WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmically depressed life

  1. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  2. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe natu

  3. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depressions & spatial complexity

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do they represent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probes and measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive to the nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to the nature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing ground for our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we review the key aspects of the structure and dynamics of voids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstrate how the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildup of voids.

  4. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to thenature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing groundfor our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we reviewthe key aspects of the structure and dynamics ofvoids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstratehow the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildupof voids.

  5. Relative Likelihood for Life as a Function of Cosmic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham; Sloan, David

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP(t)/dt, starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of "life as we know it" and the standard cosmological model, LCDM. We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near 0.1 solar-mass stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  6. Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    “The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest.” - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing it, causing changes in its chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved over the past ∼3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lightning plays a very important role in the formation of complex organic molecules, which are the building blocks of more complex structures forming life. There is growing evidence of increase in the lightning rate with increasing flux of charged particles. Is there a connection between enhanced rate of cosmic rays and the origin of life? Cosmic ray secondaries are also known to damage DNA and cause mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. It is now possible to compute radiation doses from secondary particles, in particular muons and neutrons. Have the variations in cosmic ray flux affected the evolution of life on earth? We describe the mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life and review the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth.

  7. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-26

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  8. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  9. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  10. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  11. Depression, Life Events and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzini, Renzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…

  12. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  13. The life and death of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Falck, Bridget; Onions, Julian; Hamaus, Nico; Knebe, Alexander; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Schneider, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation, growth, merger history, movement, and destruction of cosmic voids detected via the watershed transform in a cosmological N-body dark matter {\\Lambda}CDM simulation. By adapting a method used to construct halo merger trees, we are able to trace individual voids back to their initial appearance and record the merging and evolution of their progenitors at high redshift. For the scales of void sizes captured in our simulation, we find that the void formation rate peaks at scale factor 0.3, which coincides with a growth in the void hierarchy and the emergence of dark energy. Voids of all sizes appear at all scale factors, though the median initial void size decreases with time. When voids become detectable they have nearly their present-day volumes. Almost all voids have relatively stable growth rates and suffer only infrequent minor mergers. Dissolution of a void via merging is very rare. Instead, most voids maintain their distinct identity as annexed subvoids of a larger parent. The...

  14. Stardust: The Cosmic Seeds of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    How did life originate on Earth? For over 50 years, scientists believed that life was the result of chemistry involving simple molecules such as methane and ammonia cooking in a primordial soup. Recent space observations have revealed that old stars are capable of making very complex organic compounds. The stars then ejected the organics and spread them all over the Milky Way Galaxy. There is evidence that these organic dust particles actually reached the early Solar System. Through bombardments by comets and asteroids, the early Earth inherited significant amounts of star dust. Was the development of life assisted by the arrival of these extraterrestrial materials? In this book, we describe stunning discoveries in astronomy and solar system science over the last 10 years that resulted in a new perspective on the origin of life.

  15. Are Life, Consciousness, and Intelligence Cosmic Phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    2013-09-01

    First of all the scientific reasons of astrophysics, astronomy and modern astrobiology in favor of the existence of life, consciousness and intelligence in the Universe will be presented and estimated (e.g. the Nobel Laureate Christian de Duve's arguments). The part played in this kind of scientific debate by the Copernicus principle will be stressed from the scientific and philosophical point of view. Since there are also philosophers and theologians who argue in favor of the existence of life in the Universe, their arguments will be shortly presented and estimated as well.

  16. Stardust the cosmic seeds of life

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Sun

    2013-01-01

    How did life originate on Earth? For over 50 years, scientists believed that life was the result of a chemical reaction involving simple molecules such as methane and ammonia cooking in a primordial soup. Recent space observations have revealed that old stars are capable of making very complex organic compounds. At some point in their evolution, stars eject those organics and spread them all over the Milky Way galaxy. There is evidence that these organic dust particles actually reached the early Solar System. Through bombardments by comets and asteroids, the young Earth inherited significant amounts of stardust. Was the development of life assisted by the arrival of these extraterrestrial materials?   In this book, the author describes stunning discoveries in astronomy and solar system science made over the last 10 years that have yielded a new perspective on the origin of life.   Other interesting topics discussed in this book   The discovery of diamonds and other gemstones in space The origin of oil Neon...

  17. DNA Sequencing and Predictions of the Cosmic Theory of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    The theory of cometary panspermia, developed by the late Sir Fred Hoyle and the present author argues that life originated cosmically as a unique event in one of a great multitude of comets or planetary bodies in the Universe. Life on Earth did not originate here but was introduced by impacting comets, and its further evolution was driven by the subsequent acquisition of cosmically derived genes. Explicit predictions of this theory published in 1979-1981, stating how the acquisition of new genes drives evolution, are compared with recent developments in relation to horizontal gene transfer, and the role of retroviruses in evolution. Precisely-stated predictions of the theory of cometary panspermia are shown to have been verified.

  18. Cosmic Biology How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Louis Neil

    2011-01-01

    It is very unlikely that little green humanoids are living on Mars. But what are the possible life forms that might exist in our Solar System and how might they have evolved? This uniquely authoritative and imaginative book on the possibilties for alien life addresses the intrinsic interest that we have about life on other worlds - reinforcing some of our assumptions and reshaping others. It introduces new possibilties that will enlarge our understanding of the issue overall, in particular the enormous range of environments and planetary conditions within which life might evolve. Cosmic Biology -discusses a broad range of possible environments where alien life might have evolved; -explains why carbon-based, water-borne life is more likely that its alternatives, but is not the only possiblity; -applies the principles of planetary science and modern biology to evolutionary scenarios on other worlds; -looks at the future fates of living systems, including those on Earth.

  19. Childhood adversities, adulthood life events and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Vahtera, Jussi; Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Korkeila, Katariina; Sumanen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2010-12-01

    The role of childhood adversities in predicting adulthood depression has been suggested to be complex and in need of additional comprehensive studies. This investigation set out to examine whether increased exposure to life events (LEs) in adulthood mediates the association between childhood adversities and adulthood depression. This study is based on a random health survey sample from the Finnish working-aged population (n=16,877) with a follow-up of up to 7 years. Depression was identified by Beck Depression Inventory, records of antidepressant prescriptions and hospitalization due to depression obtained from national health registers. Childhood adversities were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing a high number of LEs in adulthood and their perceived burdensomeness. The mean number of new LEs correlated significantly (Pchildhood adversities. Reporting childhood adversities was associated with a 1.28-2.70-fold increase in the odds of depression as indicated by BDI score, a 1.29-1.94-fold increase in the rate of antidepressant prescriptions and a 1.17-4.04-fold increase in the risk of hospitalization due to depression. Adjustment for new LE attenuated these associations by 21-24%, but did not render them insignificant. Increased exposure to adult negative life events proximal to adult depression may partially explain the association between childhood adversities and adult depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmic Rays and Terrestrial Life: a Brief Review

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2012-01-01

    "The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest." - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant GRBs, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles in a wide energy range, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles interact with, and contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing the atmosphere, causing changes in atmospheric chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved since past ~ 3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lig...

  1. A journey with Fred Hoyle. The search for cosmic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wickramasinghe, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    This is the story of the author's unique scientific journey with one of the most remarkable men of 20th century science. The journey begins in Sri Lanka, the author's native country, with his childhood acquaintance with Fred Hoyle's writings. The action then moves to Cambridge, where the famous Hoyle-Wickramasinghe collaborations begin. A research programme which was started in 1962 on the carbonaceous nature of interstellar dust leads, over the next two decades, to developments that are continued in both Cambridge and Cardiff. These developments prompt Hoyle and the author to postulate the organic theory of cosmic dust (which is now generally accepted), and then to challenge one of the most cherished paradigms of contemporary science - the theory that life originated on Earth in a warm primordial soup.

  2. Stressful life events and depressive symptoms: influences of gender, event severity, and depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Conner, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    Informed by Post's (1992) kindling hypothesis, the study examined the association between depressive symptoms and varying levels of perceived life events as determined by respondents, as well as the moderating role of depression history and gender. Severe life events were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms among never depressed women but not among women with depression history. Such a moderating role of depression history was not observed among men where severe life events were associated with current depressive symptoms in men regardless of depression history. No moderating effects of gender and depression history were obtained for mild and moderate life events, but these events were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms. These results support Post's kindling hypothesis for severe life events but not for mild or moderate life events, and further only in women.

  3. Life, the Universe, and almost Everything: Signs of Cosmic Design?

    CERN Document Server

    Vaas, Ruediger

    2009-01-01

    Why did the big bang occur, why do the laws and constants of nature as well as the boundary conditions seem so fine-tuned for life, what is the role of intelligence and self-consciousness in the universe, and how can it escape cosmic doomsday? The hypothesis of Cosmological Artificial Selection (CAS) connects those questions and suggests a far-reaching answer: Our universe might be understood in terms of vast computer simulations and could even have been created and transcended by one. - This essay critically discusses some of the premises and implications of CAS and related problems both with the proposal itself and its possible physical realization: Is our universe really fine-tuned, does CAS deserve to be considered as a convincing explanation, and which other options are available to understand the physical laws, constants and boundary conditions? Is life incidental, and does CAS revalue it? And is intelligence and self-consciousness ultimately doomed, or might CAS rescue it? Keywords: origin of the unive...

  4. Evaluation of depression and quality of life in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-07

    Dec 7, 2015 ... apnea syndrome (OSAS) that may impair quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to ... Key words: Depression, obstructive sleep apnea, quality of life ...... quality of life module for elderly WHOQOL-OLD: Validity and reliability of.

  5. Rare Earth or Cosmic Zoo: Testing the Frequency of Complex Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, W.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2017-02-01

    We propose how to test between two major hypotheses about the frequency of life in the universe (Rare Earth and Cosmic Zoo) using future remote sensing capabilities targeted at exoplanets and site visits of planetary bodies in our solar system.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  7. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  8. SPECT and PET in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, Tiago S; Oude Voshaar, Richard; De Deyn, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Late-life late onset depression (i.e., depression with an age of onset above 60 yrs) appears to differ from depression with early onset in its association with cerebral small vessel disease, beta-amyloid and tau deposition, and neurodegenerative processes. Multimodality imaging (SPECT, PET, MRI) sup

  9. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  10. Clinical interventions for late-life anxious depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Goethe, John

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety symptoms are frequently present in patients with late-life depression. The designation "anxious depression" has been used to describe major depressive disorder (MDD) accompanied by clinically significant but subsyndromal anxiety symptoms. MDD may also present comorbid with diagnosable anxiety disorders, although this presentation is less common in late life. Diagnosis of anxious depression in the elderly is complicated by several factors (eg, their tendency to experience and report psychiatric symptoms as somatic illness) and is associated with a more severe clinical presentation, increased risk for suicidal ideation, increased disability, and poorer prognosis. Standard pharmacotherapy for depression may be sufficient but for many patients must be modified or augmented. Psychosocial interventions may also be an important component in the treatment of these patients, although no specific psychosocial treatments have been developed for late-life anxious depression.

  11. Depression and quality of life in patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schram, Miranda T; Baan, Caroline A; Pouwer, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes patients are known to have a worse quality of life than individuals without diabetes. They also have an increased risk for depressive symptoms, which may have an additional negative effect on their quality of life. This systematic review summarizes the current knowledge on the association...... between depressive symptoms and quality of life in individuals with diabetes. A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, Psychinfo, Social SciSearch, SciSearch and EMBASE was conducted from January 1990 until September 2007. We identified studies that compared quality of life between diabetic...... individuals with and without depressive symptoms. Twenty studies were identified, including eighteen cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies. Quality of life was measured as generic, diabetes specific and domain specific quality of life. All studies reported a negative association between depressive...

  12. Cosmic Rays and Terrestrial Life: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2012-01-01

    "The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest." - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. ...

  13. Association of Microvascular Dysfunction With Late-Life Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Agtmaal, Marnix J M; Houben, Alfons J H M; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The etiologic factors of late-life depression are still poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that microvascular dysfunction is associated with depression, which may have implications for prevention and treatment. However, this association has not been systematically reviewed...... microvascular dysfunction might provide a potential target for the prevention and treatment of depression........ Objective: To examine the associations of peripheral and cerebral microvascular dysfunction with late-life depression. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE for and longitudinal studies published since inception to October 16, 2016, that assessed the associations...

  14. Life Stress, the "Kindling" Hypothesis, and the Recurrence of Depression: Considerations From a Life Stress Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2005-01-01

    Major depression is frequently characterized by recurrent episodes over the life course. First lifetime episodes of depression, however, are typically more strongly associated with major life stress than are successive recurrences. A key theoretical issue involves how the role of major life stress changes from an initial episode over subsequent…

  15. Life stress as potential risk factor for depression and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Plieger

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: By considering the influence of life stress it could be demonstrated that depression and burnout are not identical although they share substantial phenotypic variance (r = .46–.61. Most important, the trivariate associations are the same in a representative employee sample and in an inpatient clinical sample suggesting the same underlying mechanisms covering the whole range from normal behavior to psychopathology. However, only longitudinal data can show if burnout necessarily turns into depression with the consequence that the burnout – life stress association approaches the depressionlife stress association over time.

  16. Mortality and life expectancy in persons with severe unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Musliner, Katherine L; Benros, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of 10-15% in the Danish population. Although depression is associated with excess mortality, it is not yet understood how this affects life expectancy. Our aim was to examine mortality rates and life expectancy...... in patients with unipolar depression compared to the general population, and to assess the impact of comorbid somatic illness and substance abuse. METHODS: We followed a Danish population-based cohort from 1995-2013 (N=5,103,699). The cohort included all residents in Denmark during the study period. Mortality...... rate ratios (MRRs) and life expectancy in persons with unipolar depression were calculated using survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: The overall MRR was 2.07 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.05-2.09) in people with a previous unipolar depression diagnosis compared to the general Danish population...

  17. Cosmic-ray half-life of {sup 144}Pm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaerpoor, K.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Krane, K.S. [Physics Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon97331 (United States); Chan, Y.D.; Isaac, M.C.; Larimer, R.M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Macleod, R.W.; Norman, E.B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California94720 (United States); DiGregorio, D.E. [Laboratorio TANDAR-CNEA, Buenos Aires, 1429 (Argentina); Hindi, M.M.; Robinson, S.J. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee38505 (United States); Miocinovic, P. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California94720 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In order to test the possibility of using {sup 144}Pm as a clock to measure the mean cosmic-ray confinement time in the Galaxy, we counted a highly purified 1.4 {mu}Ci source of this isotope in GAMMASPHERE and searched for its astrophysically interesting {beta}{sup +} decay branch through the observation of positron-annihilation {gamma} rays in coincidence with the characteristic 697-keV {gamma} ray. Analysis of 57 h of source counting and 15 h of background shows no net signal and results in an upper limit of 3.7 of 511-511-697 keV coincident events. From this result we establish a 90{percent} confidence level upper limit on the branch for this decay mode to be 7.4{times}10{sup {minus}6}{percent}. The implications of this result for the {sup 144}Pm cosmic-ray chronometer problem are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  19. Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renwick, Laoise

    2012-07-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.

  20. OLD AND SAD — DEPRESSION IN LATER LIFE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    When the World Health Organisation published statistics predicting overall dis- ability figures for the year ... of elderly citizens as the AIDS epidemic plateaus. Increased life expectancy ... She is a Director of the South. African Depression and ...

  1. Life in the Cosmic Context. An Astrobiology Course as an Experiment in Transdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friaça, A. C. S.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2014-10-01

    ``Life in the Cosmic Context" (AGA0316) is the astrobiology course offered by University of São Paulo to undergraduate students of science and humanities majors. The variety of background of the population attending AGA0316 and the broad scope of the addresssed issues makes this course a laboratory of transdisciplinarity.

  2. Stressful life events preceding the onset of depression in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hatim, Ahmad; Si, Tian-Mei; Jeon, Hong Jin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Bautista, Dianne; Liu, Shen-ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have identified the significant role of stressful life events in the onset of depressive episodes. However, there is a paucity of cross-national studies on stressful life events that precede depression. We aimed to compare types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in five Asian countries. A total of 507 outpatients with MDD were recruited in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Thailand (n = 103) and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the List of Threatening Experiences. The prevalence of each type of stressful life events was calculated and compared between each country. The type of stressful life event that preceded the onset of a depressive episode differed between patients in China and Taiwan and those in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Patients in China and Taiwan were less likely to report interpersonal relationship problems and occupational/financial problems than patients in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Understanding the nature and basis of culturally determined susceptibilities to specific stressful life events is critical for establishing a policy of depression prevention and providing effective counseling services for depressed patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Late life depression with cognitive impairment: Evaluation and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo H Wilkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Consuelo H Wilkins1,2, Jose Mathews2, Yvette I Sheline21Department of Medicine (Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science; 2Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Older adults with depression often present with signs and symptoms indicative of functional or cognitive impairment. These somatic symptoms make evaluating and treating depression in older adults more complex. Late life depression (LLD, depression in adults over the age of 65, is more frequently associated with cognitive changes. Cognitive impairment in LLD may be a result of the depressive disorder or an underlying dementing condition. Memory complaints are also common in older adults with depression. There is a wide range of cognitive impairment in LLD including decreased central processing speed, executive dysfunction, and impaired short-term memory. The etiology of cognitive impairment in LLD may include cerebrovascular disease, a significant risk factor for LLD, which likely interrupts key pathways between frontal white matter and subcortical structures important in mood regulation. Because depressive symptoms often coexist with dementia, it is important to determine the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive change. If depressive symptoms pre-date the cognitive impairment and cognitive symptoms are mild and temporary, LLD is the likely etiology of the cognitive impairment. If cognitive changes appear prior to depressive symptoms and persist after LLD is successfully treated, an underlying dementia is more likely. Clinicians should be exclude common conditions such as thyroid disease which can contribute to depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment prior to treating LLD. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy can be effective in treating LLD. Subsequent evaluations following treatment should also reassess cognition.Keywords: late life depression, cognitive impairment, diagnosis, treatment

  4. Depression in later life: an overview with treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James M; Kyomen, Helen H; Harper, David G

    2012-03-01

    We have already entered a new, more exciting, and hopeful era in the treatment of late-life depression. The increasing numbers of older adults who are surviving to more advanced ages and the greater recognition of late-life depression’s prevalence and impact on quality of life emphasize how important it is to detect and treat this disorder. Our increasing repertoire of evidence-based psychotherapeutic, pharmacologic, and neurotherapeutic treatment interventions offers many treatment alternatives, allowing substantial individualization of treatment approach. Demonstration of the effectiveness of depression treatment in primary care suggests the feasibility of increasing our patients’ access to care. Growing appreciation of the pathophysiology of depression and its interrelationships with cognitive impairment may increase our ability to limit or delay certain aspects of cognitive impairment through more aggressive treatment of depression. Improved recognition and treatment of late-life depression holds great potential for improving physical and mental health in later life, reducing disability in later years, and improving quality of life.

  5. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  6. Life on a Farm during the Great Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musbach, Joan W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for eighth-grade students where they learn about the Great Depression by studying rural life. Explains that the students explore farm records from June and December 1935 after reading an excerpt about rural life in the 1930s. Includes copies of the ledgers, photographs, and student handouts. (CMK)

  7. Cosmic Heritage Evolution from the Big Bang to Conscious Life

    CERN Document Server

    Shaver, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This book follows the evolutionary trail all the way from the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago to conscious life today. It is an accessible introductory book written for the interested layperson – anyone interested in the ‘big picture’ coming from modern science. It covers a wide range of topics including the origin and evolution of our universe, the nature and origin of life, the evolution of life including questions of birth and death, the evolution of cognition, the nature of consciousness, the possibility of extraterrestrial life and the future of the universe. The book is written in a narrative style, as these topics are all parts of a single story. It concludes with a discussion on the nature and future of science.  “Peter Shaver has written engagingly for anyone curious about the world we inhabit.  If you'd like to know how the Universe began, where the chemical elements originated, how life may have started on Earth, how man, ants and bacteria are related to each other, or why we humans think...

  8. Incidence of late-life depression: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchtemann, Dorothea; Luppa, Melanie; Bramesfeld, Anke; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2012-12-15

    In the past years, many studies have examined the prevalence of late-life depression. However, incidence studies, especially those including the oldest age groups, remained rare. The objective of this article is therefore to provide a systematic review on incidence of depressive disorders in latest life. A systematic search of the literature published between 1985 and 2011 was conducted using MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria were: incidence specified for persons aged≥70 years at baseline, population-based sample or primary care sample. Incidence rates or risks were extracted or calculated. We found 20 studies reporting incidence according to categorical (n=14) or dimensional diagnoses (n=6). The incidence of depressive disorders varied considerably. Major Depression (MD) was found to occur less often than Minor Depression (MinD), whereas clinically relevant depressive symptoms are at least as frequent as MinD. The incidence rate of MD was 0.2-14.1/100 person-years, and incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was 6.8/100 person-years. Female incidence was mostly higher than male. Associations between age and incidence revealed to be rather inconsistent between studies. Methodological diversity of the studies concerning diagnostics, data collection methods, incidence definitions and sampling make the results difficult to interprete. This review is the first to have focused on incidence studies on depression in latest life. The frequent occurrence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms will have to be considered in future health care planning. Physical health and psychosocial influences appear to be key variables in depression prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures.

  10. Life's origin: the cosmic, planetary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.

    1987-01-01

    From elements formed in interstellar furnaces to humans peering back at the stars, the evolution of life has been a long, intricate and perhaps inevitable process. Life as we know it requires a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance so that water can exist in liquid form. It needs a rich supply of chemicals and energy sources. On Earth, the combination of chemistry and energy generated molecules that evolved ways of replicating themselves and of passing information from one generation to the next. Thus, the thread of life began. This chart traces the thread, maintained by DNA molecules for much of its history, as it weaves its way through the primitive oceans, gaining strength and diversity along the way. Organisms eventually moved onto the land, where advanced forms, including humans, ultimately arose. Finally, assisted by a technology of its own making, life has reached back out into space to understand its own origins, to expand into new realms, and to seek other living threads in the cosmos.

  11. Parkinson′s disease, depression, and quality-of-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder associated with Parkinson′s disease (PD but is often under diagnosed and under treated leading to worsening of symptoms and deterioration of the quality-of-life of the people suffering from this disease. Aims: The current study aims to determine the correlation between depression and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL domains in patients with PD. Materials and Methods: A sample of 65 consecutive patients attending the specialty Parkinson′s clinic was assessed by a psychiatrist as part of the treatment protocol. Diagnosis of depression was done using the International Classification of Diseases-10 by a psychiatrist and depression was scored using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. QOL-BREF Malayalam version was used to assess quality-of-life in the patients. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA was used to find the difference in the quality-of-life experienced by different age categories, duration of the disease, psychiatric co-morbidity. Independent sample t-test was used to find the difference in the quality-of-life experienced by genders, co morbid conditions and to find the difference in the scores on GDS and domains of WHO QOL BREF. Association of H and Y staging and duration of Parkinsonism with GDS Scores were computed using Pearson′s Chi-square test. Results and Conclusions: There was a significant association of female gender and depression with the physical and psychological domains of QOL while the duration and staging of PD did not have any association with QOL Domains. Depression thus emerges as one of the main predictors of poor quality-of-life in PD.

  12. HEARING AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTSAS RISK FACTORS FOR LATE- LIFE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza N. KRSTESKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late-life depression is one of the most frequent disorders among the seniors and often remains unrecognized. One of the reasons why late-life depression often passes unrecognized is the comorbidity. Hearing and visual impairments are very common condition among the elderly. Thus, depression among the elderly is commonly accompanied by hearing and visual impairment. The epidemiology together with the visual and hearing-related problems still remains poorly investigated.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hearing and visual function and the late-life depression.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 120 participants, 60 patients with late-life depression and 60 community-dwelling older adults aged over 60 and without the symptoms of depression. All participants were examined using a questionnaire designed for the aim of the study to measure the severity of the symptoms (scale with scores from 1 to 3 - from mild to profound degree of self-reported hearing and visual impairment. In addition, existing medical records and the Geriatric Depression Scale were used as well.Results: The patients with late-life depression in larger number suffered from hearing and visual impairment compared to the non - depressed elderly people: hearing impairments (χ2=6.97, df=1, p=0.0083 and visual impairments (χ2=4.37, df=2, p=0.012.Conclusion: These data suggest that the risk of late-life depression is higher among elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment. A comprehensive annual eye exam is the most important step that can be undertaken to help monitor and protect normal visual function in the elderly. It is necessary to conduct routine screening and early treatment of depression in elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment within the primary care practice. Ophthalmologists and otologists should be aware of the need for routine screening for geriatric syndromes in the

  13. Depression as an Escape from Burden of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bartoskova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the inner world of people suffering from depressive disorder. Four people hospitalized in Prague Psychiatric Centre were interviewed. Method of Grounded Theory and discursive analysis revealed a specific way of depressive thinking and experiencing the self and the outer world. Depressive individuals manifest deficit in introspection. They do not perceive themselves as the authors of their lives and they show a tendency to look for external, estranged meanings of life. Combination of these attributes was found to be possible psychological cause leading towards the outburst of depressive disorder. Significant similarities were found between research results and C.G. Jung´s understanding of depressed people, which he describes through energetic model of libido.

  14. Apathy in late-life depression: common, persistent, and disabling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Genevieve S; Bhutani, Saumya; Lucas, Bryony J; Gunning, Faith M; AbdelMalak, Bassem; Seirup, Joanna K; Klimstra, Sibel A; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the relationship between apathy and disability in late-life depression, and (2) the functional significance of improvement in apathy following escitalopram treatment in terms of its relationship to disability. Subjects were 71 non-demented elderly with non-psychotic major depression. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, subjects who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) ≥ 18 received escitalopram 10 mg daily for 12 weeks. Apathy and disability were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS), respectively. These measures and the HDRS were administered at baseline and again following 12 weeks of treatment. At baseline, 38% of depressed subjects had significant apathy (AES ≥ 36.5). Severity of apathy at baseline significantly correlated with severity of disability. In a multivariate regression model, baseline severity of apathy, but not the overall depressive syndrome (HDRS), significantly correlated with baseline disability. Following escitalopram treatment, improvement in apathy significantly correlated with improvement in disability measures, while change in the rest of the depressive syndrome did not. The overall change in apathy and disability in response to escitalopram treatment was significant but small. Apathy is common in late-life depression and is associated with disability above and beyond the influence of other depressive symptoms. Given the strong relationship between apathy and disability, understanding the neurobiology of apathy and developing treatments for apathy may improve the functional outcomes of late-life depression. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression and pain impair daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Depression and pain frequently occur together. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression and pain on the impairment of daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) of depressed patients. We enrolled 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder. Depression, pain, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed using three primary domains of the SF-36: social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson׳s correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In all, 129 patients completed all the measures. Model 5, both depression and pain impaired daily functioning and QOL, was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2)=9.2, df=8, p=0.33, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, TLI=0.99, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.03). The correlation between pain and depression was weak (r=-0.27, z=-2.95, p=0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a small sample size. Depression and pain exert a direct influence on the impairment of daily functioning and QOL of depressed patients; this impairment could be expected regardless of increased pain, depression, or both pain and depression. Pain had a somewhat separate entity from depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Poverty, life events and the risk for depression in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Woodburn, Patrick; Tugumisirize, Joshua; Kagugube, Johnson; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Patel, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of major depression in sub-Saharan Africa is important for planning effective intervention strategies. To investigate the social and life-event determinants of major depressive disorder in the African sociocultural context of rural Uganda. A cross-section survey was carried out in 14 districts in Uganda from 1 June 2003 to 30 October 2004. 4,660 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was the presence of 'probable major depressive disorder' (PMDD) as assessed by the Hopkins symptom checklist. The prevalence of PMDD was 29.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.0-30.6%). Factors independently associated with depression in both genders included: the ecological factor, district; age (increase with each age category after 35 years); indices of poverty and deprivation (no formal education, having no employment, broken family, and socioeconomic classes III-V). Only a few adverse life events, notably those suggestive of a disrupted family background (death of a father in females and death of a mother in males) were associated with increased risk. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, operating at both ecological and the individual level are the strongest independent determinants of depression. Adverse life events were less strongly associated with depression in this sample.

  17. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near) Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-06-30

    Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe.

  18. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe.

  19. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near) Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe. PMID:27376334

  20. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms, Religiousness, and Mood in the Last Week of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan W. Braam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed mood in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace with the approaching end of life. Other characteristics were derived from interviews with the sample members when still alive. Significant interactions were identified between measures of religiousness and previous depressive symptoms (CES-D scores in their associations with mood in the last week of life. Among those with previous depressive symptoms, church-membership, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a greater likelihood of depressed mood in the last week of life. Among those without previous depressive symptoms, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a higher likelihood of a sense of peace. For older adults in the last phase of life, supportive effects of religiousness were more or less expected. Fore those with recent depressive symptoms, however, religiousness might involve a component of existential doubt.

  1. From hadron therapy to cosmic rays: a life in biophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    Christine Sutton

    2014-01-01

    In 1954 – the year CERN was founded – another scientific journey began at what is now the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Beams of protons from a particle accelerator were used for the first time by John Lawrence – a doctor and the brother of Ernest Lawrence, the physicist after whom the Berkeley lab is named – to treat patients with cancer. For many years, Eleanor Blakely has been one of the leaders of that journey. She visited CERN last week and spoke with the Bulletin about her life in biophysics.   Use of the cylcotron beam to mimic "shooting stars" seen by astronauts. Black hood on subject Cornelius Tobias keeps out light during neutron irradiation experiment at the 184-inch accelerator. Helping to position Tobias in the beam line are (left to right) John Lyman of Biomedical Division, and Ralph Thomas of Health Physics. (Photo courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.) Interested in biophysics, which was still a new...

  2. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms, Religiousness, and Mood in the Last Week of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Klinkenberg, M.; Galenkamp, H.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed

  3. Stressful life events and depression among adolescent twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B; Stallings, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Using the twin pairs sample from the National Longitudinal Study ofAdolescent Health, we estimate bivariate Cholesky models for the influence of stressful life events (SLEs) on depressive symptoms. We show that depressive symptoms (h2Depression = .28) and dependent SLEs (events influenced by an individual's behavior) are both moderately heritable (h2SLE Dependent = .43). We find no evidence for the heritability of independent SLEs. Results from the bivariate Cholesky model suggest that roughly one-half of the correlation between depression and dependent SLEs is due to common genetic factors. Our findings suggest that attempts to characterize the causal effect of SLEs on mental health should limit their list of SLEs to those that are outside of the control of the individual.

  4. Improving Quality of Life and Depression After Stroke Through Telerehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Susan M.; Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Bay, R. Curtis; Sahu, Komal; Wolf, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of home-based robot-assisted rehabilitation coupled with a home exercise program compared with a home exercise program alone on depression and quality of life in people after stroke. METHOD. A multisite randomized controlled clinical trial was completed with 99 people stroke who had limited access to formal therapy. Participants were randomized into one of two groups, (1) a home exercise program or (2) a robot-assisted therapy + home exercise program, and participated in an 8-wk home intervention. RESULTS. We observed statistically significant changes in all but one domain on the Stroke Impact Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for both groups. CONCLUSION. A robot-assisted intervention coupled with a home exercise program and a home exercise program alone administered using a telerehabilitation model may be valuable approaches to improving quality of life and depression in people after stroke. PMID:26122686

  5. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  6. Life Enhancement Counseling: Treating Depression Among Hispanic Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Depression is the single most widespread mental health problem facing the elderly, with pharmacotherapy the most frequent standard treatment modality for these patients. A psycho-therapeutic alternative to pharmacotherapy is Life Enhancement Counseling, a counseling approach matching therapeutic techniques to client characteristics and providing…

  7. Adolescent depression and negative life events, the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroek, Y.A.J.; Bodden, Denise; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, Mirjam; van Baar, Anneloes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after

  8. Late-life depression is associated with an increased risk of multimorbidity and polypharmacy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, F.; Hattem, B. van; Verhaak, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: late-life depression often coincides with chronic somatic diseases and, consequently, with polypharmacy. This may complicate medical treatment of older depressed patients. We aimed to determine the risk on multimorbidity and polypharmacy among older depressed primary care

  9. Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Briançon, Serge; Lighezzolo, Joëlle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Kabuth, Bernard; de Luigi, Valerie; Messembourg, Catherine; Girvan, Françoise; Rosati, Aurore; Thockler, Audrey; Vincent, Stephanie

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of postnatal depression on the quality of life of young French mothers and to evaluate if the gender of their child influences this. Postnatal depression (PND) constitutes a major public health problem considering its high prevalence and consequences upon quality of life and parental skills. This research is a cross-sectional study during the postnatal period. This study was carried out during a two-month period. Data were collected by interview and questionnaires. The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influences all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36, e.g. physical functioning (PF), physical Role (RP), bodily pain (BP), mental health (MH), emotional role (RE), social functioning (SF), vitality (VT), general health (GH), standardized physical component (PCS) and standardized mental component (MCS). The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduces quality of life, irrespective of depressive state. There is a relationship between baby gender and PND. This research is the first to show that the birth of a boy reduces several dimensions of the mothers' quality of life. The importance of the impairment of quality of life in case of PND, as well as its effects on mother-child interaction, could justify prevention programs and early psychotherapeutic care. Further research needs to explore the effectiveness of programmes targeting the construction of parenting skills as a preventative measure against PND, especially for parents of boys.

