach to produce self-assembled and coherent magnetic MnGe nanodot arrays with an excellent reproducibility. Magnetotransport experiments reveal that the nanodot arrays possess giant magneto-resistance associated with geometrical effects. The discovery of the MnGe nanodot arrays paves the way towards next-generation high-density magnetic memories and spintronic devices with low-power dissipation.

  17. Improving molecular diagnosis of aniridia and WAGR syndrome using customized targeted array-based CGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallespín, Elena; Villaverde, Cristina; Martín-Arenas, Rubén; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Lorda-Sánchez, Isabel; Nevado, Julián; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Lapunzina, Pablo; Ayuso, Carmen; Corton, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions at 11p13 are a frequent cause of congenital Aniridia, a rare pan-ocular genetic disease, and of WAGR syndrome, accounting up to 30% of cases. First-tier genetic testing for newborn with aniridia, to detect 11p13 rearrangements, includes Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and karyotyping. However, neither of these approaches allow obtaining a complete picture of the high complexity of chromosomal deletions and breakpoints in aniridia. Here, we report the development and validation of a customized targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, so called WAGR-array, for comprehensive high-resolution analysis of CNV in the WAGR locus. Our approach increased the detection rate in a Spanish cohort of 38 patients with aniridia, WAGR syndrome and other related ocular malformations, allowing to characterize four undiagnosed aniridia cases, and to confirm MLPA findings in four additional patients. For all patients, breakpoints were accurately established and a contiguous deletion syndrome, involving a large number of genes, was identified in three patients. Moreover, we identified novel microdeletions affecting 3' PAX6 regulatory regions in three families with isolated aniridia. This tool represents a good strategy for the genetic diagnosis of aniridia and associated syndromes, allowing for a more accurate CNVs detection, as well as a better delineation of breakpoints. Our results underline the clinical importance of performing exhaustive and accurate analysis of chromosomal rearrangements for patients with aniridia, especially newborns and those without defects in PAX6 after diagnostic screening. PMID:28231309

  18. EHF multifunction phased array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, Klaus

    1986-07-01

    The design of a low cost demonstration EHF multifunction-phased array antenna is described. Both, the radiating elements and the phase-shifter circuits are realized on microstrip substrate material in order to allow photolithographic batch fabrication. Self-encapsulated beam-lead PIN-diodes are employed as the electronic switch elements to avoid expensive hermetic encapsulation of the semiconductors or complete circuits. A space-feed using a horn-radiator to illuminate the array from the front-side is found to be the simplest and most inexpensive feed. The phased array antenna thus operates as a reflect-array, the antenna elements employed in a dual role for the collection of energy from the feed-horn and for the re-radiation of the phase-shifted waves (in transmit-mode). The antenna is divided into modules containing the radiator/phase-shifter plate plus drive- and BITE-circuitry at the back. Both drive- and BITE-components use gate-array integrated circuits especially designed for the purpose. Several bus-systems are used to supply bias and logical data flows to the modules. The beam-steering unit utilizes several signal processors and high-speed discrete adder circuits to combine the pointing, frequency and beam-shape information from the radar system computer with the stored phase-shift codes for the array elements. Since space, weight and power consumption are prime considerations only the most advanced technology is used in the design of both the microwave and the digital/drive circuitry.

  19. DNA sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips : MALDI mass spectrometry identification of 5mers contiguously stacked to microchip oligonucleotides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stomakhin, A. A.; Vasiliskov, V. A.; Timofeev, E.; Schulga, D.; Cotter, R. J.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology; Middle Atlantic Mass Spectrometry Lab.; Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has been applied to increase the informational output from DNA sequence analysis. It has been used to analyze DNA by hybridization with microarrays of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides extended with stacked 5mers. In model experiments, a 28 nt long DNA fragment was hybridized with 10 immobilized, overlapping 8mers. Then, in a second round of hybridization DNA-8mer duplexes were hybridized with a mixture of 10 5mers. The stability of the 5mer complex with DNA was increased to raise the melting temperature of the duplex by 10-15{sup o}C as a result of stacking interaction with 8mers. Contiguous 13 bp duplexes containing an internal break were formed. MALDI MS identified one or, in some cases, two 5mers contiguously stacked to each DNA-8mer duplex formed on the microchip. Incorporating a mass label into 5mers optimized MALDI MS monitoring. This procedure enabled us to reconstitute the sequence of a model DNA fragment and identify polymorphic nucleotides. The application of MALDI MS identification of contiguously stacked 5mers to increase the length of DNA for sequence analysis is discussed.

  20. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  1. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Dmitry; Seyock, Silke; Ernst, Mathis; Maybeck, Vanessa; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2016-12-23

    Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs), which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells. Considering the low noise and excellent robustness of the devices, the sensor arrays are suitable for diverse and biologically relevant applications.

  2. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kireev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs, which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells. Considering the low noise and excellent robustness of the devices, the sensor arrays are suitable for diverse and biologically relevant applications.

  3. Substrate integrated antennas and arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Substrate Integrated Antennas and Arrays provides a single source for cutting-edge information on substrate integrated circuits (SICs), substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding networks, SIW slot array antennas, SIC traveling-wave antennas, SIW feeding antennas, SIW monopulse antennas, and SIW multibeam antennas. Inspired by the author's extensive research, this comprehensive book:Describes a revolutionary SIC-based antenna technique with the potential to replace existing antenna technologiesExamines theoretical and experimental results connected to electrical and mechanical performanceExp

  4. Highlights from the Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  5. Wicking a confined micropillar array

    CERN Document Server

    Texier, Baptiste Darbois; Stoukatch, Serguei; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the spreading of a Newtonian and perfectly wetting liquid in a square array of cylindric micropillars confined between two plates. We show experimentally that the dynamics of the contact line follows a Washburn-like law which depends on the characteristics of the micropillar array (height, diameter and pitch). The presence of pillars can either enhanced or slow down the motion of the contact line. A theoretical model based on capillary and viscous forces has been developed in order to rationalize our observations. Finally, the impact of pillars on the volumic flow rate of liquid which is pumped in the microchannel is inspected.

  6. Speckle imaging from an array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Jim F.; Tyler, Glenn A.; Vaughn, Jeff L.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present two analytic theories developed recently to predict the performance of an imaging system composed of a phased array illuminator and a set of receiver subapertures. The receiver need not coincide with the transmitter. The two theories have been documented separately (ref. 1, 2), and the reader can find more details there - the theories present the analytic phased array irradiance on target in the presence of piston errors, and the resulting speckle pattern-induced imaging noise. The principal results presented here are the Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR) for both the radiometric portion of the problem and the speckle imaging portion of the problem.

  7. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the ultr

  8. Design Considerations for Array CGH to OligonucleotideArrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldocchi, R.A.; Glynne, R.J.; Chin, K.; Kowbel, D.; Collins, C.; Mack, D.H.; Gray, J.W.

    2005-03-04

    Background: Representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis has been developed for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or for genome copy number changes. In this process, the intensity of hybridization to oligonucleotides arrays is increased by hybridizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified representation of reduced genomic complexity. However, hybridization to some oligonucleotides is not sufficiently high to allow precise analysis of that portion of the genome. Methods: In an effort to identify aspects of oligonucleotide hybridization affecting signal intensity, we explored the importance of the PCR product strand to which each oligonucleotide is homologous and the sequence of the array oligonucleotides. We accomplished this by hybridizing multiple PCR-amplified products to oligonucleotide arrays carrying two sense and two antisense 50-mer oligonucleotides for each PCR amplicon. Results: In some cases, hybridization intensity depended more strongly on the PCR amplicon strand (i.e., sense vs. antisense) than on the detection oligonucleotide sequence. In other cases, the oligonucleotide sequence seemed to dominate. Conclusion: Oligonucleotide arrays for analysis of DNA copy number or for single nucleotide polymorphism content should be designed to carry probes to sense and antisense strands of each PCR amplicon to ensure sufficient hybridization and signal intensity.

  9. GRIFFIN's Fast-Timing Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaizola, Bruno; Griffin Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is the new β-decay spectrometer facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Consists of an array of 16 large-volume HPGe clover detectors with an unparalleled efficiency of 19% at 1.33 MeV. Its strongest advantage is the versatility of the ancillary detectors that can be coupled to the main array to tag on β particles, neutrons or precisely measure conversion electron spectra. An ancillary array of 8 LaBr3(Ce) detectors for γ-rays and a fast plastic scintillator for β-particles has been optimized for fast-timing experiments with GRIFFIN. The 51 mm x 51 mm cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) crystals are coupled to Hamamatsu R2083 photomultipliers. Timing resolutions as good as FWHM 200 ps and time-walks below +/- 30 ps have been obtained for individual crystals using analog electronics. There is also an ongoing project to develop an active BGO shield for the LaBr3(Ce) crystals. The LaBr3(Ce) array commissioning experiment to measure the 145,146Cs decay to 145,146Ba will test its capabilities over a wide range of lifetimes. Preliminary results on the lifetimes of some of the low-laying states will be presented.

  10. High density arrays of micromirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, J. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolman, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    We established and achieved our goal to (1) fabricate and evaluate test structures based on the micromirror design optimized for maskless lithography applications, (2) perform system analysis and code development for the maskless lithography concept, and (3) identify specifications for micromirror arrays (MMAs) for LLNL's adaptive optics (AO) applications and conceptualize new devices.

  11. Gamma-ray array physics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-05-25

    In this contribution I am going to discuss the development of large arrays of Compton Suppressed, High Purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors and the physics that has been, that is being, and that will be done with them. These arrays and their science have dominated low-energy nuclear structure research for the last twenty years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. John Sharpey Schafer played a visionary role in convincing a skeptical world that the development of these arrays would lead to a path of enlightenment. The extent to which he succeeded can be seen both through the world-wide propagation of ever more sophisticated devices, and through the world-wide propagation of his students. I, personally, would not be working in research if it were not for Johns inspirational leadership. I am eternally grateful to him. Many excellent reviews of array physics have been made in the past which can provide detailed background reading. The review by Paul Nolan, another ex-Sharpey Schafer student, is particularly comprehensive and clear.

  12. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, S. M.; Crosse, B.; Emrich, D.; Pallot, D.; Wayth, R. B.; Clark, M. A.; Tremblay, S. E.; Arcus, W.; Barnes, D.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Bunton, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; deSouza, L.; Ewell-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Herne, D.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kincaid, B. B.; Koenig, R.; Kratzenberg, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Remillard, R. A.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Salah, J. E.; Sault, R. J.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Stevens, J.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2015-03-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day-1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.

  13. BOLOMETRIC ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin lms have been developed at INAOE, speci cally boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon lms. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible con gurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit speci cally designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  14. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  15. TANGO Array. 1. The instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P. E-mail: pablo.bauleo@colostate.edu; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A

    2004-01-11

    TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was commissioned during the year 2000 becoming fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of four water Cherenkov detectors enclosing a geometrical area of {approx}30,000 m{sup 2} and its design has been optimized for the observation of Extended Air Showers produced by cosmic rays near the 'knee' energy region {approx}4x10{sup 15} eV. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12,000-l stainless-steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400-l plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a very simple system, which takes advantage of the features of a four-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection. This data collection setup allows a fully automatic experiment control which does not require operator intervention. It includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all detectors. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  16. TANGO Array.. 1. The instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A.

    2004-01-01

    TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was commissioned during the year 2000 becoming fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of four water Cherenkov detectors enclosing a geometrical area of ˜30,000 m2 and its design has been optimized for the observation of Extended Air Showers produced by cosmic rays near the "knee" energy region ˜4×10 15 eV. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12,000-l stainless-steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400-l plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a very simple system, which takes advantage of the features of a four-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection. This data collection setup allows a fully automatic experiment control which does not require operator intervention. It includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all detectors. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  17. Light weight digital array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.; Maas, N.; Bolt, R.; Anitori, L.

    2010-01-01

    A light weight SAR has been designed, suitable for short range tactical UAVs, consisting of a fully digital receive array, and a very compact active transmit antenna. The weight of the complete RF front is expected to be below 3 kg, with a power consumption below 30 W. This X-band system can provide

  18. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  19. Study of stacked microstrip phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, M. J.; Smolders, A. B.

    1993-06-01

    Two theoretical methods for studying stacked-patch microstrip phased arrays are compared: (1) the element-by-element approach (finite array approach) of Pozar (1986) and Smolders (1992); and (2) the infinite approach of Pozar and Shaubert (1984) and Liu et al. (1988). Both theories were found to give almost the same results for a 7 x 7 stacked microstrip antenna, except for edge array elements and for large scan angles. Edge array elements could only be analyzed properly by using a finite array approach. Coupling measurements were made on a 7 x 7 array with a single patch layer, and the results agreed well with calculations.

  20. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  1. Entry roof truss-bolt system test under the gob of contiguous seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Chuan-jie; XU Wei-ya; WANG Ya-jie

    2007-01-01

    Roof bolt support system has been widely applied in the No.7.9 seam in Caozhuang coal mine.However,it has not been able to be applied in the NO.10-2 seam since the small interburden(2m)between NO.9 and NO.10-2 seam.The NO.9 and NO.10-2 seams are contiguous seams.The NO.9 seam has been mined out and the NO.10-2 seam will be mined under the gob of the NO.9 seam.The roof strata of the NO.10-2 seam may have been weakened and fractured due to the shear failure caused by the NO.9 seam mining activities.The steel beam sets spaced at 0.8 m have been used to support the entry of the NO.10-2 seam.In order to speed up the advance rate and cut entry development cost,a test area,using roof bolt in conjunction with truss-system,was successfully conducted.This paper presents the support system design,application of designed system,and the test results.Test results provide a cheaper,quicker,and safer way to support entry for the No.10-2 seam.

  2. Sensitivity to Madden-Julian Oscillation variations on heavy precipitation over the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of tropical intraseasonal variability in the climate system and has worldwide influences on the occurrences and forecasts of heavy precipitation. This paper investigates the sensitivity of precipitation over the contiguous United States (CONUS) in a case study (boreal 2004-05 winter). Several major storms affected the western and eastern CONUS producing substantial economic and social impacts including loss of lives. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to perform experiments to test the significance of the MJO amplitude. The control simulation uses the MJO amplitude observed by reanalysis, whereas the amplitude is modified in perturbation experiments. WRF realistically simulates the precipitation variability over the CONUS, although large biases occur over the Western and Midwest United States. Daily precipitation is aggregated in western, central and eastern sectors and the frequency distribution is analyzed. Increases in MJO amplitude produce moderate increases in the median and interquartile range and large and robust increases in extreme (90th and 95th percentiles) precipitation. The MJO amplitude clearly affects the transport of moisture from the tropical Pacific and Gulf of Mexico into North America providing moist rich air masses and the dynamical forcing that contributes to heavy precipitation.

  3. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA, using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  4. Physical interaction and association by contiguity in memory for the words and melodies of songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R G; Serafine, M L; Repp, B

    1990-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to investigate two explanations for the integration effect in memory for songs (Serafine, Crowder, & Repp, 1984; Serafine, Davidson, Crowder, & Repp, 1986). The integration effect is the finding that recognition of the melody (or text) of a song is better in the presence of the text (or melody) with which it had been heard originally than in the presence of a different text (or melody). One explanation for this finding is the physical interaction hypothesis, which holds that one component of a song exerts subtle but memorable physical changes on the other component, making the latter different from what it would be with a different companion. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated the influence that words could exert on the subtle musical character of a melody. A second explanation for the integration effect is the association-by-contiguity hypothesis, which holds that any two events experienced in close temporal proximity may become connected in memory such that each acts as a recall cue for the other. In Experiment 3, we investigated the degree to which simultaneous presentations of spoken text with a hummed melody would induce an association between the two components. The results gave encouragement for both explanations and are discussed in terms of the distinction between encoding specificity and independent associative bonding.

  5. Estimated winter 1980-1981 electric demand and supply, contiguous United States. Staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the most recent data available concerning projected electrical peak demands and available power resouces for the 1980-1981 winter peak period, as reported by electric utilities in the contiguous United States. The data, grouped by Regional Reliability Council areas and by Electrical Regions within the Council areas, was obtained from the Form 12E-2 reports filed by utilities with the Department of Energy on October 15, 1980 (data as of September 30). In some instances the data were revised or verified by telephone. Considerations affecting reliability, arising from Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions based on lessons learned from the forced outage of Three Mile Island Nuclear Unit No. 2, were factored into the report. No widespread large-scale reliability problems are foreseen for electric power supply this winter, on the basis of the supply and demand projections furnished by the electric utilities. Reserve margins could drop in some electric regions to levels considered inadequate for reliable service, if historical forced-outage magnitudes recur.

  6. Hirschsprung disease in an infant with a contiguous gene syndrome of chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanske, A; Ferreira, J C; Leonard, J C; Fuller, P; Marion, R W

    2001-08-15

    Hirschsprung disease is a developmental disorder resulting from the arrest of the craniocaudal migration of enteric neurons from the neural crest along gastrointestinal segments of variable length; see Behrman [Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 1992:954-956]. It is a heterogeneous disorder in which familial cases map to at least three loci whose function is necessary for normal neural crest-derived cell development. Homozygous mutations in the endothelin-B receptor gene (EDNRB) on 13q22 have been identified in humans and mice with Hirschsprung disease type 2 (HSCR2). The auditory pigmentary disorder, Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, comprises Waardenburg syndrome and Hirschsprung disease and has also been mapped to the EDNRB locus. Hirschsprung disease, malrotation, isochromia, a profound sensorineural hearing loss, and several other anomalies were found in an infant with an interstitial deletion of 13q, suggesting the existence of a contiguous gene syndrome involving developmental genes necessary for the normal growth of the neural crest derivatives of the eye, inner ear, and colon. We report on an additional patient with a deletion in 13q and Hirschsprung disease. Congenital anomalies associated with deletions of the distal long arm of chromosome 13 are sufficiently consistent to suggest a clinical syndrome.

  7. A single spinal lesion arising from an intradural meningioma contiguous with an extradural lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Baird, Lissa C; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Goolsby, Mary E; Taylor, William R; Nguyen, Andrew D

    2012-09-01

    The authors describe here a unique case of contiguous, synchronous meningioma and lymphoma in the spinal column. Both tumors were present at the same vertebral level, one intradural and the other extradural. A patient presented with bilateral leg pain, acute weakness, and sensory loss in the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural mass at T6-7 with ambiguous boundaries relative to the thecal sac and compressing the spinal cord. The patient underwent resection of the epidural and intradural mass at T6-7. Histopathology revealed the epidural specimen to be a double-hit B-cell lymphoma and the intradural mass to be a transitional meningioma. Postoperatively, the patient did well, with an immediate return of strength and sensation. A postoperative MR image showed complete resection of the intradural mass. The authors suggest that biopsy may be prudent in patients with known systemic lymphoma presenting with a spinal lesion that has unclear boundaries relative to the thecal sac prior to commencing radiation and chemotherapy.

  8. A geospatial model of ambient sound pressure levels in the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennitt, Daniel; Sherrill, Kirk; Fristrup, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a model that predicts measured sound pressure levels using geospatial features such as topography, climate, hydrology, and anthropogenic activity. The model utilizes random forest, a tree-based machine learning algorithm, which does not incorporate a priori knowledge of source characteristics or propagation mechanics. The response data encompasses 270 000 h of acoustical measurements from 190 sites located in National Parks across the contiguous United States. The explanatory variables were derived from national geospatial data layers and cross validation procedures were used to evaluate model performance and identify variables with predictive power. Using the model, the effects of individual explanatory variables on sound pressure level were isolated and quantified to reveal systematic trends across environmental gradients. Model performance varies by the acoustical metric of interest; the seasonal L50 can be predicted with a median absolute deviation of approximately 3 dB. The primary application for this model is to generalize point measurements to maps expressing spatial variation in ambient sound levels. An example of this mapping capability is presented for Zion National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument in southwestern Utah.

  9. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  10. The widest contiguous field of view at Dome C and Mount Graham

    CERN Document Server

    Stoesz, J; Lascaux, F; Hagelin, S

    2009-01-01

    The image quality from Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) can be gradually increased with decreased contiguous field of view. This trade-off is dependent on the vertical profile of the optical turbulence (Cn2 profiles). It is known that the accuracy of the vertical distribution measured by existing Cn2 profiling techniques is currently quite uncertain for wide field performance predictions 4 to 20 arcminutes. With assumed uncertainties in measurements from Generalized-SCIDAR (GS), SODAR plus MASS we quantify the impact of this uncertainty on the trade-off between field of view and image quality for photometry of science targets at the resolution limit. We use a point spread function (PSF) model defined analytically in the spatial frequency domain to compute the relevant photometry figure of merit at infrared wavelengths. Statistics of this PSF analysis on a database of Cn2 measurements are presented for Mt. Graham, Arizona and Dome C, Antarctica. This research is part of the activities of ForOT (3D Forecasti...

  11. Anthrax and the Geochemistry of Soils in the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale W. Griffin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil geochemical data from sample sites in counties that reported occurrences of anthrax in wildlife and livestock since 2000 were evaluated against counties within the same states (MN, MT, ND, NV, OR, SD and TX that did not report occurrences. These data identified the elements, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn, phosphorus (P and strontium (Sr, as having statistically significant differences in concentrations between county type (anthrax occurrence versus no occurrence. Tentative threshold values of the lowest concentrations of each of these elements (Ca = 0.43 wt %, Mn = 142 mg/kg, P = 180 mg/kg and Sr = 51 mg/kg and average concentrations (Ca = 1.3 wt %, Mn = 463 mg/kg, P = 580 mg/kg and Sr = 170 mg/kg were identified from anthrax-positive counties as prospective investigative tools in determining whether an outbreak had “potential” or was “likely” at any given geographic location in the contiguous United States.

  12. Rethinking temporal contiguity and the judgement of causality: effects of prior knowledge, experience, and reinforcement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2003-07-01

    Time plays a pivotal role in causal inference. Nonetheless most contemporary theories of causal induction do not address the implications of temporal contiguity and delay, with the exception of associative learning theory. Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) and several replications (Reed, 1992, 1999) have demonstrated that people fail to identify causal relations if cause and effect are separated by more than two seconds. In line with an associationist perspective, these findings have been interpreted to indicate that temporal lags universally impair causal induction. This interpretation clashes with the richness of everyday causal cognition where people apparently can reason about causal relations involving considerable delays. We look at the implications of cause-effect delays from a computational perspective and predict that delays should generally hinder reasoning performance, but that this hindrance should be alleviated if reasoners have knowledge of the delay. Two experiments demonstrated that (1) the impact of delay on causal judgement depends on participants' expectations about the timeframe of the causal relation, and (2) the free-operant procedures used in previous studies are ill-suited to study the direct influences of delay on causal induction, because they confound delay with weaker evidence for the relation in question. Implications for contemporary causal learning theories are discussed.

  13. Understanding Flood Seasonality and Its Temporal Shifts within the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Sheng [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Li, Hong-Yi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Guo, Jiali [College of Civil and Hydropower Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China; State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Ran, Qihua [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Demissie, Yonas [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University Tri-Cities, Richland, Washington; Sivapalan, Murugesu [Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, Illinois; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the causes of flood seasonality is critical for better flood management. This study examines the seasonality of annual maximum floods (AMF) and its changes before and after 1980 at over 250 natural catchments across the contiguous United States. Using circular statistics to define a seasonality index, our analysis focuses on the variability of the flood occurrence date. Generally, catchments with more synchronized seasonal water and energy cycles largely inherit their seasonality of AMF from that of annual maximum rainfall (AMR). In contrast, the seasonality of AMF in catchments with loosely synchronized water and energy cycles are more influenced by high antecedent storage, which is responsible for the amplification of the seasonality of AMF over that of AMR. This understanding then effectively explains a statistically significant shift of flood seasonality detected in some catchments in the recent decades. Catchments where the antecedent soil water storage has increased since 1980 exhibit increasing flood seasonality while catchments that have experienced increases in storm rainfall before the floods have shifted towards floods occurring more variably across the seasons. In the eastern catchments, a concurrent widespread increase in event rainfall magnitude and reduced soil water storage have led to a more variable timing of floods. Our findings of the role of antecedent storage and event rainfall on the flood seasonality provide useful insights for understanding future changes in flood seasonality as climate models projected changes in extreme precipitation and aridity over land.

  14. Drought trends indicated by evapotranspiration deficit over the contiguous United States during 1896-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeha; Rhee, Jinyoung

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) has received a great attention in drought assessment as it is closely related to atmospheric water demand. The hypothetical potential ET (ETp) has been predominantly used, nonetheless it does not actually exist in the hydrologic cycle. In this work, we used a complementary method for ET estimation to obtain wet-environment ET (ETw) and actual ET (ETa) from routinely observed climatic data. By combining ET deficits (ETw minus ETa) and the structure of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), we proposed a novel ET-based drought index, the Standardized Evapotranspiration Deficit Index (SEDI). We carried out historical drought identification for the contiguous United States using temperature datasets of the PRISM Climate Group. SEDI presented spatial distributions of drought areas similar to the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for major drought events. It indicates that SEDI can be used for validating other drought indices. Using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, we found a significant decreasing trend of SEDI (increasing drought risk) similar to PDSI and SPI in the western United States. This study suggests a potential of ET-based indices for drought quantification even with no involvement of precipitation data.

  15. A numerical investigation of pumping-test responses from contiguous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, Silvain; Chesnaux, Romain; Ferroud, Anouck

    2017-03-01

    Adequate groundwater management requires models capable of representing the heterogeneous nature of aquifers. A key point is the theoretical knowledge of flow behaviour in various heterogeneous archetypal conditions, using analytically or numerically based models. This study numerically investigates transient pressure transfers between linearly contiguous homogeneous domains with non-equal hydraulic properties, optionally separated by a conductive fault. Responses to pumping are analysed in terms of time-variant flow dimension, n. Two radial stages are predicted (n: 2 - 2) with a positive or negative vertical offset depending of the transmissivity ratio between domains. A transitional n = 4 segment occurs when the non-pumped domain is more transmissive (n: 2 - 4 - 2), and a fractional flow segment occurs when the interface is a fault (n: 2 - 4 - 1.5 - 2). The hydrodynamics are generally governed by the transmissivity ratio; the storativity ratio impact is limited. The drawdown log-derivative late stabilization, recorded at any well, does not tend to reflect the local transmissivity but rather the higher transmissivity region, possibly distant and blind, as it predominantly supplies groundwater to the well. This study provides insights on the behaviour of non-uniform aquifers and on theoretical responses that can aid practitioners to detect such conditions in nature.

  16. Throughflow as a determining factor for habitat contiguity in a near-natural fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, A. H.; Schot, P. P.; Griffioen, J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Batelaan, O.; Wassen, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryKnowledge of the hydrological mechanisms that underlie stable plant communities within natural fens is essential for the improvement of current fen restoration and conservation strategies. In this study, steady-state groundwater modelling was performed to quantify the impact of throughflow mechanisms on the presence of exfiltrated, alkaline groundwater across a near-natural fen in the Biebrza River catchment (Poland). Alkaline groundwater is considered essential for the existence of low-productive fen plants. The results indicate that throughflow redistributes exfiltrated groundwater, mixed with locally infiltrated precipitation, in various concentrations across the fen. The throughflow model provides an explanation for the major patterns in the plant alliances that have a preference for minerotrophic or ombrotrophic habitat conditions. These patterns could not be reproduced with groundwater models that did not account for the existence of throughflow on a regional scale. We conclude that throughflow (1) enables a spatially contiguous supply of exfiltrated groundwater across fens, and thereby (2) facilitates abiotic conditions suitable for fen plants outside the zones that are directly supplied by exfiltrated groundwater. These new insights into landscape hydrological mechanisms that drive abiotic conditions within natural fens necessitate the reprioritisation of current hydrological fen restoration strategies.

  17. Spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation during chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in a behaving macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. S.; Parker, R. A.; House, P. A.; Bagley, E.; Wendelken, S.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2012-12-01

    Objective. It has been hypothesized that a vision prosthesis capable of evoking useful visual percepts can be based upon electrically stimulating the primary visual cortex (V1) of a blind human subject via penetrating microelectrode arrays. As a continuation of earlier work, we examined several spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation. Approach. An array of 100 penetrating microelectrodes was chronically implanted in V1 of a behaving macaque monkey. Microstimulation thresholds were measured using a two-alternative forced choice detection task. Relative locations of electrically-evoked percepts were measured using a memory saccade-to-target task. Main results. The principal finding was that two years after implantation we were able to evoke behavioural responses to electric stimulation across the spatial extent of the array using groups of contiguous electrodes. Consistent responses to stimulation were evoked at an average threshold current per electrode of 204 ± 49 µA (mean ± std) for groups of four electrodes and 91 ± 25 µA for groups of nine electrodes. Saccades to electrically-evoked percepts using groups of nine electrodes showed that the animal could discriminate spatially distinct percepts with groups having an average separation of 1.6 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± std) in cortex and 1.0° ± 0.2° in visual space. Significance. These results demonstrate chronic perceptual functionality and provide evidence for the feasibility of a cortically-based vision prosthesis for the blind using penetrating microelectrodes.

  18. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  19. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  20. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  1. Defect Characterization Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. In this paper a quantitative comparison of 2D arrays with different element layouts is performed. A technique for extracting the scattering matrix of a defect from the raw 2D array data is also presented. The method is tested on experimental data for characterization of various volumetric defects.

  2. Leakage analysis of crossbar memristor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-07-01

    Crossbar memristor arrays provide a promising high density alternative for the current memory and storage technologies. These arrays suffer from parasitic current components that significantly increase the power consumption, and could ruin the readout operation. In this work we study the trade-off between the crossbar array density and the power consumption required for its readout. Our analysis is based on simulating full memristor arrays on a SPICE platform.

  3. Simulations of astronomical imaging phased arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklatvala, George; Withington, Stafford; Hobson, Michael P

    2008-04-01

    We describe a theoretical procedure for analyzing astronomical phased arrays with overlapping beams and apply the procedure to simulate a simple example. We demonstrate the effect of overlapping beams on the number of degrees of freedom of the array and on the ability of the array to recover a source. We show that the best images are obtained using overlapping beams, contrary to common practice, and show how the dynamic range of a phased array directly affects the image quality.

  4. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  5. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  6. Subwavelength micropillar array terahertz lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Michael; Brandstetter, Martin; Deutsch, Christoph; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2014-01-13

    We report on micropillar-based terahertz lasers with active pillars that are much smaller than the emission wavelength. These micropillar array lasers correspond to scaled-down band-edge photonic crystal lasers forming an active photonic metamaterial. In contrast to photonic crystal lasers which use significantly larger pillar structures, lasing emission is not observed close to high-symmetry points in the photonic band diagram, but in the effective medium regime. We measure stimulated emission at 4 THz for micropillar array lasers with pillar diameters of 5 µm. Our results not only demonstrate the integration of active subwavelength optics in a terahertz laser, but are also an important step towards the realization of nanowire-based terahertz lasers.

  7. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  8. Recent Results from Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, M

    2015-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum Xmax are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20 degrees radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 sigma. The measured Xmax is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 10^18.2 eV - 10^19.2 eV.

  9. Sandia concentrator array testing experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, H. J.; Rogers, C. B.; Beavis, L. C.

    An assortment of PV concentrator modules and arrays have been tested and evaluated at the Sandia outdoor test facility. These test items include actively-cooled parabolic reflector and linear Fresnel lens concentrators, and actively- and passively-cooled point focus collectors. Maximum power efficiencies were measured over a range of sunlight intensities and cell temperatures, then a linear equation relating efficiency to cell temperature and insolation was developed for each module and array by using a multiple linear regression analysis technique on the data. An evaluation of the suitability of Polyvinyl-Butyral (PVB) as a material used to laminate solar cells to glass is presented. Some general observations are made on the accuracy of tracking systems, and the maintenance of these systems.

  10. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  11. Highlights from the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth’s surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  12. High voltage load resistor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  13. A Systolic Array RLS Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the outline of the systolic array recursive least-squares (RLS) processor prototyped primarily with the aim of broadband mobile communication applications. To execute the RLS algorithm effectively, this processor uses an orthogonal triangularization technique known in matrix algebra as QR decomposition for parallel pipelined processing. The processor board comprises 19 application-specific integrated circuit chips, each with approximately one million gates. Thirty-two bit ...

  14. Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, E.J.

    2000-08-07

    The long-range goal of this project is to develop the optical and mechanical design of a micromirror array for adaptive optics that will meet the following criteria: flat mirror surface ({lambda}/20), high fill factor (> 95%), large stroke (5-10 {micro}m), and pixel size {approx}-200 {micro}m. This will be accomplished by optimizing the mirror surface and actuators independently and then combining them using bonding technologies that are currently being developed.

  15. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. N.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  16. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A.J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging t...

  17. Array Imaging of Noisy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    The ultimate limit on ultrasonic defect detectability is the coherent noise due to material backscatter. A model of such noise in ultrasonic array images is developed based on the single scattering assumption. The implications of the model are discussed and supported with some experimental examples. In the case of a copper specimen, it is shown that an improvement in signal to coherent noise ratio of over 30 dB can be obtained by optimization of imaging parameters.

  18. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A J; Wilcox, P D

    2014-10-03

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  19. Array-based photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S. Thomas; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chen, Yu

    2005-03-22

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous or sequential, rapid analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. A photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array including a body having at least three recesses or affinity masses connected thereto is used in conjunction with a photoacoustic spectroscopy system. At least one acoustic detector is positioned near the recesses or affinity masses for detection of acoustic waves emitted from species of interest within the recesses or affinity masses.

  20. Automated array assembly. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.F.

    1977-05-01

    The goal of the ERDA/JPL LSSA program of $0.50/W selling price for array modules in 1986 turns out to have been remarkably appropriate. An extensive and detailed analysis of technologies which could be related to array module manufacturing was completed and a minimum manufacturing cost in a highly automated line of $0.30/W was found assuming the silicon is free. The panels are of a double glass construction and are based on round wafers. Screen printed silver has been used as the metallization with a spray-coated AR layer. The least expensive junction formation technology appears to be ion implantation; however, several other technologies also may be used with very little cost penalty as described. Based on the required investment, a profit of $0.05/W appears reasonable. If silicon wafers are available at a price of $20 to 40/M/sup 2/, a selling price for these array modules of $0.50 to 0.66/W is projected. An analysis of the impact of factory size has been made. For a production level of 500 MW/yr, the price above is derived. For comparison, a factory processing 50 MW/yr using the same technology would sell modules for $0.54/W to $0.70/W. An analysis of the impact of wafer size indicates that with traditional metallization and panel designs there is no advantage in increasing wafer size from 3 in. to 5 in., and, in fact, there is some penalty (10% in $/W) due to increasedmetallization costs and reduced system performance. There is a premium placed on high efficiency due to its impact, not only on array module cost, but on system cost. For the near term goals of this program, wafers cut from single-crystal material seem the most likely sheet configuration.

  1. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project are to 1) make a direct detection of gravitational waves, 2) improve the solar system planetary ephemeris and 3) develop a pulsar-based time scale. In this article we describe the project, explain how the data are collected and processed and describe current research. Our current data sets are able to place an upper bound on the gravitational wave background that is the most stringent to date.

  2. A distributed array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R.; Kovitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station communication system will use microwave frequency radio links to carry digitized information from sender to receiver. The ability of the antenna system to meet stringent requirements on coverage zones, multiple users, and reliability will play an important part in the overall multiple access communication system. This paper will describe the configuration of a multibeam conformal phased array antenna and the individual microwave integrated components incoporated into this antenna system.

  3. Domestic well locations and populations served in the contiguous U.S.: 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the location and population served by domestic wells in the contiguous United States in two ways: (1) the “Block Group Method” or BGM, uses data from the 1990 census, and (2) the “Road-Enhanced Method” or REM, refines the locations by using a buffer expansion and shrinkage technique along roadways to define areas where domestic wells exist. The fundamental assumption is that houses (and therefore domestic wells) are located near a named road. The results are presented as two nationally-consistent domestic-well population datasets.While both methods can be considered valid, the REM map is more precise in locating domestic wells; the REM map has a smaller amount of spatial bias (Type 1 and Type 2 errors nearly equal vs biased in Type 1), total error (10.9% vs 23.7%), and distance error (2.0 km vs 2.7 km), when comparing the REM and BGM maps to a calibration map in California. However, the BGM map is more inclusive of all potential locations for domestic wells. Independent domestic well datasets from the USGS, and the States of MN, NV, and TX show that the BGM captures about 5 to 10% more wells than the REM.One key difference between the BGM and the REM is the mapping of low density areas. The REM reduces areas mapped as low density by 57%, concentrating populations into denser regions. Therefore, if one is trying to capture all of the potential areas of domestic-well usage, then the BGM map may be more applicable. If location is more imperative, then the REM map is better at identifying areas of the landscape with the highest probability of finding a domestic well. Depending on the purpose of a study, a combination of both maps can be used.