  10. Late-life depression: structural brain abnormalities, treatment and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Major depression is a prevalent disease among the elderly, significantly decreasing the quality of life. The age of first onset of depression can be early in life, so called early-onset depression (EOD), as well as first occur in old age, i.e. late-onset depression (LOD). Some previous studies have

  11. Impacting late life depression: integrating a depression intervention into primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Sabine M; Shoai, Rebecca; Katon, Wayne; Callahan, Christopher; Unützer, Jürgen; Arean, Patricia; Callahan, Christopher; Della Penna, Richard; Harpole, Linda; Hegel, Mark; Noel, Polly Hitchcock; Hoffing, Marc; Hunkeler, Enid M; Katon, Wayne; Levine, Stuart; Lin, Elizabeth H B; Oddone, Eugene; Oishi, Sabine; Unützer, Jürgen; Williams, John

    2003-01-01

    groups and semi-structured individual interviews with all Depression Clinical Specialists (DCSs) working with Project IMPACT (Improving Mood: Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment), a study testing a collaborative care intervention for late life depression, to examine integration of the intervention model into primary care. DCSs described key intervention components, including supervision from a psychiatrist and a liaison primary care provider, weekly team meetings, computerized patient tracking, and outcomes assessment tools as effective in supporting patient care. DCSs discussed details of protocols, training, environmental set-up, and interpersonal factors that seemed to facilitate integration. DCSs also identified research-related factors that may need to be preserved in the real world. Basic elements of the IMPACT model seem to support integration of late life depression care into primary care. Research-related components may need modification for dissemination.

  12. Stressful life events as a link between problems in nonverbal communication and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Geerts, Eirwin; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Ormel, Johan

    Background.- Interpersonal difficulties and stressful life events are important etiological factors in (recurrence of) depression. This study examines whether stressful life events mediate the influence of problems in nonverbal communication on recurrence of depression. Methods.- We registered

  13. Stressful life events as a link between problems in nonverbal communication and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Geerts, Eirwin; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background.- Interpersonal difficulties and stressful life events are important etiological factors in (recurrence of) depression. This study examines whether stressful life events mediate the influence of problems in nonverbal communication on recurrence of depression. Methods.- We registered nonve

  14. Life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and resilience across the life span of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Wiltink, Jörg; Marian, Hanna; Brähler, Elmar

    2010-03-01

    To determine (a) the relationship between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and ageing in the male community and (b) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German male population (N = 2144) was investigated by standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (FLZ(M)), depression, anxiety (PHQ), resilience (RS-11) and self-esteem (RSS). No age-related change was found regarding overall life satisfaction. Satisfaction with health decreased in midlife (51-60 years), while the importance of health increased. Importance of and satisfaction with partnership and sexuality were only reduced in the oldest group (70+). Anxiety was highest around midlife (51-60 years), accompanied by reduced resilience and self-esteem. No clear age-related change was found regarding depression. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, lack of unemployment, the presence of a partnership, positive self-esteem, a good household income, the absence of anxiety and depression and living in the Eastern states. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in ageing men. There is also evidence for a crisis around midlife manifested by health concerns, anxiety and reduced resilience.

  15. Libraries of life: using life history books with depressed care home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Nicola Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression is a common, and often undetected, psychiatric disorder in geriatric care home residents. Reminiscence, an independent nursing therapy used by a variety of health and social care professionals, can prevent or reduce depression. This practice development project explored the use of reminiscence life history books as an interpersonal therapeutic tool with 3 depressed care-home residents living in residential care and skilled nursing facilities. The process of choosing to produce a book, assessment of capabilities, and methods of construction are described using 3 illustrative case studies. Three themes emerged: reviewing the past, accepting the present, and dreaming of an alternative future. This project demonstrated that life history books, tailored to individual needs and abilities, can facilitate reminiscence and reduce depression by increasing social interaction. The benefits to residents, their families, and care staff are discussed and the relevance to nursing practice highlighted.

  16. Long Term Time Variability of Cosmic Rays and Possible Relevance to the Development of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the `high energy’ cosmic rays ( E > 1014 eV; =0.1 PeV) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, there will have been considerable variations in the likely 100 My between the Earth’s biosphere reaching reasonable stability and the onset of very elementary life. Interestingly, there is the increasingly strong possibility that PeV cosmic rays are responsible for the initiation of terrestrial lightning strokes and the possibility arises of considerable increases in the frequency of lightnings and thereby the formation of some of the complex molecules which are the `building blocks of life’. Attention is also given to the well known generation of the oxides of nitrogen by lightning strokes which are poisonous to animal life but helpful to plant growth; here, too, the violent swings of cosmic ray intensities may have had relevance to evolutionary changes. A particular variant of the cosmic ray acceleration model, put forward by us, predicts an increase in lightning rate in the past and this has been sought in Korean historical records. Finally, the time dependence of the overall cosmic ray intensity, which manifests itself mainly at sub-10 GeV energies, has been examined. The relevance of cosmic rays to the `global electrical circuit’ points to the importance of this concept.

  17. Neuroticism and quality of life: Multiple mediating effects of smartphone addiction and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Zhao; Mei, Songli

    2017-08-31

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression on neuroticism and quality of life. Self-reported measures of neuroticism, smart-phone addiction, depression, and quality of life were administered to 722 Chinese university students. Results showed smartphone addiction and depression were both significantly affected neuroticism and quality of life. The direct effect of neuroticism on quality of life was significant, and the chain-mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression was also significant. In conclusion, neuroticism, smartphone addiction, and depression are important variables that worsen quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adjunctive Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Depression, Quality of Life, and Safety Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Everyone feels miserable occasionally. But for people who are clinically depressed, feelings of sadness and hopelessness and physical symptoms such as sleeping badly can last for months or years and can make them feel life is no longer worth living. Depression affects one in six people at some time during their life. Clinicians diagnose depression by asking their patients a series of questions about their feelings and symptoms. The answer to each question is given ...

  19. Depression and physical health in later life : results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, ATF; Penninx, BWJH; Deeg, DJH; Ormel, J; Braam, AW; van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    Background: In later life, declining physical health is often thought to be one of the most important risk factors for depression. Major depressive disorders are relatively rare, while depressive syndromes which do not fulfil diagnostic criteria (minor depression) are common. Methods: Community-base

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  1. Hope as a moderator of negative life events and depressive symptoms in a diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Preston L; Loess, Priya; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2013-02-01

    Depression is a significant public health problem for young adults of college age, and negative life events exacerbate risk. Not all individuals who experience negative life events, however, report depressive symptoms, perhaps owing to protective characteristics. We examined one such characteristic, trait hope, a goal-oriented construct, as a potential moderator of the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse sample of 386 college students. In support of our hypotheses, negative life events were significantly associated with greater levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of hope attenuated this relationship, such that those with greater hope reported fewer depressive symptoms related to potentially traumatic events. The moderating effect of hope did not differ across ethnic groups. Our findings have implications for managing the sequelae of negative life events, including depression. Cognitive-behavioural interventions tailored to help young adults identify and attain important life goals might help to overcome psychopathology associated with life stress.

  2. Contribution of attachment insecurity to health-related quality of life in depressed patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Drannikov, Angela

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the individual contributions of insecure attachment styles and depression symptom severity to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder (AJD) with depressed mood.

  3. Evaluation of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, and quality of life in their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Duman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acne vulgaris does not have an effect on quality of life and the risk of anxiety or depression. In the cases of acne, when the quality of life decreases, the risk of depression as well as anxiety increases and the quality of life of the family members is negatively affected. Acne vulgaris negatively affects the quality of life of the family members of the patients.

  4. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  5. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, D.C. van der; Zelst, W.H. van; Schoevers, R.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  6. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking pr

  7. Quality of life impairment in depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Pande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most common mental disorders (CMDs such as anxiety disorders and depressive disorders run a persistent and long course. This results in significant impairment of quality of life (QOL of patients and their families. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions using findings in our own socio-cultural context would help clinicians in holistic management. Objectives: To document illness profile, treatment satisfaction, and QOL in various domains of life in study population and normal controls. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study of patients group and their normal family members as a comparison group. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 clinical diagnosis attending outpatient clinic of the medical college hospital and their age- and gender-matched relatives as the control group were recruited. Socio-demographic profile was documented along with illness parameters: Severity of illness, treatment satisfaction, and QOL was measured using semi- structured interview, HAM, Beck′s depression Inventory, and WHO-QOL scale. Results: The study group measured significantly low on QOL than the comparison group. The two groups differed significantly on the paired " t" test of significance and the variation had a genuine assignable cause. Notwithstanding some variables having a confounding effect and the limitations of a cross-sectional study, the study was conclusive in demonstrating statistically significant impairment of QOL of patients with CMDs, making a strong case for clinicians to pay attention to holistic management of patients. The study has generated QOL data on a small but significant normative population which may serve purpose in future QOL studies.

  8. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  9. Quality of life, depressive symptoms and religiosity in elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Paulino,Caroline Freire; Souza,Valéria Helena Salgado; Mesquita,Ana Cláudia; Carvalho,Flávia Santana; Nogueira,Denismar Alves

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life and depression are relevant to the health of the elderly. Studies indicate a positive association between religiosity and health. This study investigated quality of life, depressive symptoms and their relationship with religiosity in the elderly. The study included 287 older people from a unit of the Family Health Strategy. Data were collected by means of the instruments: John Flanagan's Quality of Life Scale, the short Geriatric Depression Scale and the Duke University Religi...

  10. Comparison of quality of life measures in a depressed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Rush, A John; Bryan, Charlene; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Marcus, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Hollon, Steven D; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have been increasingly used in clinical trials. When designing a study, researchers must decide which quality of life measure to use. Some literature provides guidance through general recommendations, though lacks quantitative comparisons. In this report, 2 general quality of life measures, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), are compared in a depressed population. STAR*D data were used to analyze the associations among the SF-12 and the Q-LES-Q. Each measure covers 6 domains, overlapping on 5 (health, self-esteem/well-being, community/productivity, social/love relationships, leisure/creativity), with the SF-12 addressing family and the Q-LES-Q addressing living situations. Strong item-by-item associations exist only between the Q-LES-Q and the SF-12 physical health items. The 2 measures overlap on the domains covered while the lack of correlation between the 2 measures may be attributed to the perspective of each question as the Q-LES-Q measures satisfaction while the SF-12 measures the patient's perception of function.

  11. Long term time variability of cosmic rays and possible relevance to the development of life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the 'high energy' cosmic rays ($E>10^{14}eV;=0.1PeV$) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, there will have been considerable variations in the likely 100 My between the Earth's biosphere reaching reasonable stability and the onset of very elementary life. Interestingly, there is the increasingly strong possibility that PeV cosmic rays are responsible for the initiation of terrestrial lightning strokes and the possibility arises of considerable increases in the frequency of lightnings and thereby the formation of some of the complex molecules which are the 'building blocks of life'. Attention is also given to the...

  12. Major life events and development of major depression in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Bordelon, Y; Thompson, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-motor symptoms including depression are important features of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aim to address the relationship between major life events and depression amongst PD patients free of depressive symptoms at baseline. METHODS: New-onset PD patients from California...... were recruited in 2001-2007 and followed up for 3-4 years. The participants (n = 221) were examined by neurologists and responded to comprehensive interviews that included major life events, social support, and coping measures from validated scales. Major depression was assessed using the Structured...... Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV depression module (SCID). RESULTS: More than half of all patients had experienced major life events since diagnosed with PD, and 22 patients developed a major depression. The number of life events was associated with risk of depression in an exposure-dependent manner...

  13. [Events of life and links with severe depression at different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, D

    2009-12-01

    Major depression is a common, severe, chronic, and often life-threatening illness. There is a growing body of evidence that, far from being a disease with purely psychological manifestations, major depression is a systemic disease with deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Stressful life events have a substantial causal association with depression, and there is now compelling evidence that even early life stress constitutes a major risk factor for the subsequent development of depression. This review will focus on the association between severity of depression and diachronic vulnerability across the life-span, in terms of events of life, stress, and hormonal modulation, with a special focus on depression in young adults, women during postpartum and in depression in ederly people. Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders, the significant burden and the severity of disease in adolescents and young adults experiencing their first episode, they represent a group at high risk of relapse, recurrence, comorbidity and suicide to whom early intervention and prevention efforts should be targeted. Females exhibit different stress sensitivities than males which might contribute to their increased vulnerability for depression and the disease exhibit a prevalence among women which is 2-3x higher than in men. The postpartum period is considered the time of greatest risk for women to develop major depression and postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of women. In old age, depression mainly affects those with chronic medical illness, severe disability or mental decline. Depression in elderly worsens the outcomes of many medical illness and increases mortality. Environmental factors, such as isolation, caregiving and bereavement, contribute to further increase susceptibility to depression or triggering depression in already vulnerable elderly people. Suitable treatment of depression in elderly reduces the symptoms, prevents suicidal ideation, improves

  14. 2013; life is a cosmic phenomenon: the search for water evolves into the search for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 data from the Kepler Mission gives a current estimate of the number of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, as 144 billion. We propose that this estimate has caused a consciousness change in human belief in the probability of life off Earth. This seems to have affected NASA's public statements which are now leaning to the more visionary mission goal of the "Search for Life" rather than the 1975-2012 focus of the "Search for Water". We propose that the first confirmed Earth-like planet, expected to be announced later this year, be called "BORUCKI" in honour of the visionary USA scientist Bill Borucki, the father of the Kepler Mission. We explore the 2013 status of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model of Panspermia, its hypothesis, propositions, experiments and evidence. We use the Karl Popper model for scientific hypotheses (1). Finally we explore Sir Fred Hoyle's vision of a planetary microbe defense system we call the Hoyle Shield. We explore the subsystem components of the shield and assess some options for these components using break-though technologies already available.

  15. 2013 - Life is a Cosmic Phenomenon : The "Search for Water" evolves into the "Search for Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2013-03-01

    We propose that the 2013 data from the Kepler Mission (giving a current estimate of the number of earth-like planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars as 144 billion), has caused a consciousness change in human belief in the probability of life off earth. This seems to have affected NASA's public statements which are now leaning to the more visionary mission goal of the "Search for Life" rather than the 1975-2012 focus of the "Search for Water". We propose that the first confirmed earth-like planet, expected to be announced later this year, be called "BORUCKI" in honour of the visionary USA scientist Bill Borucki, the father of the Kepler Mission. We explore the 2013 status of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model of Panspermia, its hypothesis, propositions, experiments and evidence. We use the Karl Popper model for scientific hypotheses (1). Finally we explore Sir Fred Hoyle's vision of a planetary microbe defense system we call the Hoyle Shield. We explore the subsystem components of the shield and assess some options for these components using break-though technologies already available.

  16. Frailty & late-life depression: a delicate balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disease worldwide. With demographic balance shifting towards an older population, the number of older adults with a lifetime history of depression or subthreshold depression will be significant over the next decades. Depression is a serious psychiatric disea

  17. Influence of depression on the quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavić Slađana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C reduces the quality of life in patients causing fatigue, loss of self-confidence, reduced working capacity, development of depression, emotional problems, and cognitive dysfunction. Objective. The aim of the study was to identify the presence of depression in patients with chronic hepatitis C, predicting factors for its expression, and the impact of depression on the quality of life in these patients. Methods. During the prospective study, we used the Hamilton depression scale to investigate the presence of depression, generic 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Chronic Liver Diseases Questionnaire (CLDQ to examine the quality of life in 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C, 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 30 patients with chronic liver disease non- viral aetiology and 50 healthy persons. Results. A significantly higher presence of depression, and cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C were noted as compared to the healthy individuals (p=0.00. In relation to non-viral patients with chronic liver disease, depression was significantly less present (p=0.004. Depression was rare in younger patients. The largest number of patients with chronic hepatitis C was without depression. The presence of depression caused deterioration of the physical and mental components of the quality of life. Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant positive predictive factor for the presence of depression was married life (B=0.278; SE=0.094; p=0.004. Conclusion. The presence of depression was more often in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection compared to healthy population and was correlated with decline in the quality of life. Depression is more pronounced in the elderly and intravenous drug addicts. The lowest depression is expected in patients who are not married.

  18. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF CANCER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koijam Shantibala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer of any type is a serious and life-threatening illness, not uncommon in the general population. Cancer survivor can mean any person diagnosed with cancer from the time of initial diagnosis until his or her death. It includes people who are dying from untreatable cancer. Cancer survivor also includes those patients who are receiving or have received treatment with no active disease process and those who are not in the terminal stage of the illness. Cancer survivors tend to develop anxiety, depression and change in their quality of life as they have to make adjustment to many psychological and physical changes as well as financial constraint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty (50 cancer survival patients visiting Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Imphal, during February 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study. The study forms including the questions regarding the patient’s demographic characteristics, Becks Depression Inventory (BDI, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and WHOQOL BREF were completed during face-to-face interviews for the determination of the psychological status of the patients. And the data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS All the dimensions of the Quality of Life (QoL except D3= Domain 3 (Social Relationship are negatively correlated with both the sub-types of STAI (State and Trait Anxiety. The state anxiety score is negatively correlated with D1=Domain 1 (Physical health; p=.001, D2= Domain 2 (Psychological; p=.001, D4= Domain 4 (Environment; p=.000. Also, the trait anxiety scores of the patients are negatively correlated with D1=Domain 1 (Physical health; p=.001, D2= Domain 2 (Psychological; p=.000, D4= Domain 4 (Environment; p=.000. However, there is no significant difference in terms of D3= Domain 3 (Social Relationship; state anxiety p=.142 and trait anxiety p=.220 and STAI scores. On the other hand, there is positive correlation between Becks

  19. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M; Naudé, Petrus J W; Comijs, Hannie C; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-03-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a young population and depression severity scales instead of patients with established diagnosis of depressive disorder. We examined the relation between waist circumference and late-life depression using the baseline data of The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older people (NESDO). Psychopathology has been assessed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1. Adjusted for age, sex, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), drug use, cognition and chronic diseases as well as adjusted for body mass index (BMI), analysis of covariance showed that depressed older patients (n=376) had a significantly lower waist circumference (WC) compared to their non-depressed comparisons (n=130): estimated marginal mean (SE)=93.9 (0.5) versus 97.8 (0.8) cm (F=15.9; df=1467; p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses within the depressed group showed that both, depression severity (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) as well as duration-related depression characteristics (age of onset, duration of illness, life-time comorbid dysthymia), were associated with the WC. Only the severity of depressive symptoms remained significant after further adjusted for the BMI. Interestingly, a recently discovered adipokine, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), was associated with late-life depression, but only in the subgroup of patients with a pathologically increased WC. Population-based findings on the positive association between obesity and depressive symptoms can thus not be generalised to a clinical sample of depressed older patients. The impact of the WC on course and treatment outcome of late-life depression should be examined in clinical samples

  20. Relationship between Problematic Internet Use, Depression and Quality of Life Levels of Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekinarslan, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU), depression and quality of life levels of individuals is a growing concern in many societies. One of the main purposes of this study was to examine the relationships or correlations among PIU, depression and quality of life levels of Turkish undergraduate students. Furthermore, this study…

  1. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde

  2. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression : from trait to state anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. METHOD: Baseline data of the Netherlands S

  3. Depression, anxiety and quality of life in caregiver spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh; Bibi Soheyla Shojaee; Farideh Golhasani-Keshtan; Fatemeh Moharari; Amir Reza Kachooei; Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We were curious about the degree of anxiety and depression and their effect on the quality of life of the caregivers of veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A convenience sample of 72 out of 120 caregiver spouses of veterans with spinal cord injury participated in our study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were considered as a measure of depression and anxiety. The World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was considered...

  4. QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR AND UNIPOLAR DEPRESSIVE PATIENTS: CLINICAL AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHICAL CORRELATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Quality of Life is becoming an increasingly important measure of the impact of psychiatric disorders and is now recognized as useful in the healthcare evaluation of patients with psychiatric disorders. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between clinical and sociodemographic variables and self-reported quality of life (QOL in 30 bipolar depressive patients and 30 unipolar depressive patients Participants were administered the World Health Organization Quality of Life MeasureAbbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF to assess QOL. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were (i to compare Quality of Life (QOL of patients with bipolar depression to those with unipolar depression and (ii to assess the association of different domains of QOL with severity of clinical Symptoms and level of functioning in bipolar and unipolar depressive patients group. METHODS The QOL on the four domains of the World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life – Hindi version (WHOQOL-BREF were compared between 30 subjects with bipolar depression and 30 subjects with unipolar depression. The subjects had to be in a moderate to severe depressive state (As confirmed by a Beck Depression Inventory total score >16 with minimum duration of illness being two years prior to the inclusion in the study. The factors that contribute or influence QOL (socio-demographic factors, severity of depression and level of functioning were also studied. Obtained Data were analysed by using unpaired t test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and z – score. RESULTS The group of bipolar depressive patients obtained statistically significantly lower scores on all the subscales when compared with the unipolar depressive patients. No statistically significant differences appeared when comparing the WHOQOL-BREF scores with the demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that depressive patients with bipolar disorder have a poorer QOL in

  5. Use of the late-life function and disability instrument to assess disability in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jordan F; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Lotz, Meredith; Lenze, Eric; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether there was greater disability in subjects with depression than in those without, the correlation between disability and depression severity and quality of life, and whether improvement in disability after antidepressant pharmacotherapy was greater in those who responded to antidepressant treatment. Disability in subjects with and without depression from two different studies was compared for 22 weeks. Correlations were performed for the subjects with depression between disability and depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and medical comorbidity. T-tests were used to compare disability between subjects who did and did not respond to antidepressant treatment and change in disability after pharmacotherapy. Late-life depression research clinic. The 313 subjects were recruited from primary care and the community and were aged 60 and older; 244 subjects were participants in a depression treatment protocol, and 69 subjects without depression participated in a separate longitudinal observational study of the mental and cognitive health of depression-free older adults. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LL-FDI), a measure of instrumental activity of daily living, personal role, and social role functioning. Subjects with depression scored lower than controls for domains measuring limitation (can do) and frequency (does do) of activities. Both disability domains correlated with depression severity, anxiety, HRQOL, and cognition. Disability improved with antidepressant treatment; for partial responders who continued to receive higher-dose antidepressant treatment out to 22 weeks, there was continued improvement, although not to the level of comparison subjects without depression. The LL-FDI appears to discriminate subjects with depression from those without, correlates with depression severity, and demonstrates sensitivity to antidepressant treatment response. We recommend further investigation of the LL-FDI and similar

  6. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Metabolic dysregulation and late-life depression : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R. M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Mulder, M.E.; van den Brink, R. H. S.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background. Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined whether metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of clinical depression. Method. A total of 285 older persons (>= 60 years) suffering from depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria was followed up

  8. Metabolic dysregulation and late-life depression : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R. M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Mulder, M.E.; van den Brink, R. H. S.; Comijs, H. C.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined whether metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of clinical depression. Method. A total of 285 older persons (>= 60 years) suffering from depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria was followed up

  9. Metabolic dysregulation and late-life depression : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R. M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Mulder, M.E.; van den Brink, R. H. S.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined whether metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of clinical depression. Method. A total of 285 older persons (>= 60 years) suffering from depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria was followed up

  10. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with late-life depression: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Mathur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study and assessed on the behavioral analysis pro forma, geriatric depression scale, Hamilton depression rating scale, Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, The World Health Organization quality of life Assessment Brief version (WHOQO-L-BREF. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding the nature of depression, training in formal and informal mindfulness meditation, and cognitive restructuring. A total of 8 sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for each patient. The results of this study indicate clinically significant improvement in the severity of depression, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in all 5 patients. Eight-week MBCT program has led to reduction in depression and increased mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in patients with late-life depression.

  11. Life changes and depressive symptoms: the effects of valence and amount of change

    OpenAIRE

    Bennik, Elise C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Only few studies have focused on the effects of positive life changes on depression, and the ones that did demonstrated inconsistent findings. The aim of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of positive life changes on depressive symptoms by decomposing life changes into a valence and an amount of change component. Methods Using hierarchical multiple regression, we examined the unique effects of valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and amount of ...

  12. Exploring the relation between visual mental imagery and affect in the daily life of previously depressed and never depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H; Holmes, Emily A; Bos, Elisabeth H; Wichers, Marieke; Batalas, Nikolaos; Klein, Nicola S; Bockting, Claudi L H

    2017-08-17

    Previously depressed individuals experience disturbances in affect. Affective disturbances may be related to visual mental imagery, given that imagery-based processing of emotional stimuli causes stronger affective responses than verbal processing in experimental laboratory studies. However, the role of imagery-based processing in everyday life is unknown. This study assessed mental imagery in the daily life of previously and never depressed individuals. Higher levels of visual mental imagery was hypothesised to be associated with more affective reactivity to both negatively and positively valenced mental representations. This study was the first to explore mental imagery in daily life using experience sampling methodology. Previously depressed (n = 10) and matched never depressed (n = 11) individuals participated in this study. Momentary affect and imagery-based processing were assessed using the "Imagine your mood" smartphone application. Participants recorded on average 136 momentary reports over a period of 8 weeks. The expected association between visual mental imagery and affective reactivity was not found. Unexpectedly, in both previously and never depressed individuals, higher levels of imagery-based processing of mental representations in daily life were significantly associated with better momentary mood and more positive affect, regardless of valence. The causality of effects remains to be examined in future studies.

  13. Relief of depression and pain improves daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2013-12-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression relief and pain relief on the improvement in daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) for depressed patients receiving a 6-week treatment of fluoxetine. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were enrolled to receive 20mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Depression severity, pain severity, daily functioning, and health-related QOL were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Depression severity, pain severity, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed by three primary domains of the SF-36, including social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In model 1, depression relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 2, pain relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 3, depression relief, mediated by pain relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 4, pain relief, mediated by depression relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 5, both depression relief and pain relief improved daily functioning and QOL. One hundred and six patients completed all the measures at baseline and at week 6. Model 5 was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2) = 8.62, df = 8, p = 0.376, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.935, TLI = 0.992, CFI = 0.996, RMSEA = 0.027). Interventions which relieve depression and pain improve daily functioning and QOL among patients with MDD. The proposed model can provide quantitative estimates of improvement in treating patients with MDD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical thermodynamics of systemic self-organization towards life by nano-structured cosmic dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, F. R.; Kissel, J.

    2001-08-01

    Self-organization of chemicals to living systems demands for several necessary conditions as derived from far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics. Autopoesis is not just self-replication of systems, but is orbital stability of growth, variability, and self-replication. Physically, this means a reaction-diffusion space-time boundary (in/out) problem. The solutions of such a system of related partial non-linear differential coupled equations exhibit orbital stability as needed only if some other conditions are at hand. Of course, template oriented synthesis is needed, however, onset of the cycle demands for high excess reaction energy. The type of non-linearity demands for chirality. The diffusion behaviour needs a nano-grained structure for onset of self-replication, together with critical spatial dimensions in the μm-regime. To meet all chemical and physical requirements the proticity and polarity of a mobile phase (such as liquid water), together with the right heterocatalytic backbone structure and organic precursors are prerequisites, too. To our knowledge only cosmic (esp. cometary or micrometeoritic) dust particles together with liquid water may cause that onset, as we calculated numerically for RNA and peptide life precursors as well. In order to test the dynamics of such a system model grains will be taylored which meet the requirements mentioned. Simple systems are to be prepared on the basis of nano-structured silica spheres. Loading of catalysts and precursors for autocatalytic (peptide or RNA) templates, and furtheron the onset of reaction by changing the liquid phase parameters, will be studied.

  15. Stressful life events as a link between problems in nonverbal communication and recurrence of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Elisabeth H; Bouhuys, Antoinette L; Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus W D P; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Interpersonal difficulties and stressful life events are important etiological factors in (recurrence of) depression. This study examines whether stressful life events mediate the influence of problems in nonverbal communication on recurrence of depression. We registered nonverbal expressions of involvement from videotaped behavior of 101 remitted outpatients and their interviewers. During a 2-year follow-up, we assessed stressful life events and recurrence of depression. The less congruent the levels of nonverbal involvement behavior of participants and interviewers, the higher the incidence of stressful life events, and -via these - the risk of recurrence. Nonverbal behavior was measured in an experimental setting. The results suggest that lack of nonverbal congruence during social interaction contributes to the occurrence of stressful life events, which in turn may trigger depression.

  16. Study of Relationship Between Depression and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi Shargh, Najme; Rostami, Bahareh; Kosari, Bahareh; Toosi, Zakiye; Majelan, Ghazaleh Ashrafzadeh

    2015-08-06

    Depression is among the personality traits of schizophrenic patients, which results from psychotic features or is a consequence of a period of psychosis. Depression in schizophrenic patients is one of the important factors affecting their quality of life. The study population of this descriptive and analytic study consists of patients with chronic schizophrenia in Zahedan in 2014. The sample included 60 patients who simultaneously suffered from depression and were selected using random sampling (30 males and 30 females). The research instruments included the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (the inventory was filled out by the tester). In order to form a statistics analysis, we used Pearson correlation and regression multivariate. Investigating the study hypotheses showed that there was a negative correlation between the high level of depression and low quality of life. the relationship between depression and the quality of life subscales showed that in women, the variable of symptoms and complications was a significant predictor; however, the other two variables (energy and motivation and psychosocial) were not significant predictors. In case of men, psychosocial variable was a significant predictor; however, the other two variables (energy and motivation and symptoms and complications) were not significant predictors. In general, depression on these patients makes discontent of life on them; therefore, elimination of their depression on their treatment is necessary.

  17. Do stressful life events predict medical treatment outcome in first episode of depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether medical treatment outcome in first episode depression differ for patients with and without stressful life events prior to onset of depression. METHODS: Patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital......-II) and the interview of recent life events (IRLE). Medical treatment history was assessed in detail using standardised procedures (TRAQ). Remission was defined as a score Depression Rating Scale, 17 items and a score >or= 4 on TRAQ following (1) first trial of antidepressant treatment (2) two...... adequate trials of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: A total of 399 patients participated in the interview and among these 301 patients obtained a SCAN diagnosis of a single depressive episode. A total of 62.8% of the 301 patients experienced at least one moderate to severe stressful life event in a 6...

  18. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Eva H Telzer; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAc...

  19. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  20. Life review therapy for older adults with moderate depressive symptomatology: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Cappeliez, P.; Smit, F.; Westerhof, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of life review therapy as an early treatment of depression in later life, its effectiveness in natural settings has not been studied. The present study evaluates an intervention based on life review and narrative therapy in a large m

  1. Orthognathic surgery improves quality of life and depression, but not anxiety, and patients with higher preoperative depression scores improve less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, P; Battini, J; Potard, C; Jonas, C; Zagala-Bouquillon, B; Chabut, A; Mercier, J-M; Bedhet, N; Réveillère, C; Goga, D; Courtois, R

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QoL), depression, and anxiety before and after orthognathic surgery and identified risk factors for poorer postoperative outcome. This multicentre prospective study included 140 patients from five French medical centres. We assessed patients before surgery (T1), 3 months after surgery (T2), and 12 months after surgery (T3). We assessed the severity of the orofacial deformity, physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and depression and anxiety (GHQ-28). Risk factors for poorer outcome were identified using linear mixed models. Between baseline and 12 months, there was significant improvement in psychological and social QoL and in depression (although below the norms reported in the general population), but not in anxiety. Physical QoL was poorer in patients who were younger, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Psychological QoL was poorer in younger patients and in depressed patients. Social QoL was poorer in patients who were single, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Although orthognathic surgery provides a moderate improvement in psychological and social QoL, the systematic screening and treatment of depression could further improve QoL after surgery because it is a major predictor of poor QoL in this population.

  2. Treatment of late life depression : towards a better prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Robert Martin

    2008-01-01

    Major depression in the elderly is often associated with a poorer prognosis than in younger patients. More recent studies comparing cohorts of older depressed patients with their younger counterparts usually have failed to demonstrate any difference in prognosis, and a recent systematic review of

  3. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Verhoeven, Josine E.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Comijs, Hannie C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depressive disorders have been associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, possibly as a consequence of accelerated cellular aging. Cellular aging, indexed by telomere length (TL) shortening, has been linked to depression in adults younger than 60 years; however, it remains

  4. Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…

  5. Vascular Burden and Cognitive Function in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, Marij; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Naarding, Paul; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from genera

  6. Vascular burden and cognitive function in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, M.; Izaks, G.J.; Naarding, P.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from genera

  7. Leukocyte telomere length and late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, R.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depressive disorders have been associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, possibly as a consequence of accelerated cellular aging. Cellular aging, indexed by telomere length (TL) shortening, has been linked to depression in adults younger than 60 years; however, it remains

  8. Vascular Burden and Cognitive Function in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, Marij; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Naarding, Paul; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from

  9. Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as rated by youth, parents, and teachers, decreased from late childhood into adolescence, whereas rates of youth-rated life events did not change significantly over time. Initial levels of depressive symptoms were positively associated with initial levels of life events. Furthermore, after controlling for the initial association between the two constructs, increases in depressive symptoms (as assessed by parents and youth) were positively associated with increases in life events over time. The study builds on prior research by focusing specifically on negative dependent life events, examining results across multiple informants, and employing latent growth curve modeling to evaluate associations between trajectories of life events and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal adolescent sample. Additional studies employing latent growth modeling to examine the changes in this association during adolescence are needed. PMID:22592931

  10. BDNF in late-life depression: effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, A. van der; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation betw

  11. BDNF in late-life depression : Effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Annemarie; Comijs, Hannie C.; Dols, Annemieke; Janzing, Joost G. E.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation betw

  12. Relations of Parenting and Negative Life Events to Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alanna E.; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; LaGrange, Beth

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 299 children (grades 2, 4, and 6), we examined parenting and negative life events as predictors of depressive cognitions, specifically low self-perceived competence, depressive cognitive schemas, and depressogenic attributional style. We also examined developmental trends in these relations. Children completed measures of parenting,…

  13. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  14. Associations of life events during pregnancy with longitudinal change in symptoms of antenatal anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Judith L; Bockting, Claudi L H; Stolk, Ronald P; Kotov, Roman; Ormel, Johan; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we i

  15. Interaction between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    of stressful life events prior to onset of depression, also when corrected for the effect of age, gender, marital status, personality disorder, neuroticism, and severity of depressive symptoms at the time of interview. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the serotonin transporter and the brain...