  4. Domestic well locations and populations served in the contiguous U.S.: 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler D; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-12-31

    We estimate the location and population served by domestic wells in the contiguous United States in two ways: (1) the "Block Group Method" or BGM, uses data from the 1990 census, and (2) the "Road-Enhanced Method" or REM, refines the locations by using a buffer expansion and shrinkage technique along roadways to define areas where domestic wells exist. The fundamental assumption is that houses (and therefore domestic wells) are located near a named road. The results are presented as two nationally-consistent domestic-well population datasets. While both methods can be considered valid, the REM map is more precise in locating domestic wells; the REM map has a smaller amount of spatial bias (Type 1 and Type 2 errors nearly equal vs biased in Type 1), total error (10.9% vs 23.7%), and distance error (2.0km vs 2.7km), when comparing the REM and BGM maps to a calibration map in California. However, the BGM map is more inclusive of all potential locations for domestic wells. Independent domestic well datasets from the USGS, and the States of MN, NV, and TX show that the BGM captures about 5 to 10% more wells than the REM. One key difference between the BGM and the REM is the mapping of low density areas. The REM reduces areas mapped as low density by 57%, concentrating populations into denser regions. Therefore, if one is trying to capture all of the potential areas of domestic-well usage, then the BGM map may be more applicable. If location is more imperative, then the REM map is better at identifying areas of the landscape with the highest probability of finding a domestic well. Depending on the purpose of a study, a combination of both maps can be used. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Environmental and demographic determinants of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl across the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry have been linked to wild waterfowl. A first step towards understanding where and when avian influenza viruses might emerge from North American waterfowl is to identify environmental and demographic determinants of infection in their populations. Laboratory studies indicate water temperature as one determinant of environmental viral persistence and we explored this hypothesis at the landscape scale. We also hypothesized that the interval apparent prevalence in ducks within a local watershed during the overwintering season would influence infection probabilities during the following breeding season within the same local watershed. Using avian influenza virus surveillance data collected from 19,965 wild waterfowl across the contiguous United States between October 2006 and September 2009 We fit Logistic regression models relating the infection status of individual birds sampled on their breeding grounds to demographic characteristics, temperature, and interval apparent prevalence during the preceding overwintering season at the local watershed scale. We found strong support for sex, age, and species differences in the probability an individual duck tested positive for avian influenza virus. In addition, we found that for every seven days the local minimum temperature fell below zero, the chance an individual would test positive for avian influenza virus increased by 5.9 percent. We also found a twelve percent increase in the chance an individual would test positive during the breeding season for every ten percent increase in the interval apparent prevalence during the prior overwintering season. These results suggest that viral deposition in water and sub-freezing temperatures during the overwintering season may act as determinants of individual level infection risk during the subsequent breeding season. Our findings have implications for future surveillance activities in waterfowl and domestic

  6. Improved MEGAN predictions of biogenic isoprene in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Schade, Gunnar; Estes, Mark; Ying, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Isoprene emitted from biogenic sources significantly contributes to ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation in the troposphere. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been widely used to estimate isoprene emissions from local to global scales. However, previous studies have shown that MEGAN significantly over-predicts isoprene emissions in the contiguous United States (US). In this study, ambient isoprene concentrations in the US were simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (v5.0.1) using biogenic emissions estimated by MEGAN v2.10 with several different gridded isoprene emission factor (EF) fields. Best isoprene predictions were obtained with the EF field based on the Biogenic Emissions Landcover Database v4 (BELD4) from US EPA for its Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) model v3.61 (MEGAN-BEIS361). A seven-month simulation (April to October 2011) of isoprene emissions with MEGAN-BEIS361 and ambient concentrations using CMAQ shows that observed spatial and temporal variations (both diurnal and seasonal) of isoprene concentrations can be well predicted at most non-urban monitors using isoprene emission estimation from the MEGAN-BEIS361 without significant biases. The predicted monthly average vertical column density of formaldehyde (HCHO), a reactive volatile organic compound with significant contributions from isoprene oxidation, generally agree with the spatial distribution of HCHO column density derived using satellite data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), although summer month vertical column densities in the southeast US were overestimated, which suggests that isoprene emission might still be overestimated in that region. The agreement between observation and prediction may be further improved if more accurate PAR values, such as those derived from satellite-based observations, were used in modeling the biogenic emissions.

  7. Optimization of precipitation and streamflow forecasts in the southwest Contiguous US for warm season convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmers, T.; Castro, C. L.; Gupta, H. V.; Gochis, D. J.; ElSaadani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Warm season convection associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM) provides an important source of precipitation for much of the Southwest Contiguous US (CONUS) and Northwest Mexico. Convection associated with the NAM can also result in flash flooding, a hazard to metropolitan areas such as Tucson and Phoenix, as well as rural areas where washouts of main roads can sever critical transportation infrastructure. In order to mitigate the effects of this problem, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Water Center (NWC) is developing a national distributed hydrologic model using the WRF-Hydro framework with forcing from the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) mesoscale atmospheric model. We aim to improve this National hydrologic and atmospheric modeling framework through the calibration of the WRF-Hydro model for the southwest CONUS and the optimization of planetary boundary layer and cloud microphysics schemes for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in the same region. The WRF-Hydro model, with a similar structure as the national configuration used by the NWC, has been set up for the Gila River basin in southern Arizona. We demonstrate the utility of the model for forecasting high impact precipitation events in catchments with limited human modification. The WRF-Hydro model is spun up using past precipitation from the NCEP Stage-IV records and TRMM estimates. Atmospheric forcing for WRF-Hydro comes from the NASA Phase 2 North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS-2) dataset. WRF-Hydro is forced for selected high-impact events using a 3-km grid resolution Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) atmospheric simulation. WRF-ARW is forced with the operational National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) operational model. This methodology demonstrates the modeling framework that will be used for future parameter calibration of WRF-Hydro and optimization of WRF-ARW.

  8. Contiguous metal-mediated base pairs comprising two Ag(I) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik A; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Hoffmann, Jan; Brutschy, Bernhard; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Müller, Jens

    2011-05-27

    The incorporation of transition-metal ions into nucleic acids by using metal-mediated base pairs has proved to be a promising strategy for the site-specific functionalization of these biomolecules. We report herein the formation of Ag(+)-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs comprising 1,3-dideaza-2'-deoxyadenosine and thymidine. By defunctionalizing the Watson-Crick edge of adenine, the formation of regular base pairs is prohibited. The additional substitution of the N3 nitrogen atom of adenine by a methine moiety increases the basicity of the exocyclic amino group. Hence, 1,3-dideazaadenine and thymine are able to incorporate two Ag(+) ions into their Hoogsteen-type base pair (as compared with one Ag(+) ion in base pairs with 1-deazaadenine and thymine). We show by using a combination of experimental techniques (UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering, and mass spectrometry) that this type of base pair is compatible with different sequence contexts and can be used contiguously in DNA double helices. The most stable duplexes were observed when using a sequence containing alternating purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations have been performed to provide insight into the structure, formation and stabilization of the twofold metalated base pair. They revealed that the metal ions within a base pair are separated by an Ag···Ag distance of about 2.88 Å. The Ag-Ag interaction contributes some 16 kcal mol(-1) to the overall stability of the doubly metal-mediated base pair, with the dominant contribution to the Ag-Ag bonding resulting from a donor-acceptor interaction between silver 4d-type and 4s orbitals. These Hoogsteen-type base pairs enable a higher functionalization of nucleic acids with metal ions than previously reported metal-mediated base pairs, thereby increasing the potential of DNA-based nanotechnology.

  9. Simulating Land Surface Hydrology at a 30-meter Spatial Resolution over the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Pan, M.; Cai, X.; Chaney, N.

    2016-12-01

    Big data, high performance computing, and recent advances in hydrologic similarity present a unique opportunity for macroscale hydrology: the land surface hydrology can be modeled at field scales over continental extents while ensuring computational efficiency to enable robust ensemble frameworks. In this presentation we will illustrate this potential breakthrough in macroscale hydrology by discussing results from a 30-meter simulation over the contiguous United States using the HydroBlocks land surface model. HydroBlocks is a novel land surface model that represents field-scale spatial heterogeneity of land surface processes through interacting hydrologic response units (HRUs) [Chaney et al., 2016]. The model is a coupling between the Noah-MP land surface model and the Dynamic TOPMODEL hydrologic model. The HRUs are defined by clustering proxies of the drivers of spatial heterogeneity using hyperresolution land data. For the simulations over CONUS, HydroBlocks is run at every HUC10 catchment using 100 HRUs per catchment between 2004 and 2014. The simulations are forced with the 4 km Stage IV radar rainfall product and a spatially downscaled version of NLDAS-2. We will show how this approach to macroscale hydrology ensures computational efficiency while providing field-scale hydrologic information over continental extents. We will illustrate how this approach provides a novel approach in both the application and validation of macroscale land surface and hydrologic models. Finally, using these results, we will discuss the important role that big data and high performance computing can play in providing solutions to longstanding challenges to not only flood and drought monitoring systems but also to numerical weather prediction, seasonal forecasting, and climate prediction. References Chaney, N., P. Metcalfe, and E. F. Wood (2016), HydroBlocks: A Field-scale Resolving Land Surface Model for Application Over Continental Extents, Hydrological Processes, (in press.)

  10. Extirpations of grizzly bears in the contiguous United States of America, 1850-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Merrill, Troy

    2002-01-01

    We investigated factors associated with the distribution of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in 1850 and their extirpation during 1850–1920 and 1920–1970 in the contiguous United States. We used autologistic regression to describe relations between grizzly bear range in 1850, 1920, and 1970 and potential explanatory factors specified for a comprehensive grid of cells, each 900 km2 in size. We also related persistence, 1920–1970, to range size and shape. Grizzly bear range in 1850 was positively related to occurrence in mountainous ecoregions and the ranges of oaks (Quercus spp.), piñon pines (Pinus edulis and P. monophylla), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis), and bison (Bos bison) and negatively related to occurrence in prairie and hot desert ecoregions. Relations with salmon (Oncorynchus spp.) range and human factors were complex. Persistence of grizzly bear range, 1850–1970, was positively related to occurrence in the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine range, and local size of grizzly bear range at the beginning of each period, and negatively related to number of humans and the ranges of bison, salmon, and piñon pines. We speculate that foods affected persistence primarily by influencing the frequency of contact between humans and bears. With respect to current conservation, grizzly bears survived from 1920 to 1970 most often where ranges at the beginning of this period were either larger than 20,000 km2 or larger than 7,000 km2 but with a ratio of perimeter to area of grizzly bear range would be as extensive as it is now. Although grizzly bear range in the Yellowstone region is currently the most robust of any to potential future increases in human lethality, bears in this region are threatened by the loss of whitebark pine.

  11. A novel method to design sparse linear arrays for ultrasonic phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Bin; Shi, Ke-Ren

    2006-12-22

    In ultrasonic phased array testing, a sparse array can increase the resolution by enlarging the aperture without adding system complexity. Designing a sparse array involves choosing the best or a better configuration from a large number of candidate arrays. We firstly designed sparse arrays by using a genetic algorithm, but found that the arrays have poor performance and poor consistency. So, a method based on the Minimum Redundancy Linear Array was then adopted. Some elements are determined by the minimum-redundancy array firstly in order to ensure spatial resolution and then a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the remaining elements. Sparse arrays designed by this method have much better performance and consistency compared to the arrays designed only by a genetic algorithm. Both simulation and experiment confirm the effectiveness.

  12. Measured Aperture-Array Noise Temperature of the Mark II Phased Array Feed for ASKAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chippendale, A P; Beresford, R J; Hampson, G A; Shaw, R D; Hayman, D B; Macleod, A; Forsyth, A R; Hay, S G; Leach, M; Cantrall, C; Brothers, M L; Hotan, A W

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the aperture-array noise temperature of the first Mk. II phased array feed that CSIRO has built for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. As an aperture array, the Mk. II phased array feed achieves a beam equivalent noise temperature less than 40 K from 0.78 GHz to 1.7 GHz and less than 50 K from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz for a boresight beam directed at the zenith. We believe these are the lowest reported noise temperatures over these frequency ranges for ambient-temperature phased arrays. The measured noise temperature includes receiver electronics noise, ohmic losses in the array, and stray radiation from sidelobes illuminating the sky and ground away from the desired field of view. This phased array feed was designed for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array.

  13. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  14. Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic

  15. Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A

    2009-08-31

    Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.

  16. Silver nanorod arrays for photocathode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilayurganapathy, Subramanian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Joly, Alan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); El-Khoury, Patrick Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Greg W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schwenzer, Birgit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pandey, Archana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kayani, Asghar N. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Hess, Wayne P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-16

    In this study, we explore the possibility of using plasmonic Ag nanorod arrays featuring enhanced photoemission as high-brightness photocathode material. Silver nanorod arrays are synthesized by the DC electrodeposition method and their dimensionality, uniformity, crystallinity and oxide/impurity content are characterized. These Ag nanorod arrays exhibit greatly enhanced two-photon photoemission under 400 nm femtosecond pulsed laser excitation. Plasmonic field enhancement in the array produces photoemission hot spots that are mapped using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). The relative photoemission enhancement of nanorod array hot spots relative to that of a flat Ag thin film is found to range between 102 and 3 x 103.

  17. Ultrasonic stair case array for NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, K.; Tittmann, B. R.; Kropf, M.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present the results on the design of a unique two-dimensional phased array with low channel applications for imaging defects on a metal surface. First, basic transducer calculations will be shown. Followed by the results of important phased array variables, such as focusing, and angle beam sweeping ability, The final design will be given. Next the computer simulation results will be discussed. These results will indicate the performance of the actual array. The second half of the paper will be devoted to a discussion on the phased array testing results with a demonstration phased array.

  18. Coupling Between Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between two waveguide-fed planar slot arrays has been investigated using full-wave analysis. The analysis employs the method-of-moments solution to the pertinent coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field of all slots. In order to compute coupling between two arrays, the input port of the first array is excited with a TE(sub 10) mode wave while the second one is match-terminated. After solving the moment method matrix equations, the aperture fields of all slots are obtained and thereby the TE(sub 10) mode wave received at the input port of the second array is determined. Coupling between two arrays is the ratio of the wave amplitude arriving in the second array port to the incident wave amplitude at the first array port. The coupling mechanism has been studied as a function of spacing between arrays in different directions, e.g. the electric field plane, the magnetic field plane, and the diagonal plane. Computed coupling values are presented for different array geometries. This work is novel since it provides a good understanding of coupling between waveguide-fed slot arrays as a function of spacing and orientation for different aperture distributions and array architectures. This serves as a useful tool for antenna design engineers and system engineers.

  19. New fabrication and applications of carbohydrate arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Chen, Xin; Xiao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are used as high-throughput screening platforms to study the carbohydrate-mediated recognition events for glycobiology. The polysaccharide arrays are easy to fabricate by non-covalently or covalently immobilizing polysaccharides onto array surfaces because polysaccharides have hydrophobic interactions. Oligosaccharides must be derived and covalently or non-covalently immobilized onto array surfaces to fabricate oligosaccharide arrays because they have hydrophilic interactions. At the moment, carbohydrate arrays are mainly used to study the carbohydrate-protein interactions and carbohydrate-binding lectins or antibodies, which are possible to be applied to clinics and diagnoses. This review mainly summed up the new fabrication strategies of carbohydrate arrays and their applications in recent four years.

  20. Dynamics and function of compact nucleosome arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Michael G; Oh, Eugene; Tims, Hannah S; Widom, Jonathan

    2009-09-01

    The packaging of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin sterically occludes polymerases, recombinases and repair enzymes. How chromatin structure changes to allow their actions is unknown. We constructed defined fluorescently labeled trinucleosome arrays, allowing analysis of chromatin conformational dynamics via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The arrays undergo reversible Mg2+-dependent folding similar to that of longer arrays studied previously. We define two intermediate conformational states in the reversible folding of the nucleosome arrays and characterize the microscopic rate constants. Nucleosome arrays are highly dynamic even when compact, undergoing conformational fluctuations on timescales in the second to microsecond range. Compact states of the arrays allow binding to DNA within the central nucleosome via site exposure. Protein binding can also drive decompaction of the arrays. Thus, our results reveal multiple modes by which spontaneous chromatin fiber dynamics allow for the invasion and action of DNA-processing protein complexes.

  1. Delamination Detection Using Guided Wave Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting multiple delaminations in composite laminates using non-contact phased arrays. The phased arrays are implemented with a non-contact scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). The array imaging algorithm is performed in the frequency domain where both the guided wave dispersion effect and direction dependent wave properties are considered. By using the non-contact SLDV array with a frequency domain imaging algorithm, an intensity image of the composite plate can be generated for delamination detection. For the proof of concept, a laboratory test is performed using a non-contact phased array to detect two delaminations (created through quasi-static impact test) at different locations in a composite plate. Using the non-contact phased array and frequency domain imaging, the two impact-induced delaminations are successfully detected. This study shows that the non-contact phased array method is a potentially effective method for rapid delamination inspection in large composite structures.