  16. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  17. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  18. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  19. Can the concepts of depression and quality of life be integrated using a time perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is understood about the conceptual relationship of depression and quality of life (QoL. Judgments concerning both, implicitly or explicitly, involve a time perspective. The aim of this study was to test de Leval's theoretical model linking depression and QoL with a time perspective. The model predicts that changes in cognitions about one's past, present and future QoL, will be associated with changes in depressive symptomatology. Methods Eighteen psychiatric in-patients with a clinically confirmed diagnosis of depression were assessed on commencing treatment and 12 weeks later. QoL was assessed by the Schedule for Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL, depression by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and hopelessness by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS. Time perspective was incorporated by asking QoL questions about the past, present and future. Results Depression and hopelessness were associated with a poorer present QoL. Depression lowered present QoL but did not alter future QoL, as these remained consistently high whether participants were depressed or recovering. However, depressed individuals had a larger gap between their actual present QoL and future (aspired to QoL. Changes in QoL were influenced by depression and hopelessness. Contrary to the model, perception of "past" QoL was not affected by depression or hopelessness. Conclusions de Leval's model was largely confirmed. Thus depression and hopelessness influence a person's present and future QoL. The analysis of a temporal horizon was helpful in understanding the link between depression and QoL.

  20. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents...

  1. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents...

  2. Relationship between urinary incontinence and quality of life/depression in elderly patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahin-Onat, Sule; Unsal-Delialioğlu, Sibel; Güzel, Ozer; Uçar, Demet

    2014-01-01

    ...) and quality of life/depression in elderly patients. Methods: The study included a total of 109 elderly adults aged 65 years and older, consisting of 44 patients with and 65 patients without UI...

  3. Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Russell, Daniel W; Brown, P Adama; Clark, Lee Anna; Hessling, Robert M; Gardner, Kelli A

    2005-02-01

    The authors tested neighborhood context, negative life events, and negative affectivity as predictors of the onset of major depression among 720 African American women. Neighborhood-level economic disadvantage (e.g., percentage of residents below the poverty line) and social disorder (e.g., delinquency, drug use) predicted the onset of major depression when controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics. Neighborhood-level disadvantage/disorder interacted with negative life events, such that women who experienced recent negative life events and lived in high disadvantage/disorder neighborhoods were more likely to become depressed than were those who lived in more benign settings, both concurrently and over a 2-year period. Neighborhood disadvantage/disorder can be viewed as a vulnerability factor that increases susceptibility to depression following the experience of negative life events.

  4. First evidence for glial pathology in late life minor depression:S100B is increased in males with minor depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna ePolyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Minor depression is diagnosed when a patient suffers from two to four depressive symptoms for at least two weeks. Though minor depression is a widespread phenomenon, its pathophysiology has hardly been studied. To get a first insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder we assessed serum levels of biomarkers for plasticity, glial and neuronal function: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, S100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE. 27 subjects with minor depressive episode and 82 healthy subjects over 60 years of age were selected from the database of the Leipzig population-based study of civilization diseases (LIFE. Serum levels of BDNF, S100B and NSE were compared between groups, and correlated with age, body-mass index, and degree of white matter hyperintensities (score on Fazekas scale. S100B was significantly increased in males with minor depression in comparison to healthy males, whereas other biomarkers did not differ between groups (p=0.10-0.66. NSE correlated with Fazekas score in patients with minor depression (r=0.436, p=0.048 and in the whole sample (r=0.252, p=0.019. S100B correlated with body mass index (r=0.246, p=0.031 and with age in healthy subjects (r=0.345, p=0.002. Increased S100B in males with minor depression, without alterations in BDNF and NSE, supports the glial hypothesis of depression. Correlation between white matter hyperintensities and NSE underscores the vascular hypothesis of late life depression.

  5. What is the role of alternative treatments in late-life depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyer, Maren; Doorley, James; Durham, Kelley; Yeung, Albert S; Freeman, Marlene P; Mischoulon, David

    2013-12-01

    Late-life depression remains challenging to treat. One major limitation to treatment is the concern over medication-related side effects to which the elderly are especially vulnerable. Also, because many elderly people are already taking multiple medications for medical conditions, there is the concern over drug-drug interactions. This article reviews various complementary and alternative medicine interventions for late-life depression, including natural remedies, exercise, yoga, tai chi, massage therapy, music therapy, and religion and spirituality.

  6. On the possibility of cosmic ray-induced ionizing radiation-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a highly efficient mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to cultivate alternative mechanisms in order to take advantage of other available energy sources. Studies have shown that in subsurface environments, life can use energy generated from geochemical and geothermal processes to sustain a minimal metabolism. Another mechanism is radiolysis, in which particles emitted by radioactive substances are indirectly utilized for metabolism. One such example is the bacterium fueled by radiation, found 2 miles deep in a South African mine, which consumes hydrogen formed from particles emitted by radioactive U, Th and K present in rock. An additional source of radiation in the subsurface environments is secondary particles, such as muons generated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). It ...

  7. Depression in the elderly with visual impairment and its association with quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Judith Renaud, Emmanuelle Bédard School of Optometry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Background: Visual impairment is more prevalent in the elderly and depression is common in this population. Although many studies have investigated depression or quality of life (QOL in older adults with visual impairment, few have looked at the association between these two concepts for this population. The aim of this systematized review was to describe the association between depression and QOL in older adults with visual impairment. Methods: A search was done using multiple electronic databases for studies addressing the relationship between QOL and depression in elders with visual impairment. The concept of QOL was divided into two different approaches, ie, QOL as achievement and QOL as subjective well-being. Comparison of QOL scores between participants with and without depression (Cohen's d and correlations between depression and QOL (Pearson's r were examined. Results: Thirteen studies reported in 18 articles were included in the review. Nearly all of the studies revealed that better QOL was moderately to strongly correlated with less severe depressive symptoms (r = 0.22–0.68 for QOL as achievement; r = 0.68 and 0.72 for QOL as subjective well-being. Effect sizes for the QOL differences between the groups with and without depression ranged from small to large (d = 0.17 to 0.95 for QOL as achievement; no data for QOL as subjective well-being. Conclusion: Additional studies are necessary to pinpoint further the determinants and mediators of this relationship. Considering the high prevalence rate of depression in this community and its disabling effects on QOL, interventions to prevent and treat depression are essential. More efforts are needed in clinical settings to train health care practitioners to identify depressed elders with visual impairment and provide appropriate treatment. Keywords: depressive symptoms, disability, health

  8. The incidence of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with dermatological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Solgajová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aim was to establish the differences in the levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with acne and atopic dermatitis, to examine differences related to gender, and to examine the relationship of levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life to age and personality traits. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI were used for data collection, and the Mini International Personality Item Pool (IPIP was used for identification of five personality factors. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between patients with acne and patients with atopic dermatitis regarding levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life. In terms of age, a difference was found only in the incidence of anxiety in the group of patients with acne; higher anxiety was found in women. There were no statistically significant differences in anxiety, depression, and quality of life related to age in patients with acne and atopic dermatitis. Significant relationships of the variables to personality traits were found in both groups. Conclusion: Knowing the factors influencing the incidence of mental health problems in patients with acne and atopic dermatitis helps in early nursing diagnosis of such problems, which can eliminate the negative impact of mental health problems on patients' quality of life.

  9. Impact of comorbid depression on quality of life in male combat Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Phillip A; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Gros, Daniel F; Morland, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression is a highly comorbid condition. Both conditions have been associated with decreased quality of life, and research suggests that comorbid PTSD and depression may result in worse quality of life than PTSD alone. However, research is needed to elucidate the effect of comorbidity on a broader variety of quality of life domains. In this study, we used baseline data of 158 male combat Veterans taking part in a PTSD treatment trial and examined the unique relationships between quality of life domains and PTSD symptom clusters, major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Veterans with comorbid PTSD-MDD reported significantly worse satisfaction-related quality of life than those with PTSD alone, although this finding was largely attributable to PTSD numbing symptoms. Subsequent analyses comparing the effect of numbing symptoms to depressive symptoms revealed that depression exerted a stronger influence, although numbing symptoms were still uniquely associated with quality of life. We discuss implications for treatment and research, as well as the need to address negative affect in Veterans with PTSD.

  10. Association of AGTR1 with 18-month treatment outcome in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Douglas G; Speer, Marcy C; Krishnan, K Ranga; McQuoid, Douglas R; Slifer, Susan H; Pieper, Carl F; Billups, Ashley V; Steffens, David C

    2007-07-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate vascular factors in late-life depression, and argue that late-life depression is a distinct entity among the mood disorders. The A1166C polymorphism in the angiotensin II receptor, vascular type 1 (AGTR1) gene has been associated with a range of vascular diseases. This study investigated the association of AGTR1 genotype on 18-month treatment outcome in late-life depression. In a large, prospective cohort study, patients with late-life depression received individualized treatment using a standardized algorithm. The authors genotyped participants at the AGTR1 A1166C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) using standardized methodology, then used survival analysis to estimate the impact of A1166C and demographic variables on time to remission during 18 months of follow-up. The hazard ratio for AGTR1 homozygous C/C status was 0.37. The A1166C SNP showed evidence for genotypic and allelic association in a comparison of remitted and unremitted/censored subjects. Consistent with its association with numerous vascular disorders, AGTR1 is associated with treatment outcome in late-life depression. Further studies are needed to replicate this finding, and to investigate the impact of other genetic markers of vascular disease on late-life depression outcome.

  11. Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life In Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease.

  12. The relationship between perceived life changes and depression in caregivers of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Mohammad-Saeid, Dalir; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Hoseini, Fatemeh

    2012-12-01

    Most people with stroke are being cared for at home by family caregivers. Giving care is stressful, and family caregivers are predisposed to care-related complications such as life changes and depression. This article is a report of a study that examined the relationship between the perceived care-related life changes and depression in family caregivers of people with stroke, and it identified predictors influencing depression and perceived care-related life changes. A convenience sample of 60 family caregivers completed one demographic data sheet and two questionnaires: Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Data were collected in a 1-month period in 2008. According to the findings, the mean score of the subjects on the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale was -5.70, representing an overall negative change related to the caregiving role. The prevalence of people at a risk of depression or being depressed was 40%. Correlation analysis showed that, as perceived life changes score decreases (change for the worst), the score for the feeling of depression increases (r = -.692, p ≤ .001). Stroke survivors' functional disability significantly predicted both perceived care-related life changes and depression in caregivers. Assessment of caregivers of people with stroke for depressive symptoms should be incorporated in the initial nursing assessment process. The perceived life changes among caregivers should be closely monitored, and follow-up meetings should be planned to support caregivers. The functional disability in people with stroke could be a valuable criterion for planning care for their caregivers.

  13. Loneliness is associated with poor prognosis in late-life depression : Longitudinal analysis of the Netherlands study of depression in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, Floor; Burger, Huibert; de Waal, Margot M. W.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although depression and loneliness are common among older adults, the role of loneliness on the prognosis of late life depression has not yet been determined. Therefore, we examined the association between loneliness and the course of depression. Methods: We conducted a 2-year follow-up

  14. Muscle fatigability and depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Badreddine, Dala; Roose, Steven P; Rutherford, Bret; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Yaffe, Kristine; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret

    2017-02-15

    Fatigability is the degree to which performance decreases during a specific activity of a given intensity and duration. Depression is known to heighten subjective fatigue, but whether its association with physical fatigability is unknown. Further, whether fatigability is a precursor or risk factor for the development of subsequent depressive symptoms is also unclear. Data are from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study with fatigability assessed using isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors at year 3, and depressive symptoms ascertained longitudinally using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between fatigability and depressive symptoms was evaluated using linear and Cox regression models. There was a significant cross-sectional association between fatigability and depressive symptomatology (β = -0.06, p = 0.02), after adjusting for demographic variables, medical comorbidities, cognition, gait speed, and physical activity levels. Greater fatigability was associated with greater adjusted scores on the 10-item CES-D (F2, 1695  = 38.65, p John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Illness perceptions mediate the relationship between depression and quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Becker, Danielle A; Singh, Anuradha; Friedman, Daniel; Montesdeoca, Jacqueline; French, Jacqueline; Devinsky, Orrin; Spruill, Tanya M

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether negative illness perceptions help explain the link between depression and quality of life. Seventy patients with epilepsy completed standardized self-report questionnaires measuring depression, illness perception, and quality of life (QOL). Illness perception statistically mediated the relationship between depression and QOL (Indirect effect (CI; confidence interval) = -.72, lower limit = -1.7, upper limit = -.22, p < .05). Results held with and without adjusting for potential confounding variables (age, sex, ethnicity, income, and seizure frequency) and when operationalizing depression as a continuous variable that indexed severity of symptoms or as a dichotomous variable that indexed criteria consistent with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This study is the first to suggest that illness perceptions may be a useful target in screening and intervention approaches in order to improve QOL among low-income, racially/ethnically diverse patients with epilepsy.

  16. Identifying and managing preparatory grief and depression at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Hallenbeck, James

    2002-03-01

    Grief and depression present similarly in patients who are dying. Conventional symptoms (e.g., frequent crying, weight loss, thoughts of death) used to assess for depression in these patients may be imprecise because these symptoms are also present in preparatory grief and as a part of the normal dying process. Preparatory grief is experienced by virtually all patients who are dying and can be facilitated with psychosocial support and counseling. Ongoing pharmacotherapy is generally not beneficial and may even be harmful to patients who are grieving. Evidence of disturbed self-esteem, hopelessness, an active desire to die and ruminative thoughts about death and suicide are indicative of depression in patients who are dying. Physicians should have a low threshold for treating depression in patients nearing the end of life because depression is associated with tremendous suffering and poor quality of life.

  17. Knowledge of late-life depression: an empirical investigation of aged care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Karantzas, Gery; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-07-01

    This study examined knowledge of late-life depression among staff working in residential and community aged care settings, as well as their previous training in caring for older people with depression. A sample of 320 aged care staff (mean age = 42 years) completed a survey questionnaire. Participants included direct care staff, registered nurses and Care Managers from nursing and residential homes and community aged care services. Less than half of the participating aged care staff had received any training in depression, with particularly low rates in residential care. Although aware of the importance of engaging with depressed care recipients and demonstrating moderate knowledge of the symptoms of depression, a substantial proportion of staff members saw depression as a natural consequence of bereavement, aging or relocation to aged care. Experience in aged care appears to be insufficient for staff to develop high levels of knowledge of depression. Specific training in depression is recommended for staff working in aged care settings in order to improve the detection and management of late-life depression, particularly among direct carers, who demonstrated least knowledge of this common disorder.

  18. Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Salvatori, Paola; Dellabartola, Sara; Bozicevic, Laura; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

  19. Perception of quality of life and social adjustment of patients with recurrent depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Žana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most commonly present psychiatric entity in clinical practice, accompanied by significant impairment of both social and professional functioning. In addition, depression frequently develops as complication of other psychiatric disorders and various somatic diseases. Objective: To investigate subjective perception of quality of life and social adjustment, severity of depressive symptoms as well as level of correlation of severity of depressive symptoms and quality of life and social adjustment of patients with recurrent depression in comparison to the group of patients with diabetes and healthy subjects. Method: The study included 45 subjects of both sexes, ranging from 18 to 60 years of age, divided in three groups of 15 subjects each. The experimental group comprised the patients diagnosed with recurrent depression in remission (DSM-IV, one control group was consisted of patients diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and another one comprised healthy subjects. The instruments of assessment were: The Beck Depression Inventory- BDI, The Social Adaptation Self -evaluation scale - SASS, The Psychological General Well-Being Scale - WBQ. Results: Significant difference of both BDI and WBQ scales was found between the experimental and the control group of healthy subjects (ANOVA, Mann Whitney; p≤0.01, as well as between two control groups (p≤0.02. The level of inverse correlation of mean score values of BDI and SASS scales was significant in the control group of patients with diabetes while such levels of BDI and WBQ scales (Spearman correlation coefficient, p<0.01 were found in all groups of our study. Conclusion: In the group of patients with recurrent depression, significant decline of quality of life and significantly higher severity of depressive symptoms were present in comparison to the group of healthy subjects as well as significant level of inverse correlation of severity of depressive symptoms and

  20. Peripheral Inflammatory Parameters in Late-Life Depression: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders appear relatively frequently in older patients, and therefore represent an important disease burden worldwide. Given the high levels of inflammatory parameters found in depressed elderly patients, the “inflammaging” hypothesis is gaining strength. In this systematic review, we summarize current evidence regarding the relationship between inflammatory parameters and late-life depression, with a unique focus on longitudinal studies to guarantee temporality. According to the data summarized in this review, the levels of some proinflammatory parameters—especially interleukin (IL-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α—could serve as biomarkers for the future development of depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Proinflammatory cytokines seem to be associated with the future development of clinically significant depression, irrespective of baseline scores, thus indicating that inflammation temporally precedes and increases depression risk. As insufficient research has been conducted in this field, further prospective studies are clearly warranted.

  1. Impact of depression, fatigue and disability on quality of life in Chinese patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kelong; Fan, Yongping; Hu, Rui; Yang, Tao; Li, Kangning

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and analyze the main factors that influence the quality of life (QOL) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The QOL (multiple sclerosis impact scale), disability (expanded disability status scale), fatigue (modified fatigue impact scale) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) were assessed in 100 MS patients. Correlation analysis shows that QOL is positively correlated with disability status, fatigue and depression, i.e., the more severe the disability, fatigue and depression, the worse the QOL. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that Expanded Disability Status Scale grade and fatigue have important predictive value on the somatic QOL of MS patients. On the other hand, depression and fatigue have important predictive value on the mental QOL of MS patients. The QOL of MS patients is influenced by various factors, nursing care that focuses on patient disability, fatigue and depression should be strengthened. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Suicidal ideation, depression and quality of life in the elderly: study in a gerontopsychiatric consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Carla; Almeida, Vera; Fernandes, Lia

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in elderly population all over the world, especially in Portugal, justifies the importance of mental health study in this age group. The aim of this study was to characterize the elderly patients in Gerontopsychiatry Consultation of Centro Hospitalar São João in Porto, related to socio-demographic aspects, physical and global disabilities, depression, suicidal ideation and quality of life, and to explore the association between suicidal ideation, depression, and quality of life and global and functional disability. In this cross-sectional study, 155 patients were recruited consecutively, with a final sample of 75 subjects (59 women and 16 men) without cognitive deficits and a mean age of 72.8 (SD = 6.04). Concerning the depression level measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (Barreto et al., 2008) it was found that 66.7% presented severe depression and suicidal ideation (M = 41.96, SD = 36.38), a value considered with a potential risk of suicide using the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (Ferreira & Castela, 1999). The elderly also perceived their quality of life as low, revealing global disability assessed with the EasyCare- Elderly Assessment (Sousa & Figueiredo, 2000a). A significant positive correlation was also found between depression and suicidal ideation (rs =.71, p quality of life (rs = .50, p quality of life (rs = .40, p < .001). The data obtained in this study corroborate the results found in other studies.

  3. Cognitive functioning throughout the treatment history of clinical late-life depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Potter, Guy G.; Jones, Richard N.; Rostant, Ola S.; Ayotte, Brian; Yang, Frances M.; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Feldman, Betsy J.; Steffens, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous investigations into the relationship between late-life depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning have resulted in mixed findings concerning whether or not depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning are related. The mixed reports may be due in part to differences in clinical and nonclinical samples and to inadequate consideration of the dynamic nature (i.e., fluctuating course) of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study examined the chronic, acute, and longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in older adults in an ongoing treatment study of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study operates in a naturalistic treatment milieu using a pharmacological treatment algorithm and regular psychiatric assessment. Four hundred and fifty-three older adults [mean age 70 years, standard deviation (SD) = 7.2] meeting criteria for MDD at study enrollment received annual neuropsychological testing and depressive symptom monitoring for an average of 8.5 years (SD = 4.5). Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that higher age, lower education, and higher average/chronic levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower cognitive functioning. Additionally, results revealed that when an individual’s depressive symptoms are higher than is typical for a specific individual, general cognitive function was worse than average. There was no evidence of lagged/longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in older adults in treatment for MDD. Conclusions Cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms are concurrently associated in older adults with MDD, highlighting the potential importance for stabilizing mood symptoms as a means to manage cognitive deficits in late-life depression. PMID:25703072

  4. The role of level of functioning, life satisfaction and leisure activities in elderly depressive symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kleftaras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today's elderly people make up a large part of the population and depressive symptoms they show requires specialized intervention health professionals. Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to study the phenomenon of elderly depressive symptomatology and its relationship with their quality of life as judged by the performance of daily life activities, perceived life satisfaction and leisure activities. Method and material: The studied sample consisted of107 elderly, 62 men and 45 women, who lived in the community, members of Open Care Centres for the Elderly (K.A.P.I. and the Friendship Club of the wider area of Attica. They completed the Questionnaire of Depressive Symptomatology, the Life Satisfaction Index, the Satisfaction with Performance Scale Questionnaire and the Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the results was done with SPSS-v. 20,and more specifically with the method of correlation. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the level of life satisfaction of the elderly and depressive symptomatology. They also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the ability to solve social problems and depressive symptomatology. Not statistically significant relationship between the capacity to manage the home and depressive symptomatology was recorded. Of the areas related to leisure, only activities relaxing the person, social and personal hobbiesrelated negatively with depressive symptomatology but not the physical activities, a finding which supports previous results regarding the efficiency in managing the home. Conclusions: Thus, according to the results of the present study the health professionals working with older people with depressive symptomatology should, in their interventions initially encourage activities that give life satisfaction and then focus their program on strengthening the individual to perform

  5. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  6. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested.

  7. Quality of Life, Family Support, and Comorbidities in Institutionalized Elders With and Without Symptoms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Rebouças Barbosa, Rosa Angélica Silveira; de Menezes, Marília Stefani Souza; de Medeiros, Ingrid Iana Fernandes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2016-06-01

    The institutionalization of elders can decrease the health status and quality of life in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic, quality of life, family support, and comorbidities variables in institutionalized elders with and without symptoms of depression. This was a cross-sectional study in institutions for long permanence for the elderly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two institutionalized elderly groups were compared (138 elders: 69 with and 69 without depressive symptoms). The instruments used were: mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale in the reduced version, socio-demographic questionnaire, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated-WHOQOL-bref), and inventory of perception of family support. Elders with depressive symptoms had inferior quality of life than those without depressive symptoms. Other factors that negatively influenced the quality of life in this population include: low economic conditions, occurrence of comorbidities, and deficient family assistance. These results have important implications in the decision making process with regard to strategies for improving the health status of institutionalized elders.

  8. Vascular Pathology and Trajectories of Late-Life Major Depressive Disorder in Secondary Psychiatric Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musliner, Katherine L; Zandi, Peter P; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine 5-year trajectories of psychiatrist-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether previous vascular pathology is associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative civil, psychiatric...

  9. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from…

  10. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  11. The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Meaning in Life and Depression Levels of Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatmili, Somaye; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shahrak, Mohammad Ali; Talepasand, Siavash; Nokani, Mostafa; Hasani, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the effectiveness of group logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing meaning in life levels of university students in Iran. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre- post- and follow-up test design. The instruments used were the "Purpose in Life" (PIL) test and the "Beck Depression…

  12. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  13. The Association between Child Autism Symptomatology, Maternal Quality of Life, and Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Anderson, Connie; Law, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Parents raising children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been shown to experience high levels of stress and report a lower quality of life. The current study examined the association between child autism symptomatology, mother's quality of life, and mother's risk for depression in a sample of 1,110 mothers recruited from a…

  14. The neurobiology of depression in later-life: clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathophysiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Norrie, Louisa M; Mowszowski, Loren; Hickie, Ian B

    2012-07-01

    As the population ages, the economic and societal impacts of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders are expected to rise sharply. Like dementia, late-life depressive disorders are common and are linked to increased disability, high healthcare utilisation, cognitive decline and premature mortality. Considerable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depression across the life cycle may reflect unique pathophysiological pathways to illness; differentiating those with earlier onset who have grown older (early-onset depression), from those with illness onset after the age of 50 or 60 years (late-onset depression). The last two decades have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of early- and late-onset depression, and has shown that disturbances of fronto-subcortical functioning are implicated. New biomedical models extend well beyond perturbations of traditional monoamine systems to include altered neurotrophins, endocrinologic and immunologic system dysfunction, inflammatory processes and gene expression alterations. This more recent research has highlighted that a range of illness-specific, neurodegenerative and vascular factors appear to contribute to the various phenotypic presentations. This review highlights the major features of late-life depression, with specific reference to its associated aetiological, clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, neuropathological, inflammatory and genetic correlates. Data examining the efficacy of pharmacological, non-pharmacological and novel treatments for depression are discussed. Ultimately, future research must aim to evaluate whether basic biomedical knowledge can be successfully translated into enhanced health outcomes via the implementation of early intervention paradigms.

  15. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  16. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60 in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92 observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.910–0.946, psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879–0.934, environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944–0.989 and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression.

  17. Late-Life Depression.  Also a field for psychotherapists! Part One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Late-life depression is a complicated disorder with diagnostic and treatment pitfalls due to interference of serious conditions of life in old age and due to an "atypical" profile of symptoms.  The article treats the nature of these difficulties.  It is concluded that late-life depression is a fi...... is a field demanding extended somatic knowledge by the psychotherapist.  It is also concluded that even though the last decades have brought much clarification, there are still unanswered questions especially related to causal mechanisms....

  18. The effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhisa Komori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17 and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal

  19. Psychosocial intervention improves depression, quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Asher, Deborah Rosenthal; Coplan, Jeremy D; Weedon, Jeremy; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Saggi, Subodh J; Kimmel, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ESRD have high rates of depression, which is associated with diminished quality of life and survival. We determined whether individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces depression in hemodialysis patients with elevated depressive affect in a randomized crossover trial. Of 65 participants enrolled from two dialysis centers in New York, 59 completed the study and were assigned to the treatment-first group (n=33) or the wait-list control group (n=26). In the intervention phase, CBT was administered chairside during dialysis treatments for 3 months; participants were assessed 3 and 6 months after randomization. Compared with the wait-list group, the treatment-first group achieved significantly larger reductions in Beck Depression Inventory II (self-reported, P=0.03) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (clinician-reported, Pimprovements in quality of life, assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (P=0.04), and interdialytic weight gain (P=0.002) than the wait-list group, although no effect on compliance was evident at follow-up. In summary, CBT led to significant improvements in depression, quality of life, and prescription compliance in this trial, and studies should be undertaken to assess the long-term effects of CBT on morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD.

  20. Trigeminal neurosensory deficit and patient reported outcome measures: the effect on life satisfaction and depression symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Yan Leung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of persistent neurosensory disturbance of the lingual nerve (LN or inferior alveolar nerve (IAN on life satisfaction and depression symptoms. METHODS: This study recruited patients with persistent LN or IAN deficit as a consequence of lower third molar surgery for 12 months or more to form the study group. A control group was formed by matching age and gender of recruited subjects in the study group with patients without the neurosensory complications. Life satisfaction was assessed with Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS and depression symptoms were assessed with 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD-20. RESULTS: Fourty-eight participants (24 cases and 24 controls were recruited. Patients with LN or IAN deficits after lower third molar surgery were less satisfied with their lives when compared to the control group (p<0.001. They were presenting with more depression symptoms (p = 0.001. 45.8% of the study group subjects had a CESD-20 score of 16 or above. Older patients presented with more depression symptoms among the subjects with neurosensory disturbance after lower third molar surgery (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with permanent trigeminal neurosensory deficit after lower third molar surgery have worse life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms when compared to those who did not suffer from the surgical complication.

  1. Tissue-specific differences in brain phosphodiesters in late-life major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David G; Jensen, J Eric; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Sivrioglu, Yusuf; Silveri, Marisa; Iosifescu, Dan V; Renshaw, Perry F; Forester, Brent P

    2014-05-01

    Late-life depression has been hypothesized to have a neurodegenerative component that leads to impaired executive function and increases in subcortical white matter hyperintensities. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can quantify several important phosphorus metabolites in the brain, particularly the anabolic precursors and catabolic metabolites of the constituents of cell membranes, which could be altered by neurodegenerative activity. Ten patients with late-life major depression who were medication free at time of study and 11 aged normal comparison subjects were studied using (31)P MRS three-dimensional chemical shift imaging at 4 Tesla. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine comprise 90% of cell membranes in brain but cannot be quantified precisely with (31)P MRS. We measured phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine, which are anabolic precursors, as well as glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, which are catabolic metabolites of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. In accordance with our hypotheses, glycerophosphoethanolamine was elevated in white matter of depressed subjects, suggesting enhanced breakdown of cell membranes in these subjects. Glycerophosphocholine did not show any significant difference between comparison and depressed subjects but both showed an enhancement in white matter compared with gray matter. Contrary to our hypotheses, neither phosphocholine nor phosphoethanolamine showed evidence for reduction in late-life depression. These findings support the hypothesis that neurodegenerative processes occur in white matter in patients with late-life depression more than in the normal elderly population. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical study on role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Medhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to know about the role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression in four groups of patients with dissociative disorder, somatisation disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and depression. It was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. Methods and materials: It was a case control study with 100 cases of neurotic disorders and depression (25 cases in each group attending indoor and outdoor, and diagnosed using research diagnostic criteria of the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. The groups were compared with similar number of matched controls, in respect to number, scoring, and type of life events occurring within one year prior to the onset of illness using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics were also seen between cases and controls. Result and conclusion: Number of life events was significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety groups than control group. Total life events scores were significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety group than control group. Undesirable events were significantly higher in all groups. Personal events were significantly higher in depressives than control. Events related to interpersonal relation were significantly higher in depressive, dissociative, and GAD groups than control. Bereavement was closely associated with depression and GAD. Events related to health, finance, and education were higher in dissociative group than control. Events related to move were found significantly higher in GAD group than control. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Relationship between depressive symptoms and quality of life in Nigerian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Aloba, Olutayo O; Mapayi, B M; Oloniniyi, I O; Fatoye, F O; Makanjuola, R O A

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia is influenced by various factors such as depressive symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between depressive symptoms and QOL in outpatients with schizophrenia in Nigeria and evaluated the associated socio-demographic and clinical factors. One hundred patients with 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of schizophrenia participated in this study. Socio-demographic and clinical factors such as depression were assessed with Zung Self-rating Depression Scale and symptoms of schizophrenia with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia (PANSS). The level of functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. QOL was assessed using the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale. There were 27 (27.0 %) patients with depression. The depressed patients reported significant lower scores in all QOL domains when compared with the non-depressed group. All QOL domains were significantly negatively correlated with the total PANSS and all its subscales (except for psychological domain with total PANSS and social relationship and environmental domains with PANSS positive). Severity of depressive symptoms was significantly negatively correlated with all QOL domains. Functioning was significantly positively correlated with all QOL domains except in the environmental domain. Multiple regression analysis showed that depressive symptoms predicted all QOL domains except the social relationship domain while negative symptoms predicted social relationship and environmental domains. Depression is a common occurrence during the course of schizophrenia. Depressive and negative symptoms have a significant impact on the QOL of patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Quality of life in patients with bipolar I depression: data from 920 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatham, Lakshmi N; Lecrubier, Yves; Fieve, Ronald R; Davis, Kimberly H; Harris, Soyna D; Krishnan, Anupama A

    2004-10-01

    To determine the impact of acute depression on quality of life (QOL) in patients with bipolar I disorder and to compare these results with published data on QOL in patients with unipolar depression. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 in bipolar patients (n = 958) who had recently experienced an episode of acute bipolar depression and participated in a large randomized, double-blind, safety and efficacy trial. Seven studies that included SF-36 data from patients with unipolar depression were identified in the published literature and descriptive comparisons of SF-36 scores were made between the unipolar depression trials and this bipolar depression trial. There were 920 patients who completed the SF-36. Mean transformed scores, which could range from 0 to 100, were very low in bipolar depressed patients for the role-physical (36.7), vitality (22.4), social functioning (29.9), role-emotion (11.4), and mental health (31.0) subscales. Mean SF-36 scores for all subscales were significantly and inversely correlated (p < 0.0001) with the HAM-D indicating that patients with milder depressive symptoms had better QOL. Further, the mean SF-36 scores for the bipolar sample were consistently lower compared with published data on QOL in unipolar depression on four of the eight subscales: general health; social functioning; role-physical, and role-emotional. While both unipolar and bipolar depression have serious detrimental effects on patient QOL, our results suggest that some aspects of QOL may be worse in bipolar depression.

  5. Serotonin 1A receptor binding and treatment response in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Carolyn Cidis; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Butters, Meryl A; Ziolko, Scott K; Moses-Kolko, Eydie; Mazumdar, Sati; Mulsant, Benoit H; Houck, Patricia R; Lopresti, Brian J; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Reynolds, Charles F

    2004-12-01

    Depression in late life carries an increased risk of dementia and brittle response to treatment. There is growing evidence to support a key role of the serotonin type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor as a regulator of treatment response, particularly the 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). We used [11C]WAY 100635 and positron emission tomography (PET) to test our hypothesis that 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in the DRN and prefrontal cortex is altered in elderly depressives and that these measures relate to treatment responsivity. We studied 17 elderly subjects with untreated (nonpsychotic, nonbipolar) major depression (four men, 13 women; mean age: 71.4+/-5.9) and 17 healthy control subjects (eight men, nine women; mean age: 70.0+/-6.7). Patients were subsequently treated with paroxetine as part of a clinical trial of maintenance therapies in geriatric depression. [11C]WAY 100635 PET imaging was acquired and binding potential (BP) values derived using compartmental modeling. We observed significantly diminished [11C]WAY 100635 binding in the DRN in depressed (BP = 2.31+/-0.90) relative to control (BP = 3.69+/-1.56) subjects (p = 0.0016). Further, the DRN BP was correlated with pretreatment Hamilton Depression Rating Scores (r = 0.60, p = 0.014) in the depressed cohort. A trend level correlation between DRN binding and time to remission (r = 0.52, p = 0.067) was observed in the 14 depressed patients for whom these data were available. Our finding of decreased [11C]WAY 100635 binding in the brainstem region of the DRN in elderly depressed patients supports evidence of altered 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor function in depression. Further, this work indicates that dysfunction in autoreceptor activity may play a central role in the mechanisms underlying treatment response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in late-life depression.

  6. Factors contributing to depressive mood states in everyday life: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Rachel; Fuller Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence suggests that fluctuations in depressed mood are common among individuals with depression, and may be associated with onset, duration, and severity of illness, a systematic appraisal of putative predictors of depressed mood is lacking. A systematic search for relevant studies in the literature was conducted using PsycInfo and PubMed databases via EbscoHost in February 2016. The search was limited to articles using the experience sampling method, an approach suitable for capturing in situ fluctuations in mood states. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria for the review, from which three key risk factors (poor sleep, stress, and significant life events) and two protective factors (physical activity and quality of social interactions) were identified. The majority of papers supported concurrent and lagged associations between these putative protective/risk factors and depressed mood. Despite support for each of the proposed protective/risk factors, few studies evaluated multiple factors in the same study. Moreover, the time course for the effects of these predictors on depressed mood remains largely unknown. The present review identified several putative risk and protective factors for depressed mood. A review of the literature suggests that poor sleep, negative social interactions, and stressful negative events may temporally precede spikes in depressed mood. In contrast, exercise and positive social interactions have been shown to predict subsequent declines in depressed mood. However, the lack of multivariate models in which the unique contributions of various predictors could be evaluated means that the current state of knowledge prevents firm conclusions about which factors are most predictive of depressed mood. More complex modeling of these effects is necessary in order to provide insights useful for clinical treatment in daily life of the depressed mood component of depressive disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  7. Depression is an independent determinant of life satisfaction early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Daniëlla M; Mishre, Radha Rambaran; van Oort, Andrea; Bodde, Karin; Aerden, Leo A M

    2017-03-06

    Life satisfaction is reduced in stroke patients. However, as a rule, rehabilitation goals are not aimed at life satisfaction, but at activities and participation. In order to optimize life satisfaction in stroke patients, rehabilitation should take into account the determinants of life satisfaction. The aim of this study was therefore to determine what factors are independent determinants of life satisfaction in a large group of patients early after stroke. Stroke-surviving patients were examined by a specialized nurse 6 weeks after discharge from hospital or rehabilitation setting. A standardized history and several screening lists, including the Lisat-9, were completed. Step-wise regression was used to identify independent determinants of life satisfaction. A total of 284 stroke-surviving patients were included in the study. Of these, 117 answered all of the Lisat-9 questions. Most patients (66.5%) rated their life as a whole as "satisfying" or "very satisfying". More depressive symptoms were independently associated with lower life satisfaction (p life early after a stroke. The score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression items is independently associated with life satisfaction. Physicians should therefore pay close attention to the mood of these patients.

  8. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  9. Interaction between anxiety, depression, quality of life and clinical parameters in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; González-Gutierrez, Jose L; Miangolarra-Page, Juan C; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the mediating or moderating role of anxiety and depression in the relationship between headache clinical parameters and quality of life in Chronic Tension-Type Headache (CTTH). Twenty-five patients diagnosed with CTTH according to the criteria of the International Headache Society were studied. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) was used to assess depression, and the Trait Anxiety Scale (TA) from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered in order to assess anxiety. Moderating and mediating analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis using the SPSS General Linear Model procedure. Anxiety mediated the effect between headache frequency and quality of life, but not the effect of either headache intensity or duration. Anxiety totally mediated the effects of headache frequency on vitality, social functioning and mental health. On the other hand, depression modulated the effect in the mental health domain. The effect in the mental health domain was a function of the interaction between headache duration and depression (beta=-0.34, p<0.05), after controlling for age, gender, the main effects of headache duration, and depression. We did not find anxiety to be a moderating factor between intensity, frequency or duration of headache and perceived quality of life. Anxiety exerts a mediating effect, conditioning the relationship between headache frequency and some quality of life domains; depression seems to play an inherent role in the reduced quality of life of these patients, that is, it has a moderating effect.

  10. Repeated exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage and health selection as life course pathways to mid-life depressive and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte; Rodgers, Bryan; Caldwell, Tanya; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and adulthood influences the risk of adult psychiatric disorder. This paper investigates first how cumulative childhood manual SEP influences the risk for mid-life depressive and anxiety disorders and secondly the effects of health selection based on psychological disorder in childhood and psychological distress in early adulthood on mid-life social position. Methods 9,377 participants of the 1958 Birth Cohort were followed up at 45 years w...

  11. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514 years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that behavioral control positively predicted life satisfaction, self-esteem, and negatively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression. Psychological control was significantly and positively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression, negatively predicted life satisfaction. Present study provided evidence for the role of behavioral and psychological control in adolescents’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression and antisocial behaviors. Also, findings underscore the role of differential associations of parental behavioral and psychological control with the well-being and ill-being of adolescents. Findings were discussed in terms of implications for parent education programs and family intervention program.

  12. Quality of life, depression and anxiety among pregnant women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Regina Couto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous adverse pregnancy outcomes (recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal death, preterm birth or early neonatal death can affect the quality of life of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of life and the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant women with and without these antecedents. DESIGN AND SETTING: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed in four settings (two high-risk and two low-risk prenatal clinics in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 240 women were interviewed by a single investigator between the 18th and 24th weeks of gestation: 120 women with prior adverse pregnancy outcomes (group 1 and 120 women with no such history (group 2, matched according to their numbers of living children. Sociodemographic variables were collected and two questionnaires were used: the Short Form-36 quality-of-life questionnaire and the Depression and Anxiety Scale. RESULTS: The women in group 1 had lower scores in all the items on the quality-of-life questionnaire. Depression and anxiety were more frequent in group 1 (P < 0.0001. An inverse correlation was found between the Short Form-36 domains and anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Women with histories of recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal death, preterm birth or early neonatal death seem to have poorer quality of life and more symptoms of anxiety and depression during their subsequent pregnancy, compared with those without such antecedents.

  13. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514 years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that behavioral control positively predicted life satisfaction, self-esteem, and negatively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression. Psychological control was significantly and positively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression, negatively predicted life satisfaction. Present study provided evidence for the role of behavioral and psychological control in adolescents’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression and antisocial behaviors. Also, findings underscore the role of differential associations of parental behavioral and psychological control with the well-being and ill-being of adolescents. Findings were discussed in terms of implications for parent education programs and family intervention program.

  14. Depression, anxiety and quality of life in caregiver spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury.

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    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We were curious about the degree of anxiety and depression and their effect on the quality of life of the caregivers of veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI.A convenience sample of 72 out of 120 caregiver spouses of veterans with spinal cord injury participated in our study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were considered as a measure of depression and anxiety. The World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF was considered to evaluate the quality of life. To compare the caregivers, we enrolled 74 matched caregiver spouses of patients without spinal cord injury.The average age of the spouses was 44.7±6.5. The average time elapsed from the injury was 26.4±3.1 years. There was a significant difference in all domains of quality of life and depression between the caregivers and the control group, but there was not a significant difference in terms of anxiety. There was a negative correlation between depression and age, level of education and quality of life.Mental care support should be implemented for veterans and their spouses in addition to the provided facilities.

  15. Being stuck in a vice: The process of coping with severe depression in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkløf, Guro Hanevold; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Selbæk, Geir; Helvik, Anne-Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Articles describing older persons' experiences of coping with severe depression are, to our knowledge, lacking. This article is methodologically grounded in phenomenological hermeneutics, inspired by Paul Ricoeur, and applies a descriptive design with in-depth interviews for producing the data. We included 18 older persons, 13 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 77.9 years, depressed to a severe or moderate degree, 1-2 weeks after admission to a hospital for treatment of depression. We found the metaphor "being in a vice" to capture the essence of meaning from the participants' stories, and can be understood as being stuck in an immensely painful existence entirely dominated by depression in late life. This is the first article where coping in older men and women experiencing the most severe phase of depression is explored.

  16. Locus of control, depression and quality of life among persons with sickle cell disease in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Roger C; Morgan, Kai A D; Abel, Wendel D; Sewell, Clayton A; Martin, Jacqueline S; Lowe, Gillian A; Haye, Winston De La; Edwards, Christopher L; O'Garo, Keisha N; Reid, Marvin E; Asnani, Monika R

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how locus of control (LOC), depression and quality of life (QOL) interplay in patients with sickle cell disease. One hundred and forty-three sickle cell clinic patients with consecutive clinic consultations completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control and Short Factor 36 (SF-36) scales as well as the Beck Depression Inventory. Participants in this study had higher scores on the "chance", "other people" and "internal" domains of LOC than persons with a number of other chronic illnesses in a previous study. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that high scores on the "internal" domain of LOC were associated with better QOL and fewer symptoms of depression. Depressive symptoms were greater in persons with high scores on the "other people" LOC domain and in younger persons. These findings would suggest that it is possible that interventions which enhance internal LOC and discourage "other people" orientations might improve QOL and ameliorate depression among persons with sickle cell disease.

  17. Being stuck in a vice: The process of coping with severe depression in late life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Hanevold Bjørkløf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Articles describing older persons’ experiences of coping with severe depression are, to our knowledge, lacking. This article is methodologically grounded in phenomenological hermeneutics, inspired by Paul Ricoeur, and applies a descriptive design with in-depth interviews for producing the data. We included 18 older persons, 13 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 77.9 years, depressed to a severe or moderate degree, 1–2 weeks after admission to a hospital for treatment of depression. We found the metaphor “being in a vice” to capture the essence of meaning from the participants’ stories, and can be understood as being stuck in an immensely painful existence entirely dominated by depression in late life. This is the first article where coping in older men and women experiencing the most severe phase of depression is explored.

  18. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Combined effects of sleep quality and depression on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pan; Lou, Peian; Chang, Guiqiu; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality and depression negatively impact the health-related quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes, but the combined effect of the two factors is unknown. This study aimed to assess the interactive effects of poor sleep quality and depression on the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 944) completed the Diabetes Specificity Quality of Life scale (DSQL) and questionnaires on sleep quality and depression. T...

  20. Late-Life depression and the counseling agenda: exploring geriatric logotherapy as a treatment modality

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Morgan, John; Ph.D., D.Sc., Psy.D. Graduate Theological Foundation, United States

    2013-01-01

    The counseling agenda established for dealing with late-life depression is often followed in consort with pharmacotherapy which has proven clinically to be quite effective in reducing and, in many cases, relieving symptoms of low self-esteem and anxiety. Whereas conventional medical intervention concentrates on the reduction of depression symptoms, psychotherapeutic modalities such as cognitive-behavioral therapy have proven somewhat effective in creating a more stabilizing experience of exis...

  1. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of stroke patients on depression and quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Soo-Han; Kim, Ko-Un

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on depression and quality of life (QOL) in patients with stroke, by conducting conventional occupational therapy with and without tDCS on 20 patients each. [Subjects and Methods] The experimental group (N=20) received both tDCS and conventional occupational therapy, while the control group (N=20) received false tDCS and conventional occupational therapy. The treatment was conducted 20 times over a four-week period; each session was 30 minutes long. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to score the depression levels in patients before and after the intervention, while the stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) was measured to compare the QOL. [Result] Following the intervention, the patients in the experimental group showed a significant decrease in depression and an increase in the QOL. In contrast, the control group showed no significant changes in depression or QOL. Our findings indicate that tDCS decreased depression while increasing QOL in patients with stroke. [Conclusion] In other words, our study confirmed that the application of tDCS during stroke rehabilitation improves the depression symptoms and QOL in patients.

  2. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  3. On the possibility of galactic cosmic ray-induced radiolysis-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-10-01

    Photosynthesis is a mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to evolve alternative mechanisms for harvesting available energy. Bacterium Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, found 2.8 km deep in a South African mine, harvests energy from radiolysis, induced by particles emitted from radioactive U, Th and K present in surrounding rock. Another radiation source in the subsurface environments is secondary particles generated by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that it is a steady source of energy comparable to that produced by radioactive substances, and the possibility of a slow metabolizing life flourishing on it cannot be ruled out. Two mechanisms are proposed through which GCR-induced secondary particles can be utilized for biological use in subsurface environments: (i) GCRs injecting energy in the environment through particle-induced radiolysis and (ii) organic synthesis from GCR secondaries interacting with the medium. Laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses are also proposed. Implications of these mechanisms on finding life in the Solar System and elsewhere in the Universe are discussed.

  4. Depression, anxiety, hopelessness and quality of life in users of cocaine/crack in outpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Camila Bosse; Ferreira, Isadora Borne; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Narvaez, Joana Corrêa de Magalhães

    2017-01-01

    To identify symptoms of anxiety, depression, and feelings of hopelessness in patients in outpatient treatment for substance dependency and to test for correlations with various aspects of their quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a sample of 25 men in recuperation from substance dependency, selected by convenience. We assessed symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version [WHOQOL-Bref]), and also analyzed sociodemographic profile, substance abuse, and family history. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages and quantitative variables as means and standard deviations or as medians and interquartile ranges. We also analyzed Spearman correlations to a 5% significance level. The study revealed prevalence rates of 32% for depression, 24% for anxiety, and 12% for hopelessness, at a moderate/severe level. Correlations between Beck scales and WHOQOL-Bref were significant; but impacts differed in the four areas evaluated. Overall, we observe global negative impacts on subjects' lives, affecting their psychiatric symptoms and quality of life and their relationships and occupational factors to a similar degree. The results show that the lower the scores on these scales, the better the quality of life in some areas, indicating that there is a negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and quality of life.

  5. Antecedent life events, social supports and response to antidepressants in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, W; Peselow, E D; Barouche, F; Fieve, R R

    1996-11-01

    We evaluated 355 subjects who entered one of six double-blind placebo-controlled antidepressant drug trials with respect to the occurrence of antecedent adverse life events and their meaning to the patient. Patients were also assessed with regard to the degree of social support they received for the negative life event. The groups differed as to whether they did or did not meet the criteria for melancholic depression; 43 one-week placebo responders were statistically significantly more likely to believe that adverse life events predisposed them to depressive illness and that such life events precipitated their current depression, compared to 312 one-week placebo non-responders. Of the 312 patients who went on to the double-blind phase in which they were treated with either drug (n = 204) or placebo (n = 108), it was noted that, for both melancholic and non-melancholic patients, responders to drug treatment (but not placebo) had a more favourable ratio of social support received/social support desired than non-responders. Non-melancholic responders to both drug and placebo were statistically significantly more likely to report fewer adverse life events and have a less strong belief that adverse life events predispose one to depressive illness than non-responders. Melancholic patients did not show this trend.

  6. Quality of life, fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Rick; Sarnes, Antonia A; Maul, Monika; Hottenrott, Tilman; Baumgartner, Annette; Rauer, Sebastian; Stich, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The prognosis and impact of residual symptoms on quality of life in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is subject to debate. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life, fatigue, depression, cognitive impairment and verbal learning in patients with definite LNB and healthy controls in a case-control study. We retrospectively identified all patients diagnosed with definite LNB between 2003 and 2014 in our tertiary care center. Healthy controls were recruited from the same area. Patients and healthy controls were assessed for quality of life [Short Form (36) with subscores for physical and mental components (PCS, MCS)], fatigue (fatigue severity scale), depression (Beck depression inventory), verbal memory and learning and cognitive impairment (mini-mental state examination). 53 patients with definite LNB could be identified, of which 30 partook in the follow-up assessment. Estimates for quality of life, fatigue, depression, verbal memory and cognitive impairment did not differ statistically significantly between 30 patients with LNB and 35 healthy controls. Patients with residual symptoms had lower scores for quality of life (PCS) compared to patients without residual symptoms. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a considerable proportion of patients with antibiotically treated LNB develop a 'post Lyme syndrome' consisting of debilitating fatigue or cognitive impairment or have severe limitations of quality of life. However, some patients experience residual symptoms of LNB.

  7. Later-Life Preparation Patterns on Depression Among Korean Baby Boom Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seok In; Kim, Junpyo; Shin, Jimin; Yim, Arram

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the later-life preparation pattern of Korean baby boomers and its effect on depression. Using the fourth wave of Korean Retirement and Income Study, later-life preparation was measured by economic, physical, and psychological preparation, and leisure, and family relationship satisfaction. The data analysis included latent class analysis, correlations, multiple logistic regression, and analysis of variance. Later-life patterns of Korean baby boomers were classified as high-level (35.7%), low-level (31.1%), and health and family relationship (33.2%) preparation patterns. For depression, the low-level pattern was associated with significantly higher level of depression; however, no differences were found in other two patterns. Researchers recommended a postretirement program to reflect the unique characteristics of Korean baby boomers. Moreover, findings regarding the importance of health and family relationships can be applied to other countries that have historical and cultural backgrounds similar to Korea.

  8. Is the association between high strain work and depressive symptoms modified by private life social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Jorgensen, Anette F B; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    ,074 Danish employees. At baseline, all participants were free of severe depressive symptoms, measured by the Mental Health Inventory. High strain work was defined by the combination of high psychological demands at work and low control, measured with multi-dimensional scales. Private life social support...... significant (p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high strain work may increase risk of depressive symptoms in individuals with low private life social support, although the effect-modification was statistically non-significant. Larger studies are needed to further establish the role of private...... be modified by factors outside the working environment. This article examines the modifying role of private life social support in the relation between high strain work and the development of severe depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were questionnaire-based, collected from a cross-occupational sample of 1...

  9. Is Old Age Depressing? Growth Trajectories and Cohort Variations in Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Findings in previous research on the association of old age and depression are inconsistent due to a confounding of age changes and cohort differences. Using data from an accelerated longitudinal design from the National Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, this study addresses three questions: (1)…

  10. Fatigue and depression in multiple sclerosis: Correlation with quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between fatigue and depression, common features of multiple sclerosis (MS, and the quality of life (QOL. The study was comprised of 120 patients with clinical manifestations of definite MS. Relapsing-remitting MS was present in 76.7% patients and secondary progressive MS was present in 23.3% patients. Mean disease duration was 8.1 ± 5.6 years and the mean Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS was 3.5 ± 1.8 (range 1-8. Fatigue was measured with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and QOL was assessed using the health-related quality of life questionnaire SF-36. We observed that the global FSS score was 4.6 ± 1.8 (range 1-7 and BDI was 10.7 ± 10.3 (range 0-39. The FSS significantly and positively correlated with the BDI scores (r = 0.572; p = 0.000. The severity of fatigue had a significant impact on the quality of life (r = -0.743; p = 0.000, in particular on mental health (r = -0.749; p = 0.000. We observed a significant correlation between the severity of depression and impaired quality of life (r = -0.684; p = 0.000. This study shows that fatigue and depression are associated with impaired QOL in MS.

  11. Task difficulty and life changes among stroke family caregivers: relationship to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennon, Susan M; Bakas, Tamilyn; Jessup, Nenette M; Habermann, Barbara; Weaver, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    To investigate differences in stroke caregiver task difficulty and life changes based on level of caregiver depressive symptoms, and to estimate probabilities among task difficulty and life change items. Descriptive analysis of baseline data from an ongoing stroke caregiver intervention trial. Hospitals and rehabilitation facilities. Caregivers (N=242; 78.6% women; 47.7% spouses; 71.8% white; mean age, 54.2±12.1y) caring for stroke survivors within 8 weeks of discharge to home. Not applicable. Baseline measures for task difficulty (Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale) and life changes (Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale) were compared based on level of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] scores Caregivers with mild to severe depressive symptoms have greater difficulty with tasks and worse life changes than those with no depressive symptoms (Pstroke caregivers during or shortly after discharge. Assisting caregivers with depressive symptoms to arrange for respite care and addressing negative physical and psychological changes may be priority areas for future interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake J Lawrence

    Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  13. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Shifiona

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems with women in peri-urban Namibie are faced with are multi-dimensional.Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991: 217 of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55. The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  15. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Child

  16. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study of depression and quality of life in patients of lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Neena S; Vanjari, Nakul A; Khopkar, Uday; Adulkar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The precise cause of lichen planus is unknown, but the disease seems to be immunologically mediated. It is a psychocutaneous disorder. Due to scarcity of Indian studies in this field, we decided to study in patients of lichen planus the prevalence of depression and quality of life with comparison of the same in both the genders. Patients diagnosed as having lichen planus by consultant dermatologist were enrolled after informed consent and ethics approval. 45 patients were screened, of which 35 who satisfied the criteria were taken up for the study. A semistructured proforma was designed to collect the necessary information with administration of dermatology life quality index and Beck's depression inventory. While 25% were depressed with females being more affected than males, quality of life was impaired in more than 90% patients. Impairment was maximum due to symptoms and illness feelings, disturbed daily activities, or work and time consumption in treatment. There was a strong association between depression and impairment in quality of life in both the genders. This study helps in early identification of psychological problems in lichen planus patients and in planning their future course of management, hence reducing the lack of productivity and improving the prognosis and quality of life.

  18. A Study of Depression and Quality of Life in Patients of Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Neena S.; Vanjari, Nakul A.; Khopkar, Uday; Adulkar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The precise cause of lichen planus is unknown, but the disease seems to be immunologically mediated. It is a psychocutaneous disorder. Due to scarcity of Indian studies in this field, we decided to study in patients of lichen planus the prevalence of depression and quality of life with comparison of the same in both the genders. Patients diagnosed as having lichen planus by consultant dermatologist were enrolled after informed consent and ethics approval. 45 patients were screened, of which 35 who satisfied the criteria were taken up for the study. A semistructured proforma was designed to collect the necessary information with administration of dermatology life quality index and Beck's depression inventory. While 25% were depressed with females being more affected than males, quality of life was impaired in more than 90% patients. Impairment was maximum due to symptoms and illness feelings, disturbed daily activities, or work and time consumption in treatment. There was a strong association between depression and impairment in quality of life in both the genders. This study helps in early identification of psychological problems in lichen planus patients and in planning their future course of management, hence reducing the lack of productivity and improving the prognosis and quality of life. PMID:25802892

  19. Quality of life, depression, anxiety and loneliness in patients with bullous pemphigoid. A case control study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Armyra, Kalliopi; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Stefanaki, Christina; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune blistering skin disease that affects patients' daily life and psychosocial well-being. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety, depression and loneliness in BP patients. Methods Fifty-seven BP patients and fifty-seven healthy controls were recruited for the study. The quality of life of each patient was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scale. Moreover, they were evaluated for anxiety and depression according to the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-scale), while loneliness was measured through the Loneliness Scale-Version 3 (UCLA) scale. Results The mean DLQI score was 9.45±3.34. Statistically significant differences on the HADS total scale and in HADS-depression subscale (p=0.015 and p=0.002, respectively) were documented. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups on the HADS-anxiety subscale. Furthermore, significantly higher scores were recorded on the UCLA Scale compared with healthy volunteers (p=0.003). Conclusion BP had a significant impact on quality of life and the psychological status of patients, probably due to the appearance of unattractive lesions on the skin, functional problems and disease chronicity. PMID:27828632

  20. Life-review therapy with computer supplements for depression in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preschl, Barbara; Maercker, Andreas; Wagner, Birgit; Forstmeier, Simon; Baños, Rosa M; Alcañiz, Mariano; Castilla, Diana; Botella, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Life-review therapy has been recognized as an effective therapeutic approach for depression in older adults. Additionally, the use of new media is becoming increasingly common in psychological interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate a life-review therapy in a face-to-face setting with additional computer use. This study explored whether a six-week life-review therapy with computer supplements from the e-mental health Butler system constitutes an effective approach to treat depression in older adults aged 65 and over. A total of 36 participants with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were randomized to a treatment group or a waiting-list control group and completed the post-assessment. Fourteen individuals in the intervention group completed the follow-up assessment. Analyses revealed significant changes from pre- to post-treatment or follow-up for depression, well-being, self-esteem, and obsessive reminiscence, but not for integrative reminiscence and life satisfaction. Depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time until the three-month follow-up in the intervention group compared to the control group (pre to post: d = 1.13; pre to follow-up: d = 1.27; and group × time effect pre to post: d = 0.72). Furthermore, the therapy led to an increase in well-being and a decrease in obsessive reminiscence among the participants in the intervention group from pre-treatment to follow-up (well-being: d = 0.70; obsessive reminiscence: d = 0.93). Analyses further revealed a significant but small group × time effect regarding self-esteem (d = 0.19). By and large, the results indicate that the life-review therapy in this combined setting could be recommended for depressive older adults.

  1. Symptoms of depression and quality of life in functional dyspepsia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Eko Cahyanto Neneng Ratnasari Agus Siswanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia is a common disorder characterized by heartburn, nausea, vomiting, bloating, feelingof fullness or early satiety, and belching. Functional dyspepsia (FD or non-ulcer dyspepsia is asyndrome without any physical or endoscopic abnormalities underlying these symptoms. Theimpacts of FD on psychological disturbances and quality of life in patients have been postulated.However, it has not much been a concern. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationshipbetween symptoms of depression and quality of life in patients with FD. This was an observationalstudy with cross-sectional design involving 30 patients. The symptoms of depression weremeasured by beck depression inventory (BDI and the quality of life of patients were measuredby SF-36. The results showed that FD were more suffered consecutively by female patients(66.7%, age over 45 years (53.4%, housewives (56.6%, educated graduates (56.6% andmarried (90.0%. Moreover, patients who experienced symptoms of clinical depression withlow, moderate and severe levels were 16.3%, 33.3% dan 10.0%, respectively. A significantcorrelation between depressive symptoms and the overall of patients quality of life was observed(r = 0.481; p<0.05. Furthermore analysis showed that among eight domains of health in SF-36analyzed, a negative significant correlation was observed between the depressive symptoms andthe three domains of health i.e. general physical function, limitation of motion caused byphysical problems, and vitality. In conclusion, there is a negative correlation between depressivesymptoms and quality of life in patients with FD.

  2. A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on quality of life and depression in older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marie; Moyle, Wendy; Shum, David; Harrison, Scott; Murfield, Jenny

    2010-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of live music on quality of life and depression in 47 older people with dementia using the Dementia Quality of Life and Geriatric Depression Scale. The control/reading group reported higher mid-point feelings of belonging than the music group (F(1, 45) = 6.672, p or= 50 per cent music session attendance found improvements in self-esteem over time (F(2, 46) = 4.471, p depressive symptoms had fewer depressive symptoms over time (F(2, 22) = 8.129, p music and reading activities can improve self-esteem, belonging and depression in some older people with dementia.

  3. Influence of depressive mood on quality of life ratings of women with epilepsy of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Koraliya S; Kaprelyan, Ara G

    2013-01-01

    Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. Depressive mood affects negatively quality of life (QOL) ratings, sometimes having greater impact than seizure-related variables. Women with epilepsy are a specific subgroup at risk of comorbid depression in consequence of certain biopsychosocial demands. The AIM of this study was to assess the relative contribution of mood, seizure-related and demographic variables on QOL scores in women with epilepsy of childbearing age. A psychiatric assessment was carried out of 65 women with epilepsy (aged 18-55, mean 37.23 +/- 11.83 yrs). Comorbid depressive disorder was diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. Its severity was evaluated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17). A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was completed. Two self-assessment questionnaires were administered: the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31). The data were analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 17.0). Univariate correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed to explore the association between possible prognostic variables (independent variables) and QOLIE-31 overall and subscale scores (dependent variables). Analysis showed that demographic factors: employment and education; seizure-related factors: seizure severity, seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug therapy and comorbid depressive disorder were the variables significantly associated with QOLIE-31 overall score (p Paying attention to the psychological needs of women with epilepsy will have a positive effect on their QOL.

  4. Identifying the quality of life effects of urinary incontinence with depression in an Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Jodie C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life. Methods Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2% were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610, and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459 of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression were more likely to be aged between 15 and 34 years and never married when compared to those with incontinence only. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in people with incontinence, the risk of having comorbid depression was increased by an overall health status of Fair or Poor, or the perception that their incontinence was moderately or very serious. Respondents reporting that they experienced incontinence with comorbid depression scored significantly lower than those experiencing incontinence without depression on all dimensions of the SF-36. The interaction of the presence of incontinence and the presence of depression was significantly associated with the dimensions of physical functioning. Conclusions Depression and incontinence both reduce QOL. When they occur together there appears to be an additive effect which affects both physical and mental health, perhaps by increasing a person’s negative perceptions of their illness. Clinicians should identify and manage comorbid depression when treating patients who have incontinence to improve their overall QOL.

  5. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  6. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  7. Levels of depression and satisfaction with life as indicators of health services consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Roi; Amitai, Maya; Weizman, Abraham; Aizenberg, Dov

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the correlation between depression, satisfaction with life, and primary healthcare services consumption. A random sample of primary healthcare clinic patients agreed to complete self-report questionnaires on demographics and physical activity, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Visual Analog Scale for Happiness. Treating physicians completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) for each patient. The relationships among psychometric, medical, the number of visits to health maintenance organization (HMO)-physicians during the previous year was assessed. Positive correlation was found between visits to HMO-physicians and depression severity, as assessed by GDS (p = .049), and between visits/year and illness severity, as measured by CIRS (p satisfaction with life. The results indicate that there is a correlation between depression and healthcare service consumption, as represented by number of HMO-physician visits and medication use. Thus, early detection of depression, using tools such as GDS, and early initiation of antidepressive treatment may help to lower the burden on the health system.

  8. RESILIENCE AND DEPRESSION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY FROM THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Restrepo-Restrepo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research had as aim to evaluate the relationships between resilience,depression and the health-related quality of life in 36 adolescents from schoolsin the city of Medellin, Colombia. The design of this study was exploratory-transversal-correlation. The instruments used were: the quality of life questionnairefor children Kid-Kindl, the adolescent resilience scale -ARS; children’s depressioninventory -CDI.The results to descriptive levels demonstrate a favorable quality of life, high resiliencescores and not clinically significant levels of childhood depression. Inmultiple linear regressions analysis showed that emotion regulation dimensionARS scale had a positive weight on the quality of life as childhood depressionhad a negative weight on this variable. In conclusion, the perception of quality oflife in adolescents can be modulated positive or negatively by the resilience anddepression.

  9. Revised multicultural perspective index and measures of depression, life satisfaction, shyness, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, Robert R; Parker, Keesha N

    2004-12-01

    In a 2002 publication, Mowrer and McCarver reported weak but significant correlations (r =.24) between scores on the Multicultural Perspective Index and scores on Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's 1961 Life Satisfaction Index-A and the Life Satisfaction Scale developed in 1985 by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin. Using 382 undergraduate students the present study reduced the Index from 42 to 29 items based on each item's correlation with total items. An additional 104 undergraduate students then completed the modified 29-item version, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Cheek and Buss's Shyness Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale by Zung, and the Neugarten, et al. Life Satisfaction Index-A. Scores on the modified Index were negatively correlated with those on the Depression and Shyness scales and positively correlated with scores on the Self-esteem and Life Satisfaction scales (p< .05).

  10. Hopelessness, depression and social support with end of life Turkish cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Zümrüt Akgün; Tan, Mehtap; Polat, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate relationships between different demographic variables and hopelessness and depression in end of life Turkish cancer patients. This study was a descriptive survey with repeated measures conducted a university hospital in the city of Erzurum, in the eastern part of Turkey. The study enrolled 216 patients undergoing palliative treatment at the hospital. Data were collected using questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS) and analyzed for demographic and disease-related variable effects on hopelessness and depression. Th hopelessness score was significantly high in female, illiterate, married, and living in rural areas cancer patients. Both hopelessness and depression scores were significantly higher with longer disease duration, receiving radiotherapy treatment, and having metastatic disease. These findings demonstrate the coexistence of the physical, psychological, and cognitive problems faced by patients with cancer. Nurses can conduct brief screening assessments to identify patients with probable distress and and psychosocial support, as well as referrals to support services.

  11. Daily life or diagnosis? Dual perspectives on perinatal depression within maternal and child health home visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah Kye; Cohen-Filipic, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a qualitative inquiry-informing program development in a maternal and child home visiting program. Low-income women's perceptions of the meaning and experiences of depression were ascertained through focus groups and interviews. Simultaneously, the study examines staff member perceptions and roles related to depression. Specific findings from clients and staff reveal culturally situated beliefs about depression and stressful life events; comparing and contrasting these beliefs offers a novel perspective on identification and intervention for maternal depression. This study offers a foundation for a translational research agenda that will be used for program and policy development to enhance mental health services situated within maternal and child health home visiting programs.