  2. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  3. Characterization of the chicken GCAP gene array and analyses of GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 gene expression in normal and rd chicken pineal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple-Rowland, S L; Larkin, P; Bronson, J D; Nykamp, K; Streit, W J; Baehr, W

    1999-07-28

    This study had three objectives: (1) to characterize the structures of the chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes; (2) to determine if GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 genes are expressed in chicken pineal gland; (3) if GC1 is expressed in chicken pineal, to determine if the GC1 null mutation carried by the retinal degeneration (rd) chicken is associated with degenerative changes within the pineal glands of these animals. GCAP1 and GCAP2 gene structures were determined by analyses of chicken cosmid and cDNA clones. The putative transcription start points for these genes were determined using 5'-RACE. GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 transcripts were analyzed using Northern blot and RT-PCR. Routine light microscopy was used to examine pineal morphology. Chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail array. Each protein is encoded by 4 exons that are interrupted by 3 introns of variable length, the positions of which are identical within each gene. The putative transcription start points for GCAP1 and GCAP2 are 314 and 243 bases upstream of the translation start codons of these genes, respectively. As in retina, GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 genes are expressed in the chicken pineal. Although the GC1 null mutation is present in both the retina and pineal of the rd chicken, only the retina appears to undergo degeneration. The identical arrangement of chicken, human, and mouse GCAP1/2 genes suggests that these genes originated from an ancient gene duplication/inversion event that occurred during evolution prior to vertebrate diversification. The expression of GC1, GCAP1, and GCAP2 in chicken pineal is consistent with the hypothesis that chicken pineal contains a functional phototransduction cascade. The absence of cellular degeneration in the rd pineal gland suggests that GC1 is not critical for pineal cell survival.

  4. Automated array assembly. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiello, R.V.

    1977-12-01

    Three main sections are included which describe a general technology assessment and manufacturing cost analysis; a near-term (1982) factory design; and the results of an experimental production study for the large-scale production of flat-panel silicon solar-cell arrays. The results of an extensive study and detailed analysis of technologies which could be related to array module manufacturing are presented. From this study, several manufacturing sequences emerge as candidates for satisfying the ERDA/JPL cost goal of $0.50/W selling price in 1986. A minimum manufacturing cost was found in a highly automated line of $0.30/W assuming the silicon is free. The panels are of a double-glass construction and are based on round wafers. Screen-printed silver has been used as the metallization with a spray-coated antireflection (AR) layer. The least expensive junction-formation technology appears to be ion implantation;however, several other technologies also may be used with very little cost penalty as described. An interim 1982 factory is described for the large-scale production of silicon solar-cell array modules. The boundary conditions for this design are the use of Czochralski silicon crystals and $25/kg polycrystalline silicon. The objective is a large-scale production facility to meet an intermediate ERDA cost goal of $2.00/W in 1982. A 6-month experimental production study of the elements of low-cost solar-cell manufacturing sequences is described as an outgrowth of the cost and manufacturing studies. This program consisted of three parts: an experimental production line study of the major variables associated with the fabrication of 3-in.-diameter silicon solar cells; a study of thick-film screen-printed silver metallization; and panel design and assembly development. (WHK)

  5. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  6. Sentinel-3 Solar Array Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Y.; Reutenauer, X.; Mouret, G.; Guerrere, S.; Ergan, A.; Ferrando, E.; Riva, S.; Hodgetts, P.; Levesque, D.; D'Accolti, G.

    2011-10-01

    Sentinel-3 is primarily a mission to support services relating to the marine environment, with capability to serve numerous land-, atmospheric- and cryospheric- based application areas. The mission's main objective is to determine parameters, such as sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperatures, as well as ocean- and land-surface colours with high-end accuracy and reliability. For this mission, Thales Alenia Space has been selected as the spacecraft prime contractor and is also responsible for the solar array. In this frame, TAS leads a European industrial team, comprising Selex Galileo for the photovoltaic assembly and Patria for the panel substrate.

  7. The collinear coaxial array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, D. J.; Williams, D.

    1981-03-01

    A design of a coaxial vertical antenna proposed in the ARRL antenna handbook is analyzed. A numerical analysis was carried out using the moment method. A variety of antenna configurations in the 160 MHz design frequency are analyzed and current distribution, gain, polar diagrams and impedances are calculated. The analysis is carried out for simple configurations and extended to a case with 16 repeated center sections. The effects of using lossy cable in the construction is also investigated. A defect in the original ARRL design is rectified. An array of an overall length 5.33 wavelengths is shown to have a gain of 10.69 dB.

  8. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  9. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  10. Long-term stability of neural prosthetic control signals from silicon cortical arrays in rhesus macaque motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Fan, Joline M.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Churchland, Mark M.; Rivera-Alvidrez, Zuley; Cunningham, John P.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2011-08-01

    Cortically-controlled prosthetic systems aim to help disabled patients by translating neural signals from the brain into control signals for guiding prosthetic devices. Recent reports have demonstrated reasonably high levels of performance and control of computer cursors and prosthetic limbs, but to achieve true clinical viability, the long-term operation of these systems must be better understood. In particular, the quality and stability of the electrically-recorded neural signals require further characterization. Here, we quantify action potential changes and offline neural decoder performance over 382 days of recording from four intracortical arrays in three animals. Action potential amplitude decreased by 2.4% per month on average over the course of 9.4, 10.4, and 31.7 months in three animals. During most time periods, decoder performance was not well correlated with action potential amplitude (p > 0.05 for three of four arrays). In two arrays from one animal, action potential amplitude declined by an average of 37% over the first 2 months after implant. However, when using simple threshold-crossing events rather than well-isolated action potentials, no corresponding performance loss was observed during this time using an offline decoder. One of these arrays was effectively used for online prosthetic experiments over the following year. Substantial short-term variations in waveforms were quantified using a wireless system for contiguous recording in one animal, and compared within and between days for all three animals. Overall, this study suggests that action potential amplitude declines more slowly than previously supposed, and performance can be maintained over the course of multiple years when decoding from threshold-crossing events rather than isolated action potentials. This suggests that neural prosthetic systems may provide high performance over multiple years in human clinical trials.

  11. Contiguous Frequency-Time Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless OFDMA Systems with QoS Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA scheme has been selected as a potential candidate for many emerging broadband wireless access standards. In this paper, a new joint scheduling and resource allocation scheme is proposed for the OFDMA systems using contiguous subcarrier permutation. The proposed resource allocation algorithm provides contiguous sets of frequency-time resource units following a rectangular shape yielding a reduction on the required burst signalling. The joint scheduling and resource allocation process is divided into two phases: the QoS requirements fulfilment and the input buffers emptying status. For each phase, a specific prioritization function is defined in order to obtain a trade-off between the fairness and the spectral efficiency maximization. The new prioritization scheme provides a reduction of 50% of the 99th percentile from the delivered packets delay in case of non real-time services, and 30% of the packet loss rate in case of real-time services compared to the proportional fair scheduling function. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that using the rectangular data packing algorithm, the number of required bursts per frame can be reduced up to a few tenths without compromising the performance.

  12. Microfluidic lithography of SAMs on gold to create dynamic surfaces for directed cell migration and contiguous cell cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian M; Barrett, Devin G; Westcott, Nathan P; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2008-08-19

    A straightforward, flexible, and inexpensive method to create patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold using microfluidics-microfluidic lithography-has been developed. Using a microfluidic cassette, alkanethiols were rapidly patterned on gold surfaces to generate monolayers and mixed monolayers. The patterning methodology is flexible and, by controlling the solvent conditions and thiol concentration, permeation of alkanethiols into the surrounding PDMS microfluidic cassette can be advantageously used to create different patterned feature sizes and to generate well-defined SAM surface gradients with a single microfluidic chip. To demonstrate the utility of microfluidic lithography, multiple cell experiments were conducted. By patterning cell adhesive regions in an inert background, a combination of selective masking of the surface and centrifugation achieved spatial and temporal control of patterned cells, enabling the design of both dynamic surfaces for directed cell migration and contiguous cocultures. Cellular division and motility resulted in directed, dynamic migration, while the centrifugation-aided seeding of a second cell line produced contiguous cocultures with multiple sites for heterogeneous cell-cell interactions.

  13. Varying likelihood of Megafire across space and time in the western contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavros, E.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Larkin, N. K.; McKenzie, D.; Steel, E.

    2013-12-01

    Studies project that a warming climate will likely increase wildfire activity. These analyses, however, are of aggregate statistics of annual area burned and to anticipate future events, especially those of particular concern like megafires, we need more fire specific projections. Megafires account for a disproportionate amount of damage and are defined quantitatively here as fires that burn >20,234 ha ~50,000 ac. Megafires account for the top two percent of all fires and represent 33% of all area burned in the western contiguous United States from 1984 to 2010. Multiple megafires often occur in one region during a single fire season, suggesting that regional climate is a driver. Therefore, we used composite records of climate and fire to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the megafire climate space. We then developed logistic regression models to predict the probability that a megafire will occur in a given week. Accuracy was good (AUC > 0.80) for all models. These analyses provide a coarse-scale assessment for operationally defined regions of megafire risk, which can be projected to determine how the likelihood of megafire varies across space and time using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. In general, with the exception of Northern California (NCAL), Southern California, and the Western Great Basin, there is increasing proportional change over time in the probability of a megafire. There was a significant (p≤0.05) difference between the historical modeled ensemble mean probability of a megafire occurrence from 1979 to 2010 and both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 means during 2031 to 2060. Generally, with the exception of the Southwest and NCAL, there are higher probabilities of megafire occurrence more frequently and for longer periods both throughout the fire season and from year to year, with more pronounced patterns under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. Our results provide a quantitative

  14. Trends in wind climates over the contiguous US: Implications for the wind energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Takle, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding how evolution of the global climate system has been manifest as changes in near-surface wind regimes in the past and how near-surface flow regimes might alter in the future is of great relevance to; the insurance industry, the construction and maritime industries, surface energy balance estimation, the community charged with mitigating coastal erosion, the agricultural industry, forest and infrastructure protection communities, and the burgeoning wind energy industry. A comprehensive analysis of wind speed trends over the contiguous USA during the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century is presented using output from 2 observational data sets, 4 reanalysis products and 2 regional climate models. The analysis indicates substantial differences between trends derived from observational wind speed data, reanalysis products and RCMs, and indeed between wind speeds from different reanalysis data sets and RCMs. The two observational data sets both exhibit an overwhelming dominance of declining trends in both the 50th and 90th percentile wind speeds, which is also the case for simulations conducted using MM5 with NCEP-2 boundary conditions. However, converse trends are seen in NARR, other global reanalyses and the RSM. Trends in percentile of the wind speed distribution are regionally consistent within each data source but exhibit large discrepancies between data sources particularly over the Midwest. In order to address questions regarding whether changes in the annual mean wind speed are associated with increased inter- annual variability, output from the data sets were used to compute the annual mean at each station or grid cell and one metric of variability (the variance of seven year windows of annual mean wind speed). Each metric was then subject to trend analysis. Results indicate stations or grid cells that exhibit a statistically significant trend in mean wind speed also tend to exhibit a statistically significant change in the

  15. Convection-Permitting Regional Climate Simulations over the Contiguous United States Including Potential Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhai; Rasmussen, Roy; Ikeda, Kyoko; Barlage, Michael; Chen, Fei; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Li, Yanping; Newman, Andrew; Thompson, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    The WRF model with a domain size of 1360x1016x51 points, using a 4 km spacing to encompass most of North America, is employed to investigate the water cycle and climate change impacts over the Contiguous United States (CONUS). Four suites of numerical experiments are being conducted, consisting of a 13-year retrospective simulation forced with ERA-I reanalysis, a 13-year climate sensitivity or Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation, and two 10-year CMIP5-based historical/future period simulations based on a revised bias-correction method. The major objectives are: 1) to evaluate high-resolution WRF's capability to capture orographic precipitation and snow mass balance over the western CONUS and convective precipitation over the eastern CONUS; 2) to assess future changes of seasonal snowfall and snowpack and associated hydrological cycles along with their regional variability across the different mountain barriers and elevation dependency, in response to the CMIP5 projected 2071-2100 climate warming; 3) to examine the precipitation changes under the projected global warming, with an emphasis on precipitation extremes and the warm-season precipitation corridor in association with MCS tracks in the central US; and 4) to provide a valuable community dataset for regional climate change and impact studies. Preliminary analysis of the retrospective simulation shows both seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and temperature are well reproduced, with precipitation bias being within 10% of the observations and temperature bias being below 1 degree C in most seasons and locations. The observed annual cycle of snow water equivalent (SWE), such as peak time and disappearance time, is also realistically replicated, even though the peak value is somewhat underestimated. The PGW simulation shows a large cold-season warming in northeast US and eastern Canada, possibly associated with snow albedo feedback, and a strong summer warming in north central US in association with

  16. Dynamic evaluation of two decades of WRF-CMAQ ozone simulations over the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, Marina; Luo, Huiying; Rao, S. Trivikrama; Hogrefe, Christian; Mathur, Rohit; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic evaluation of the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)- Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model ozone simulations over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using two decades of simulations covering the period from 1990 to 2010 is conducted to assess how well the changes in observed ozone air quality are simulated by the model. The changes induced by variations in meteorology and/or emissions are also evaluated during the same timeframe using spectral decomposition of observed and modeled ozone time series with the aim of identifying the underlying forcing mechanisms that control ozone exceedances and making informed recommendations for the optimal use of regional-scale air quality models. The evaluation is focused on the warm season's (i.e., May-September) daily maximum 8-hr (DM8HR) ozone concentrations, the 4th highest (4th) and average of top 10 DM8HR ozone values (top10), as well as the spectrally-decomposed components of the DM8HR ozone time series using the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter. Results of the dynamic evaluation are presented for six regions in the U.S., consistent with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic regions. During the earlier 11-yr period (1990-2000), the simulated and observed regional average trends are not statistically significant. During the more recent 2000-2010 period, all observed trends are statistically significant and WRF-CMAQ captures the observed downward trend in the Southwest and Midwest but under-predicts the downward trends in observations for the other regions. Observational analysis reveals that it is the magnitude of the long-term forcing that dictates the maximum ozone exceedance potential; there is a strong linear relationship between the long-term forcing and the 4th highest or the average of the top10 ozone concentrations in both observations and model output. This finding indicates that improving the model's ability to reproduce the long-term component

  17. A probabilistic estimate of maximum acceleration in rock in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algermissen, Sylvester Theodore; Perkins, David M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic estimate of the maximum ground acceleration to be expected from earthquakes occurring in the contiguous United States. It is based primarily upon the historic seismic record which ranges from very incomplete before 1930 to moderately complete after 1960. Geologic data, primarily distribution of faults, have been employed only to a minor extent, because most such data have not been interpreted yet with earthquake hazard evaluation in mind.The map provides a preliminary estimate of the relative hazard in various parts of the country. The report provides a method for evaluating the relative importance of the many parameters and assumptions in hazard analysis. The map and methods of evaluation described reflect the current state of understanding and are intended to be useful for engineering purposes in reducing the effects of earthquakes on buildings and other structures.Studies are underway on improved methods for evaluating the relativ( earthquake hazard of different regions. Comments on this paper are invited to help guide future research and revisions of the accompanying map.The earthquake hazard in the United States has been estimated in a variety of ways since the initial effort by Ulrich (see Roberts and Ulrich, 1950). In general, the earlier maps provided an estimate of the severity of ground shaking or damage but the frequency of occurrence of the shaking or damage was not given. Ulrich's map showed the distribution of expected damage in terms of no damage (zone 0), minor damage (zone 1), moderate damage (zone 2), and major damage (zone 3). The zones were not defined further and the frequency of occurrence of damage was not suggested. Richter (1959) and Algermissen (1969) estimated the ground motion in terms of maximum Modified Mercalli intensity. Richter used the terms "occasional" and "frequent" to characterize intensity IX shaking and Algermissen included recurrence curves for various parts of the country in the paper

  18. The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. R. Subrahmanya; P. K. Manoharan; Jayaram N. Chengalur

    2017-03-01

    We describe here an ongoing upgrade to the legacy Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). The ORT is a cylindrical parabolic cylinder 530 m × 30 m in size operating at a frequency of 326.5 (or $z \\sim 3.35$ for the HI 21-cm line). The telescope has been constructed on a North–South hill slope whose gradient is equal to the latitude of the hill, making it effectively equatorially mounted. The feed consists of an array of 1056 dipoles. The key feature of this upgrade is the digitization and cross-correlation of the signals of every set of 4-dipoles. This converts the ORT into a 264 element interferometer with a field-of-view of $ 2^{\\circ} \\times 27.4^{\\circ} \\cos(\\delta)$. This upgraded instrument is called the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA). This paper briefly describes the salient features of the upgrade, as well as its main science drivers. There are three main science drivers viz. (1) observations of the large scale distribution of HI in the post-reionization era, (2) studies of the propagation of plasma irregularities through the inner heliosphere and (3) blind surveys for transient sources. More details on the upgrade, as well as on the expected science uses can be found in other papers in this special issue.

  19. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  20. Optimal array of sand fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  1. IRAN: interferometric remapped array nulling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh; Abe, Lyu; Belu, Adrian; Lopez, Bruno; Lanteri, Henri; Schutz, A.; Menut, Jean-Luc

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a method of beam-combination in the so-called hypertelescope imaging technique recently introduced by Labeyrie in optical interferometry. The method we propose is an alternative to the Michelson pupil reconfiguration that suffers from the loss of the classical object-image convolution relation. From elementary theory of Fourier optics we demonstrate that this problem can be solved by observing in a combined pupil plane instead of an image plane. The point-source intensity distribution (PSID) of this interferometric "image" tends towards a psuedo Airy disc (similar to that of a giant monolithic telescope) for a sufficiently large number of telescopes. Our method is applicable to snap-shot imaging of extended sources with a field comparable to the Airy pattern of single telescopes operated in a co-phased multi-aperture interferometric array. It thus allows to apply conveniently pupil plane coronagraphy. Our technique called Interferometric Remapped Array Nulling (IRAN) is particularly suitable for high dynamic imaging of extra-solar planetary companions, circumstellar nebulosities or extra-galactic objects where long baseline interferometry would closely probe the central regions of AGNs for instance.