  12. Depression and resilience mediates the effect of family function on quality of life of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canjie; Yuan, Lexin; Lin, Weiquan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Shengmao

    2017-07-01

    Family function, which improves individual resilience and strongly link to quality of life (QOL) among the elderly, increases the risk of depression. Because of these demonstrated relationships, it can be hypothesized that both depression and resilience are mediators of the association between family function and QOL. To test this hypothesis, the structural equation model (SEM) constructed by Amos 21.0 was employed to assess the indirect effect of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) and resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC) on the relationship between family function (Family APGAR Score, APGAR) and QOL (12-item Short Form health survey, SF-12) in 474 elderly adults from three communities in Guangzhou, China. Correlation matrix showed that depression is significantly negatively correlated with family functioning (r=-0.54, Presilience (r=-0.46, Presilience is significantly positively correlated with family functioning (r=0.35, Presilience (β=0.089) and depression (β=0.307; combined β=0.056) on QOL (R(2)=0.55). The model fit indices showed a good fit of the model of the data (χ(2)/df=1.362, P>0.05, SRMR=0.023, RMSEA=0.028, GFI=0.985, NFI=0.987, TLI=0.993, CFI=0.996). The finding supports the assumption that depression and resilience are consistent intermediary factors of the relationship between family function and QOL among the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  14. Influence of Craniosacral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez; Gloria Carballo García; Carmen Moreno-Lorenzo; Tesifón Parrón Carreño; María Dolores Onieva Zafra

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is considered as a combination of physical, psychological and social disabilities. The causes of pathologic mechanism underlying fibromyalgia are unknown, but fibromyalgia may lead to reduced quality of life. The objective of this study was to analyze the repercussions of craniosacral therapy on depression, anxiety and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients with painful symptoms. An experimental, double-blind longitudinal clinical trial design was undertaken. Eighty-four patien...

  15. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  16. The thread of depression throughout the life and works of Leo Tolstoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anargyros-Klinger, Annie

    2002-04-01

    Tolstoy, the author of two masterpieces, War and Peace and Anna Karenina, remains a writer of genius. Yet, after writing War and Peace, his existence had been torn apart by a serious depression. This depression, which was melancholic in character, almost destroyed him and, once he had finished Anna Karenina, led him to want to renounce not only sexuality but also literary creation and material possessions. Through examining Tolstoy's life and work, the author tries to uncover the underground paths of this depression, which emerged brutally in the middle of his life, and to understand why his creative genius dried up. Like Leonardo da Vinci, Tolstoy turned away from his artistic work, declaring that 'art is not only useless but even harmful', and thereafter devoted himself to philosophical, political and religious writings. These new sublimations would help him to recover his health.

  17. Multidimensional Perfectionism, Depression, and Satisfaction with Life: Differences among Perfectionists and Tests of a Stress-Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina L.; Gnilka, Philip B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, stress, depression, and satisfaction with life in a sample of undergraduate women. The authors found that maladaptive perfectionists had lower satisfaction with life and higher stress and depression scores compared with adaptive perfectionists. Results also…

  18. Depression, anxiety and quality-of-life among relatives of patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Welling, Karen-Lise; Qvist, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Primary objective: To investigate the emotional well-being of relatives of patients with a severe brain injury in the acute setting, as well as risk factors associated with high anxiety and depression scores and impaired quality-of-life. Research design: Clinical convenience sample. Methods...

  19. Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS – development of the scale and Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkowicz, Mikołaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to adapt the Quality of Life in Depression Scale to Polish conditions. The scale determines the quality of life, defined in terms of the concept of needs, and focuses on patients with depressive disorders. Since its basic version has been developed, the tool was adapted in many countries, also outside Europe.Method. The adaptation procedure included the translation of the original version into Polish, followed by the English retranslation, and was performed by four independent, qualified translators. The final Polish version was verified during a pilot study.Results. This pilot study confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of Quality of Life in Depression Scale.Conclusion. The Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS can be considered an interesting tool in view of its broad theoretical background, and a simple procedure to complete during a clinical evaluation. The use of a specialist translation procedure, and the results of our pilot study suggest that the QLDS can be used in further research, both when evaluating a clinical population and when dealing with individual patients.

  20. Atherosclerosis decreases the impact of neuroticism in late-life depression : hypothesis of vascular apathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wouts, Lonneke; Holewijn, Suzanne; Franke, Barbara; de Graaf, Jacqueline; den Heijer, Martin; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the interplay between subclinical atherosclerotic disease and neuroticism in explaining variance in late-life depressive symptoms. METHODS: This study was part of the Nijmegen Biomedical Study, a population-based survey; 1,517 participants aged 50-70 years were included. Depres

  1. Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Jojanneke; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:

  2. Stepped-care prevention of anxiety and depression in late life. A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer-Tazelaar, van 't P.J.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hout, van H.P.J.; Horst, van der H.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Context Given the public health significance of late-life depression and anxiety, and the limited capacity of treatment, there is an urgent need to develop effective strategies to prevent these disorders. Objective To determine the effectiveness of an indicated stepped-care prevention progr

  3. Quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with an untreated intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaaf, IC; Brilstra, EH; Rinkel, GJE; Bossuyt, PM; van Gijn, J

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose-The objective of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients who are aware of the presence of a patent aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. Methods-Participants were retrospectively identified and invited to

  4. Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: The Impact of Depression, Fatigue, and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksel Karatepe, Altlnay; Kaya, Taciser; Gunaydn, Rezzan; Demirhan, Aylin; Ce, Plnar; Gedizlioglu, Muhtesem

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to evaluate its association with disability and psychosocial factors especially depression and fatigue. Methods: Demographic characteristics, education level, disease severity, and disease duration were documented for each patient. QoL,…

  5. The effects of yoga on the quality of life and depression in elderly breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagli, Naciye Vardar; Ulger, Ozlem

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of yoga on the quality of life in patients with cancer. Twenty patients (10 were in yoga program, 10 were in exercise group) between 65 and 70 years of age under going treatment for cancer were included in the study. Physical characteristics of the patients were recorded and general physiotherapy assessments performed. Eight sessions of a classical yoga program including warming and breathing exercises, asanas, relaxation in supine position, and meditation and 8 sessions of classical exercise program were applied to participants. Before and after yoga and exercise program, quality of life assessments for the patients were conducted using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Patients' depression levels were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Their level of pain, fatigue and sleep quality was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS). It was found that all patients' quality of life scores after the yoga and exercise program were better than scores obtained before the yoga and exercise program (p 0.05). When the groups were compared in terms of depression, pain, fatigue, and sleep quality, statistically significant differences were found in all parameters between pre and post treatment values for both groups (p quality were found statistically different between the groups in favor of Group I (p depression, pain, fatigue and helps cancer patients to perform daily and routine activities, and increases the quality of life in elderly patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Late-life depression: systematic assessment of care needs as a basis for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; D.J.H. Deeg; W. Houtjes

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that most of the variance in depression severity levels in late life can be explained by the unmet psychological needs of patients, more in particular the care needs of patients related with psychological distress. This case report describes the treatment of an 84-year-old patient

  7. Risk Factors for Preschool Depression: The Mediating Role of Early Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family history of mood disorders and stressful life events are both established risk factors for childhood depression. However, the role of mediators in risk trajectories, which are potential targets for intervention, remains understudied. To date, there have been no investigations of mediating relationships between risk factors and…

  8. Late-life depression: systematic assessment of care needs as a basis for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtjes, W.; Meijel, B. van; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that most of the variance in depression severity levels in late life can be explained by the unmet psychological needs of patients, more in particular the care needs of patients related with psychological distress. This case report describes the treatment of an 84-year-old patient suf

  9. Depression and quality of life in monogenic compared to idiopathic, early-onset Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasten, M.; Kertelge, L.; Tadic, V.; Bruggemann, N.; Schmidt, A.; Vegt, J.P.M. van der; Siebner, H.; Buhmann, C.; Lencer, R.; Kumar, K.R.; Lohmann, K.; Hagenah, J.; Klein, C.

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is decreased in PD and is linked with depression and anxiety. However, little is known about QoL in monogenic PD. Subjects with mutations in PD genes were recruited from ongoing family and genetic studies (manifesting carriers, n = 23; nonmanifesting carriers, n = 19). For comp

  10. Personal Resources and Homelessness in Early Life: Predictors of Depression in Consumers of Homeless Multiservice Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, Bruce R.; Belcher, John R.; O'Rourke, Michael; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between personal resources and previous adverse life events such as homelessness and depression. Participants were recruited from two church sponsored multisite social service centers in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The interview included demographics and several standardized scales to assess history of…

  11. Reduced sleep quality and depression associate with decreased quality of life in patients with pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, Sarah M; Klotsche, Jens; Dimopoulou, Christina; Athanasoulia, Anastasia P; Roemmler-Zehrer, Josefine; Pieper, Lars; Schopohl, Jochen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K; Fulda, Stephany; Sievers, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Several studies reported decreased quality of life (QoL) and sleep as well as increased rates of depression for patients with pituitary adenomas. Our aim was to explore to what extent differences in depression and sleep quality contribute to differences in QoL between patients with pituitary adenomas and controls. A cross-sectional case-control study. Endocrine Outpatient Unit of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Department of Internal Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, and the Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technical University, Dresden. Patients with pituitary adenomas (n=247) and controls (from the DETECT cohort, a large epidemiological study in primary care patients) matched individually by age and gender (n=757). Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and QoL was measured by the generic EQ-5D and calculated by the time trade-off- and VAS-method. Depression was categorized as 'no depression', 'subclinical depression', and 'clinical depression' according to the Beck Depressions Inventory for patients and the Depression Screening Questionnaire for control subjects. General linear and generalized, logistic mixed models as well as proportional odds mixed models were calculated for analyzing differences in baseline characteristics and in different subgroups. Patients with pituitary adenomas showed decreased QoL (VAS index: 0.73±0.19) and sleep (PSQI score: 6.75±4.17) as well as increased rates of depression (subclinical or clinical depression: 41.4%) compared with their matched control subjects (VAS index: 0.79±0.18, PSQI score: 5.66±4.31, subclinical or clinical depression: 25.9%). We have shown that a substantial proportion of the reduced QoL (48% respectively 65%) was due to the incidence of depression and reduced sleep quality. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosing depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances in patients with pituitary disease, with the ultimate

  12. Imaging Alzheimer pathology in late-life depression with PET and Pittsburgh Compound-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Meryl A; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Price, Julie C; Ziolko, Scott K; Hoge, Jessica A; Tsopelas, Nicholas D; Lopresti, Brian J; Reynolds, Charles F; DeKosky, Steven T; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for an empiric link between late-life depression and Alzheimer disease (AD). The neuropathology of AD, previously only confirmed at autopsy, may now be detectable in vivo using selective imaging ligands for beta-amyloid. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C] 6-OH-BTA-1 [Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)] has shown high tracer retention in cortical areas in patients with clinical diagnoses of probable AD and low retention in age-matched controls. We also previously reported variable PiB retention in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we used PiB-PET to evaluate whether amyloid is present in elders with treated major depression, many of whom have persistent cognitive impairment. We evaluated 9 subjects with remitted major depression [3M: 6F, mean (SD) age=71.8(5.7) y]. Seven of the 9 depressed subjects also met criteria for the diagnosis of MCI. PiB-PET data from healthy elders [n=8; mean (SD) age=71.5(3.0) y] were used for comparison. PET was acquired with arterial sampling and PiB retention was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortical regions and graphical analysis of time-activity data; arterial line failure led to exclusion of 1 depressed subject. The data demonstrated variably elevated PiB retention. PiB retention in the 2 depressed subjects with normal cognitive ability was in the range of nondepressed cognitively normal subjects. PiB retention in 3 of the 6 depressed subjects with MCI fell in the range of subjects with AD. PiB retention in the remaining 3 depressed subjects with cooccurring MCI was variable and generally was intermediate to the other subjects. Our findings are consistent with and supportive of the hypothesis that depression may herald the development of AD in some individuals.

  13. Quality of Life and Spiritual Well-Being in Geriatric Patients With Chronic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadmehr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Most people do not appreciate the aging period because of lack of knowledge or unknown backgrounds; therefore, they get affected by chronic mental disorders. Depression is one of the most predominant chronic mental disorders. Objectives In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between quality of life (QOL and spiritual well-being among geriatric retired employees of the oil industry in Khuzestan, Iran, who had chronic depression. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 200 retired employees of the oil industry in Khuzestan, Iran, selected using simple random sampling technique. The variables were measured by three different standard questionnaires, including the QOL questionnaire (SF12, spiritual well-being scale (SWB, and depression scale (GDS. Results The mean age of the study group was 65 ± 4 years. Most of the patients had elementary or middle school level of education (44%. Hypertension was the predominant chronic disease associated with depression (37%. The mean QOL, spiritual well-being, and depression scores were 27.9 ± 6.4, 105 ± 13.8, and 4.2 ± 4.35, respectively. Spiritual well-being had a significant negative correlation with depression (P = 0.0001, indicating that the prevalence of chronic diseases such as depression decreased as spiritual well-being increased. There was also a significant negative correlation between the QOL and depression (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The results of our study showed that chronic depression disorder was significantly correlated with QOL and spiritual well-being of the elderly. To have healthy, independent, and happy geriatrics, it is important to consider such problems.

  14. Prevalence of anxiety, depression and quality of life in HTLV-1 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Polo Gascón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The HAM/TSP caused by HTLV-1 infection usually affects patients to disabling states, and sometimes can lead them to paraplegia presenting symptoms of depression and anxiety, impacting on quality of life. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of depression and anxiety and its impact on quality of life in HTLV-1-infected TSP/HAM patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 67 asymptomatic (control group and 63 with TSP/HAM subjects. The instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, scales for anxiety and depression diagnosis (BDI and BAI, questionnaire for the assessment of Quality of Life of the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-Brief and neurological scale to measure the disability level (Osame's Disability Status Scale. All patients had HTLV-I diagnosis by serological and molecular approaches, monitored at Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from May 2008 to July 2009. Data were analyzed statistically by frequencies, the Mann-Whitney test and the Spearman correlation test. Data among groups were analyzed and correlated with functional and severity aspects. Results: The results showed that patients with HAM/TSP compared to asymptomatic carriers had higher rates of depression (p < 0.001 and anxiety (p < 0.001, and impairment on quality of life in the areas of: dissatisfaction with health (p < 0.001, physical (p < 0.001 and the environment (p = 0.003. The main factors that correlated with levels of depression and anxiety and the domains of the WHOQOL-brief were: education, family income and social class. Conclusion: A well conducted evaluation and counseling may help in treatment, for a better quality of life of these patients.

  15. Prevalence of anxiety, depression and quality of life in HTLV-1 infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Maria Rita Polo; Capitão, Claudio Garcia; Casseb, Jorge; Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini; Smid, Jerusa; Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva de

    2011-01-01

    The HAM/TSP caused by HTLV-1 infection usually affects patients to disabling states, and sometimes can lead them to paraplegia presenting symptoms of depression and anxiety, impacting on quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of depression and anxiety and its impact on quality of life in HTLV-1-infected TSP/HAM patients. This was a cross-sectional study including 67 asymptomatic (control group) and 63 with TSP/HAM subjects. The instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, scales for anxiety and depression diagnosis (BDI and BAI), questionnaire for the assessment of Quality of Life of the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-Brief) and neurological scale to measure the disability level (Osame's Disability Status Scale). All patients had HTLV-I diagnosis by serological and molecular approaches, monitored at Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from May 2008 to July 2009. Data were analyzed statistically by frequencies, the Mann-Whitney test and the Spearman correlation test. Data among groups were analyzed and correlated with functional and severity aspects. The results showed that patients with HAM/TSP compared to asymptomatic carriers had higher rates of depression (p < 0.001) and anxiety (p < 0.001), and impairment on quality of life in the areas of: dissatisfaction with health (p < 0.001), physical (p < 0.001) and the environment (p = 0.003). The main factors that correlated with levels of depression and anxiety and the domains of the WHOQOL-brief were: education, family income and social class. A well conducted evaluation and counseling may help in treatment, for a better quality of life of these patients.

  16. Adjunctive atypical antipsychotic treatment for major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of depression, quality of life, and safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Berman, Margit I; Linardatos, Eftihia; Rosenlicht, Nicholas Z; Perry, Angela; Tsai, Alexander C

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications are widely prescribed for the adjunctive treatment of depression, yet their total risk-benefit profile is not well understood. We thus conducted a systematic review of the efficacy and safety profiles of atypical antipsychotic medications used for the adjunctive treatment of depression. We included randomized trials comparing adjunctive antipsychotic medication to placebo for treatment-resistant depression in adults. Our literature search (conducted in December 2011 and updated on December 14, 2012) identified 14 short-term trials of aripiprazole, olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC), quetiapine, and risperidone. When possible, we supplemented published literature with data from manufacturers' clinical trial registries and US Food and Drug Administration New Drug Applications. Study duration ranged from 4 to 12 wk. All four drugs had statistically significant effects on remission, as follows: aripiprazole (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.48-2.73), OFC (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.01-2.0), quetiapine (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.33-2.42), and risperidone (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 19 for OFC and nine for each other drug. All drugs with the exception of OFC also had statistically significant effects on response rates, as follows: aripiprazole (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.58-2.72; NNT, 7), OFC (OR, 1.30, 95% CI, 0.87-1.93), quetiapine (OR, 1.53, 95% CI, 1.17-2.0; NNT, 10), and risperidone (OR, 1.83, 95% CI, 1.16-2.88; NNT, 8). All four drugs showed statistically significant effects on clinician-rated depression severity measures (Hedges' g ranged from 0.26 to 0.48; mean difference of 2.69 points on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale across drugs). On measures of functioning and quality of life, these medications produced either no benefit or a very small benefit, except for risperidone, which had a small-to-moderate effect on quality of life (g = 0.49). Treatment was linked to several adverse

  17. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  18. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-02-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs.

  20. Quality of life and depression in a population of occupational hand eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovski, Rikke Skoet; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    has considerable impact on quality of life (QoL) and may lead to depression. The aims of the study were to determine risk factors for low QoL, the frequency and severity of depression among OHE patients and changes in QoL and depression after 12 months of follow up. The study population, 758 patients......, comprised all new recognized cases from the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries Registry between October 2001 and November 2002. All patients received a questionnaire to determine impairment of QoL and depressive symptoms. A similar follow-up questionnaire was posted after 1 year. The response rate...... was 82% at baseline and 91% at follow up. The mean Dermatology Life Quality Index total score was 5.5 for all patients and 7.8 for severe OHE cases. Severe OHE cases and lower socioeconomic status were independently associated with low QoL. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression was 9%. Only...

  1. Determining the quality of life of depressed patients in Singapore through a multiple mediation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Hui; Tang, Catherine; Ng, Winnie W N; Ho, Cyrus S H; Ho, Roger C M

    2015-12-01

    Quality of Life (QOL) is reported to be lower for patients with depression than the general population. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of protective resource factors (PSFs), such as depressive symptom management ability, self-efficacy, social support and problem-focused coping act, in the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and QOL. It is hypothesized that these PSFs have different mediating strengths. Self-report questionnaires which aimed to determine the influences of these PSFs through a multiple mediation framework were completed by 80 depressed adult outpatients from the National University Hospital of Singapore. PSFs have different influence on mental and physical QOL. Depressive symptom management ability is the most important PSF mediating both domains and better problem-focused coping abilities demonstrate improvement in the physical domain of QOL. Self-efficacy and social support are shown to be non-significant mediators. The results suggest for future effective interventions to focus primarily on improving depression patients' symptom management ability and problem-focused coping skills to raise their life quality. Furthermore, findings from this study have implications on the future investigation of QOL as a unitary construct.

  2. Perceived Cognitive Decline in Multiple Sclerosis Impacts Quality of Life Independently of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros Samartzis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of perceived cognitive dysfunction and of depression, on self-reported QoL, in a Greek population sample of MS patients. Methods. One hundred outpatients diagnosed with MS completed the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, as well as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ and the Depression subscale of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI, as part of a clinical evaluation which included the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS estimation. Multiple linear regression was conducted to determine the best linear combination of age, gender, education, EDSS, depression, attention/concentration, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and planning/organization, for predicting QoL scores. Results. In the multivariate regression analysis models, EDSS (P<0.05, depression (P<0.001, perceived planning/organization (P<0.05, and perceived retrospective memory dysfunction (P<0.05 independently predict quality of life scores. Age, sex, education level, and perceived attention/concentration dysfunction, as well as perceived prospective memory dysfunction, do not independently predict quality of life scores. Conclusions. Perceived planning/organization impairment and perceived retrospective memory impairment in MS patients predict QoL independently of the severity of disease and the severity of depression and therefore should be considered in the assessment of patient health status as well as in the design of treatment interventions and rehabilitation.

  3. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in Iranian mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Maryam; Attar, Hoda Alizadeh; Shoar, Zohreh

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is being more recognized and diagnosed in developing as well as developed countries. We aimed to investigate the frequency of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in mothers of children with ASD in Iranian families. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on demographic data and mental health characteristics of 127 mothers of children with ASD. Mothers of children with ASD had high levels of anxiety (72.4%), depression (49.6%), and low scores of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There was strong association between the child's age and the severity of mother's depression and QOL. Duration since diagnosis of ASD positively correlated with maternal depression. Anxiety, depression, and low HRQOL are more common in Iranian mothers with autistic children in our study. Our findings have implications for further investigation in mental health status of mothers of children with ASD, and providing educational support and interventional strategies may improve the mental health status of the entire family.

  4. Conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding after depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lisbeth; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically explores critical psychological conceptualisations of conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding. The analysis of conduct of everyday life for people who have been hospitalized with depression shows experiences of doubleness. We understand...... doubleness as dilemmas, conflicts and contradictions in the conduct of everyday life. The case analysis of Steven serves to illustrate how cyclic routines can matter, fulfilling meaning in life and being both in conflict and contradiction to other concerns and aspects of meaning that vary over time....... The paper empirically how these kind of conflicts, dilemmas and contradictions are much more complex, than what is possible to grasp in Holzkamp's understanding of conduct of everyday life (Holzkamp, 1998), which tends to produce dualistic opposition between cyclic everyday conduct (such as everyday life...

  5. The association between the quality of life and depression of elderly in a nursing home institutional setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubica Ilievová; Peter Žitný; Jana Jakobejova

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of life is perceived individually and subjectively. The quality of life of elderly people in nursing home nursing homes depends on the degree to which their needs are fulfilled. The need to adapt to a new environment in an older age is a risky situation and may result in depression. The aim of the study was to analyze the change of quality of life and level of depression, as well as possible association of quality of life and level of depression, in elderly people ad...

  6. Best practices for the nonpharmacological treatment of depression at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Emily Kathryn; Lazenby, Mark

    2012-05-01

    This literature review summarizes the current research on nonpharmacological management of depressive symptoms for patients nearing the end of their lives. Research suggests that major depressive disorder may affect terminally ill adults at a disproportionately high rate. Psychotherapy has not been shown to have consistent benefits among patients in the final months of life. Semi-psychotherapeutic (life review) techniques are likely most effective in patients in the final weeks of life. Non-psychotherapeutic techniques such as hypnotherapy have not been studied sufficiently to be recommended as first-line treatments. Based on the current research, it is our recommendation that psychotherapy be used first-line in patients with approximately 6 months or more to live, and that semi-psychotherapeutic techniques be first-line in patients with 6 months or less to live.

  7. Intrinsic religiosity, resilience, quality of life, and suicide risk in depressed inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueiro, Bruno Paz; da Rocha, Neusa Sica; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Religiosity is inversely related to depression and is directly associated with positive psychological outcomes. Nonetheless, there is no consensus on whether or how religiosity could impact and protect against depression. The present study evaluated the association between intrinsic religiosity and resilient psychological characteristics in depressed inpatients. A sample of 143 depressed patients was prospectively evaluated in an inpatient psychiatric treatment in South Brazil. High Intrinsic Religiosity (HIR) and Low Intrinsic Religiosity (LIR) patients were compared across socio-demographic information, clinical measures, religiosity, resilience and quality of life. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between intrinsic religiosity and resilience, and the Cohen d test was utilized to assess effect sizes. At admission, HIR patients showed higher HAM-D (p=0.05), BPRS (p=0.02), GAF (p=0.02), and CGI (p=0.03) scores, lower educational levels (p=0.04), higher social support (p=0.05), and fewer previous suicide attempts (p=0.05). At discharge, HIR patients showed higher quality of life (p=0.001) and higher resilience (p=0.000), with a large effect size difference between groups (1.02). Based on a linear regression model (adjusted r=0.19, p=0.000), intrinsic religiosity was associated with resilience, controlling for covariates. In a sample of depressed inpatients, intrinsic religiosity was found to be associated with resilience, quality of life, and fewer previous suicide attempts. These findings support the relevance of religiosity assessments in mental health practice and support the hypothesis that resilient psychological characteristics may mediate the positive effects of intrinsic religiosity in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis in Turkey: relationship to depression and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Derya; Okanli, Ayşe; Sezgin, Serap; Ekinci, Mine

    2010-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the self-reported quality of life (QOL) in a group of Turkish patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to analyze whether the QOL was associated with fatigue and depression. The study used a descriptive design. A number of evaluation scales were administered to a study sample comprising 47 outpatients. The Short Form 36 for QOL, the Beck Depression Inventory for Depression, and the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue were used. The mean score for general QOL was 34.8 and indicated low QOL in MS patients. The results of our study have also shown that fatigue and depression strongly influence QOL in Turkish MS patients. Our findings may have important implications for the overall care of MS patients. The QOL of MS patients was affected negatively. Both fatigue and depression are common and treatable manifestations of MS, and these symptoms should be screened carefully in all MS patients. Care of MS patients requires the collaboration of all team members. Nurses have a key role as part of this team through the continuity of the care they provide and interaction with patients. Awareness of depression and fatigue can contribute to the nurses' ability to provide psychological support and enhance the QOL in MS patients.

  9. Stuck in the past: negative bias, explanatory style, temporal order, and evaluative perspectives in life narratives of clinically depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ott, Lisa-M; Schubert, Merve; Schneider, Beatrix; Pate, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to replicate negative bias and depressive explanatory style in depression using life narratives. The two central aspects of narrative, temporal succession and evaluation, were also explored. These aspects were tested for the first time using entire life narratives of 17 depressed inpatients and non-depressed controls matched for sex and educational level. Negative bias and depressive explanatory style were replicated as typical for the depressed group. Life narratives of depressed patients also deviated more from a linear temporal order and compared less frequently the past with the present. Contrary to expectations, the depressed did not differ in the overall frequency of evaluations. However, they used more past than present evaluations and more experience-near evaluations than cognitive evaluations, suggesting that they are more immersed in past experiences. It is concluded that negative bias and depressive explanatory style can be found also in a naturalistic narrative measure, and that depression affects the two major aspects of narrative. It is argued that life narratives, as measures close to everyday clinical practice and as the most encompassing form of self-representation, should complement more experimental procedures in the study of cognitive and communicative processes in psychopathology.

  10. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  11. Depression, anxiety and quality of life scores in seniors after an endurance exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Hanna Karen Moreira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders are a frequent problem in old age, and their symptoms constitute an important public health issue. These alterations affect the quality of life mainly by restricting social life. The participation in a regular exercise program is an effective way of reducing or preventing the functional decline associated with aging. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fitness-endurance activity (at the intensity of Ventilatory Threshold 1 (VT-1 in depression, anxiety and quality of life scores in seniors. METHODS: The study involved 46 sedentary seniors aged 60-75 (66.97 ± 4.80 who were randomly allocated to two groups: 1 Control group, which was neither asked to vary their everyday activities nor to join a regular physical fitness program; and 2 Experimental group, whose members took part in an aerobic fitness program consisting of ergometer cycle sessions 3 times a week on alternate days for six months working at a heart rate corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT-1 intensity. Subjects were submitted to a basal evaluation using the geriatric depression screening scale - GDS, STAI trait/state (anxiety scale and SF-36 (quality of life scale. RESULTS: Comparing the groups after the study period, we found a significant decrease in depressive and anxiety scores and an improvement in the quality of life in the experimental group, but no significant changes in the control group. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that an aerobic exercise program at VT-1 intensity suffices to promote favorable modifications in depressive and anxiety scores to improve the quality of life in seniors.

  12. Quality of life and pain in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder: The POWER Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonbolian Nina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas it is established that organic pain may induce depression, it is unclear whether pain is more common in healthy subjects with depression. We assessed the prevalence of pain in premenopausal women with major depression (MDD. Subjects were 21- to 45-year-old premenopausal women with MDD (N = 70; age: 35.4 +/- 6.6; mean +/- SD and healthy matched controls (N = 36; age 35.4 +/- 6.4 participating in a study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteopenia/Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression Study. Methods Patients received a clinical assessment by a pain specialist, which included the administration of two standardized forms for pain, the Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form, and the Initial Pain Assessment Tool, and two scales of everyday stressors, the Hassles and Uplifts Scales. In addition, a quality-of-life instrument, the SF-36, was used. The diagnosis of MDD was established by a semi-structured interview, according to the DSM-IV criteria. Substance P (SP and calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP, neuropeptides which are known mediators of pain, were measured every hour for 24 h in a subgroup of patients (N = 17 and controls (N = 14. Results Approximately one-half of the women with depression reported pain of mild intensity. Pain intensity was significantly correlated with the severity of depression (r2 = 0.076; P = 0.04 and tended to be correlated with the severity of anxiety, (r2 = 0.065; P = 0.07, and the number of depressive episodes (r2 = 0.072; P = 0.09. Women with MDD complained of fatigue, insomnia, and memory problems and experienced everyday negative stressors more frequently than controls. Quality of life was decreased in women with depression, as indicated by lower scores in the emotional and social well-being domains of the SF-36. SP (P Conclusion Women with depression experienced pain more frequently than controls, had a lower quality of life, and complained more of daily stressors

  13. Mid-life socioeconomic status, depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status among older adults: inter-relationships and temporal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Weng, Li-Jen

    2016-04-20

    Few longitudinal studies have analyzed how socioeconomic status (SES) influences both depressive and cognitive development over an individual's life course. This study investigates the change trajectories of both depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status, as well as their associations over time, focusing on the effects of mid-life SES. Data were obtained from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (1993-2007), a nationally representative cohort study of older adults in Taiwan. The short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology in two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect) was used. General cognitive status was assessed using the brief Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire scale. Assessments of the subjects' mid-life SES included measurement of the participant's education and occupation. Analyses were conducted by the parallel latent growth curve modeling. The participants' initial levels of depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status were significantly and negatively correlated; furthermore, any changes in these two outcomes were also correlated over time. The initial assessment of general cognitive status significantly contributed to any advancement towards more severe depressive symptomatology over time, particularly when this occurred in a negative manner. Furthermore, a mid-life SES advantage resulted in a significant reduction in late-life depressive symptomatology and also produced a slower decline in general cognitive status during later life. In contrast, lower mid-life SES exacerbated depressive symptomatology during old age, both at the initial assessment and in terms of the change over time. In addition, female gender was significantly associated with lower general cognitive status and more severe depressive symptomatology in negative affect. These findings suggest a complex and longitudinal association between depressive symptomatology and

  14. Depressive symptoms and quality of life in people with age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Remy Sheena; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R; Beaumont, Paul; Vaegan; Madigan, Michele C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine quality of life and associated factors in people with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Methods: One hundred and forty-five AMD participants (mean age 78.0 +/- 7.7 years) and 104 age- and gender- matched controls (mean age 78.1 +/- 5.8 years) comprised the study populations for this case-control study. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression (GAD) scale; general health and daily functioning was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Stu...

  15. Psychosocial factors of modern work life and incident depression in Denmark 2000-06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Else; Thielen, Karsten; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    depression, or missing values, were excluded, leaving 3158 persons for the prospective analyses. Psychosocial factors of modern work life 2000 were measured by scales on work pressure, work pace, emotional pressure, learning opportunities, variation of work, meaningfulness, social support from colleagues....... By logistic regression we calculated odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs) for depression, controlling for age, sex, occupational social position, family status, alcohol consumption, seniority and MDI score at baseline. Results Preliminary results showed that work pace (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1...

  16. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  17. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schütz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies.Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale. In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS, life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale, and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales.Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit, communal (e.g., social affiliation, and spiritual (e.g., religion values when pursuing happiness.Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  18. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Erica; Sailer, Uta; Al Nima, Ali; Rosenberg, Patricia; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies. Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS) and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale). In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS), life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale), and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales). Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit), communal (e.g., social affiliation), and spiritual (e.g., religion) values when pursuing happiness. Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  19. Impact of climacteric and depressive symptoms on the quality of life of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Ewa Pawlak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quality of life consists of many elements that affect the creation of the level of QoL. Women with postmenopausal may experience a phenomenon of loneliness. This phenomenon can be caused by the effects they had on menopausal symptoms and depression from private and professional life. Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of menopausal symptoms and depression on quality of life in postmenopausal women. Material and methods . The survey was performed among 128 women after menopause. The mean age was 64.20 ± 8.61, median 65 years. The study used a questionnaire consisting of the SF-36, Kupperman Index, Beck Depression Scale and the author’s questionnaire. Results . The sense of mental health – MH women found at most, which was equal to 69.47. Meanwhile, the general level of health – HP was rated the lowest of only 46.68. Of the 128 respondents revealed menopausal symptoms at 32.81% (n = 42 of surveyed women. It has been shown statistically significant relationship between the index of climacteric, and the assessment of QoL in the SF-36 domains: RL M (emotional role functioning – (χ 2 = 24.33; p = 0.003, MH (mental health – (χ 2 = 27.27; p = 0.001, EV (vitality – (χ 2 = 24.28; p = 0.003, P (pain – (χ 2 = 25.89; p = 0.002, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the assessment of QoL by SF-36. Conclusions . Menopausal symptoms, the presence of depression and age have a significant impact on the quality of life of women in postmenopausal period.

  20. Social problem solving: a moderator of the relation between negative life stress and depression symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Gravitt, G W; Kaslow, N J

    1995-08-01

    The social problem-solving skill of generating effective alternative solutions was tested as a moderator of the relation between negative life stress and depressed mood in children. Boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 25), ages 8 to 12 years, from inner-city, lower socioeconomic group families, completed measures of depression symptoms, negative impact of life events, and quantity and effectiveness of alternative solutions to social problems. Results indicated that the effectiveness of alternative solutions children generate in response to peer social problems moderates the relation between stress and depression. Children who experienced a high impact of negative life events, with less effective social problem-solving skills, reported higher levels of depression compared to children who experienced a high impact of negative life events but exhibited more effective social problem-solving skills. Results are discussed in terms of alternative theoretical models for the mechanisms whereby effective social problem-solving skills moderate stress-related depression.

  1. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  2. Positive and negative religious coping, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in people with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsun; Nezu, Arthur M; Nezu, Christine Maguth

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the relationships of positive and negative types of religious coping with depression and quality of life, and the mediating role of benefit finding in the link between religious coping and psychological outcomes among 198 individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The results of multiple hierarchical analyses revealed that negative religious coping was significantly associated with a high level of depressive symptoms and a low level of quality of life, controlling for demographic and clinical variables. On the other hand, positive religious coping was significantly associated with positive domains of outcome measures such as positive affect and life satisfaction, but not with overall depressive symptoms or quality of life. Tests of mediation analyses showed that benefit finding fully mediated the relationship between positive religious coping and the positive sub-domains of psychological outcomes. The importance of investigating both positive and negative types of religious coping in their relationships with psychological adaptation in people with HIV was discussed, as well as the significance of benefit finding in understanding the link between religious coping and psychological outcomes.

  3. The evolving universe and the origin of life the search for our cosmic roots

    CERN Document Server

    Teerikorpi, Pekka; Lehto, Harry; Chernin, Arthur; Byrd, Gene; Lehto, K

    2008-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton famously said, regarding his discoveries, "If I have seen further it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life describes, complete with fascinating biographical details of the thinkers involved, the ascent to the metaphorical shoulders accomplished by the greatest minds in history. For the first time, a single book can take the reader on a journey through the history of the universe as interpreted by the expanding body of knowledge of humankind. From subatomic particles to the protein chains that form life, and expanding in scale to the entire universe, this book covers the science that explains how we came to be. The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life contains a great breadth of knowledge, from astronomy to physics, from chemistry to biology. It includes over 350 figures that enhance the comprehension of concepts both basic and advanced, and is a non-technical, easy-to-read text at an introductory college level that is ideal for anyone i...

  4. Comets: Cosmic connections with carbonaceous meteorites, interstellar molecules and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.

    1979-01-01

    The ions, radicals, and molecules observed in comets may be derived intact or by partial decomposition from parent compounds of the sort found either in the interstellar medium or in carbonaceous meteorites. The early loss of highly reducing primitive atmosphere and its replacement by a secondary atmosphere dominated by H2O, CO2, and N2, as depicted in current models of the earth's evolution, pose a dilemma for the origin of life: the synthesis of organic compounds necessary for life from components of the secondary atmosphere appears to be difficult, and plausible mechanisms have not been evaluated. Both comets and carbonaceous meteorites are implicated as sources for the earth's atmophilic and organogenic elements. A mass balance argument involving the estimated ratios of hydrogen to carbon in carbonaceous meteorites, comets, and the crust and upper mantle suggests that comets supplied the earth with a large fraction of its volatiles. The probability that comets contributed significantly to the earth's volatile inventory suggests a chemical evolutionary link between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life.

  5. Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety and Coping Strategies after Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Bergamo Trevizan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Heart transplantation is the therapeutic procedure indicated to increase the survival of patients with refractory heart failure. Improvement in overall functioning and quality of life are expected factors in the postoperative period. Objective: To identify and evaluate mental disorders and symptoms, such as depression and anxiety, quality of life and coping strategies in the post-surgical situation of heart transplantation. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative study with patients who have undergone heart transplantation. Participants answered to the Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas (Ways of Coping Scale (EMEP and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF. For data analysis, the significance level was considered P≤0.05. Results: A total of 33 patients participated in the study. The BDI-II results indicated that 91% (n=30 of the patients presented a minimal level. In BAI, 94% (n=31 of the patients demonstrated minimal level of anxiety symptoms. WHOQOL-BREF showed a perception of quality of life considered good in all domains. The EMEP data have registered a problem-focused coping strategy. According to MINI, a single case of major depressive episode, current and recurrent was recorded. Conclusion: Although most participants in the sample had symptoms of depression and anxiety, only one patient was identified with moderate symptoms in both domains. The most used strategy was coping focused on the problem. Patients have classified the perceptions of quality of life as 'good', pointing out satisfaction with their health.

  6. Evaluation of quality of life and depression levels in individuals with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altinok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Improving the quality of life in diabetic individuals is known to reduce morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate the quality of life and depression symptomatology situations and the related factors in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in this study. Materials and Methods: In this study, 440 adult patients with Type 2 DM and under treatment admitted to Selcuk University Family Medicine Outpatient Diabetes Education Clinic were included in the study. A questionnaire containing sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, the Short Form 36 (SF-36 quality of life questionnaire was applied with Beck depression inventory face to face interviews. Results: Mean scores of females in all SF-36 subscales were statistically significantly lower than those of male patients. Physical function, physical role limitations, general health, social function, emotional role limitations, and mental health mean scores of the patients with 1–10 years duration of diabetes were found statistically significantly higher than those with 20 years and over duration of diabetes. Physical function, physical role limitations, pain, general health, and social function mean scores in patients using oral antidiabetic drug (OAD was statistically significantly higher compared to patients using insulin + OAD. The average physical function scores of the patients with no complications were statistically significantly higher than those with two and more complications. Conclusion: Quality of life and depression symptomatology are worse in females, the elderly, the overweight, people with lower level of education, in the widowed or divorced, homemakers, those with low incomes, those with longer duration of diabetes, patients using insulin, and those with two or more complications. There are many medical and sociodemographic factors affecting the quality of life and depressive symptomatology in the individuals with diabetes, so both health care

  7. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place.

  8. Evaluation of health-related quality of life, fatigue and depression in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, J-B; Zéphir, H; Collongues, N; Outteryck, O; Blanc, F; Fleury, M; Vermersch, P; de Seze, J

    2011-06-01

    The burden of multiple sclerosis (MS) includes fatigue, depression and worsening of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). These changes have not been yet measured in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Our aim was to assess the HRQOL, fatigue and depression in NMO. We administered French validated self-questionnaires on HRQOL (SEP-59), fatigue (EMIF-SEP) and depression (EHD) to 40 patients followed up in two centres. We assessed the relationship of these parameters with gender, age, disability, disease duration, visual acuity and NMO-antibody status and also compared our results with equivalent data in MS and normal subjects derived from previous studies. Health-related quality of life scores were lower (P < 0.01) in patients with NMO when compared to normal subjects. No significant difference was noted between patients with NMO and MS for most scores, the exceptions being HRQOL related to cognitive function (better in NMO than in MS), HRQOL related to sphincter dysfunction (worse in NMO than in MS) and the psychological dimension of fatigue (milder in NMO than in MS). Disability was the main predictive factor of an unfavourable evolution. This study reveals the strong impact of NMO on HRQOL, fatigue and depression and the importance of screening patients, especially the more disabled, so as to initiate suitable treatment. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  9. Gender differences in somatic symptoms, quality of life, and functional impairment in depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sreevani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigate gender related differences in somatic symptoms, severity of depression, quality of life (QOL, and functional impairment, and correlate somatic symptoms with QOL and functional impairment. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 consecutive outpatients seeking treatment for depressive disorder at district hospital psychiatric outpatient clinic, Kolar, Karnataka, India. This study utilised the Beck Depression Inventory II, Physical Distress Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and World Health Organization QOL BREF instrument. Results: Mean constipation scores and back pain scores were higher in women compared to men. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female patients with regard to depression scores, total somatic symptom scores, QOL, and functional impairment scores. Somatic symptoms scores are positively correlated with depression scores and functional impairment scores, and negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion: Women had higher constipation and back pain scores compared to men. If the symptoms of same disease differ between men and women, this has important implications for the history collection, diagnosis, and treatment process.

  10. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in mothers of children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Raj Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID in children can trigger a range of psychological responses in parents. The present study was an attempt to investigate psychological conditions of mothers of children with ID and to determine whether these problems were more prominent in mothers of children with ID than mothers with healthy children. Aim and objectives were to investigate psychological impact (i.e. anxiety, depression, and quality of life [QOL] on mothers of children with ID. Materials and methods comprised of two groups of subjects, i.e. mothers of sixty children with ID and mothers of sixty healthy children. The study was conducted at the Outpatient Department of Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Regional Institute of Mental Health (LGBRIMH, Tezpur, Assam. Both groups were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and World Health Organization QOL-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics, correlation, and t test. Result: The results of the study conclusively found out that the mothers of children with ID were having higher anxiety and depression than mothers with healthy children. The anxiety and depression had negative correlation with QOL of mothers of children with ID. Conclusion: This study shows that anxiety and depression affected QOL in mothers of children with ID.

  11. The contribution of personality traits and academic and social adjustment to life satisfaction and depression in college freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of personality traits and student academic and social college adjustment to their overall life satisfaction and depression. Sample of 492 freshmen completed a battery of measures. Hierarchical regression analyses are applied to analyze the contribution of predictor variables on life satisfaction and depression in the group of male and female students. After controlling for the personality traits, college adjustment had a significant contribution to student depression and life satisfaction. Optimism has a significant protective role only with male, but not with female students.

  12. Childhood poverty and depressive symptoms for older adults in Mexico: a life-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-09-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n = 8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71% had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b = 0.27, p poverty reduction and gains in education.

  13. Impact of corrective life style educational program on controlling stress, anxiety ,and depression in hypertensives

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Samiei Siboni; Zainab Alimoradi; Tahereh Sadegi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Life style can cause stress and anxiety and consequently, hypertension. Regarding nurses' influencial role in implementing educational programs to increase patients’ self-control, the present research was designed to study the impact of a lifestyle promoting educational programs on controlling stress, anxiety, depression, and hypertewnsion in Qazvin Mino area in 2010. Materials and Methods: after the present study was a pre/post semi-experimental one conducted on 55 hyp...

  14. Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    The interplay of genetic and early environmental factors is recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reduced volume of hippocampus and frontal brain regions involved in emotional regulation are already present in unaffected healthy individuals at genetic risk of suffering MDD and to investigate whether early life adversity is a relevant factor interacting with these reduced brain structures.

  15. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTY OF FATIGUE SEVERITY SCALE AND CORRELATION WITH DEPRESSION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CIRRHOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danusa ROSSI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common complaint in cirrhotic patients and may be considered a debilitating symptom with negative impact on quality of life. Research on its etiology and treatment has been hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible measures of fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with depressive symptomatology and quality of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 106 cirrhotic patients, aged between 18 and 70 years, both genders, literate, pre and post liver transplantation in outpatient follow-up. Internal consistency, reproducibility, discriminant validity, criterion validity, construct validity, responsiveness criterion, depressive symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated through questionnaires between January and October 2015. RESULTS: The mean age was 54.75±9.9 years, 65.1% male and 32.1% of the sample had cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus. The mean FSS score was 4.74±1.64. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was 0.905 (95% CI: 0.813-0.952. For discriminant validity, FSS differentiated scores from different groups (P=0.009 and presented a correlation with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (r=0.606, P=0.002. FSS correlated significantly and positively with depressive symptomatology and correlated negatively with the SF-36 domains for construct validity. For responsiveness, no significant changes were observed in the fatigue scores in the pre and post-liver transplantation periods (P=0.327. CONCLUSION: FSS showed good psychometric performance in the evaluation of fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. Fatigue presented a strong correlation with depressive symptomatology and quality of life.

  16. Associations between quality of life, coping styles, optimism, and anxiety and depression in pretreatment patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Debbie J; Smith, Helen E; McGurk, Mark; Weinman, John; Herold, Jim; Altman, Keith; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage and consequently radical treatment is necessary. The pretreatment phase is a time of high anxiety and depression for patients. This study aimed to investigate whether anxiety and depression are related to quality of life, coping styles, and dispositional optimism. One hundred and three patients were recruited after diagnosis to a questionnaire study. Measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; SF12v2 Health Survey; Brief COPE, and the Revised Life Orientation Test. Quality of life, in particular emotional role explained a large proportion of the variance in pretreatment anxiety and depression. In addition, the use of negative coping styles was related to high anxiety levels and low levels of optimism were related to higher levels of depression. There are a small but significant proportion of pretreatment patients that may benefit from individualized support. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  17. Symptom burden, depression, and quality of life in chronic and end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Unruh, Mark L; Weisbord, Steven D

    2009-06-01

    While many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have impaired physical and psychologic well-being, less is known about these health domains in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors sought to compare symptoms, depression, and quality of life in patients with ESRD and those with CKD. Patients with ESRD and subjects with advanced CKD were enrolled. Patients' symptoms, depression, and quality of life were assessed using the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively, and these health domains were compared between patient groups. Ninety patients with ESRD and 87 with CKD were enrolled. There were no differences in the overall number of symptoms or in the total DSI symptom-severity score. Median scores on the PHQ-9 were similar, as was the proportion of patients with PHQ-9 scores >9. SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores were comparable, as were SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores. The burden of symptoms, prevalence of depression, and low quality of life are comparable in patients with ESRD and advanced CKD. Given the widely recognized impairments in these domains in ESRD, findings of this study underscore the substantial decrements in the physical and psychologic well-being of patients with CKD.

  18. Longitudinal Trajectories of Quality of Life and Depression by Housing Tenure Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Agnes; Allen, Joanne; Alpass, Fiona; Stephens, Christine

    2017-03-22

    A large body of research has demonstrated the positive effects of home ownership on well-being and health outcomes. However, most previous studies have been cross-sectional. The present study aimed to understand the long-term impact of housing tenure on the psychological wellbeing of older people in New Zealand. Data were collected between 2010 and 2014. The 2010 sample (aged from 50-85 years) comprised 2,843 participants (55.4% female). Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate trajectories of change for home owners and tenants in quality of life and depression symptoms. Analyses also examined the additional impact of demographic and socio-economic variables. Over time, quality of life increased, while depression symptoms decreased, for home owners. For tenants, lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of depression symptoms remained stable. Economic living standard, urban versus rural residence, length of residence, ethnicity, age, and household composition emerged as significant covariates. The psychological benefits of home ownership highlight the importance of secure and sustainable housing. Policies should be designed to ensure access to safe housing solutions for all older people.

  19. Influence of Craniosacral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Matarán-Peñarrocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is considered as a combination of physical, psychological and social disabilities. The causes of pathologic mechanism underlying fibromyalgia are unknown, but fibromyalgia may lead to reduced quality of life. The objective of this study was to analyze the repercussions of craniosacral therapy on depression, anxiety and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients with painful symptoms. An experimental, double-blind longitudinal clinical trial design was undertaken. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to an intervention group (craniosacral therapy or placebo group (simulated treatment with disconnected ultrasound. The treatment period was 25 weeks. Anxiety, pain, sleep quality, depression and quality of life were determined at baseline and at 10 minutes, 6 months and 1-year post-treatment. State anxiety and trait anxiety, pain, quality of life and Pittsburgh sleep quality index were significantly higher in the intervention versus placebo group after the treatment period and at the 6-month follow-up. However, at the 1-year follow-up, the groups only differed in the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Approaching fibromyalgia by means of craniosacral therapy contributes to improving anxiety and quality of life levels in these patients.

  20. Influence of craniosacral therapy on anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; García, Gloria Carballo; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Carreño, Tesifón Parrón; Zafra, María Dolores Onieva

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is considered as a combination of physical, psychological and social disabilities. The causes of pathologic mechanism underlying fibromyalgia are unknown, but fibromyalgia may lead to reduced quality of life. The objective of this study was to analyze the repercussions of craniosacral therapy on depression, anxiety and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients with painful symptoms. An experimental, double-blind longitudinal clinical trial design was undertaken. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to an intervention group (craniosacral therapy) or placebo group (simulated treatment with disconnected ultrasound). The treatment period was 25 weeks. Anxiety, pain, sleep quality, depression and quality of life were determined at baseline and at 10 minutes, 6 months and 1-year post-treatment. State anxiety and trait anxiety, pain, quality of life and Pittsburgh sleep quality index were significantly higher in the intervention versus placebo group after the treatment period and at the 6-month follow-up. However, at the 1-year follow-up, the groups only differed in the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Approaching fibromyalgia by means of craniosacral therapy contributes to improving anxiety and quality of life levels in these patients.

  1. The Specific Role of Relationship Life Events in the Onset of Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Wright

    Full Text Available The precipitating role of life events in the onset of depression is well-established. The present study sought to examine whether life events hypothesised to be personally salient would be more strongly associated with depression than other life events. In a sample of women making the first transition to parenthood, we hypothesised that negative events related to the partner relationship would be particularly salient and thus more strongly predictive of depression than other events.A community-based sample of 316 first-time mothers stratified by psychosocial risk completed interviews at 32 weeks gestation and 29 weeks postpartum to assess dated occurrence of life events and depression onsets from conception to 29 weeks postpartum. Complete data was available from 273 (86.4%. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine risk for onset of depression in the 6 months following a relationship event versus other events, after accounting for past history of depression and other potential confounders.52 women (19.0% experienced an onset of depression between conception and 6 months postpartum. Both relationship events (Hazard Ratio = 2.1, p = .001 and other life events (Hazard Ratio = 1.3, p = .020 were associated with increased risk for depression onset; however, relationship events showed a significantly greater risk for depression than did other life events (p = .044.The results are consistent with the hypothesis that personally salient events are more predictive of depression onset than other events. Further, they indicate the clinical significance of events related to the partner relationship during pregnancy and the postpartum.

  2. Sex-specific associations between Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and cognitive domains in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, P.J.; Boer, J.A. den; Comijs, H.C.; Bosker, F.J.; Zuidersma, M.; Groenewold, N.A.; Deyn, P.P. de; Luiten, P.G.M.; Eisel, U.L.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that late-life depression is associated with both systemic low-graded inflammation and cognitive impairment, the relation between inflammation and cognition in depressed older persons is still equivocal. The objective of this study is to examine the associ

  3. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  4. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  5. Loss of interest, depressed mood and impact on the quality of life: Cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattaz Wagner F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL. However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. Methods We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. Results Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4. Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. Conclusion Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H

  6. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  7. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  8. Postpartum Depression Frequency and Quality of Life Among a Group of Mothers Having a Child Aged 2 Weeks-18 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Durukan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to determine the frequency of postpartum depression (PPD, its correlates and the effect on the quality of life.Material and Methods: This study was conducted among 708 mothers having a child aged 2 weeks-18 months. A questionnaire on descriptive features and PPD risk factors; Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF quality of life scale were used for the data collection. Results: The rate of PPD frequency was 15%. The gestational age, mental problems and anxiety during pregnancy, emotional changes in the premenstrual period, past depression/PPD history, depression/PPD history in the family, satisfaction with the marriage, thinking that the baby affected the marriage adversely were the factors related with PPD. The quality of life was lower in women with PPD than those without PPD.Conclusion: The frequency of PPD is quite high and PPD is decreasing the quality of life of the mother.

  9. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus...

  10. The association between the quality of life and depression of elderly in a nursing home institutional setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Obtaining information on depression and the quality of life of elderly in nursing home settings should be introduced as a standard part of nursing activities in order to improve the quality of customer care in the nursing homes.

  11. Uraemic pruritus markedly affects the quality of life and depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseł, Joanna; Batycka-Baran, Aleksandra; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of uraemic pruritus on patients' wellbeing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of uraemic pruritus on quality of life and depressive symptoms in patients with end-stage renal disease. A total of 200 haemodialysis patients were included into the study. The prevalence of uraemic pruritus was 38%. Patients with uraemic pruritus had significantly lower quality of life according to SF-36 questionnaire compared to the remaining of analysed subjects. Among patients with uraemic pruritus, 64.5% individuals also showed impaired skin-related quality of life evaluated with Dermatology Life Quality Index. The quality of life impairment correlated with uraemic pruritus intensity assessed with VAS and the 4-item itch questionnaire. Depression level significantly correlated with quality of life and severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with uraemic pruritus intensity. Our study underscores that uraemic pruritus should be regarded as an important health problem among haemodialysis patients.

  12. Quality of life among free clinic patients associated with somatic symptoms, depression, and perceived neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Prevedel, Jamie A; Tabler, Jennifer; Hamilton, Brian J; Ashby, Jeanie; Reel, Justine J

    2014-06-01

    Free clinics provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. The purpose of this study is to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among free clinic patients and its association with somatic symptoms, depression, and perceived neighborhood environment. Free clinic patients (n = 186) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. HRQoL, depression, somatic symptoms, and perceived neighborhood environment were measured using standardized instruments. Overall, the participants reported low level of HRQoL compared to the general healthy population. US born participants (n = 97) reported poorer psychological QoL and social relations, more somatic symptoms, and were more likely to be depressed than non-US born participants (n = 89). Higher numbers of somatic symptoms were associated with poorer environmental QoL. Depression was associated with all aspects of QoL; a higher level of depression was related to poorer QoL in all aspects. Our findings show that free clinic patients, especially US born patients, have poor HRQoL. Depression and perceived neighborhood satisfaction are key factors to determine HRQoL among free clinic patients. Mental health services and collaboration with other community organizations may help in improving HRQoL among free clinic patients. Finally, health promotion programs at the community level, not just at the clinic level, would be valuable to improve health of free clinic patients as perceived neighborhood environment is associated with their HRQoL.

  13. Sexual satisfaction, anxiety, depression and quality of life in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Ulger, Eda; Varol, Umut; Yavuzsen, Tugba; Akyol, Murat; Yildiz, Yasar; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Bayoglu, Vedat; Dirican, Ahmet; Demir, Lutfiye; Salman, Tarik; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Alacacioglu, Inci; Can, Huseyin; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to investigate anxiety, depression and sexual satisfaction levels of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) and compare the scores with healthy men's. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) and European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 were used. Forty-one TCSs and thirty-eight healthy men were participated in this study. The total HADs scores of TCSs (12.21 ± 8.19) were less than the healthy group (14.44 ± 6.53; p > 0.05). The high depression scores rate was 29.2 and 55.2, and high anxiety scores rate was 24.4 and 28.9 for TCSs and healthy group, respectively. When we evaluated GRISS subscores and anxiety levels, we found significantly increase only in avoidance subscores in the TCSs (p = 0.04). When we evaluated GRISS subscores and depression levels, GRISS subscores of the TCSs who had high depression scores were also high. However, statistical significance was found in satisfaction (p = 0.009), touch (p = 0.04), avoidance (p = 0.01) and erectile dysfunction (p = 0.04) subscores in the TCSs. In the TCSs whose anxiety scores were high, emotional functioning (p = 0.009) and global QoL (p = 0.01) subscores of GRISS was found significantly low. In the TCSs whose depression scores were high, physical (p = 0.01), cognitive (p = 0.04), emotional (p = 0.03), social functioning (p = 0.02) and global QoL (p sexual satisfaction levels of TCSs were found to be similar with the control population.

  14. Effects of Gluten-Free Diet on Quality of Life and Depression in Children With Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Seref; Baysoy, Gokhan; Gencoglan, Salih; Uluca, Unal

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of depression and quality of life in children with celiac disease (CD). In addition, it aimed to examine the relations of depression level and life quality with adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Twenty-five children with CD and 25 healthy controls were included. The Depression Scale for Children and the General Purpose Health-Related Quality of Life Scale for Children were performed on patients before and after receiving recommendations to follow a GFD. No significant differences were found in the depression scores between the patients and the control subjects (P > 0.05). In contrast, total scores and scores of the emotional well-being subscale of the measure of Quality of Life Scale for Children were significantly lower in patients with CD compared with the control group (P quality scores of the total subsample of celiac patients, all of whom received a recommendation to follow a GFD (P > 0.05). Significant decrease was observed in the depression scores, however, of celiac patients who were able to actually adhere to the GFD compared with nonadherent patients. CD negatively affected quality of life in children. Adherence to GFD was associated with reduction in depression symptoms. Improving the adherence of celiac patients to a GFD may have a favorable effect on their depression symptoms.

  15. Impact of aggression, depression, and anxiety levels on quality of life in epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izci F

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Ebru Fındıklı,2 Mehmet Akif Camkurt,3 Deniz Tuncel,4 Merve Şahin2 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Sütçü İmam University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Afşin State Hospitale, 4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aggression levels on the quality of life (QoL of epilepsy patients. This study was conducted on 66 volunteer control subjects, who were matched by age and sex to the patient group, which consisted of 66 patients who applied to the Psychiatry and Neurology clinics for outpatient treatment, were aged between 18 years and 65 years, and were diagnosed with epilepsy. A sociodemographic and clinical data form designed by us was distributed among the study participants, along with Buss–Perry Aggression Scale, Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Scale Short Form (SF-36. Compared with the control group, the patient group displayed higher scores in all subgroups of Buss–Perry Aggression Scale subscales at a statistically significant level (P<0.05. As per the SF-36 questionnaire, physical functioning, physical role disability, general health perception, social functioning, mental health perception, and pain subscales were statistically lower in the patient group (P<0.05. Significant links between Beck Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Scale levels, as well as some subscales of QoL and aggression levels, were also determined. In conclusion, epilepsy patients experienced impaired QoL compared with the healthy control group and their QoL was further impaired due to increased levels of anxiety, depression, and aggression. Keywords: aggression, depression, anxiety, quality of life, epilepsy

  16. Maria Montessori's Cosmic Vision, Cosmic Plan, and Cosmic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This classic position of the breadth of Cosmic Education begins with a way of seeing the human's interaction with the world, continues on to the grandeur in scale of time and space of that vision, then brings the interdependency of life where each growing human becomes a participating adult. Mr. Grazzini confronts the laws of human nature in…

  17. EFFECTS OF DISTINCT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MEDITATION PROGRAMS ON QUALITY OF LIFE AND DEPRESSION LEVELS IN ACTIVE ELDERLY WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    J. Corrêa; Cunha, F.A.; T. H. Pires; Giani T.; FERREIRA, M. de A.; Dantas, E.

    2010-01-01

     

    ABSTRACT

    Sedentary aging can evolve to depression which interferes both qualitatively and quantitatively on elderly’s quality of life. The present study compared quality of life and depression levels between sedentary and active elderly women. For this, a correlational ex post facto study was employed, the sample...

  18. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-12-05

    Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x(2) = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 70.63, df = 4, p 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services.

  19. Sleep quality, depression, and quality of life in elderly hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkmen K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kultigin Turkmen,1 Fatih Mehmet Erdur,1 Ibrahim Guney,2 Abduzhappar Gaipov,1 Faruk Turgut,3 Lutfullah Altintepe,2 Mustafa Saglam,1 Halil Zeki Tonbul,1 Emaad M Abdel-Rahman41Division of Nephrology, Meram School of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram, Konya, Turkey; 2Division of Nephrology, Meram Research and Training Hospital, Meram, Konya, Turkey; 3Division of Nephrology, Iskenderun State Hospital, Iskenderun, Hatay, Turkey; 4Division of Nephrology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAObjective: Both the incidence and the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in elderly patients are increasing worldwide. Elderly ESRD patients have been found to be more prone to depression than the general population. There are many studies that have addressed the relationship between sleep quality (SQ, depression, and health related quality of life (HRQoL in ESRD patients, but previous studies have not confirmed the association in elderly hemodialysis (HD patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate this relationship in elderly HD patients.Patients and methods: Sixty-three elderly HD patients (32 females and 31 males aged between 65 and 89 years were included in this cross-sectional study. A modified Post-Sleep Inventory (PSI, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form health survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied.Results: The prevalence of poor sleepers (those with a PSI total sleep score [PSI-4 score] of 4 or higher was 71% (45/63, and the prevalence of depression was 25% (16/63. Of the 45 poor sleepers, 15 had depression, defined as a BDI score of 17 or higher. Poor sleepers had a significantly higher rate of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.03, significantly higher total BDI scores, and lower Physical Component Scale scores (ie, lower HRQoL than good sleepers. The PSI-4 score correlated negatively with Physical Component Scale (r = −0.500, P < 0.001 and Mental Component Scale

  20. Quality of life, functioning and cognition in bipolar disorder and major depression: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura Damiani; Kochhann, Renata; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2016-07-30

    This study aimed to identify profiles of functioning and quality of life (QOL) in depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy adults, as well as the clinical, demographic and cognitive variables associated with each of these profiles. Participants completed the WHODAS 2.0 and WHOQOL-BREF, which were submitted to latent profile analysis. The four cluster solution provided the best fit for our data. Cluster 1 consisted mostly of healthy adults, and had the highest functioning and QOL. Clusters 2 contained older patients with subclinical depressive symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities, whose impairments in QOL and functioning were associated with mood symptoms and several cognitive abilities. Patients with MDD, BDI or BDII with mild to moderate depression, such as those in cluster 3, may benefit more significantly from interventions in cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, and sustained attention. Lastly, patients with mood disorders and clinically significant levels of depression, as well as a history of suicide attempts, like those in cluster 4, may benefit from interventions aimed at working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility; that is, the three core executive functions. These findings should be further investigated, and used to guide treatments for patients with mood disorders and different patterns of functional impairment.

  1. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS UPON THEIR DEPRESSION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan ISIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was planned to evaluate the effects of the quality of life levels of university students upon their depression levels. The students of School of Physical Education and Sports who took physical activity courses (n=148 and students of other academ ic branches who did not take physical activity courses (n=180 participated in the study voluntarily. To the participant individuals; SF - 36 quality of life scale (8 subscales, 2 summary scores, Beck Depression Inventory (Total scores and a personal infor mation form (about age, height, weight, sportive age, marital status and income status were administered. When intergroup quality of life subscale differences were examined; it was found out that there was a statistically significant difference in physic al functioning (t=6.810; p0.05. As for the quality of life summary scores; a statistically significant difference exist ed in physical health summary scores (t=3.580; p0.05. Again; intergroup depression scores were investigated; it was found out that students who stud ied at other academic departments had higher depression scores than those who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports (t= - 6.855; p<0.001. It was concluded that physical activities had positive effects upon both quality of life and depression le vels and that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression levels.

  3. Postpartum depression: in relation to life events and patterns of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal-Cury, A; Tedesco, J J A; Kahhale, S; Menezes, P R; Zugaib, M

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) and its relationship with life events (LE) and patterns for coping. We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 women, on the 10(th) day of puerperium, at the Obstetric Clinic of the São Paulo University Medical School. The study was based on the following: Pitt (1967) and Stein (1980) Scales, Beck Depression Inventory (1961), Holmes and Rahe Schedule of Recent Events (1967), Folkman and Lazarus Ways of Coping (1985) and questionnaire of social-demographic and obstetric data. Logistic regression was performed to calculate prevalence of PPD and its association with several risk factors. The significance level was defined at 5%. The prevalence of PPD was 15.9% (IC 9.7% to 24.0%). According to the multivariate analyses, the variables of coping with distancing, number of children and ethnic origin were significant. There were no association between PPD and LE. The depressed puerperal women have a low educational level, greater number of children and resort to inadequate coping strategies, such as distancing. This pattern of coping might be an etiological factor of the PPD as well as a reaction to their difficult life environment.

  4. Self-efficacy and depression in late life: a primary prevention proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, D G

    2002-11-01

    Feelings of sadness and loneliness are ubiquitous in late life and a risk factor for depression and perhaps other mental illnesses in late life. Targeting sadness and loneliness for an intervention addresses both primary risk reduction for depressive disorders and promotion of overall mental health in the elderly. Nevertheless, few studies document the efficacy of primary prevention efforts in preventing depressive disorders in the elderly. The author argues that the attainment of positive mental health depends in considerable part upon an individual's self-efficacy--the belief that one can organize and execute the courses of action required to develop and enhance a person's belief that he or she can act in ways that lead to a desired goal. Self-efficacy is strengthened, not by some general or abstract instruction, but rather by the experience of successfully dealing with and thus overcoming specific problems. The extant literature suggests that many potential approaches may be available to develop and enhance self-efficacy in the elderly--approaches that potentially could be broadly applicable in community settings.

  5. Antidepression medication improves quality of life in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Huizhen; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Qian, Yuying; Wang, Jieyu; Feng, Ming; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We aim to explore the influence of an antidepression medication on symptom scores and quality of life in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial which included 94 elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression in Xuan Wu Hospital and Beijing Boai Hospital during August 2008 to May 2012. The study was designed to compare outcomes related to patient quality of life (QoL). The patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, consisting of a control group (n = 47) and a therapy group (n = 47), and were followed up for 3 months. The pre-treatment and post-treatment changes among patients in the two groups were compared using their respective IPSS symptom scores, HAM-D scores, and scores on the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Following treatment, the patient IPSS symptom scores in the therapy group were significantly lower than those in the control group (10.74 ± 4.72 vs. 16.42 ± 8.09, respectively; t = 4.157, P benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression. Our findings suggest that an antidepression medication should be included when treating elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  6. Punishment for bedwetting is associated with child depression and reduced quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaben, Faten Nabeel; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the relationship between parental punishment and depression as well as quality of life in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). A consecutive sample of 65 children (7-13 years) with PMNE and 40 healthy children, selected as controls (Group III), were included in the study. The children with PMNE were further sub-classified into two groups: Group I, which included children who received parental punishment for enuresis and Group II, which comprised children who were not punished for bedwetting. Depression and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were assessed among the three groups. The number of wet nights per week was significantly increased in Group I compared with Group II (Ppunishment (B=0.55, P=.008), as well as the frequency (B=0.73, Ppunishment (B=0.33, P=.02) were strong predictors of increased depressive symptom severity. It was also found that prior punishment (B=-0.42, P=.01) and the frequency (B=-0.62, Ppunishment (B=-0.34, P=.02) were strong predictors for poor psychosocial HRQL. Overall, parental punishment has a poor outcome in children with PMNE.