  2. Towards the Long Wavelength Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, N. E.; Erickson, W. C.

    2008-08-01

    Nearly three decades ago, the Very Large Array (VLA) opened the cm-wavelength radio sky to high-dynamic range imaging. By developing and exploiting new techniques to mitigate ionospheric phase fluctuations, the VLA 74 MHz system is providing the first sub-arcminute resolution view of the meter-wavelength radio universe. This technical innovation has inspired an emerging suite of much more powerful low-frequency instruments, including the Long Wavelength Array (LWA). The LWA, with its great collecting area (approaching one square kilometer at 20 MHz) and long baselines (up to 400 km), will surpass, by up to 2--3 orders of magnitude, the imaging power of any previous low-frequency interferometer. LWA science goals include Cosmic Evolution, the Acceleration of Relativistic Particles, Plasma Astrophysics, and Ionospheric & Space Weather Science. Because it will explore one of the last and most poorly investigated regions of the spectrum, the potential for unexpected new discoveries is high. For more on the LWA, see http://lwa.unm.edu. The LWA project is led by the University of New Mexico, and includes the Naval Research Laboratory, Applied Research Laboratories of U. Texas, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Virginia Tech, and U. Iowa, with cooperation from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  3. Energy transfer in macromolecular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Jenkins, Robert D.

    2003-11-01

    Macromolecular systems comprised of many light-sensitive centres (the photosynthetic unit, dendrimers, and other highly symmetric multichromophore arrays) are important structures offering challenges to theoreticians and synthetic chemists alike. Here we outline novel photophysical interactions predicted and observed in such arrays. Using the tools of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) we present quantum amplitudes for a variety of higher-order resonance energy transfer (RET) schemes associated with well-known nonlinear optical effects such as two- and three-photon absorption. The initial analysis is extended to account for situations where the participant donor species are identical and exist in a highly symmetric environment, leading to the possible formation of excitons. It emerges from the QED theory that such excitons are closely associated with the higher-order RET processes. General results are interpreted by analyzing particular molecular architectures which offer interesting features such as rate enhancement or limitation and exciton pathway quenching. Applications in the areas of photosynthesis, molecular logic gates and low-intensity fluorescence energy transfer are predicted.

  4. One-dimensional Array Grammars and P Systems with Array Insertion and Deletion Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Freund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the (one-dimensional array counterpart of contextual as well as insertion and deletion string grammars and consider the operations of array insertion and deletion in array grammars. First we show that the emptiness problem for P systems with (one-dimensional insertion rules is undecidable. Then we show computational completeness of P systems using (one-dimensional array insertion and deletion rules even of norm one only. The main result of the paper exhibits computational completeness of one-dimensional array grammars using array insertion and deletion rules of norm at most two.

  5. Frequency Tunable Antennas and Novel Phased Array Feeding Networks for Next Generation Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avser, Bilgehan

    The thesis presents three dual-band frequency tunable antennas for carrier aggregation systems and two new feeding networks for reducing the number of phase shifters in limited-scan arrays. First, single- and dual-feed, dual-frequency, low-profile antennas with independent frequency tuning using varactor diodes are presented. The dual-feed planar inverted F-antenna (PIFA) has two operating frequencies which are independently tuned at 0.7--1.1 GHz and at 1.7--2.3 GHz with better than 10 dB impedance match. The isolation between the high-band and the low-band ports is > 13 dB; hence, one resonant frequency can be tuned without affecting the other. The single-feed contiguous-dual-band antenna has two resonant frequencies, which are independently tuned at 1.2--1.6 GHz at 1.6--2.3 GHz with better than 10 dB impedance match for most of the tuning range. And the single-feed dual-band antenna has two resonant frequencies, which are independently tuned at 0.7--1.0 GHz at 1.7--2.3 GHz with better than 10 dB impedance match for most of the tuning range. The tuning is done using varactor diodes with a capacitance range from 0.8 to 3.8 pF, which is compatible with RF MEMS devices. The antenna volumes are 63 x 100 x 3.15 mm3 on epsilon r = 3.55 substrates and the measured antenna efficiencies vary between 25% and 50% over the tuning range. The application areas are in carrier aggregation systems for fourth generation (4G) wireless systems. Next, a new phased array feeding network that employs random sequences of non-uniform sub-arrays (and a single phase shifter for each sub-array) is presented. When these sequences are optimized, the resulting phased arrays can scan over a wide region with low sidelobe levels. Equations for analyzing the random arrays and an algorithm for optimizing the array sequences are presented. Multiple random-solutions with different number of phase shifters and different set of sub-array groups are analyzed and design guidelines are presented. The

  6. Interferometric Plasmonic Lensing with Nanohole Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-18

    Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) of nanohole arrays in gold films maps propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from lithographically patterned structures. Strong near field photoemission patterns are observed in the PEEM images, recorded following low angle of incidence irradiation of nanohole arrays with sub-15 fs laser pulses centered at 780 nm. The recorded photoemission patterns are attributed to constructive and destructive interferences between PSPs launched from the individual nanoholes which comprise the array. By exploiting the wave nature of PSPs, we demonstrate how varying the array geometry (hole diameter, pitch, and number of rows/columns) ultimately yields intense localized photoemission. Through a combination of PEEM and finite-difference time-domain simulations, we identify the optimal array geometry for efficient light coupling and interferometric plasmonic lensing. We show a preliminary application of inteferometric plasmonic lensing by enhancing the photoemission from the vertex of a gold triangle using nanohole array.

  7. Flexible Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施克仁; 阙开良; 郭大勇

    2004-01-01

    In ultrasonic phased-array testing, most probes are rigid with fixed elements. However, when testing a cambered piece, a rigid probe cannot be used directly, but an ultrasonic chock or coupling media must be used, which adds cost and reduces the accuracy. The objective of this research was to improve the tests of cambered pieces. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe was developed to do the flexible phased-array testing. The key technologies in the flexible phased-array probe include the probe design and the phased-array control. A new method was developed to design the flexible probe according to the curvature of the piece and the test depth. The method includes the calculation of the element's height (he), the relative rotation angle ((e), the distance between the adjoining elements (de), and the element's effective testing range. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe has been developed using this method.

  8. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  9. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  10. Sky reconstruction for the Tianlai cylinder array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Zuo, Shi-Fan; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Li, Yi-Chao; Wu, Feng-Quan; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    We apply our sky map reconstruction method for transit type interferometers to the Tianlai cylinder array. The method is based on spherical harmonic decomposition, and can be applied to a cylindrical array as well as dish arrays and we can compute the instrument response, synthesized beam, transfer function and noise power spectrum. We consider cylinder arrays with feed spacing larger than half a wavelength and, as expected, we find that the arrays with regular spacing have grating lobes which produce spurious images in the reconstructed maps. We show that this problem can be overcome using arrays with a different feed spacing on each cylinder. We present the reconstructed maps, and study the performance in terms of noise power spectrum, transfer function and beams for both regular and irregular feed spacing configurations.

  11. The revised solar array synthesis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    The Revised Solar Array Synthesis Computer Program is described. It is a general-purpose program which computes solar array output characteristics while accounting for the effects of temperature, incidence angle, charged-particle irradiation, and other degradation effects on various solar array configurations in either circular or elliptical orbits. Array configurations may consist of up to 75 solar cell panels arranged in any series-parallel combination not exceeding three series-connected panels in a parallel string and no more than 25 parallel strings in an array. Up to 100 separate solar array current-voltage characteristics, corresponding to 100 equal-time increments during the sunlight illuminated portion of an orbit or any 100 user-specified combinations of incidence angle and temperature, can be computed and printed out during one complete computer execution. Individual panel incidence angles may be computed and printed out at the user's option.

  12. Halbach arrays in precision motion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, D.L.; Williams, M.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Halbach array was developed for use as an optical element in particle accelerators. Following up on a suggestion from Klaus Halbach, the authors have investigated the utility of such arrays as the permanent magnet structure for synchronous machines in cartesian, polar, and cylindrical geometries. Their work has focused on the design of a novel Halbach array linear motor for use in a magnetic suspension stage for photolithography. This paper presents the details of the motor design and its force and power characteristics.

  13. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  14. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  15. A Study of End-Fed Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kondylis, Konstantinos; Zimourtopoulos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general analysis of end-fed space arrays with application to self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles. A number of test array models were simulated, constructed and their radiation pattern was then measured. The experimental and computational results were found to be in good agreement. The developed software applications are available through the Internet as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.

  16. Monostable array-enhanced stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, J F; Breen, B J; Wills, M E; Bulsara, A R; Ditto, W L

    2001-05-01

    We present a simple nonlinear system that exhibits multiple distinct stochastic resonances. By adjusting the noise and coupling of an array of underdamped, monostable oscillators, we modify the array's natural frequencies so that the spectral response of a typical oscillator in an array of N oscillators exhibits N-1 different stochastic resonances. Such families of resonances may elucidate and facilitate a variety of noise-mediated cooperative phenomena, such as noise-enhanced propagation, in a broad class of similar nonlinear systems.

  17. SWNT-array resonant MOS transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, A.; Campidelli, S; Filoramo, A.; Derycke, V.; Salet, P.; Ionescu, A. M.; Goffman, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    We show that thin horizontal arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended above the channel of silicon MOSFETs can be used as vibrating gate electrodes. This new class of nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) combines the unique mechanical and electronic properties of SWNTs with an integrated siliconbased motion detection. Its electrical response exhibits a clear signature of the mechanical resonance of SWNTs arrays (120-150 MHz) showing that these thin horizontal arrays behave as ...

  18. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  19. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  20. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  1. Topological detector: measuring continuous dosimetric quantities with few-element detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Brivio, Davide; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2016-08-21

    A prototype topological detector was fabricated and investigated for quality assurance of radiation producing medical devices. Unlike a typical array or flat panel detector, a topological detector, while capable of achieving a very high spatial resolution, consists of only a few elements and therefore is much simpler in construction and more cost effective. The key feature allowing this advancement is a geometry-driven design that is customized for a specific dosimetric application. In the current work, a topological detector of two elements was examined for the positioning verification of the radiation collimating devices (jaws, MLCs, and blades etc). The detector was diagonally segmented from a rectangular thin film strip (2.5 cm  ×  15 cm), giving two contiguous but independent detector elements. The segmented area was the central portion of the strip measuring 5 cm in length. Under irradiation, signals from each detector element were separately digitized using a commercial multichannel data acquisition system. The center and size of an x-ray field, which were uniquely determined by the collimator positions, were shown mathematically to relate to the difference and sum of the two signals. As a proof of concept, experiments were carried out using slit x-ray fields ranging from 2 mm to 20 mm in size. It was demonstrated that, the collimator positions can be accurately measured with sub-millimeter precisions.

  2. Topological detector: measuring continuous dosimetric quantities with few-element detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Brivio, Davide; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    A prototype topological detector was fabricated and investigated for quality assurance of radiation producing medical devices. Unlike a typical array or flat panel detector, a topological detector, while capable of achieving a very high spatial resolution, consists of only a few elements and therefore is much simpler in construction and more cost effective. The key feature allowing this advancement is a geometry-driven design that is customized for a specific dosimetric application. In the current work, a topological detector of two elements was examined for the positioning verification of the radiation collimating devices (jaws, MLCs, and blades etc). The detector was diagonally segmented from a rectangular thin film strip (2.5 cm  ×  15 cm), giving two contiguous but independent detector elements. The segmented area was the central portion of the strip measuring 5 cm in length. Under irradiation, signals from each detector element were separately digitized using a commercial multichannel data acquisition system. The center and size of an x-ray field, which were uniquely determined by the collimator positions, were shown mathematically to relate to the difference and sum of the two signals. As a proof of concept, experiments were carried out using slit x-ray fields ranging from 2 mm to 20 mm in size. It was demonstrated that, the collimator positions can be accurately measured with sub-millimeter precisions.

  3. Airborne Electronically Steerable Phased Array (AESPA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The basic concept and design of a flatplate-fed transmission array are described and system performance requirements are summarized. Particular emphasis is given to the design of the aperture, the radiating element, the phase shifter, the flatplate feed, and the mechanical support structure. Fabrication and testing techniques are considered. Of the three major parameters of interest in demonstrating the performance capabilities of the transmissive array, beamwidth was shown to be the least sensitive to system amplitude and phase errors. Beam pointing angle was also shown to be relatively insensitive to errors. Close agreement between measured and calculated values was found for array gain. The greatest difference was found for array sidelone level.

  4. Modeling Array Stations in SIG-VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, N.; Moore, D.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    We add support for array stations to SIG-VISA, a system for nuclear monitoring using probabilistic inference on seismic signals. Array stations comprise a large portion of the IMS network; they can provide increased sensitivity and more accurate directional information compared to single-component stations. Our existing model assumed that signals were independent at each station, which is false when lots of stations are close together, as in an array. The new model removes that assumption by jointly modeling signals across array elements. This is done by extending our existing Gaussian process (GP) regression models, also known as kriging, from a 3-dimensional single-component space of events to a 6-dimensional space of station-event pairs. For each array and each event attribute (including coda decay, coda height, amplitude transfer and travel time), we model the joint distribution across array elements using a Gaussian process that learns the correlation lengthscale across the array, thereby incorporating information of array stations into the probabilistic inference framework. To evaluate the effectiveness of our model, we perform ';probabilistic beamforming' on new events using our GP model, i.e., we compute the event azimuth having highest posterior probability under the model, conditioned on the signals at array elements. We compare the results from our probabilistic inference model to the beamforming currently performed by IMS station processing.

  5. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  6. Cosmic ray effects in microcalorimeter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, C.K. E-mail: cak@lheapop.gsfc.nasa.gov; Boyce, K.R.; Brown, G.V.; Cottam, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.L.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F.S.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Tillotson, W.A

    2004-03-11

    We have identified signals resulting from cosmic rays and environmental gamma rays depositing energy in the pixels and in the silicon frame of the Astro-E2/X-Ray Spectrometer microcalorimeter array. Coincidences between pixels and between the array and an anti-coincidence detector determined the nature of the events. Pulse shapes and amplitudes from the cosmic ray events helped refine the thermal model of the array chip. We discuss how future arrays can be optimized either for the greatest background rejection or for the highest source count rates.

  7. ANTENNAS ARRAY ADJUST WITH ADAPTIVE NEURONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padrón

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an array failure correction for Linear Antenna Array (LAA is presented. This is carried out by means ofan Adaptive Artificial Neural Network (AANN that adjusts the amplitude and phase at beamforming. Theappropriated corrections are given, when one, or two, or three elements have a failure in the antenna linear array.The AANN corrects the corresponding parameters in the radiation pattern obtained due to the failure, when weknow the coefficients of the array factor (AF. This yields a reduction of side lobe level and some interferencesdisappear.

  8. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  9. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  10. Enhanced reflection from inverse tapered nanocone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando da [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Kangwanwatana, Chuan; Montelongo, Yunuen; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-04

    We computationally and experimentally demonstrate enhanced reflection effects displayed by silicon-based inverted nanocone arrays. A 3D finite element model is used to characterize the optical properties of the nanocone arrays with respect to the change in polarization and incident angles. The nanocone arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography in hexagonal and triangular geometries with a lattice constant of 300 nm. The fabricated devices show a two-fold increase in reflection compared with bare silicon surface, as well as a strong diffraction within the visible and near-infrared spectra. The nanocone arrays may find a variety of applications from optical devices to energy conservation technologies.

  11. A series array of dc SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, R.P. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Martinis, J.M. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a series array of 100 dc SQUIDs using trilayer Nb-AlO{sub x}-Nb junctions. The SQUIDs are modulated with a common flux bias line and produce an output voltage swing of several millivolts across the array. The large output voltage will allow direct connection to room temperature electronics without the transformer coupling and resulting frequency limitations commonly associated with dc SQUID amplifiers. The authors measured a bandwidth of dc to at least 175 MHz for a 100-SQUID array. The series array will be used as the output stage for a multistage integrated SQUID amplifier.

  12. Design and Realization of Array Signal Processor VLSI Architecture for Phased Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Govind Rao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A method for implementing an array signal processor for phased array radars. The array signal processor can receive planar array antenna inputs and can process it. It is based on the application of Adaptive Digital beam formers using FPGAs. Adaptive filter algorithm used here is Inverse Q-R Decomposition based Recursive Least Squares (IQRD-RLS [1] algorithm. Array signal processor based on FPGAs is suitable in the areas of Phased Array Radar receiver, where speed, accuracy and numerical stability are of utmost important. Using IQRD-RLS algorithm, optimal weights are calculated in much less time compared to conventional QRD-RLS algorithm. A customized multiple FPGA board comprising three Kintex-7 FPGAs is employed to implement array signal processor. The proposed architecture can form multiple beams from planar array antenna elements

  13. Explaining the Modality Effect in Multimedia Learning: Is It Due to a Lack of Temporal Contiguity with Written Text and Pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina; Rummer, Ralf; Gerjets, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether the modality effect is caused by either high visuo-spatial load or a lack of temporal contiguity when processing written text and pictures. Students (N = 147) viewed pictures on the development of tornados, which were accompanied by either spoken or written explanations presented simultaneously with, before, or after the…

  14. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of WRF-CMAQ Ozone Simulations over the Contiguous United States (2017 MAC-MAQ Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic evaluation of two decades of ozone simulations performed with the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model over the contiguous United States is conducted to assess how well the changes in observed ozone air ...

  15. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  16. Automated calibration of multistatic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderer, Bruce

    2017-03-14

    A method is disclosed for calibrating a multistatic array having a plurality of transmitter and receiver pairs spaced from one another along a predetermined path and relative to a plurality of bin locations, and further being spaced at a fixed distance from a stationary calibration implement. A clock reference pulse may be generated, and each of the transmitters and receivers of each said transmitter/receiver pair turned on at a monotonically increasing time delay interval relative to the clock reference pulse. Ones of the transmitters and receivers may be used such that a previously calibrated transmitter or receiver of a given one of the transmitter/receiver pairs is paired with a subsequently un-calibrated one of the transmitters or receivers of an immediately subsequently positioned transmitter/receiver pair, to calibrate the transmitter or receiver of the immediately subsequent transmitter/receiver pair.