  7. Impact of aggression, depression, and anxiety levels on quality of life in epilepsy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Filiz; Fındıklı, Ebru; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Tuncel, Deniz; Şahin, Merve

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aggression levels on the quality of life (QoL) of epilepsy patients. This study was conducted on 66 volunteer control subjects, who were matched by age and sex to the patient group, which consisted of 66 patients who applied to the Psychiatry and Neurology clinics for outpatient treatment, were aged between 18 years and 65 years, and were diagnosed with epilepsy. A sociodemographic and clinical data form designed by us was distributed among the study participants, along with Buss–Perry Aggression Scale, Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Scale Short Form (SF-36). Compared with the control group, the patient group displayed higher scores in all subgroups of Buss–Perry Aggression Scale subscales at a statistically significant level (Pperception, social functioning, mental health perception, and pain subscales were statistically lower in the patient group (P<0.05). Significant links between Beck Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Scale levels, as well as some subscales of QoL and aggression levels, were also determined. In conclusion, epilepsy patients experienced impaired QoL compared with the healthy control group and their QoL was further impaired due to increased levels of anxiety, depression, and aggression.

  8. Associação da qualidade de vida com dor, ansiedade e depressão Association of quality of life with pain, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capela

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar associação entre qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e dor, ansiedade e depressão em indivíduos de 35 a 60 anos. Foram avaliados 304 indivíduos (244 mulheres, 60 homens com queixa de dor, divididos em três grupos segundo a característica da dor: dor difusa e crônica (DDC, dor regional (DR e dor esporádica (DE. A intensidade da dor foi avaliada por uma escala visual analógica, ansiedade pelo Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado, depressão pela escala de depressão de Beck e a qualidade de vida (QV, pelo questionário Short-Form Health Survey - SF-36. A média de idade foi 49,1±6,8 anos; 80,3% eram do sexo feminino; e 35% da amostra referiu dor difusa e crônica. Os resultados mostram que o grupo DDC apresentou os sintomas mais intensos de dor, ansiedade, depressão e pior qualidade de vida, seguido pelos grupos DR e DE, com diferença estatisticamente significante (pThe aim of this study was to establish associations between quality of life and pain, anxiety, and depression, in subjects aged 35 to 60 years old. Three hundred and four subjects were evaluated and divided into three groups according to pain features: chronic and widespread pain (CWP, local pain (LP, and sporadic pain (SP groups. Pain intensity was assessed by means of a visual analog scale (VAS; anxiety by the State-trait anxiety inventory; depression, by the Beck depression scale; and quality of life, by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Subjects mean age was 49.1±6.8 years old; 80.3% were women; and 35% of the sample reported chronic widespread pain. Results show that the CWP group presented more intense pain, anxiety and depression, as well as worst quality of life, followed by LP and SP groups (p<0.001. A strong correlation was found between quality of life and depression (r=-0.73, and moderate ones between quality of life and pain (r=-0.41, anxiety-trait (r=-0.65 and anxiety-state (r=-0.58 (p<0

  9. Depression, anxiety, and quality of life in a large cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases: common, yet undertreated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyfanti, Panagiota; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Pyrpasopoulou, Athina; Triantafyllou, George; Triantafyllou, Areti; Chatzimichailidou, Sofia; Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Aslanidis, Spyros; Douma, Stella

    2016-03-01

    A growing amount of literature has explored mainly the role of depression (and/or anxiety) in patients with rheumatic disorders. We aimed at determining the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and their association with quality of life among patients attending a rheumatology clinic, focusing on data regarding concomitant psychiatric treatment. Depression, anxiety, and quality of life were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Overall, 514 rheumatologic patients were studied. Depression and anxiety were documented in 21.8 and 30.8 % of the population, respectively, and correlated significantly with quality of life. Only 13.4 % of patients with depressive symptoms and 12.1 % of patients with anxiety symptoms were receiving antidepressant or antianxiety medication. Given the wide therapeutic armamentarium available nowadays for the management of depression and anxiety, an increased awareness among physicians dealing with rheumatologic patients is warranted in order to integrate detection and effective treatment of anxiety and depression into the routine clinical practice. Special attention should be paid to female patients, patients with longer disease duration, and/or those with established disability.

  10. Early life stress in depressive patients: role of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juruena, Mario Francisco; Werne Baes, Cristiane Von; Menezes, Itiana Castro; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a chronic, recurrent and long-term disorder characterized by high rates of impairment and several comorbidities. Early life stress (ELS) is associated with the increased risk for developing depression in adulthood, influences its clinical course and predicts a poorer treatment outcome. Stressful life events play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression, being well established as acute triggers of psychiatric illness. The vulnerability for developing depression is associated to changes in neurobiological systems related to stress regulation. The hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis responds to external and internal stimuli. Reported results indicate that stress in early phases of development can induce persistent changes in the response of the HPA axis to stress in adulthood, leading to a raised susceptibility to depression. These abnormalities appear to be related to the HPA axis deregulation in depression, partially due to an imbalance between glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineral ocorticoid receptors (MR). While most studies have consistently demonstrated that GR function is impaired in major depression (reduced GR-mediated feedback in HPA axis), data about the MR role in depression are still limited and contr oversial. Thus, in this review article we summarize the main reported findings about the consequences of ELS in HPA axis functioning and in the responsivity of MR/GR receptors in depression.

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury prospectively predicts interpersonal stressful life events and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate self-harm of one's tissue, engaged in without lethal intent, and occurs frequently among late adolescents. Although research has indicated that NSSI predicts depression, the potential psychosocial mechanisms through which engagement in NSSI makes one susceptible to future depressive symptoms remain unclear. The present study examined whether NSSI increases the risk of experiencing stressful life events, which, in turn, heightens the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms. Drawn from a sample specifically selected for adolescents at high and low risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders, a total of 110 late-adolescents (mean age=18.74, SD=.69; 73% female) were administered measures of lifetime and past year engagement in NSSI and current depressive symptomatology. Approximately 6 months later, they completed a measure of depressive symptoms and a questionnaire and interview assessing life events that occurred over the 6-month interval. Results suggest that the frequency of lifetime and past year NSSI predicted the occurrence of interpersonal stressful life events beyond the effects of initial depressive symptoms, but only for late adolescent girls. Results further suggest that higher levels of interpersonal stressful life events mediated the relationship between NSSI frequency and prospective increases in depressive symptoms among girls.

  12. WHOQOL-OLD assessment of quality of life in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease: influence of sleep and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Margis, Regina; Donis,Karina Carvalho; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Rieder,Carlos R. M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease with a number of motor and non-motor features that can affect quality of life. In this study, we aimed to assess quality of life, as well as to evaluate the potential determinants of quality of life, such as sleep quality, motor and depressive symptoms, in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which we applied the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults ...

  13. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  14. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  15. Relationship between Postpartum Depression, Life Events and Social Support%产后抑郁症与生活事件及社会支持的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许祖年; 卢碧运

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine relationship of postpartum depression with life events and social support. Methods: Thirty patients with postpartum depression and 32 normal controls were rated by a life events scale and a social support scale. Results: The number of negative life events were found to be higher in patients with postpartum depression as compared to normal controls. Social support of patients with postpartum depression was also found to be lower than their normal counterparts. Conclusion: Negative life events and deficient social support were significantly related to postpartum depression.

  16. Health-related quality of life and anxiety and depression in patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberg Dengsø, Kristine; Hillingsø, Jens; Marcussen, Anne Marie;

    2017-01-01

    AND METHODS: From 93 eligible patients diagnosed with CCA, 76 were included in a prospective cohort over a period of 15 months. Patients answered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ C30 (EORTC QLQ C30) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires at baseline......BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare cancer associated with a poor prognosis. Psychosocial challenges may negatively affect daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The primary aim was to evaluate HRQOL, and to assess anxiety and depression in these patients. MATERIAL......, one, three and six months after initial treatment; defined as radical operation, explorative laparotomy, chemotherapy or drainage of the bile ducts. Scores were compared between the radically operated patients (n = 25) and palliative patients (n = 51; 12 of these had explorative laparotomy), using...

  17. The impact of self-awareness and depression on subjective reports of memory, quality-of-life and satisfaction with life following TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Yael; Chiaravalloti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To determine the relationship between self-awareness and depressive symptomatology with self-reports of memory, Quality-of-Life (QoL) and satisfaction with life in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional survey of 30 community dwelling adults, who sustained a TBI at least 1 year prior to study enrolment. Participants completed questionnaires to assess the constructs of depression, self-awareness, QoL, satisfaction with life and memory. Symptoms of depression were significantly associated with self-reports of poor memory abilities, lower QoL and lower satisfaction with life. Additionally, higher levels of self-awareness were associated with lower ratings of QoL and reduced memory abilities and better strategy use regarding memory. However, when examining the contribution of each construct individually, depressive symptomatology, and not self-awareness, was significantly associated with subjective self-reports of memory, QoL and satisfaction with life. This pattern of relationships illustrates that, when a person has a low level of depressive symptoms, his/her reports of QoL, memory and satisfaction with life will be more positive; however, he/she will demonstrate more difficulty with self-awareness. Thus, psychological aspects of recovery must, therefore, be taken into account when using self-reported measures in the evaluation of persons who have sustained TBI.

  18. Investigation of the Change of Quality of Life and Depression in Lung Cancer Patients before and after Chemotherapy

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    Jiancun CAO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Quality of life (QoL is an important end point in cancer patients, and depressive symptoms are significantly more frequent in lung cancer patients. The aim of this study is to observe the impact of chemotherapy on quality of life and emotion among lung cancer patients. Methods Fourty lung cancer patients were assessed with clinical outcomes, the EORTC QLQ-C30, SDS questionnaires before chemotherapy, one week after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, one week after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Results Before chemotherapy, the scores of functioning scales were high, the rate of depression was 65%. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, effective rate was 42.5%, the scores of cognitive function increase, the scores of role, emotional, social function decrease, the scores of dyspnoea decrease, the scores of pain, appetite loss, insomnia, constipation, diarrhea increase, the scores of Global quality of life decrease; the rate of depression was 70%. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy, effective rate was 23%, the scores of physical, role, emotional, social function decrease, the scores of symptom scales increase, the scores of dyspnoea, nausea and vomiting, appetite loss, financial impact increase, the scores of global quality of life decrease, the rate of depression was 87.5%. Conclusion Some patients have symptoms relieved, but during the chemotherapy, the patients have significant depression, the quality of life decrease. We should evaluate the quality of life and emotions of lung cancer patients, and give positive psychological intervention to improve the quality of life.

  19. Impact of personality and depression on quality of life in patients with severe haemophilia in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-Y; Kim, S-W; Kim, J-M; Shin, I-S; Baek, H-J; Lee, H-S; Hwang, T-J; Yoon, J-S

    2013-09-01

    Among reports on the psychological variables that influence quality of life (QoL), none has addressed the impact of personality on QoL in patients with haemophilia. We investigated the impact of psychosocial variables including depression and personality on QoL in patients with severe haemophilia. A cross-sectional survey examining psychosocial and clinical characteristics was administered to Korean patients with severe haemophilia. Personality traits were ascertained using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory, which quantifies five personality dimensions including extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness. Patient QoL and depression were measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-abbreviated version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) respectively. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used for each domain to determine the impact of psychological variables on QoL. Of the 53 subjects who consented to participate, 46 cases were finally analysed. Multivariate linear regression analyses demonstrated that agreeableness was significantly and positively associated with the physical health domain of QoL. Openness was independently and positively associated with the psychological and social relationship domains of QoL. BDI scores were significantly and negatively associated with all four domains of the QoL. Persistent pain and joint impairment showed strong associations with all domains in a univariate analysis, but the impact was attenuated after adjusting for psychosocial variables. Personality and depression had strong impacts on QoL independent of physical status in patients with severe haemophilia. Providing psychological screening and intervention are recommended for enhancing QoL in patients with severe haemophilia.

  20. Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R; Clark, A

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention.

  1. Health outcomes in acromegaly: depression and anxiety are promising targets for improving reduced quality of life

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    Victor Jacobus Geraedts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IINTRODUCTION. Remission criteria of acromegaly are based on biochemical variables, i.e. normalization of increased hormone levels. However, the established reduction in Quality of Life (QoL is suggested to be independent of biochemical control. The aim of this study was to test which aspects predict Qol best in acromegaly. METHODS/Design. This is a prospective cohort study in 80 acromegalic patients, with a cross-sectional and longitudinal part. The main outcome measure was health-related quality of life (QoL, measured by a generic and a disease-specific questionnaire (the SF-36 and AcroQol. Main predictors were age, gender, biochemical control, disease characteristics, treatment modalities and psychopathology. RESULTS. Our cohort of 80 acromegalics had a mean age 54.7 ± 12.3 years with an average disease duration of 10.8 ± 10.0 years. Ratio macro-/microadenoma was 54/26. In adjusted mixed method models, we found that psychopathology significantly predicts QoL in acromegaly (in models including the variables age, gender, disease duration, tumor size, basal hormone levels, relevant treatment modalities and relevant comorbidities, with a higher degree of psychopathology indicating a lower QoL (depression vs. AcroQoL: B=-1.175, p<0.001, depression vs. SF36: B=-1.648, p<0.001, anxiety vs. AcroQoL: B=-0.399, p<0.001, anxiety vs. SF36: B=-0.661, p<0.001. The explained variances demonstrate superiority of psychopathology over biochemical control and other variables in predicting QoL in our models. DISCUSSION. Superiority of psychopathology over biochemical control calls for a more extensive approach regarding diagnosing depression and anxiety in pituitary adenomas to improve QoL. Depressive symptoms and anxiety are modifiable factors that might provide valuable targets for possible future treatment interventions.

  2. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life

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    Yaroslav Winter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer dementia (AD and vascular dementia (VD are the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Depression is an important co-morbid disorder in these diseases, which is often challenging to recognize. We investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with AD and VD and estimated the influence of depression on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated prevalence of depression in consecutively recruited patients with AD or VD (n= 98. Depression was diagnosed according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and scored using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The EuroQol (EQ-5D and visual analogue scale was applied to evaluate HrQoL. The severity of cognitive impairment was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting severity of depression. Results: The prevalence of depression in AD/VD was 87%. In comparison to the general population, HrQoL measured on the visual analogue scale was reduced by 54% in patients with AD/VD. In the dimension "anxiety/depression" of the EQ-5D, 81% of patients with AD/VD had moderate or severe problems. Depression showed significant association with reduced HrQoL (P<0.01. Independent predictors of more severe depression were older age, male gender, better MMSE scores and being not married. Conclusions: Depression is a prevalent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with AD/VD, which is often under-diagnosed being masked by cognitive impairment. Depression is a predictor of reduced HrQoL in elder people with AD/VD. Therefore, they should be screened for presence of depressive symptoms and receive adequate antidepressant treatment.

  3. Quality of life, depressed mood, and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Langut, Haya; Lorber, Avraham

    2007-05-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL), depressed mood, and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease and compare them with age-matched healthy adolescents (control group). Ninety adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years with congenital or acquired heart disease) and 87 controls completed the HRQoL (TAAQOL-CHD), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaires. Relevant medical details were collected. The patients and their parents were asked to rate their perceived severity of heart disease. Adolescents with severe heart disease reported higher levels of depressed mood and lower self-esteem than did adolescents with moderate and mild heart disease and age-matched healthy controls. Adolescents with severe heart disease also reported worse HRQoL than those with moderate and mild disease. According to the multiple regression analysis, 44% of variance of HRQoL was explained by the study variables. Disease severity alone explained 11% of the variance, but when entered with the other study variables, depressed mood, self-esteem, and adolescents' perceived severity of disease were the only significant contributors to the explained variance of HRQoL. An exploratory mediation analysis, using the Sobel test, was therefore applied, and it showed that depressed mood and perceived disease severity, but not self-esteem, mediated the relationship between disease severity and HRQoL. Lower HRQoL was found in adolescents with severe heart disease. Psychosocial factors have a significant effect on the psychological state of adolescents, and they should be addressed and treated.

  4. Depression, pain, exposure to stressful life events, and long-term outcomes in temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, S M; Laskin, D M; Frantsve, L M; Orr, T

    2001-06-01

    This study investigated the role of psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Orofacial pain patients' pretreatment levels of depression, disability caused by pain, and exposure to stressful life events were measured, and differences on these variables between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease patients and patients whose pain was of muscular origin (MPD) were evaluated. The use of these variables and patient diagnostic status in predicting response to treatment in a subsample of these patients was also evaluated. Before undergoing treatment, 258 patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Pain Disability Index (PDI), and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). Follow-up data on pain disability, current level of pain, depression, and satisfaction with treatment were obtained on 48 of these patients who were contacted at varying intervals after completing treatment. BDI scores obtained at the outset of treatment were significantly elevated and were positively correlated with SRRS and PDI scores. MPD patients had higher SRRS, BDI depression, and PDI pain disability scores than TMJ patients, and differences between the 2 groups in pain disability were greatest in areas that are often sources of interpersonal stress. Among follow-up patients, PDI scores declined after treatment, with MPD patients showing greater decreases than TMJ patients. Independent of patients' diagnostic status, their pretreatment PDI scores were predictive of their pain level at follow-up and were inversely related to their degree of satisfaction with treatment at follow-up; their pretreatment BDI scores were predictive of their depression level at follow-up. The findings are consistent with previous research indicating a link between emotional dysfunction and TMD and are largely supportive of the conclusion that psychological factors play a more pronounced role when pain is of muscular origin. Promising behavioral interventions are available for

  5. Atypical antipsychotics as add-on treatment in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakir S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sibel Cakir,1 Zeynep Senkal2 1Department of Psychiatry, Mood Disorders, Geriatric Psychiatry Unit, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs have been used in the augmentation of treatment-resistant depression. However, little is known about their effectiveness, tolerability, and adverse events in the treatment of late-life depression, which were the aim of this study.Methods: The retrospective data of patients aged >65 years who had a major depressive episode with inadequate response to antidepressant treatment and had adjuvant SGA treatment were analyzed. The outcome measures were the number of the patients who continued to use SGAs in the fourth and twelfth weeks, adverse events, and changes in symptoms of depression. Results: Thirty-five patients were screened: 21 (60% had quetiapine, twelve (34.28% had aripiprazole, and two (5.71% had olanzapine adjuvant treatment. The mean age was 72.17±5.02 years, and 65.7% of the patients were women. The mean daily dose was 85.71±47.80 mg for quetiapine, 3.33±1.23 mg for aripiprazole, and 3.75±1.76 mg for olanzapine. The Geriatric Depression Scale scores of all patients were significantly decreased in the fourth week and were significant in the aripiprazole group (P=0.02. Of the 35 patients, 23 (65.7% patients discontinued the study within 12 weeks. The frequency of adverse events was similar in all SGAs, and the most common were sedation, dizziness, constipation, and orthostatic hypotension with quetiapine, and akathisia and headache because of aripiprazole. Conclusion: This study indicates that dropout ratio of patients with SGAs is high, and a subgroup of patients with late-life depression may benefit from SGAs. Effectiveness is significant in aripiprazole, and adverse events of SGAs were not serious but common in elderly patients. Keywords: treatment resistance, aripiprazole

  6. The effect of isotretinoin (roaccutane therapy on depression and quality of life of patients with severe acne.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Fakour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acne is the most common skin disease and isotretinoin is the most powerful drug among the various drugs used for its treatment, but it has some adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of isotretinoin on depression and quality of life of a group of patients undergoing isotretinoin therapy before and after the treatment course.In this prospective study, 98 patients with severe acne were enrolled consecutively and underwent isotretinoin therapy receiving 0.5 mg/kg/d of isotretinoin for 16 weeks. Isotretinoin effects on quality of life and depression were evaluated using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI questionnaires, respectively.In this study, 98 patients suffering from severe acne (38 males and 60 females were enrolled. Treatment of acne was associated with improvement of quality of life scores in both male and female patients (p = 0.001. Considering the cutoff value of 13 for mild depressive mood in the BDI score, in total, 48 (49% of the enrolled patients (21 males and 33 females had a mild depressive mood before the commencement of the treatment in this study. The analysis of before and after treatment BDI scores showed that the number of patients and also the mean score of BDI were increased in both male and female patients after the treatment (p<0.05.Isotretinoin therapy improved the quality of life of patients suffering from acne, but depression was accentuated in the patients to some extent.

  7. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kotaro; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3) and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:28243100

  8. Depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life in elderly, multimorbid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Felix S; Güthlin, Corina; Mergenthal, Karola; Gensichen, Jochen; Löffler, Christin; Bickel, Horst; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut; Schön, Gerhard; Hansen, Heike; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Dahlhaus, Anne

    2014-04-08

    It is not well established how psychosocial factors like social support and depression affect health-related quality of life in multimorbid and elderly patients. We investigated whether depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life. Cross-sectional data of 3,189 multimorbid patients from the baseline assessment of the German MultiCare cohort study were used. Mediation was tested using the approach described by Baron and Kenny based on multiple linear regression, and controlling for socioeconomic variables and burden of multimorbidity. Mediation analyses confirmed that depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life (Sobel's p depressive mood (β = -0.341, p quality of life is greater than the influence of multimorbidity (β = -0.234, p quality of life, but this association is strongly mediated by depressive mood. Depression should be taken into consideration in research on multimorbidity, and clinicians should be aware of its importance when caring for multimorbid patients. ISRCTN89818205.

  9. The serotonin transporter gene locus in late-life major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Paroni, Giulia; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Fontana, Andrea; Paris, Francesco; Cascavilla, Leandro; Copetti, Massimiliano; Masullo, Carlo; Pilotto, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphism C in the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin), member 4 (SLC6A4) gene has been variously associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). To the best of our knowledge, no data were reported regarding a role of SLC6A4 in late-life MDD. The aim of this study was to explore the possible involvement of the SLC6A4 locus in patients with late-life MDD by means of a haplotype-tagged approach. Case-control study. Older patients attending a geriatric unit. A total of 218 patients with late-life MDD (61 men and 157 women) age 65 to 92 years (76.29 ± 6.53 years) and 363 depression-free healthy subjects (156 men and 207 women) age 41 to 65 years (48.33 ± 5.94 years). Genotyping and haplotype estimation of the three markers rs4795541, rs140701, and rs3813034 spanning a 39-kb block the SLC6A4 locus. Diagnoses of late-life MDD, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, and other dementing diseases were made using current clinical criteria. No significant differences were observed in allele or genotype distribution for the three SLC6A4 markers across the study groups. Because the comparison group could not be matched for age, a sensitivity analysis for the misclassification of controls was performed according to different scenarios. For each simulated scenario, the same nonsignificant result was observed. However, the results are limited to late-life MDD that is specifically not associated with cognitive impairment, and there was limited power for detecting very small effect sizes. Our findings suggested that the SLC6A4 locus play a minor role, if any, in the pathogenesis of late-life MDD. Also, tempering our conclusions, we were unable to account for population stratification, recurrence or chronicity of depression, nor the influence of coexisting medical, cognitive, and psychosocial stressors. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social problem-solving, perceived stress, depression and life-satisfaction in patients suffering from tension type and migraine headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet; Akyol, Ali; Çelik, Emine Yilmaz; Gültekin, Bülent Kadri

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating social problem solving, perceived stress, depression, and life-satisfaction in patients with tension type and migraine headaches. Forty-nine migraine and 42 tension type headache patients (n = 91) consenting to participate were compared to a total of 49 matched healthy control group. Participants filled in a questionnaire consisting self-report measures of problem solving, perceived stress, depression and life satisfaction. They were also asked about headache duration, frequency, pain severity, psychiatric treatment and sense of control in one's life. T-tests, chi-square, analysis of variance, logistic regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient procedures were used to analyze the data. Tension type headache patients reported having had more frequent headaches than the migraine patients but migraine patients reported having had more intense pain than the tension type headache patients. Instances of psychiatric treatment were more common among tension type headache patients than the migraine and the control group. Compared to the healthy controls, headache patients displayed a deficiency in problem solving, higher levels of perceived stress and depression. Levels of problem solving skills in headache patients were related inversely to depression, perceived stress and the number of negative life events but problem solving skills of headache patients was related positively to life-satisfaction. The findings from this study suggested that cognitive behavioral problem solving therapy or training might be a viable option for reducing levels of stress and depression, and to increase life-satisfaction in patients suffering from primary headache.

  11. The Effect of Back Pain on Quality of Life, Sleep Quality and Depression in Patients with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

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    Sema Haliloğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of back pain on the quality of sleep, quality of life and depression in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We also evaluated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and these parameters. Materials and Methods: One hundred and five patients diagnosed with postmenopausal osteoporosis were included in this study. The patients were evaluated on the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. The intensity of back pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Patients ranged in age from 46 to 75, with a mean age of 61.16±7.59. As pain scores increased, depression scores increased and sleep quality and quality of life were impaired (p<0.01. There were strong positive correlations among depression, sleep quality and quality of life (p<0.01, but we did not find significant correlations among lumbar spine (L1-L4 T-scores, L1-L4 BMD values, VAS, PSQI total scores, QUALEFFO-41 total scores and BDI scores. Conclusion: High pain scores in postmenopausal patients may be related to low quality of sleep and of life, and depression. Depression, sleep disorder and low quality of life may affect each other. Treating back pain, a frequent symptom in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients, may produce favorable effects on quality of sleep and life and on depression, as well as basic management. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 6-9

  12. Association between religiosity/spirituality and quality of life or depression among living-alone elderly in a South Korean city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yoo Sun; Kim, Do Hoon

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of religiosity and spirituality on quality of life and depression among older people. Two hundred and seventy-four solitary elderly people aged over 65 years living in Chuncheon city, South Korea were selected. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Short Geriatric Depression Scale-Korean version (SGDS-K) and quality of life was measured using Geriatric Quality of Life-Dementia (GQOL-D). We used the Duke Religion Index (DUREL) to assess religiosity and spirituality. There was a significant correlation between scales of depression (SGDS-K), quality of life (GQOL-D), and scale of religiosity/spirituality (DUREL) in older people. Depressed people had a lower score GQOL-D than non-depressed people. Among the depressed, those believing in a religion had a higher GQOL-D score than the non-religious. Multiple regression analysis revealed that religiosity and spirituality had significant effects on depression and quality of life among the elderly. Interestingly, religiosity and spirituality were not related to depression and quality of life amongst Buddhists, but were related amongst Protestants and Catholics. Religiosity and spirituality had significant effects on depression and on quality of life among the Korean elderly. However, there are different relationships between depression and religiosity, quality of life, and religiosity based on different religions. More research is needed to elucidate these findings. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Depression and resilience mediate the relationship between traumatic life events and ill physical health: results from a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Yan, Elsie; Raeside, Robert; Howard, Ruth

    2016-11-10

    We set out to investigate the mediating roles of depression, resilience, smoking, and alcohol use, in the relationship between potentially traumatic life events and objective and subjective, physical and mental health in a single study. A face-to-face, population-based survey was conducted in Hong Kong (N = 1147). Information on health conditions and traumatic life events was obtained, and participants completed measures of subjective physical and mental health, depression, and resilience. Smoking and drinking were not significant mediators of the relationship between life events and both objective and subjective health. Depressive symptomatology was found to mediate the relationship between life threatening illness and subjective physical health, the relationship between abuse (physical and sexual) and subjective mental health, and the relationship between the death of a parent/partner and subjective mental health. Resilience was found to mediate the relationships between multiple traumatic life events and subjective physical and mental health. Our results indicate that psychological factors rather than biological are important mediators of the relationship between life events exposure and health. Our findings provide evidence that depressive symptomatology has a mediating role only in the case of specific potentially traumatic life events and that resilience is only a critical factor in the face of exposure to multiple traumatic events, rather than single events. Our results also indicate that behavioural factors, such as smoking and drinking, are not significant mediators of the relationship between life events and health.

  14. Qualidade de vida e depressão: uma revisão da literatura Quality of life and depression: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Barros da Silva Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sintomas depressivos são altamente prevalentes, principalmente em serviços de cuidados primários, provocando sérios prejuízos nos sujeitos que não são submetidos a tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de revisar o impacto da associação entre depressão maior e qualidade de vida. Foram revisados os artigos publicados entre 1990 e 2007, utilizando as palavras-chave "qualidade de vida", "depressão", "sintomas depressivos", "serviços de cuidados primários", "bem-estar e felicidade" e "preditores de remissão". A presença de sintomas depressivos afeta todas as dimensões da qualidade de vida e, conforme a gravidade desses sintomas, o seu impacto na qualidade de vida pode ser maior do que o de outras doenças crônicas. Os resultados sugerem que a presença de sintomas depressivos exerce um importante impacto na qualidade de vida dos sujeitos, não se restringindo apenas às características clínicas do transtorno. Entretanto, ainda existe uma carência de modelos teóricos, assim como de estudos longitudinais, que possam estabelecer de forma mais clara qual é a real relação entre depressão e qualidade de vida. Provavelmente, através do entendimento de medidas subjetivas e objetivas de recuperação dos sujeitos com sintomas depressivos, poderão se buscar intervenções mais eficazes e que provoquem melhorias no funcionamento global dessa população. Sendo assim, a avaliação da qualidade de vida aparece como um desfecho relevante, pois pela sua multidimensionalidade é potencialmente capaz de detectar a magnitude e a abrangência do comprometimento que a depressão impõe.Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, mainly in primary health care services, causing serious impairments in those subjects that are not treated. The objective of this study was to review the impact of the association between depressive disorder and quality of life. Our review included articles published between 1990 and 2007 and it was based on the

  15. The direct and interactive effects of neuroticism and life stress on the severity and longitudinal course of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy A; Rosellini, Anthony J

    2011-11-01

    The direct and interactive effects of neuroticism and stressful life events (chronic and episodic stressors) on the severity and temporal course of depression symptoms were examined in 826 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders, assessed on 3 occasions over a 1-year period (intake and 6- and 12-month follow-ups). Neuroticism, chronic stress, and episodic stress were uniquely associated with intake depression symptom severity. A significant interaction effect indicated that the strength of the effect of neuroticism on initial depression severity increased as chronic stress increased. Although neuroticism did not have a significant direct effect on the temporal course of depression symptoms, chronic stress significantly moderated this relationship such that neuroticism had an increasingly deleterious effect on depression symptom improvement as the level of chronic stress over follow-up increased. In addition, chronic stress (but not episodic stress) over follow-up was uniquely predictive of less depression symptom improvement. Consistent with a stress generation framework, however, initial depression symptom severity was positively associated with chronic stress during follow-up. The results are discussed in regard to diathesis-stress conceptual models of emotional disorders and the various roles of stressful life events in the onset, severity, and maintenance of depressive psychopathology.

  16. GWAS-identified risk variants for major depressive disorder: Preliminary support for an association with late-life depressive symptoms and brain structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joanne; Artero, Sylvaine; Carrière, Isabelle; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    A number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD), however there has been little attempt to replicate these findings in population-based studies of depressive symptoms. Variants within three genes, BICC1, PCLO and GRM7 were selected for replication in our study based on the following criteria: they were identified in a prior MDD GWAS study; a subsequent study found evidence that they influenced depression risk; and there is a solid biological basis for a role in depression. We firstly investigated whether these variants were associated with depressive symptoms in our population-based cohort of 929 elderly (238 with clinical depressive symptoms and 691 controls), and secondly to investigate associations with structural brain alterations. A number of nominally significant associations were identified, but none reached Bonferroni-corrected significance levels. Common SNPs in BICC1 and PCLO were associated with a 50% and 30% decreased risk of depression, respectively. PCLO rs2522833 was also associated with the volume of grey matter (p=1.6×10(-3)), and to a lesser extent with hippocampal volume and white matter lesions. Among depressed individuals rs9870680 (GRM7) was associated with the volume of grey and white matter (p=10(-4) and 8.3×10(-3), respectively). Our results provide some support for the involvement of BICC1 and PCLO in late-life depressive disorders and preliminary evidence that these genetic variants may also influence brain structural volumes. However effect sizes remain modest and associations did not reach corrected significance levels. Further large imaging studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. The impact of executive function on response to cognitive behavioral therapy in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Madeleine S; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Thompson, Larry W; Kesler, Shelli R; Anker, Lauren; Flournoy, John; Berman, Mika P; Holland, Jason M; O'Hara, Ruth M

    2016-04-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a common and debilitating condition among older adults. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has strong empirical support for the treatment of depression in all ages, including in LLD. In teaching patients to identify, monitor, and challenge negative patterns in their thinking, CBT for LLD relies heavily on cognitive processes and, in particular, executive functioning, such as planning, sequencing, organizing, and selectively inhibiting information. It may be that the effectiveness of CBT lies in its ability to train these cognitive areas. Participants with LLD completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery before enrolling in CBT. The current study examined the relationship between neuropsychological function prior to treatment and response to CBT. When using three baseline measures of executive functioning that quantify set shifting, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition to predict treatment response, only baseline Wisconsin Card Sort Task performance was associated with a significant drop in depression symptoms after CBT. Specifically, worse performance on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task was associated with better treatment response. These results suggest that CBT, which teaches cognitive techniques for improving psychiatric symptoms, may be especially beneficial in LLD if relative weaknesses in specific areas of executive functioning are present. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Loneliness, depression, social support, and quality of life in older chronically ill Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeke, Laurie A; Goins, R Turner; Moore, Julia; Campbell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe loneliness and to examine the relationships between loneliness, depression, social support, and QOL in chronically ill, older Appalachians. In-person interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 60 older, chronically ill, community-dwelling, and rural adults. Those with dementia or active grief were excluded. The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1985), Geriatric Depression Scale (Shiekh & Yesavage, 1986), Katz ADL scale (Katz, Down, & Cash, 1970), MOS Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991), and a visual analog scale for Quality of Life (Spitzer et al., 1981) scale were used. Diagnoses were obtained through chart reviews. SPSS was used for data analyses. The majority of the 65% female sample (M age = 75 years) were married and impoverished. Participants' number of chronic illnesses averaged more than 3. Over 88% of participants reported at least 1 area of functional impairment. Loneliness was prevalent with UCLA loneliness scores indicating moderate to high loneliness, ranging from 39 to 62 (possible scores were 20-80). Higher loneliness scores correlated with depression, lower Qol, and lower social support, particularly lower emotional support. This study provides evidence that loneliness is a significant problem for older chronically ill Appalachian adults and that it may be related to low emotional support. Further, it provides evidence that this population may be significantly lonely and may not self-identify as lonely. Screening for loneliness and designing interventions that target the emotional aspects of loneliness could be important in this population.