  17. AGATA - Advanced Gamma Tracking Array

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, S; Alikhani, B; Ameil, F; de Angelis, G; Arnold, L; Astier, A; Ataç, A; Aubert, Y; Aufranc, C; Austin, A; Aydin, S; Azaiez, F; Badoer, S; Balabanski, D L; Barrientos, D; Baulieu, G; Baumann, R; Bazzacco, D; Beck, F A; Beck, T; Bednarczyk, P; Bellato, M; Bentley, M A; Benzoni, G; Berthier, R; Berti, L; Beunard, R; Bianco, G Lo; Birkenbach, B; Bizzeti, P G; Bizzeti-Sona, A M; Blanc, F Le; Blasco, J M; Blasi, N; Bloor, D; Boiano, C; Borsato, M; Bortolato, D; Boston, A J; Boston, H C; Bourgault, P; Boutachkov, P; Bouty, A; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Brawn, I P; Brondi, A; Broussard, S; Bruyneel, B; Bucurescu, D; Burrows, I; Bürger, A; Cabaret, S; Cahan, B; Calore, E; Camera, F; Capsoni, A; Carrió, F; Casati, G; Castoldi, M; Cederwall, B; Cercus, J -L; Chambert, V; Chambit, M El; Chapman, R; Charles, L; Chavas, J; Clément, E; Cocconi, P; Coelli, S; Coleman-Smith, P J; Colombo, A; Colosimo, S; Commeaux, C; Conventi, D; Cooper, R J; Corsi, A; Cortesi, A; Costa, L; Crespi, F C L; Cresswell, J R; Cullen, D M; Curien, D; Czermak, A; Delbourg, D; Depalo, R; Descombes, T; Désesquelles, P; Detistov, P; Diarra, C; Didierjean, F; Dimmock, M R; Doan, Q T; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dorangeville, F; Dosme, N; Drouen, Y; Duchêne, G; Dulny, B; Eberth, J; Edelbruck, P; Egea, J; Engert, T; Erduran, M N; Ertürk, S; Fanin, C; Fantinel, S; Farnea, E; Faul, T; Filliger, M; Filmer, F; Finck, Ch; de France, G; Gadea, A; Gast, W; Geraci, A; Gerl, J; Gernhäuser, R; Giannatiempo, A; Giaz, A; Gibelin, L; Givechev, A; Goel, N; González, V; Gottardo, A; Grave, X; Grȩbosz, J; Griffiths, R; Grint, A N; Gros, P; Guevara, L; Gulmini, M; Görgen, A; Ha, H T M; Habermann, T; Harkness, L J; Harroch, H; Hauschild, K; He, C; Hernández-Prieto, A; Hervieu, B; Hess, H; Hüyük, T; Ince, E; Isocrate, R; Jaworski, G; Johnson, A; Jolie, J; Jones, P; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Judson, D S; Jungclaus, A; Kaci, M; Karkour, N; Karolak, M; Kaşkaş, A; Kebbiri, M; Kempley, R S; Khaplanov, A; Klupp, S; Kogimtzis, M; Kojouharov, I; Korichi, A; Korten, W; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Kurz, N; Ky, B Y; Labiche, M; Lafay, X; Lavergne, L; Lazarus, I H; Leboutelier, S; Lefebvre, F; Legay, E; Legeard, L; Lelli, F; Lenzi, S M; Leoni, S; Lermitage, A; Lersch, D; Leske, J; Letts, S C; Lhenoret, S; Lieder, R M; Linget, D; Ljungvall, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Lotodé, A; Lunardi, S; Maj, A; van der Marel, J; Mariette, Y; Marginean, N; Marginean, R; Maron, G; Mather, A R; Mȩczyński, W; Mendéz, V; Medina, P; Melon, B; Menegazzo, R; Mengoni, D; Merchan, E; Mihailescu, L; Michelagnoli, C; Mierzejewski, J; Milechina, L; Million, B; Mitev, K; Molini, P; Montanari, D; Moon, S; Morbiducci, F; Moro, R; Morrall, P S; Möller, O; Nannini, A; Napoli, D R; Nelson, L; Nespolo, M; Ngo, V L; Nicoletto, M; Nicolini, R; Noa, Y Le; Nolan, P J; Norman, M; Nyberg, J; Obertelli, A; Olariu, A; Orlandi, R; Oxley, D C; Özben, C; Ozille, M; Oziol, C; Pachoud, E; Palacz, M; Palin, J; Pancin, J; Parisel, C; Pariset, P; Pascovici, G; Peghin, R; Pellegri, L; Perego, A; Perrier, S; Petcu, M; Petkov, P; Petrache, C; Pierre, E; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pignanelli, M; Piqueras, I; Podolyak, Z; Pouhalec, P Le; Pouthas, J; Pugnére, D; Pucknell, V F E; Pullia, A; Quintana, B; Raine, R; Rainovski, G; Ramina, L; Rampazzo, G; La Rana, G; Rebeschini, M; Recchia, F; Redon, N; Reese, M; Reiter, P; Regan, P H; Riboldi, S; Richer, M; Rigato, M; Rigby, S; Ripamonti, G; Robinson, A P; Robin, J; Roccaz, J; Ropert, J -A; Rossé, B; Alvarez, C Rossi; Rosso, D; Rubio, B; Rudolph, D; Saillant, F; Şahin, E; Salomon, F; Salsac, M -D; Salt, J; Salvato, G; Sampson, J; Sanchis, E; Santos, C; Schaffner, H; Schlarb, M; Scraggs, D P; Seddon, D; Şenyiğit, M; Sigward, M -H; Simpson, G; Simpson, J; Slee, M; Smith, J F; Sona, P; Sowicki, B; Spolaore, P; Stahl, C; Stanios, T; Stefanova, E; Stézowski, O; Strachan, J; Suliman, G; Söderström, P -A; Tain, J L; Tanguy, S; Tashenov, S; Theisen, Ch; Thornhill, J; Tomasi, F; Toniolo, N; Touzery, R; Travers, B; Triossi, A; Tripon, M; Tun-Lanoë, K M M; Turcato, M; Unsworth, C; Ur, C A; Valiente-Dobon, J J; Vandone, V; Vardaci, E; Venturelli, R; Veronese, F; Veyssiere, Ch; Viscione, E; Wadsworth, R; Walker, P M; Warr, N; Weber, C; Weisshaar, D; Wells, D; Wieland, O; Wiens, A; Wittwer, G; Wollersheim, H J; Zocca, F; Zamfir, N V; Ziȩbliński, M; Zucchiatti, A

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realization of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly-segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterization of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorith...

  18. Cherenkov Telescope Array Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, G; Contreras, J L; Knödlseder, J; Kosack, K; Neyroud, N; Aboudan, A; Arrabito, L; Barbier, C; Bastieri, D; Boisson, C; Brau-Nogué, S; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; Carosi, A; Costa, A; De Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Gallozzi, S; Jacquemier, J; Khelifi, B; Kocot, J; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyard, E; Maier, G; Massimino, P; Osborne, J P; Perri, M; Rico, J; Sanchez, D A; Satalecka, K; Siejkowski, H; Stolarczyk, T; Szepieniec, T; Testa, V; Walter, R; Ward, J E; Zoli, A

    2015-01-01

    Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is evolving towards the model of a public observatory. Handling, processing and archiving the large amount of data generated by the CTA instruments and delivering scientific products are some of the challenges in designing the CTA Data Management. The participation of scientists from within CTA Consortium and from the greater worldwide scientific community necessitates a sophisticated scientific analysis system capable of providing unified and efficient user access to data, software and computing resources. Data Management is designed to respond to three main issues: (i) the treatment and flow of data from remote telescopes; (ii) "big-data" archiving and processing; (iii) and open data access. In this communication the overall technical design of the CTA Data Management, current major developments and prototypes are presented.

  19. THE AUGER ENGINEERING RADIO ARRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Weidenhaupt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently measures MHz radio emission from extensive air showers induced by high energy cosmic rays with 24 self-triggered radio detector stations. Its unique site, embedded into the baseline detectors and extensions of the Pierre Auger Observatory, allows to study air showers in great detail and to calibrate the radio emission. In its final stage AERA will expand to an area of approximately 20km2 to explore the feasibility of the radio-detection technique for future cosmic-ray detectors. The concept and hardware design of AERA as well as strategies to enable self-triggered radio detection are presented. Radio emission mechanisms are discussed based on polarization analysis of the first AERA data.

  20. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  1. Gold film resistor bolometric array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Fuxian [Academia Sinica, Hefei, AH (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    1997-03-01

    A new type of bolometric array diagnostic system has been developed for HT-6M tokamak and HT-7 superconductor tokamak plasma physics experimental research. This system is composed of temperature-sensitive detectors of gold film resistor and phase-sensitive rectifiers of the bridge excited by square waves. With this system, a radiation detection limit of 192.0 {mu}W cm{sup -2} at a spatial resolution of 2.0 cm and a temporal resolution of 1.0 mS. The system features a high temperature baking resistance, ultra high vacuum endurance, sufficient insensitivity to radiation damage, sufficient suppression of electromagnetic interference, good long-term stability, high radiation sensitivity and measurement data reliability. Absolute calibration of the detectors is performed simultaneously and in situ by means of a built-in electronic power pulse. (orig.) 9 refs.

  2. Microlens arrays with integrated pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Microlenses are important optical components that image, detect, and couple light. But most synthetic microlenses have fixed position and shape once they are fabricated, so their possible range of tunability and complexity is rather limited. By comparison, biology provides many varied, new paradigms for the development of adaptive optical networks. Here, we discuss inspirational examples of biological lenses and their synthetic analogs. We focus on the fabrication and characterization of biomimetic microlens arrays with integrated pores, whose appearance and function are similar to highly efficient optical elements formed by brittlestars. The complex design can be created by three-beam interference lithography. The synthetic lens has strong focusing ability for use as an adjustable lithographic mask and a tunable optical device coupled with the microfluidic system. Replacing rigid microlenses with soft hydrogels provides a way of changing the lens geometry and refractive index continuously in response to external stimuli, resulting in intelligent, multifunctional, tunable optics.

  3. Scanning strategies for imaging arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, A

    2008-01-01

    Large-format (sub)millimeter wavelength imaging arrays are best operated in scanning observing modes rather than traditional position-switched (chopped) modes. The choice of observing mode is critical for isolating source signals from various types of noise interference, especially for ground-based instrumentation operating under a bright atmosphere. Ideal observing strategies can combat 1/f noise, resist instrumental defects, sensitively recover emission on large scales, and provide an even field coverage -- all under feasible requirements of telescope movement. This work aims to guide the design of observing patterns that maximize scientific returns. It also compares some of the popular choices of observing modes for (sub)millimeter imaging, such as random, Lissajous, billiard, spiral, On-The-Fly (OTF), DREAM, chopped and stare patterns. Many of the conclusions are also applicable other imaging applications and imaging in one dimension (e.g. spectroscopic observations).

  4. Gigapixel imaging with microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2016-03-01

    A crucial part of the drug discovery process involves imaging the response of thousands of cell cultures to candidate drugs. Quantitative parameters from these "high content screens", such as protein expression and cell morphology, are extracted from fluorescence and brightfield micrographs. Due to the sheer number of cells that need to imaged for adequate statistics, the imaging time itself is a major bottleneck. Automated microscopes image small fields-of-view (FOVs) serially, which are then stitched together to form gigapixel-scale mosaics. We have developed a microscopy architecture that reduces mechanical overhead of traditional large field-of-view by parallelizing the image capture process. Instead of a single objective lens imaging FOVs one by one, we employ a microlens array for continuous photon capture, resulting in a 3-fold throughput increase. In this contribution, we present the design and imaging results of this microscopy architecture in three different contrast modes: multichannel fluorescence, hyperspectral fluorescence and brightfield.

  5. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  6. Array radars solve communication jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H. D.

    1982-04-01

    The possibilities of incorporating mobile radar units as slave stations in communications relay applications during times of disrupted communications is examined. The limitations on uses of search, tracking, and multifunction radars are examined, noting that employment of the mobile system entails some tracking by the master phased-arrays to keep the mobile units in focus. The tracking patterns and dwell times are outlined, and the possibility of 700-1000 dwell times of 1220 microsec duration/sec is mentioned as opening the opportunity for high quality data transmissions. Signal-to-noise ratios are formulated for jamming situations, with offsetting tactical features for the jamming including the directivity and gain of the master antenna, the master station's power aperture product, on-axis to off-axis gain ratio, and antenna positioning ability. A slave station must be equipped with a transponder for communications, which are best achieved with pseudo-random coded waveforms.

  7. Sputtering in supported cluster arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Sáez, J.C., E-mail: jc.jimenez@upm.es [Dept. Física Aplicada a la Ingeniería Aeronáutica y Naval, ETSIAE, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Martín, A.M.C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, J.J. [Dept. Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    Bombardment of periodical arrays formed by Co nanoislands deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate with 1-keV argon ions is simulated by using molecular dynamics. Sputtering yield is analyzed distinguishing between particles sputtered across the supported cluster surface and across the flat substrate surface without nanoparticle above. The dependence of this magnitude on the height and the periodical spacing between nanoislands has been investigated. Results show that this dependence for the sputtering across the nanoislands and across the substrate is different. In the case of the total sputtering, the “substrate” effect prevails since the behavior of this magnitude is approximately analogous to the sputtering across the substrate. The more probable causes are analyzed in this article.

  8. Calculation and analysis of correlation curves between Lanzhou Seismic Array sites and assessment of primary array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝春月; 郑重; 周公威

    2003-01-01

    By using the waveform data recorded during the site survey of Lanzhou Seismic Array, the author calculated andanalyzed the correlation of the signal and noise between the site pairs and found that the ideal radii of the twoconcentric rings for Lanzhou Seismic Array were 380 m and 1500 m, respectively. According to the radius limitand other requirements, nine sites were chosen to make a seismic array, and then the detection and location abilityof the array were estimated.

  9. Multipath Array Processing for Co-Prime and Under-Sampled Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    freedom than physical sensors present in the array. However, the cost of the achievable degrees of freedom is a loss of approximately half of the array...of degrees of freedom of the array. A co-prime frequency comb is a novel active sonar waveform that achieves range-Doppler performance similar...localization with moving co-prime arrays,” in Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, 2015. 6 2

  10. Simultaneous use of multiple seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, J.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic arrays provide an important means of enhancing seismic signals and determining the directional properties of the wavefield by beam-forming. When multiple arrays are to be used together, the viewpoint needs to be modified from looking outwards from each array to focusing on a specific target area and so constraining the portions of the waveforms to be analysed. Beam-forming for each array is supplemented by the relative time constraints for propagation from the target to each array to provide tight spatial control. Simultaneous multiple array analysis provides a powerful tool for source characterisation, and for structural analysis of scatterers as virtual sources. The multiple array concept allows us to illuminate a specific point in the Earth from many different directions and thus map detailed patterns of heterogeneity in the Earth. Furthermore, illumination of the structure from multiple directions using data from the same event minimizes source effects to provide clearer images of heterogeneity. The analysis is based on a similar concept to the back-projection technique, where a part of the seismic wavetrain is mapped to a specific point in space by ray-tracing. In contrast to classic back-projection where the incoming energy is mapped onto a horizontal plane with limited vertical resolution, the multi-array method controls depth response by combining relative time constraints between the arrays and conventional beam-forming. We illustrate this approach with application to two earthquakes at moderate depth. The results show that the use of simultaneous multiple arrays can provide improvement both in signal quality and resolution, with the additional benefit of being able to accurately locate the source of the incoming energy and map large areas with only a limited number of such arrays.

  11. Visionnement de documents audiovisuels authentiques — Problématiques de contiguïté et d'interprétation culturelle Viewing authentic audiovisual documents: Issues of contiguity and cultural interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Hartwell

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La présence de documents vidéo en évaluation de L2 implique une approche multimodale de la compréhension. L'écoute et l'observation impliquent l'interaction de processus fonctionnant simultanément, mais entrant parfois en conflit. L'objectif de la présente étude est d'examiner les difficultés rencontrées par une partie des 289 sujets lors d'une épreuve de type Cles et cela avec ou sans support visuel. L'analyse met en évidence que l'image n'aide pas toujours à comprendre, au contraire, elle peut être source de parasitage. Les légendes ou sous-titres peuvent transformer une question de compréhension de l'oral en question de compréhension de l'écrit. De plus, la notion de contiguïté est aussi essentielle. L'article se termine sur des suggestions pour améliorer l'évaluation de la compréhension de l'oral.Using video documents to test foreign language comprehension implies a multimodal approach. Listening and observing are both actions incorporating multiple processes which function simultaneously, but at times, are in conflict with each other. This article examines the difficulties encountered by a portion of the 289 subjects taking a Cles-type oral comprehension test, either with or without the visual support. This analysis reveals that images do not always help to understand the document; in some cases they may cause interference. Written text such as captions or subtitles may transform a question based on oral comprehension to one of reading comprehension. Furthermore, the notion of contiguity is also essential. Given these findings, suggestions for improving listening comprehension evaluations are offered.

  12. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  13. The SKA New Instrumentation: Aperture Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ardenne, A.; Faulkner, A. J.; de Vaate, J. G. bij

    The radio frequency window of the Square Kilometre Array is planned to cover the wavelength regime from cm up to a few meters. For this range to be optimally covered, different antenna concepts are considered enabling many science cases. At the lowest frequency range, up to a few GHz, it is expected that multi-beam techniques will be used, increasing the effective field-of-view to a level that allows very efficient detailed and sensitive exploration of the complete sky. Although sparse narrow band phased arrays are as old as radio astronomy, multi-octave sparse and dense arrays now being considered for the SKA, requiring new low noise design, signal processing and calibration techniques. These new array techniques have already been successfully introduced as phased array feeds upgrading existing reflecting telescopes and for new telescopes to enhance the aperture efficiency as well as greatly increasing their field-of-view (van Ardenne et al., Proc IEEE 97(8):2009) by [1]. Aperture arrays use phased arrays without any additional reflectors; the phased array elements are small enough to see most of the sky intrinsically offering a large field of view.

  14. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  15. Spherical Horn Array for Wideband Propagation Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    A spherical array of horn antennas designed to obtain directional channel information and characteristics is introduced. A dual-polarized quad-ridged horn antenna with open flared boundaries and coaxial feeding for the frequency band 600 MHz–6 GHz is used as the element of the array. Matching...

  16. Defect-free atom arrays on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Harry; Bernien, Hannes; Keesling, Alex; Anschuetz, Eric; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Endres, Manuel; Lukin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    Arrays of neutral, trapped atoms have proven to be an extraordinary platform for studying quantum many-body physics and implementing quantum information protocols. Conventional approaches to generate such arrays rely on loading atoms into optical lattices and require elaborate experimental control. An alternative, simpler approach is to load atoms into individual optical tweezers. However, the probabilistic nature of the loading process limits the size of the arrays to small numbers of atoms. Here we present a new method for assembling defect-free arrays of large numbers of atoms. Our technique makes use of an array of tightly focused optical tweezers generated by an acousto-optic deflector. The positions of the traps can be dynamically reconfigured on a sub-millisecond timescale. With single-site resolved fluorescence imaging, we can identify defects in the atom array caused by the probabilistic loading process and rearrange the trap positions in response. This will enable us to generate defect-free atom arrays on demand. We discuss our latest results towards reaching this goal along with schemes to implement long-range interactions between atoms in the array. Now at Caltech.

  17. Array aperture extrapolation using sparse reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Huizing, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results on antenna array extrapolation for Direction Of Arrival (DOA) estimation using Sparse Reconstruction (SR). The objective of this study is to establish wether it is possible to achieve with an array of a given physical length the performance (in terms

  18. Polarization tomography of metallic nanohole arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altewischer, E.; Genet, C.; Van Exter, M.P.; Woerdman, J.P.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; Van Zuuk, A.; Van der Drift, E.W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We report polarization tomography experiments on metallic nanohole arrays with square and hexagonal symmetry. As a main result we find that a fully polarized input beam is partly depolarized after transmission through a nanohole array. This loss of polarization coherence is found to be anisotropic;

  19. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, W.; Cunningham, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a major ground based project for millimeter and submillimeter astronomy to be realized during this decade. It comprises an array of 64 telescopes of 12 meter diameter, each equipped with 10 receivers bands covering the atmospheric windows from 30 GHz to 9

  20. Difference packing arrays and systematic authentication codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a type of combinatorial design (called difference packing array)is proposed and used to give a construction of systematic authentication codes. Taking advantage of this construction, some new series of systematic authentication codes are obtainable in terms of existing difference packing arrays.

  1. Hearing aid comprising an array of microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; Berkhout, A.J.; Merks, I.L.D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hearing aid for improving the hearing ability of the hard of hearing, comprising an array of microphones, the electrical output signals of which are fed to at least one transmission path belonging to an ear. Means are provided for deriving two array output signals from the output signals of the micr

  2. Miniaturized Retrodirective Arrays for a Nanosatellite Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    128-134, Jan.2006. [13] T. Brabetz, V. F. Fusco, and S. Karode, "Balanced subharmonic mixers for retrodirective- array applications," IEEE Trans...Murakami, J.D. Roque, S. S. Sung, G. S. Shiroma, R. Y. Miyamoto, and W. A. Shi- roma, "A quadruple subharmonic phase-conjugating array for secure

  3. All Orthogonal Arrays with 18 Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    All combinatorially inequivalent orthogonal arrays with 18 runs and eight or less factors are generated. Their potential as practical experimental designs is evaluated by a classification using generalized word-length patterns of the original arrays and those of their projections into less factors.

  4. A microsensor array for biochemical sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Steenkiste, Filip; Baert, Kris; Debruyker, Dirk; Spiering, Vincent; Schoot, van der Bart; Arquint, Philippe; Born, Reinhard; Schumann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    A microsensor array to measure chemical properties of biological liquids is presented. A hybrid integration technique is used to mount four sensor chips on a micro flow channel: a pressure, temperature, pH, combined pO2 and pCO2 sensor chip. This results in a microsensor array which is developed to

  5. L3+C air shower array

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01: a view of the L3+C air shower array; 50 scintillators on the roof of the SX-hall above L3. Photo 02: view of one of the detectors of the array.Photo 04: detectors seen against the background of the LEP Point 2 facilities.

  6. Si:As BIB detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, R.; Petroff, M. D.; Speer, J. J.; Stapelbroek, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights of the results obtained on arsenic-doped silicon blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors and arrays since the invention of the BIB concept a few years ago are presented. After a brief introduction and a description of the BIB concept, data will be given on single detector performance. Then different arrays that were fabricated will be described and test data presented.

  7. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  8. Antennas for Frequency Reconfigurable Phased Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Sensors such as phased array radars play a crucial role in public safety. They are unavoidable for surveillance, threat identification and post-disaster management. However, different scenarios impose immensely diverse requirements for these systems. Phased array systems occupy a large space. In add

  9. Redundancy Calibration of Phased Array Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Noorishad, Parisa; van Ardenne, Arnold; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the benefits and limitations of using the redundant visibility information in regular phased array systems for improving the calibration. Regular arrays offer the possibility to use redundant visibility information to constrain the calibration of the array independent of a sky model and a beam models of the station elements. It requires a regular arrangement in the configuration of array elements and identical beam patterns. We revised a calibration method for phased array stations using the redundant visibility information in the system and applied it successfully to a LOFAR station. The performance and limitations of the method were demonstrated by comparing its use on real and simulated data. The main limitation is the mutual coupling between the station elements, which leads to non-identical beams and stronger baseline dependent noise. Comparing the variance of the estimated complex gains with the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) indicates that redundancy is a stable and optimum method for cali...

  10. Development of a monolithic ferrite memory array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, C. H., Jr.; Bhiwandker, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the development and testing of ferrite monolithic memory arrays are presented. This development required the synthesis of ferrite materials having special magnetic and physical characteristics and the development of special processes; (1) for making flexible sheets (laminae) of the ferrite composition, (2) for embedding conductors in ferrite, and (3) bonding ferrite laminae together to form a monolithic structure. Major problems encountered in each of these areas and their solutions are discussed. Twenty-two full-size arrays were fabricated and fired during the development of these processes. The majority of these arrays were tested for their memory characteristics as well as for their physical characteristics and the results are presented. The arrays produced during this program meet the essential goals and demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating monolithic ferrite memory arrays by the processes developed.

  11. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  12. Arrayed Continuous-wave THz Photomixers

    CERN Document Server

    Bauerschmidt, S T; Döhler, G H; Lu, H; Gossard, A C; Preu, S

    2013-01-01

    We present both chip-scale and free space coherent arrays of continuous-wave THz photomixers. By altering the relative phases of the exciting laser signals, the relative THz phase between the array elements can be tuned, allowing for beam steering. The constructive interference of the emission of N elements leads to an increase of the focal intensity by a factor of NxN while reducing the beam width by ~1/N, below the diffraction limit of a single source. Such array architectures strongly improve the THz power distribution for stand-off spectroscopy and imaging systems while providing a huge bandwidth at the same time. We demonstrate this by beam profiles generated by a free space 2x2 and a 4x1 array for a transmission distance of 4.2 meters. Spectra between 70 GHz and 1.1 THz have been recorded with these arrays.

  13. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Ilya P; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2008-03-17

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive index increases inside the array by a factor of approximately 1.08 (for the wavelength 800 nm) with respect to the SPP index at a flat surface. Observations of SPP focusing and deflection by circularly shaped areas as well as SPP waveguiding inside rectangular arrays are consistent with the SPP index increase deduced from the SPP refraction by triangular arrays. The SPP refractive index is found to decrease slightly for longer wavelengths within the wavelength range of 700-860 nm. Modeling based on the Green's tensor formalism is in a good agreement with the experimental results, opening the possibility to design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation.

  14. Simultaneous use of multiple seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, J.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.

    2017-05-01

    Seismic arrays provide an important means of enhancing seismic signals and determining the directional properties of the wavefield by beamforming. When multiple arrays are to be used together, the viewpoint needs to be modified from looking outwards from each array to focusing on a specific target area and so constraining the portions of the waveforms to be analysed. Beamforming for each array is supplemented by the relative time constraints for propagation from the target to each array to provide tight spatial control. Simultaneous multiple array analysis provides a powerful tool for source characterization, and for structural analysis of scatterers as virtual sources. The multiple array concept allows us to illuminate a specific point in the Earth from many different directions and thus maps detailed patterns of heterogeneity in the Earth. Furthermore, illumination of the structure from multiple directions using data from the same event minimizes source effects to provide clearer images of heterogeneity. The analysis is based on a similar concept to the backprojection technique, where a part of the seismic wave train is mapped to a specific point in space by ray tracing. In contrast to classic backprojection where the incoming energy is mapped onto a horizontal plane with limited vertical resolution, the multiarray method controls depth response by combining relative time constraints between the arrays and conventional beamforming. We illustrate this approach with application to two earthquakes at moderate depth. The results show that the use of simultaneous multiple arrays can provide improvement both in signal quality and resolution, with the additional benefit of being able to accurately locate the source of the incoming energy and map large areas with only a limited number of such arrays.

  15. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  16. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of the opportunistic oral pathogen Prevotella multisaccharivorax type strain (PPPA20T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Prevotella multisaccharivorax Sakamoto et al. 2005 is a species of the large genus Prevotella, which belongs to the family Prevotellaceae. The species is of medical interest because its members are able to cause diseases in the human oral cavity such as periodontitis, root caries and others. Although 77 Prevotella genomes have already been sequenced or are targeted for sequencing, this is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of a species within the genus Prevotella to be published. The 3,388,644 bp long genome is assembled in three non-contiguous contigs, harbors 2,876 protein-coding and 75 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Post traumatic pituitary apoplexy with contiguous intra cerebral hematoma operated through endonasal route--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Ravi; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Khetan, Prakash; Chugh, Ashish

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome occurring as a consequence of fulminant expansion of pituitary tumor due to massive infarction, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Its association with head injury is rare and only few reports are available. Shear forces on stalk and arterial vasospasm have been proposed to be the possible reasons. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset headache, visual symptoms, multiple cranial nerves involvement, meningismus, altered mental status, and hormonal dysfunction. Transsphenoidal decompression is the standard treatment but suprasellar and widespread extension of hematoma may need intracranial approach. We are reporting a rare association of head injury with pituitary apoplexy, where endonasal surgery proved to be a simple useful approach to evacuate contiguous intra-cerebral hematoma with excision of apoplectic pituitary adenoma.

  18. First dynamic model of dissolved organic carbon derived directly from high-frequency observations through contiguous storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy D; Chappell, Nick A; Tych, Wlodek

    2014-11-18

    The first dynamic model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in streams derived directly from high frequency (subhourly) observations sampled at a regular interval through contiguous storms is presented. The optimal model, identified using the recently developed RIVC algorithm, captured the rapid dynamics of DOC load from 15 min monitored rainfall with high simulation efficiencies and constrained uncertainty with a second-order (two-pathway) structure. Most of the DOC export in the four headwater basins studied was associated with the faster hydrometric pathway (also modeled in parallel), and was soon exhausted in the slower pathway. A delay in the DOC mobilization became apparent as the ambient temperatures increased. These features of the component pathways were quantified in the dynamic response characteristics (DRCs) identified by RIVC. The model and associated DRCs are intended as a foundation for a better understanding of storm-related DOC dynamics and predictability, given the increasing availability of subhourly DOC concentration data.

  19. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: Performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, D.; Allison, J. R.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bignall, H. E.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hegarty, S.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Indermuehle, B. T.; Lenc, E.; Marvil, J.; Popping, A.; Raja, W.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sault, R. J.; Serra, P.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M.; Amy, S. W.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L.; Bateman, T. J.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Brown, A. J.; Bunton, J. D.; Cheng, W.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Feain, I.; Gough, R.; Gupta, N.; Guzman, J. C.; Hampson, G. A.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Joseph, J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Leach, M.; Lensson, E. S.; MacLeod, A.; Mackay, S.; Marquarding, M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Mirtschin, P.; Mitchell, D.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; Norris, R.; Pearce, S.; Qiao, R. Y.; Schinckel, A. E. T.; Shields, M.; Shimwell, T. W.; Storey, M.; Troup, E.; Turner, B.; Tuthill, J.; Tzioumis, A.; Wark, R. M.; Westmeier, T.; Wilson, C.; Wilson, T.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array's performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.

  20. Sub-array patterns of spherical-section phased array for high intensity focused ultrasound surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaodong; WANG Xufei; LU Mingzhu; WAN Mingxi

    2005-01-01

    The sub-array field patterns of spherical-section phased array were implemented for noninvasive ultrasound surgery of liver-tumor. The sub-array approach included field calculation, pseudo-inverse method and genetic algorithm. The sub-arrays uncovered by ribs according to scanned images normally emitted ultrasound. The results from different sub-arrays demonstrated quite satisfied acoustic performances, which included qualified focus size and intensity level for ultrasound surgery with single-focus and multi-foci patterns. Moreover, the patterns could decrease power accumulation on the ribs, and avoid damaging normal tissues. Thus the sub-array method provides a promising tool for phased array ultrasound propagating through strong obstacles like human rib cage, and it may broaden the therapeutic area, make the surgery safer and more flexible.

  1. Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Forrester, Derek Michael

    2016-01-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions result from complex periodic changes in the concentration of the reactants. In spatially ordered ensembles of candle flame oscillators the fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen atoms with respect to that of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen produces an oscillation in the visible part of the flame related to the energy released per unit mass of oxygen. Thus, the products of the reaction vary in concentration as a function of time, giving rise to an oscillation in the amount of soot and radiative emission. Synchronisation of interacting dynamical sub-systems occurs as arrays of flames that act as master and slave oscillators, with groups of candles numbering greater than two, creating a synchronised motion in three-dimensions. In a ring of candles the visible parts of each flame move together, up and down and back and forth, in a manner that appears like a "worship". Here this effect is shown for rings of flames which collectively empower a central flame to pulse to greater heights. In ...

  2. Redundant Arrays of IDE Drives

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, D A; Eschenburg, V; Lawrence, C N; Riley, C P; Summers, D J; Petravick, D L

    2001-01-01

    We report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. Our tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100 TM disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. Our data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. We explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transf...

  3. Quantitative ultrasonic phased array imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brady J.; Schmerr, Lester W., Jr.; Sedov, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    When imaging with ultrasonic phased arrays, what do we actually image? What quantitative information is contained in the image? Ad-hoc delay-and-sum methods such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and the total focusing method (TFM) fail to answer these questions. We have shown that a new quantitative approach allows the formation of flaw images by explicitly inverting the Thompson-Gray measurement model. To examine the above questions, we have set up a software simulation test bed that considers a 2-D scalar scattering problem of a cylindrical inclusion with the method of separation of variables. It is shown that in SAFT types of imaging the only part of the flaw properly imaged is the front surface specular response of the flaw. Other responses (back surface reflections, creeping waves, etc.) are improperly imaged and form artifacts in the image. In the case of TFM-like imaging the quantity being properly imaged is an angular integration of the front surface reflectivity. The other, improperly imaged responses are also averaged, leading to a reduction in some of the artifacts present. Our results have strong implications for flaw sizing and flaw characterization with delay-and-sum images.

  4. Wetting of flexible fibre arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, C; Protière, S; Beebe, A Y; Stone, H A

    2012-02-23

    Fibrous media are functional and versatile materials, as demonstrated by their ubiquity both in natural systems such as feathers and adhesive pads and in engineered systems from nanotextured surfaces to textile products, where they offer benefits in filtration, insulation, wetting and colouring. The elasticity and high aspect ratios of the fibres allow deformation under capillary forces, which cause mechanical damage, matting self-assembly or colour changes, with many industrial and ecological consequences. Attempts to understand these systems have mostly focused on the wetting of rigid fibres or on elastocapillary effects in planar geometries and on a fibre brush withdrawn from an infinite bath. Here we consider the frequently encountered case of a liquid drop deposited on a flexible fibre array and show that flexibility, fibre geometry and drop volume are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations referred to above. We identify the conditions required for a drop to remain compact with minimal spreading or to cause a pair of elastic fibres to coalesce. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, and, hence, a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur. We also identify a drop size that maximizes liquid capture. For both wetting and deformation of the substrates, we present rules that are deduced from the geometric and material properties of the fibres and the volume of the drop. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems.

  5. AGATA - Advanced GAmma Tracking Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkoyun, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Alikhani, B. [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ameil, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Angelis, G. de [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Arnold, L. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Astier, A. [CSNSM, CNRS, IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Atac, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Aubert, Y. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Aufranc, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Austin, A. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Aydin, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, IT-35131 Padova (Italy); Azaiez, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Badoer, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Balabanski, D.L. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Barrientos, D. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); and others

    2012-03-11

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation {gamma}-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of {gamma}-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a {gamma} ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of {gamma}-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterisation of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximise its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.

  6. Large phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, Eli, Dr.

    1988-12-01

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  7. Mass properties survey of solar array technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Robert

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technologies, electrical performance, and mass characteristics of many of the presently available and the more advanced developmental space solar array technologies is presented. Qualitative trends and quantitative mass estimates as total array output power is increased from 1 kW to 5 kW at End of Life (EOL) from a single wing are shown. The array technologies are part of a database supporting an ongoing solar power subsystem model development for top level subsystem and technology analyses. The model is used to estimate the overall electrical and thermal performance of the complete subsystem, and then calculate the mass and volume of the array, batteries, power management, and thermal control elements as an initial sizing. The array types considered here include planar rigid panel designs, flexible and rigid fold-out planar arrays, and two concentrator designs, one with one critical axis and the other with two critical axes. Solar cell technologies of Si, GaAs, and InP were included in the analyses. Comparisons were made at the array level; hinges, booms, harnesses, support structures, power transfer, and launch retention mountings were included. It is important to note that the results presented are approximations, and in some cases revised or modified performance and mass estimates of specific designs.

  8. Towards the ASTRI mini-array

    CERN Document Server

    Di Pierro, F; Morello, C; Stamerra, A; Vallania, P; Agnetta, G; Antonelli, L A; Bastieri, D; Bellassai, G; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Biondo, B; Bonanno, G; Bonnoli, G; Bruno, P; Bulgarelli, A; Canestrari, R; Capalbi, M; Caraveo, P; Carosi, A; Cascone, E; Catalano, O; Cereda, M; Conconi, P; Conforti, V; Cusumano, G; De Caprio, V; De Luca, A; Di Paola, A; Fantinel, D; Fiorini, M; Fugazza, D; Gardiol, D; Ghigo, M; Gianotti, F; Giarrusso, S; Giro, E; Grillo, A; Impiombato, D; Incorvaia, S; La Barbera, A; La Palombara, N; La Parola, V; La Rosa, G; Lessio, L; Leto, G; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Maccarone, M C; Malaguti, G; Malaspina, G; Mangano, V; Marano, D; Martinetti, E; Millul, R; Mineo, T; Misto, A; Morlino, G; Panzera, M R; Pareschi, G; Rodeghiero, G; Romano, P; Russo, F; Sacco, B; Sartore, N; Schwarz, J; Segreto, A; Sironi, G; Sottile, G; Strazzeri, E; Stringhetti, L; Tagliaferri, G; Testa, V; Timpanaro, M C; Toso, G; Tosti, G; Trifoglio, M; Vercellone, S; Zitelli, V

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will consist of an array of three types of telescopes covering a wide energy range, from tens of GeV up to more than 100 TeV. The high energy section (> 3 TeV) will be covered by the Small Size Telescopes (SST). ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and Education led by INAF, aiming at the design and construction of a prototype of the Dual Mirror SST. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the SST array at the CTA southern site, a mini-array of 5-7 telescopes. The optimization of the layout of this mini-array embedded in the SST array of the CTA Observatory has been the object of an intense simulation effort. In this work we present the expected mini-array performance in terms of energy threshold, angular and energy resolution and sensitivity.

  9. Transmit TACAN Bearing Information with a Circular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mark Dorsey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TACAN and array fundamentals, we derive an architecture for transmitting TACAN bearing information from a circular array with time-varying weights. We evaluate performance for a simulated example array of Vivaldi elements.

  10. Preparation and characterization of haematite nanowire arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, D S; Liu, Q F; Zhang, L Y

    2003-01-01

    Arrays of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanowires embedded in anodic alumina membranes were obtained after heat-treating beta-FeOOH nanowire arrays fabricated by electrochemical deposition. Haematite polycrystalline nanowires with maximum length of about 7 mu m and average diameter of about 120 nm were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Morin temperature below 80 K and Neel temperature of about 350 K for the alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanowire arrays, far lower than those of bulk material, were measured by Moessbauer spectroscopy and using a Magnetic Property Measurement System.

  11. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  12. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng, E-mail: guoj@uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  13. GENERALIZED SIDELOBE CANCELLER FOR MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY ARRAYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, John C; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Hui, Hua Brian; Burgess, Richard C; Leahy, Richard M

    2009-08-07

    In the last decade, large arrays of sensors for magnetoencephalography (MEG) (and electroencephalography (EEG)) have become more commonplace, allowing new opportunities for the application of beamforming techniques to the joint problems of signal estimation and noise reduction. We introduce a new approach to noise cancellation, the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC), itself an alternative to the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) algorithm. The GSC framework naturally fits within the other noise reduction techniques that employ real or virtual reference arrays. Using expository human subject data with strong environmental and biological artifacts, we demonstrate a straightforward sequence of steps for practical noise filtering, applicable to any large array sensor design.

  14. Performance Analysis of Digital loudspeaker Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Kontomichos, Fotios; Mourjopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of digital loudspeaker arrays shows that the ways in which bits are mapped to the drivers influence the quality of the audio result. Specifically, a "bit-summed" rather than the traditional "bit-mapped" strategy greatly reduces the number of times drivers make binary transitions per...... period of the input frequency. Detailed simulations compare the results for a 32-loudspeaker array with a similar configuration with analog excitation of the drivers. Ideally, drivers in digital arrays should be very small and span a small area, but that sets limits on the low-frequency response...

  15. Polarization tomography of metallic nanohole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Altewischer, E; Van Exter, M P; Woerdman, J P; Alkemade, P F A; Van Zuuk, A; Van der Drift, E

    2004-01-01

    We report polarization tomography experiments on metallic nanohole arrays with square and hexagonal symmetry. As a main result, we find that a fully polarized input beam is partly depolarized after transmission through a nanohole array. This loss of polarization coherence is found to be anisotropic, i.e. it depends on the polarization state of the input beam. The depolarization is ascribed to a combination of two factors: i) the nonlocal response of the array due to surface plasmon propagation, ii) the non-plane wave nature of a practical input beam.

  16. Electrochemical Preparation of WO_3 Nanowire Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Ordered WO3 nanowires arrays have been fabricated by electrochemical deposition with anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates and annealing the W nanowire arrays in air at 400 ℃. The morphology and the chemical composition of WO3 nanowires arrays were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM),Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the diameters of the WO3 nanowires are about 90 nm, which is in go...

  17. Algoritmos array para filtragem de sistemas lineares

    OpenAIRE

    Gildson Queiroz de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Esta dissertação desenvolve filtro de informação, algoritmos array para estimador do erro médio mínimo quadrático para sistemas lineares sujeitos a saltos Markovianos e algoritmos array rápidos para filtragem de sistemas singulares convencionais. Exemplos numéricos serão apresentados para mostrarem as vantagens dos algoritmos array deduzidos. Parte dos resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa serão publicados no seguinte artigo: Terra et al. (2007). Terra, M. H., Ishihara, J. Y. and Jesus, G. Q. (20...

  18. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    2001-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  19. Array Biosensor for Toxin Detection: Continued Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rowe Taitt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following review focuses on progress made in the last five years with the NRL Array Biosensor, a portable instrument for rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple targets. Since 2003, the Array Biosensor has been automated and miniaturized for operation at the point-of-use. The Array Biosensor has also been used to demonstrate (1 quantitative immunoassays against an expanded number of toxins and toxin indicators in food and clinical fluids, and (2 the efficacy of semi-selective molecules as alternative recognition moieties. Blind trials, with unknown samples in a variety of matrices, have demonstrated the versatility, sensitivity, and reliability of the automated system.

  20. Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. b.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (approximately 75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heat sinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  1. Processor arrays with asynchronous TDM optical buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, S. Q.

    1997-04-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of the two hardwared priority schemes, the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performances of our proposed buses are significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We also propose a class of processor arrays connected by pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We claim that our proposed processor array not only have better performance, but also have better scalabilities than the existing processor arrays connected by pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses.

  2. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... index increases inside the array by a factor of ~1.08 (for the wavelength 800 nm) with respect to the SPP index at a flat surface. Observations of SPP focusing and deflection by circularly shaped areas as well as SPP waveguiding inside rectangular arrays are consistent with the SPP index increase...

  3. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and others have recently developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), offering unprecedented performance...

  4. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  5. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wu, Yongle; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang

    2016-06-01

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  6. Geology of the State of Morelos and contiguous areas in south-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Carl F.

    1959-01-01

    The area described lies in south-central Mexico and embraces all but the southeastern corner and easternmost border of the State of Moreles, the second smallest State in the Mexican Republic. It includes small contiguous parts of the State of Mexico, in the northeastern corner, and of the State of Guerrero in the southwestern corner. Limiting geographic coordinates are 98 45 to 99 39 west longitude and 18 18 to 19 08 north latitude, the northern boundary being only 35 km south of Mexico City, capital of the Republic. The geological map does not cover the entire rectangle outlined, but is irregular in form and measures roughly 4150 sq. km, three-quarters of it representing two0thirds of the State of Moreles and the rest lying outside the State. The region ranges in altitude from 730 m above sea level at Iguala near the south edge of the map, to a general level of about 3000 m at the north edge, although individual peaks rise to 3900 m and Popocatepetl Volcano, a few kilometers east of the northeastern border of the map, rises to 5452 m above sea level. Annual rainfall ranges from a minimum of about 640 mm in the low country, to 1200 mm and more at altitudes above 2000 m. Most of it falls in summer between June and September. Winter frosts are rare below 1800 m. The climate is of savanna to steppe type; soils are thin and may be classified as belonging to the tachernoses group, with strong development of calcareous evaporates (caliche) at altitudes below 1800 m. The northern border of the area forms the southern half of the late Pliocene to Recent Neo-volcanic Belt of basic volcanism that crosses Mexico in the direction N. 80 W., and thus has constructional topography. The rest of the area belongs to the Balsas Basin physiographic province, which is characterized by maturely dissected terrain tributary to the large Balsas River. All but the southwestern corner of the area drains southward via the Amacuzac River into the Mexcala-Balsas River, and thence westward into

  7. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight Load Test...

  8. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-17

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays.

  9. Statistical monitoring of linear antenna arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-11-03

    The paper concerns the problem of monitoring linear antenna arrays using the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. When an abnormal event (fault) affects an array of antenna elements, the radiation pattern changes and significant deviation from the desired design performance specifications can resulted. In this paper, the detection of faults is addressed from a statistical point of view as a fault detection problem. Specifically, a statistical method rested on the GLR principle is used to detect potential faults in linear arrays. To assess the strength of the GLR-based monitoring scheme, three case studies involving different types of faults were performed. Simulation results clearly shown the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault-detection method to monitor the performance of linear antenna arrays.

  10. Variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wu-xiang; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Zang, Shang-fei; Wang, Qiong-hua

    2013-06-01

    A variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array based on two transparent liquids of different refractive index is demonstrated. An elastic membrane divides a transparent reservoir into two chambers. The two chambers are filled with liquid 1 and liquid 2, respectively, which are of different refractive index. The micro-clapboards help liquid 1, liquid 2 and the elastic membrane form a cylindrical lens array. Driving these two liquids to flow can change the shape of the elastic membrane as well as the focal length. In this design, the gravity effect of liquid can be overcome. A demo lens array of positive optical power is developed and tested. Moreover, a potential application of the proposed lens array for autostereoscopic 3D displays is emphasized.

  11. Signal Conditioning For Infrared Staring Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Richard W.

    1981-12-01

    Infrared (IR) staring arrays offer significant performance improvements over mechanically scanned systems, if the signals from these focal planes can be conditioned for use by imaging displays or signal processors. IR staring arrays offer the potential for increased sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and short frame time, if the problems associated with the readout of data from these arrays can be solved in an efficient manner. Some of the func-tions included in this signal conditioning are: nonuniformity compensation, local area gain and brightness control, detector integration time control, and multiple frame composition. Nonuniformity compensation and local area gain and brightness control were covered in earlier papers. 1,2,3 This paper deals with integration time control and the resulting multiple frame composition possible with focal plane arrays.

  12. Array Processing for Radar: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Nickel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Array processing for radar is well established in the literature, but only few of these algorithms have been implemented in real systems. The reason may be that the impact of these algorithms on the overall system must be well understood. For a successful implementation of array processing methods exploiting the full potential, the desired radar task has to be considered and all processing necessary for this task has to be eventually adapted. In this tutorial paper, we point out several viewpoints which are relevant in this context: the restrictions and the potential provided by different array configurations, the predictability of the transmission function of the array, the constraints for adaptive beamforming, the inclusion of monopulse, detection and tracking into the adaptive beamforming concept, and the assessment of superresolution methods with respect to their application in a radar system. The problems and achieved results are illustrated by examples from previous publications.

  13. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  14. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Application components of ISPA tubes are shown: the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  15. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  16. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  17. Science with the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, Judd D; Kaplan, David L; Murphy, Tara; Oberoi, Divya; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David G; Bernardi, Gianni; Briggs, Frank H; Brown, Shea; Bunton, John D; Burgasser, Adam J; Cappallo, Roger J; Chatterjee, Shami; Corey, Brian E; Coster, Anthea; Deshpande, Avinash; deSouza, Ludi; Emrich, David; Erickson, Philip; Goeke, Robert F; Gaensler, B M; Greenhill, Lincoln J; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hazelton, Bryna J; Herne, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline N; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Kasper, Justin C; Kincaid, Barton B; Koenig, Ronald; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin J; Lynch, Mervyn J; Matthews, Lynn D; McWhirter, S Russell; Mitchell, Daniel A; Morales, Miguel F; Morgan, Edward H; Ord, Stephen M; Pathikulangara, Joseph; Thiagaraj, Prabu; Remillard, Ronald A; Robishaw, Timothy; Rogers, Alan E E; Roshi, Anish A; Salah, Joseph E; Sault, Robert J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, Jamie B; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Tingay, Steven J; Wayth, Randall B; Waterson, Mark; Webster, Rachel L; Whitney, Alan R; Williams, Andrew J; Williams, Christopher L; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2012-01-01

    Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the Southern Hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionisation in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.

  18. Calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven A.; Wright, C. Wayne; Piazza, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer is presented. Through this approach, incident light radiance derivation is made by recognizing and tracing gain characteristics for each photomultiplier tube.

  19. Increase in the Array Television Camera Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhrukhanov, O. S.

    A simple adder circuit for successive television frames that enables to considerably increase the sensitivity of such radiation detectors is suggested by the example of array television camera QN902K.

  20. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A program is proposed to research the applicability of a unique phased array technology, dubbed FlexScan, to S-band and Ku-band communications links between...

  1. Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The digital array gas radiometer (DAGR) is a new sensor design for accurate measurement and monitoring of trace gases in the boundary layer from space, aircraft, or...

  2. The self-cohering tied-array

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, P A

    2010-01-01

    Large radio astronomy multi-element interferometers are frequently used as single dishes in a tied-array mode when signals from separate antennas are added. Phase shifts arising during wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere can significantly reduce the effective area of an equivalent single dish. I aim to give estimates of the impact of the ionosphere and troposphere on the effectiveness of a radio interferometer working in tied-array mode. Statistical estimates of the effective area are calculated and the power-law of turbulent atmosphere irregularities has been used. A simple method of tied-array calibration using optimization techniques is proposed. The impact of phase errors on the effectiveness of tied-arrays are given for low and high frequencies. Computer simulations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed calibration algorithm.

  3. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  4. Substrate-supported lipid nanotube arrays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A. I.; Poluektov, O. G.; Chemistry; North Carolina State

    2003-07-16

    This Communication describes the self-assembly of phospholipids into lipid nanotubes inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrate. Orientations of the lipid molecules in such lipid nanoscale structures were verified by high-resolution spin labeling EPR at 95 GHz. The static order parameter of lipids in such nanotube arrays was determined from low-temperature EPR spectra and was found to be exceptionally high, S{sub static} {approx} 0.9. We propose that substrate-supported lipid nanotube arrays have potential for building robust biochips and biosensors in which rigid nanoporous substrates protect the bilayer surface from contamination. The total bilayer surface in the lipid nanotube arrays is much greater than that in the planar substrate-supported membranes. The lipid nanotube arrays seem to be suitable for developing patterned lipid deposition and could be potentially used for patterning of membrane-associated molecules.

  5. Multijunction Ultralight Solar Cells and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a continuing need within NASA for solar cells and arrays with very high specific power densities (1000-5000 kW/kg) for generating power in a new generation...

  6. Ordered arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a “top-down” approach (substrate-conformal imprint lithography and two “bottom-up” approaches (dewetting and dealloying enables fabrication of perfectly ordered 2-dimensional arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles. The dewetting of Au/Ag bilayers on the periodically prepatterned substrates leads to the interdiffusion of Au and Ag and the formation of an array of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. The array of alloy nanoparticles is transformed into an array of nanoporous gold nanoparticles by a following dealloying step. Large areas of this new type of material arrangement can be realized with this technique. In addition, this technique allows for the control of particle size, particle spacing, and ligament size (or pore size by varying the period of the structure, total metal layer thickness, and the thickness ratio of the as-deposited bilayers.

  7. Slot Coupled Patch Array Antenna Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is an antenna array whose beam is controlled digitally. The Phase 1 effort will assess the method needed to achieve the gain, bandwidth, and...

  8. Piezoresistive Foam Sensor Arrays for Marine Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dusek, Jeff E; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-dense pressure measurements are needed on curved surfaces in marine environments to provide marine vehicles with the detailed, real-time measurements of the near-field flow necessary to improve performance through flow control. To address this challenge, a waterproof and conformal pressure sensor array comprising carbon black-doped-silicone closed-cell foam (CBPDMS foam) was developed for use in marine applications. The response of the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays was characterized using periodic hydrodynamic pressure stimuli from vertical plunging, from which a piecewise polynomial calibration was developed to describe the sensor response. Inspired by the distributed pressure and velocity sensing capabilities of the fish lateral line, the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays have significant advantages over existing commercial sensors for distributed flow reconstruction and control. Experimental results have shown the sensor arrays to have sensitivity on the order of 5 Pascal, dynamic range of 50-500 Pascal; are...

  9. Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a digital array gas radiometer (DAGR), a new design for a gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR) to accurately measure and monitor...

  10. Radiation Hardened Bolometer Linear Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has developed space-based thermal instrument spectrometers based on thermopile detectors linear arrays that are intrinsically radiation hard. Micro-bolometers...

  11. Monolithic Time Delay Integrated APD Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop monolithic time delay integrated avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays with sensitivity...

  12. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  13. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  14. Arrayed-Waveguide Layout for AWG Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The key issue of the complex geometry for arrayed-waveguide grating(AWG)is the design of length difference.Conventional-type scheme and improved-type scheme of the ar-rayed -waveguide layout are proposed.For each scheme,the layout rules were given and one ex-ample was presented. At last ,the two schemes were compared with each other.

  15. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase-encode...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  16. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    by this algorithm to generate the specific all-partition arrays used in three of Babbitt’s works. Finally, we evaluate the algorithm and the heuristics in terms of how well they predict the sequences of integer partitions used in two of Babbitt’s works. We also explore the effect of the heuristics...... on the performance of the algorithm when it is used in an attempt to generate a novel array....

  17. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...array with parasitic elements, these elements are used in place of every alternate dipole, thereby eliminating the need of a twisted feed arrangement...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the

  18. picoArray Technology: The Tool's Story

    CERN Document Server

    Duller, Andrew; Panesar, Gajinder; Gray, Alan; Robbins, Will

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the picoArray? architecture, and in particular the deterministic internal communication fabric. The methods that have been developed for debugging and verifying systems using devices from the picoArray family are explained. In order to maximize the computational ability of these devices, hardware debugging support has been kept to a minimum and the methods and tools developed to take this into account.

  19. High performance compound semiconductor SPAD arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Bowling, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Aggregated compound semiconductor single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays are emerging as a viable alternative to the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Compound semiconductors have the potential to surpass SiPM performance, potentially achieving orders of magnitude lower dark count rates and improved radiation hardness. New planar processing techniques have been developed to enable compound semiconductor SPAD devices to be produced with pixel pitches of 11 - 25 microns, with thousands of SPADs per array.

  20. Application of Array Measurement in Blind Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 孙连明; 刘文江

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with blind identification and deconvolution algorithm for an arbitrary, possibly white or colored, stationary or nonstationary signal, which is observed through array sensors. By using multiple sensors with their individual outputs sampled at a rate 1/T, one can obtain cyclostationary signals. They can be considered as a single-input multiple-output model with an identical but unknown input signal. With the array measurement, an algorithm for estimating the system transfer function model and its parameters is presented.