  19. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Tendais

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  20. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendais, Iva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Mota, Jorge; Conde, Ana

    2011-02-01

    This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  1. Emotional response patterns of depression, grief, sadness and stress to differing life events: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2015-04-01

    In clarifying the clinical definition of an episode of major depression, DSM-5 equates bereavement with a number of other loss-related stressors (e.g. financial ruin, serious medical problems) and infers differences between such loss-related and non-loss-related responses. We undertook a study with the aim of examining the likelihood of varying life stressors leading to depression or to other emotional responses, and so allowing consideration as to whether bereavement might be equivalent to other loss-related stressful triggers. We studied a sample comprising sub-sets of those likely to have either experienced or never experienced a clinical depressive episode and report data for both the whole sample and the separate sub-sets. Participants were asked to report their exposure to 16 differing stressors and, given definitions of depression, grief, sadness and stress, to rate (in order of importance) their primary and secondary reactions if so experienced. Only one event (i.e. the individual being left by their partner) generated depression as the most likely response within the sample. A grief reaction was nominated as the most likely primary response to the death of a first-degree relative (52%) and was also a relatively common primary response to the death of a more distant relative or close family friend (36%). While one-fourth (24%) nominated grief as the primary response to being left by one's partner, it was rarely nominated as a primary response to all other events, including the DSM-5 'loss-related' exemplars of a financial crisis and of a medical illness (rates of 3% and 2%, respectively). As participants were given a definition of the emotional responses and candidate contexts, their responses may have been a reflection of the definitions provided. Additionally, a retrospective, self-report design was used which may have impacted on the veracity of responses. Findings position a grief response as showing relative specificity to bereavement events and that

  2. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving.

  3. Models of care for late-life depression of the medically ill: examples from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avari, Jimmy N; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-05-01

    Depression worsens most treatment outcomes in medically ill older adults. Chronic medical illnesses weaken and demoralize patients and compromise their ability to adhere to treatments requiring consistency and effort. Acute medical illnesses create a psychosocial storm that finds patients and their ecosystem unprepared. We describe two intervention models that can be used to target and personalize treatment in depressed, chronically, or acutely medically ill older adults. The Personalized Adherence Intervention for Depression and COPD (PID-C) is a model intervention for depressed patients with chronic medical illnesses. It targets patient-specific barriers to treatment engagement and aims to shift the balance in favor of treatment participation. PID-C led to higher remission rates of depression, reduction in depressive symptoms, and reduction in dyspnea-related disability. The addition of problem-solving training enables patients to use resources available to them and hopefully improve their outcomes. Ecosystem-focused therapy (EFT) is a model intervention for depression developing in the context of an acute medical event. It was developed for patients with poststroke depression (PSD) and targets five areas, part of the "psychosocial storm" originating from the patient's sudden disability and the resulting change in the patient's needs and family's life. A preliminary study suggests that EFT is feasible and efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and signs and disability in PSD.

  4. Do concomitant pain symptoms in patients with major depression affect quality of life even when taking into account baseline depression severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Zbigniew Kadziola,3 Victoria Moneta,4 Xiaomei Peng,5 Roberto Brugnoli,6 Josep Maria Haro41Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Eli Lilly Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Università di Roma, “Sapienza,” Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD may suffer from concomitant pain symptoms. The aim of this study is to determine whether the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS influences quality of life when taking into account baseline depression severity.Methods: Patients with a new or first episode of MDD (n = 909 were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study in East Asia. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, Somatic Symptom Inventory, and EuroQoL questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS were assessed at baseline and 3 months’ follow-up. The presence of PPS was defined as a mean score of ≥2 on the Somatic Symptom Inventory pain-related items. Regression analyses determined predictors of quality of life at 3 months, adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, overall severity, and quality of life at baseline.Results: PPS were present (PPS+ at baseline in 52% of patients. During the 3-month follow-up, EQ-VAS scores improved from 47.7 (standard deviation [SD] 20.6 to 72.5 (SD 20.4, and EQ-5D improved from 0.48 (SD 0.34 to 0.80 (SD 0.26. At 3 months, mean EQ-VAS was 66.4 (SD 21.2 for baseline PPS+ patients versus 78.5 (SD 17.6 for baseline PPS- patients, and mean EQ-5D was 0.71 (SD 0.29 versus 0.89 (SD 0.18. PPS+ at baseline was a significant predictor of quality of life at 3 months after adjusting for sociodemographic and baseline clinical variables

  5. Pain, Depression and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Cervical Miyofascial Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Dundar

    2014-03-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of depression, pain and disability in patients with chronic cervical miyofascial pain syndrome (MPS and to determine their association with quality of life. Material and Method: Forty patients with Cervical MPS and 40 age and sex-matched healthy controls enrolled in this study. The social and demographic characteristics of the patients and controls were examined. All patients and controls were evaluated with respect to pain (at night, rest and movement and assessed by visual analog scale (VAS. Neck disability index (NDI was used to calculate functional disability. Quality of life was evaluated with the the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. Also all of the patients and controls underwent Beck depression inventory (BDI. Results: There was no statistical difference between the patients and control cases according to demographical data. The SF-36 scores of the study patients were lower than controls. NDI, BDI and VAS scores were higher in the patients with chronic cervical MPS compared to controls. BDI scores of the patients with chronic cervical MPS  were negatively and closely associated with subparameters of the SF-36 (physical function (r:-0,599, p<0.001, role limitations due to physical functioning (r:-0,558, p<0.001, bodily pain (r:-0.540, p<0.001, general health (r:- 0,708 p<0.001, vitality (r:-0,692, p<0.001, social functioning (r:-0,559, p<0.001, role limitations due to emotional problems (r:-0,537, p<0.001 and mental health (r: -0,787, p<0.001. Discussion: BDI scores are higher in patients with chronic cervical MPS than healthy controls and negatively affect their quality of life. Psychiatric evaluation of the patients with chronic cervical MPS may improve their quality of life and treatments outcome.

  6. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  7. Relationships between social support and depression, and quality of life of the elderly in a rural community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Din, Normah Che; Ahmad, Mahadir; Ghazali, Shazli Ezzat; Said, Zaini; Shahar, Suzana; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Razali, Rosdinom

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of social support and depression in predicting the quality of life among the elderly living in a rural Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) community in Malaysia. A total of 162 elderly settlers of FELDA Sungai Tengi, aged 60 years and above, were selected by universal sampling method in this cross-sectional study. Three standardized instruments - the 12-item Short Form (SF-12), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Medical Outcome Study Social Support (MOS-Social Support) - were used to assess for quality of life, depression and social support. Quality of life of the elderly people in this community was high, especially in terms of physical components as compared to mental components. The mean scores for emotional role in the SF-12 was relatively the highest (90.74 ± 21.59) with social functioning being the lowest (30.35 ± 22.29). The results also showed that the mean value was higher for physical component summary (74.40) as compared to mental component summary (51.51). Approximately 23.5% suffered mild depression and only 2.5% had severe depression. This study showed that the elderly FELDA settlers have a high quality of life, mainly on the physical components of life and low rate of severe depression, a positive indicator of their psychological well-being. Social support in the form of emotional/informational support, and depression were significant factors related to their good quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The influence of depression, level of functioning in everyday life, and illness acceptance on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Kołtuniuk, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, and its incidence will increase as the global population ages. Due to the multitude of symptoms, this disease clearly has a significant impact on decreasing quality of life for those with PD. We aimed to evaluate the effect of selected variables on quality of life in people with idiopathic PD treated pharmacologically. This study was conducted among 50 patients with PD aged 47-85 years. The diagnostic survey method was applied to collect data with the use of the authors' questionnaire and standardized questionnaires, including, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ), Beck Depression Inventory, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Acceptance of Illness Scale. The results were statistically analyzed. Analysis of the study material showed that people who were more self-reliant were characterized by lower intensity of depressive symptoms (ρ=-0.567, P=0), were more likely to accept their illness (ρ=0.611, P=0), and assessed quality of life better in each of the studied domains of the PDQ. Illness acceptance correlated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms (ρ=-0.567, P=0) and significantly affected quality of life. Factors such as depression, disease acceptance, and functional capacity have a significant impact on the subjective assessment of quality of life in patients with PD. Evaluation of these factors should be taken into account in the therapeutic process, to minimize their negative impact on quality of life in patients with PD.

  9. Directions for Effectiveness Research to Improve Health Services for Late-Life Depression in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Theresa J; Hinton, Ladson; Liu, Jessica; Unützer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of late-life depression over the past 20 years, yet considerable gaps in care remain. Gaps in care are particularly pronounced for older men, certain racial and ethnic minority groups, and those with comorbid medical or mental disorders. We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature and conducted interviews with experts in late-life depression to identify promising directions for effectiveness research to address these gaps in care. We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, and CINHAL databases between January 1, 1998, through August 31, 2013, using terms related to late-life depression and any of the following: epidemiology, services organization, economics of care, underserved groups including health disparities, impact on caregivers, and interventions. The results of this selective review supplemented by more current recommendations from national experts highlight three priority research areas to improve health services for late-life depression: focusing on the unique needs of the patient through patient-centered care and culturally sensitive care, involving caregivers outside the traditional clinical care team, and involving alternate settings of care. We build on these results to offer five recommendations for future effectiveness research that hold considerable potential to advance intervention and health services development for late-life depression.

  10. Late-life depression in Peru, Mexico and Venezuela: the 10/66 population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Mariella; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Salas, Aquiles; Gaona, Ciro; Gonzales, Victor; de la Torre, Gabriela Rojas; Prince, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background The proportion of the global population aged 60 and over is increasing, more so in Latin America than any other region. Depression is common among elderly people and an important cause of disability worldwide. Aims To estimate the prevalence and correlates of late-life depression, associated disability and access to treatment in five locations in Latin America. Method A one-phase cross-sectional survey of 5886 people aged 65 and over from urban and rural locations in Peru and Mexico and an urban site in Venezuela. Depression was identified according to DSM–IV and ICD–10 criteria, Geriatric Mental State–Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS–AGECAT) algorithm and EURO–D cut-off point. Poisson regression was used to estimate the independent associations of sociodemographic characteristics, economic circumstances and health status with ICD–10 depression. Results For DSM–IV major depression overall prevalence varied between 1.3% and 2.8% by site, for ICD–10 depressive episode between 4.5% and 5.1%, for GMS–AGECAT depression between 30.0% and 35.9% and for EURO–D depression between 26.1% and 31.2%; therefore, there was a considerable prevalence of clinically significant depression beyond that identified by ICD–10 and DSM–IV diagnostic criteria. Most older people with depression had never received treatment. Limiting physical impairments and a past history of depression were the two most consistent correlates of the ICD–10 depressive episode. Conclusions The treatment gap poses a significant challenge for Latin American health systems, with their relatively weak primary care services and reliance on private specialists; local treatment trials could establish the cost-effectiveness of mental health investment in the government sector. PMID:19949200

  11. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B

    2015-01-01

    .4-23.7), as well as poorer sleep quality (3.2-units; 95 % CI 1.7-4.7) and mental component of HRQoL (-17.0-units; 95 % CI -21.0 to -12.9) than participants with minimal signs of depression. There was no association of signs of depression with pain sensitivity, exercise capacity, or the physical component of HRQo......PURPOSE: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. METHODS: A total of 451 women with FM participated...... in this cross-sectional study. Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II), pain intensity (numerical rating scale; NRS), pain sensitivity (algometry), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), functional exercise capacity (6-min walk test), FM...

  12. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients’ lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL. This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients and methods: Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder – dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. Conclusion: This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of

  13. Anxiety, depression and impaired health-related quality of life are therapeutic challenges in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety, depression and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are commonly reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and are of great interest for therapeutic approaches. Based on regional differences a quantitative assessment of these factors in comparison to the general population, and the consideration of demographic cofactors, would be useful when designing specific interventions. We adopted such an approach in a German cohort of MS patients. Anxiety, depression (HADS) a...

  14. The Direct and Interactive Effects of Neuroticism and Life Stress on the Severity and Longitudinal Course of Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Timothy A.; Rosellini, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of neuroticism and stressful life events (chronic and episodic stressors) on the severity and temporal course of depression symptoms were examined in 826 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders, assessed on three occasions over a one-year period (intake, 6- and 12-month follow-ups). Neuroticism, chronic stress, and episodic stress were uniquely associated with intake depression symptom severity. A significant interaction effect indicated that the strengt...

  15. Depressão e qualidade de vida em pacientes com fibromialgia Depression and quality of life among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMB Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Fibromialgia é uma síndrome reumática caracterizada por dor musculoesquelética difusa e crônica, e sítios dolorosos específicos à palpação (tender points. Freqüentemente é associada à fadiga generalizada, distúrbios do sono, rigidez matinal, dispnéia, ansiedade, alterações no humor que podem evoluir para um quadro de depressão. Sendo assim, afeta negativamente a qualidade de vida das pessoas. No entanto, ainda não se sabe o poder de discriminação dos instrumentos de avaliação da depressão e qualidade de vida. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a depressão e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia e avaliar o poder de discriminação de instrumentos relacionados a esses aspectos. MÉTODO: Para avaliar a qualidade de vida foram utilizados dois instrumentos: um específico, o Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ e outro genérico, o Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Healthy Survey (SF-36; para avaliar a depressão, a Escala de Depressão de Beck (BDS. Participaram do estudo 40 mulheres sendo 20 com fibromialgia - Grupo teste e 20 saudáveis - Grupo controle. Os três protocolos foram aplicados aos indivíduos dos dois grupos em uma única sessão de avaliação. Toda a análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste "t" Student, com significância alfa = 0,05. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos controle e teste em todos os questionários (pBACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a rheumatic syndrome characterized by widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain and specific palpable tender points. It is often associated with generalized fatigue, sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, dyspnea, anxiety and mood disturbances that may evolve into depression. Thus, such individuals' quality of life is negatively affected. However, the discriminating power of quality-of-life and depression assessment instruments is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess depression and

  16. Can Problem Solving Therapy Solve the Problem of Late Life Depression? A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siofra Petra Peeren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical depression affects approximately a fifth of older adults. It is important to assess the efficacy of psychological interventions in older adults because extant research indicates that treating depression with medication becomes complicated in later life. The current study evaluates the efficacy and long term effects of problem solving therapy (PST by systematically reviewing randomized trials of PST. A systematic search was undertaken of three computerised databases and six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies indicated that PST was more effective than control conditions. However, the direct and long term effect of PST on depressive symptoms remains difficult to establish due to methodological issues.

  17. The Role of Rumination and Stressful Life Events in the Relationship between the Qi Stagnation Constitution and Depression in Women: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women.

  18. Development of depression and deterioration in quality of life in German dental medical students in preclinical semesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, P H M; Neumann, C; Ropohl, A; Paulsen, F; Scholz, M

    2016-11-01

    Early intervention to counter mental disorders during the course of studies in dentistry is indicated in view of the pronounced prevalence of burnout in this student collective. To assess the proportion of students in whom these risk states can be quantified in measurable parameters for concrete mental disorders, we conducted surveys among students of dental medicine during the first 2.5 years of their studies. We surveyed a total of 163 students of dental medicine in their first 5 semesters of study. Standardized, validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II) and mental and physical quality of life (Short Form Survey; SF-12) were used in the survey, with per-semester participant quotas of around 90%. Regarding depression, the students were within the range of the normal populace at the beginning of the 1st semester. Symptoms of depression then became more pronounced with every succeeding semester. In the fifth semester, the average levels determined were equivalent to a depression with a clinical treatment indication. Hardly any change was registered for physical wellbeing in the quality of life questionnaire. The mental sum scores, however, reflected dramatic downturns in quality of life. Highly significant correlations between the parameters described here - depressivity and mental quality of life - were observed in all semesters. The participating students begin their course of studies at the level of the average populace for the symptoms surveyed, then develop, on average, a clinically manifest depression after 2.5 years. The personal experience of a deterioration of mental quality of life appears to be crucial in the phenomena observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  20. Longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and pain with quality of life in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayev, Linda Y; Mor, Maria K; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L; Palevsky, Paul M; Arnold, Robert M; Fine, Michael J; Weisbord, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), yet their associations with quality of life (QOL) are not fully understood. We sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with QOL. As part of a trial comparing two symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic HD, we assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and pain using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) monthly over 24 months. We assessed health-related QOL (HR-QOL) quarterly using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and global QOL (G-QOL) using a single-item survey. We used random effects linear regression to analyze the independent associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5-point increments in symptom scores, with HR-QOL and G-QOL. Overall, 286 patients completed 1417 PHQ-9 and SF-MPQ symptom assessments, 1361 SF-12 assessments, and 1416 G-QOL assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β = -1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.69, -0.50, P < 0.001); SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β = -4.52; 95% CI: -5.15, -3.89, P < 0.001); and G-QOL scores (β = -0.64; 95%CI: -0.79, -0.49, P < 0.001). Pain was independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.30, -0.68, P < 0.001) and G-QOL scores (β = -0.12; 95%CI: -0.20, -0.05, P = 0.002); but not with SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β = -0.16; 95%CI: -0.050, 0.17, P = 0.34). In patients receiving chronic HD, depressive symptoms and to a lesser extent pain, are independently associated with reduced HR-QOL and G-QOL. Interventions to alleviate these symptoms could potentially improve patients' HR-QOL and G-QOL. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  1. Early-life stress and HPA axis trigger recurrent adulthood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juruena, Mario F

    2014-09-01

    It is now broadly accepted that psychological stress may change the internal homeostatic state of an individual. During acute stress, adaptive physiological responses occur, which include hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Whenever there is an acute interruption of this balance, illness may result. The social and physical environments have an enormous impact on our physiology and behavior, and they influence the process of adaptation or 'allostasis'. It is correct to state that at the same time that our experiences change our brain and thoughts, namely, changing our mind, we are changing our neurobiology. Increased adrenocortical secretion of hormones, primarily cortisol in major depression, is one of the most consistent findings in neuropsychiatry. A significant percentage of patients with major depression have been shown to exhibit increased concentrations of cortisol, an exaggerated cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone, and an enlargement of both the pituitary and adrenal glands. The maintenance of the internal homeostatic state of an individual is proposed to be based on the ability of circulating glucocorticoids to exert negative feedback on the secretion of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones through binding to mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors limiting the vulnerability to diseases related to psychological stress in genetically predisposed individuals. The HPA axis response to stress can be thought of as a mirror of the organism's response to stress: acute responses are generally adaptive, but excessive or prolonged responses can lead to deleterious effects. Evidence indicates that early-life stress can induce persistent changes in the ability of the HPA axis to respond to stress in adulthood. These abnormalities appear to be related to changes in the ability of hormones to bind to GR and MR receptors. First episodes may begin with an environmental stressor, but if the cycles continue or occur unchecked, the brain

  2. Association between quality of life and anxiety, depression, physical activity and physical performance in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nan Li; Bryan Shapiro; Jun Chul Kim; Min Zhang; Janos Porszasz; Rachelle Bross; Usama Feroze

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients often have impaired quality of life (QOL), anxiety, depression, and reduced daily physical activity (DPA) and physical performance. The contributions of these latter factors to reduced QOL in MHD are poorly understood. We examined the association of QOL with anxiety, depression, DPA, and physical performance.Methods: Seventy-two relatively healthy adult MHD patients, vintage≥6 months, and 39 normals of similar age range and gender distribution were studied. QOL was assessed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF). Anxiety and depression were each evaluated with two questionnaires. DPA and physical performance were assessed with a physical activity monitor, Human Activity Profile, and 6-minute walk, sit-to-stand, and stair-climbing tests. Results: Most KDQOL components were reduced in MHD patients versus normals. KDQOL components in patients were commonly inversely correlated with measures of anxiety and depression (P<0.05) and were more reduced in patients with both anxiety and depression. KDQOL was often impaired in patients with either anxiety or depression. However, most KDQOL scores did not differ between patients and normals without anxiety or depression. DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical per-formance often correlated with KDQOL scores in adjusted models, but after further adjustment for anxiety and depression, DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical performance correlated less frequently with KDQOL scores. This reduction in significant correlations after adjustment for anxiety and depression was particularly pronounced for the association between KDQOL and DPA. Conclusion: In relatively healthy MHD patients, KDQOL scores are usually decreased in those with anxiety and/or depression but are usually normal in those without anxiety or depression. Lower DPA in MHD patients with reduced KDQOL scores often appears to be associated with anxiety and depression. The relationship

  3. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Erica C; Brinkman, Tara M; Baker, Justin N

    2017-03-09

    As therapeutic and supportive care interventions become increasingly effective, growing numbers of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors face a myriad of physical and psychological sequelae secondary to their disease and treatment. Mental health issues, in particular, present a significant problem in this unique patient population, with depression affecting a sizable number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Multiple key determinants impact a survivor's risk of developing depression, with variables traversing across biologic, individual, family, community, and global levels, as well as spanning throughout the life course of human development from the preconception and prenatal periods to adulthood. A multi-level life course conceptual model offers a valuable framework to identify and organize the diverse variables that modulate the risk of developing depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. This review describes the first multi-level life course perspective applied to development of depression in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This conceptual framework may be used to guide the investigation of mental health interventions for SCACs to ensure that key determinants of depression occurrence are adequately addressed across various levels and throughout the life trajectory.

  4. Influence of anxiety and depression on quality of life of people with schizophrenia in the eastern region of poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Wołyniak, Małgorzata; Kryś, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is the most severe and most debilitating mental illness, which is one of the first ten causes of disability in youth and elderly people. Regarding many consequences that schizophrenia brings for individual and social functioning of ill people, their assessment of the quality of their lives seems to be interesting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and severity of anxiety and depression as well as analysis of the impact level of anxiety and depression on life quality of people with schizophrenia. A group of patients with schizophrenia from psychiatric centers was involved in a study. A set of methods, included: author's questionnaire, the quality of life scale WHOQOL-BREF, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Anxiety disorders occurred in more than 78% of respondents, while depressive disorders in more than half of respondents. The more severe anxiety and depressive disorders, the lower values were observed in all tested components of quality of life. The study of quality of life of the mentally ill patients should be conducted on a continuous basis in order to explore the current factors influencing the improvement of their psychophysical welfare. It is necessary to promote prohealthy mental lifestyle.

  5. Assessment of the Relationship Between Depression and Bone Mineral Density and Quality of Life in Patients with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Koyuncu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determined the effects of depression on bone loss and quality of life in postmenopausal osteoporotic (PMO women. Seventy two females (mean age 65 ± 6.9 were included in this study. Out of these patients, 27 (37.5% had depression, 45 (62.5% were normal. All cases were evaluated by DXA, Hamilton depression scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36 scale and visual analog scale. In the patients with depression, L1-L4 t-score (-3.29 ± 1.07, femur neck t-score (-2.60 ± 1.00 and z-score (-0.97 ± 0.82 were significantly lower than PMO patients without depression (respectively; -2.71 ± 0.83, -1.86 ± 1.16 and –0.50 ± 0.91. SF-36 scores (75.9 ± 19.8 were lower in patients with depression than patients without depression (86.5 ± 14.4 (p=0.041. Negative correlations between Hamilton score and L1-L4 z-score (R=-0.432, p=0.024, femur neck t-score (R=-0.528, p=0.005 were found. In conclusion, postmenopausal bone loss was higher and functional capasity was lower in patients with depression.

  6. Quality of life and depression in multiple sclerosis patients: longitudinal results of the BetaPlus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzilli, Carlo; Schweikert, Bernd; Ecari, Ugo; Oentrich, Wolfgang; Bugge, Jörg-Peter

    2012-11-01

    Enhancing quality of life (QoL) is an important objective of disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS). Strategies to substantiate the effect on QoL and depression have been suggested, including injection devices and nursing support. This study assesses QoL and depression in MS patients treated with interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) and evaluates the impact of different elements of a patient support programme and of coping strategies on QoL and depression. A prospective, observational, 2-year cohort study was conducted. MS patients were eligible if they had previously switched to IFNB-1b. Data were collected every 6 months. For the measurement of QoL the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) was used. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); coping strategies were assessed using the 66-item version of Ways of Coping Questionnaire. A total of 1,077 patients were recruited into the study. Seven hundred (65 %) patients completed the study. Within the subgroup completing questionnaires on QoL (N = 472) and depression (N = 363), QoL increased (110.4 vs. 115.8, p QoL and depressions, the use of the autoinjector Betaject(®) over time showed a positive association with QoL (p = 0.049). The support from a nurse was positively associated with lower depressive symptoms (p = 0.039). The coping strategies 'planful problem-solving' and 'positive reappraisal' were associated with higher QoL and lower depressive symptoms. Patients on IFNB-1b treatment who were included in the patient support programme and completed the study showed an improvement in QoL. Moreover, compared to baseline the proportion of depressive patients decreased. Coping strategies as well as supportive elements such as autoinjectors and nurses had a significant impact on QoL and depression. However, the study had the general limitations of a non-controlled design.

  7. Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Vachaspati, Tanmay; Steer, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    This article, written for Scolarpedia, provides a brief introduction into the subject of cosmic strings, together with a review of their main properties, cosmological evolution and observational signatures.

  8. Gray matter changes in late life depression--a structural MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Carmen; Butters, Meryl A; Begley, Amy; Rajji, Tarek; Wu, Minjie; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Reynolds, Charles F; Aizenstein, Howard

    2008-10-01

    Multiple brain morphometric changes have been reported in late-life depression (LLD), mostly in studies comparing volumes of circumscribed brain areas. The aim of our study is to characterize the volumetric changes of multiple gray matter regions in relation to age of onset/duration of illness. We predicted that the association of gray matter volumes with total duration of illness and age of onset would differ depending on whether the region was susceptible to the toxic effects of chronic exposure to cortisol or to the vascular/neurodegenerative changes accompanying prodromal dementia. Seventy-one elderly depressed subjects were studied along with thirty-two comparison subjects. High-resolution T1-weighted brain MRIs were processed using an automated labeling pathway technique. To protect against type-I error, we combined the right and left hemisphere volume data. We sampled 24 regions of interest (ROIs). We used the primary visual cortex volume to normalize for individual variations in brain size. LLD Subjects had smaller volumes than non-depressed subjects in 17 of the 24 examined ROIs. Shorter duration of illness and later age of onset was correlated with smaller volumes of parahippocampal area and parietal inferior area. A later age of onset was also correlated with smaller volumes of several frontal and temporal areas, cingulum, and putamen. Our findings support a dementia prodrome model more strongly than a toxic stress model in this group of subjects. However, it remains likely that both processes as well as other factors contribute to the heterogeneity of volumetric brain changes in LLD.

  9. Physical Exercise for Late-Life Depression: Customizing an Intervention for Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetidou, Stamatula; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Menchetti, Marco; Toni, Giulio; Asioli, Fabrizio; Bagnoli, Luigi; Zocchi, Donato; Siena, Matteo; Assirelli, Barbara; Luciano, Claudia; Masotti, Mattia; Spezia, Carlo; Magagnoli, Monica; Neri, Mirco; Amore, Mario; Bertakis, Klea D

    2017-02-01

    To identify which individual- and context-related factors influence the translation into clinical practice of interventions based on physical exercise (PE) as an adjunct to antidepressants (AD) for the treatment of late-life major depression (LLMD). Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Primary care with psychiatric consultation-liaison programs (PCLPs)-organizational protocols that regulate the clinical management of individuals with psychiatric disorders. Individuals aged 65 and older with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (N = 121). Participants with LLMD were randomized to AD (sertraline) or AD plus PE (AD + PE). Participant characteristics that were associated with greater effectiveness of AD + PE (moderators) were identified, and effect sizes were calculated from success rate differences. Whether the characteristics of the study setting influenced participant flow and attendance at exercise sessions was then explored, and primary care physicians (PCPs) were surveyed regarding their opinions on PE as a treatment for LLMD. The following participant characteristics were associated with greater likelihood of achieving remission from depression with AD + PE than with AD alone: aged 75 and older (effect size 0.32), polypharmacy (0.35), greater aerobic capacity (0.48), displaying psychomotor slowing (0.49), and less-severe anxiety (0.30). The longer the PCLP had been established at a particular center, the more individuals were recruited at that center. After participating in the study, PCPs expressed positive views on AD + PE as a treatment for LLMD and were more likely to use this as a therapeutic strategy. The combination of PE and sertraline could improve the management of LLMD, especially when customized for individuals with specific clinical features. Liaison programs might influence the implementation of similar interventions in primary care, and PCPs viewed them positively

  10. Physical Exercise for Late-Life Depression: Effects on Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Giulio; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Piepoli, Massimo; Zanetidou, Stamatula; Cabassi, Aderville; Squatrito, Salvatore; Bagnoli, Luigi; Piras, Alessandro; Mussi, Chiara; Senaldi, Roberto; Menchetti, Marco; Zocchi, Donato; Ermini, Giuliano; Ceresini, Graziano; Tripi, Ferdinando; Rucci, Paola; Alexopoulos, George S; Amore, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Late-life major depression is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and impaired autonomic control of the heart, as evident from reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Moreover, antidepressant drug therapy also might be associated with further reductions of HRV. In the SEEDS study, we investigated whether sertraline associated with physical exercise protocols led to improvements of HRV, compared with antidepressant drug therapy alone. Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric consultation-liaison program for primary care. Patients aged 65-85 years with major depression, recruited from primary care. Sertraline plus structured, tailored group physical exercise (S + EX) versus sertraline alone (S) for 24 weeks. HRV indices (RR, percentage of NN intervals greater than 50 msec [pNN50], square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], standard deviation of heart rate [SDHR], standard deviation of the NN interval [SDNN], high-frequency band [HF], low-frequency band [LF], and their ratio [LF/HF]) were measured at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Psychiatric and medical assessments. Participants displayed significant improvements of most HRV indices over time, irrespective of the group assignment (pNN50, RMSSD, SDHR, SDNN, HF, LF, and LF/HF). Moreover, patients in the S + EX group displayed greater increases of different HRV indices(RR, pNN50, RMSSD, SDHR, SDNN, HF, and LF) compared with those in the S group. The combination of structured physical exercise and sertraline might exert positive effects on the autonomic control of the heart among older patients with major depression. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of inter-relationship of depression, seizure frequency and quality of life of people with epilepsy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can have profound physical, social and psychological consequences. We aimed to assess the clinical predictors of quality of life of people with epilepsy. We recruited 31 patients suffering from epilepsy in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical profile was recorded. Quality Of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31 was used to assess quality of life of our patients. Depression was screened by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory in Epilepsy (NDDI-E. Among all the clinical variables, only seizure frequency significantly correlated with seizure worry (P=0.002, emotional well-being (P=0.026 and social functions (P=0.013 subscales of QOLIE-31. NDDI-E score showed a significant negative correlation with all the subscales of QOLIE-31 except medication effects (P=0.993. A significant positive correlation was also noted between seizure frequency and NDDI-E score (r=0.417, P=0.020. Seizure frequency and depression are the most important predictors of quality of life in epilepsy patients. The management of patients with epilepsy should not only be aimed at just preventing seizures but the treating clinicians should also be cognizant about depression which itself can significantly affect the quality of life of patients.

  12. Defining anxious depression in later life: a scaring heterogeneity in results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. METHODS: In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based o

  13. The Importance of Childhood Trauma and Childhood Life Events for Chronicity of Depression in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Giltay, Erik J.; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is linked to adult depression and might be a risk factor for a more chronic course of depression. However, the link between childhood trauma and chronicity of depression has not been investigated using a large and representative sample in which other depression character

  14. Defining anxious depression in later life: a scaring heterogeneity in results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. METHODS: In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based

  15. Coping, quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients in a curative and palliative, end-of-life care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Schilderman, J.; Bleijenberg, G.; Donders, R.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Prins, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coping strategies may be important factors influencing quality of life (QOL), depression, and hopelessness. However, most studies on this issue were performed in patients still undergoing anticancer treatment. Unknown is which coping strategies are of importance for palliative-cancer

  16. Depressão na esquizofrenia: prevalência e relação com a qualidade de vida Depression in schizophrenia: prevalence and relationship to quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clareci Silva Cardoso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi mensurar a prevalência de depressão na esquizofrenia, investigando os fatores associados e sua relação com a qualidade de vida. Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 pacientes ambulatoriais, a depressão foi mensurada pela Escala Calgary de Depressão na Esquizofrenia e a qualidade de vida por meio da escala Quality of Life Scale-Brasil. Foi encontrada uma prevalência de 56% de depressão maior. Pacientes com depressão maior apresentaram pior qualidade de vida na escala global e domínio ocupacional. A qualidade de vida global foi importante para a separação dos grupos na árvore de decisão. Em pacientes com pior qualidade de vida, presença de sintomas da doença, número de medicamentos e ausência de atividades no lar se associaram à depressão, enquanto para aqueles com melhor qualidade de vida, apenas duração da doença foi importante. Esta investigação sugere alta prevalência de depressão, além de mostrar sua repercussão na qualidade de vida. Recomenda-se a investigação da depressão associada à qualidade de vida no cuidado terapêutico destes pacientes.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression in schizophrenia and associated factors, including quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 150 outpatients. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia measured depression, and the Quality of Life Scale-Brazil measured quality of life. Major depression was found in 56% of patients with schizophrenia. Patients with major depression had low quality of life according to both the global scale and the occupational subscale. Global quality of life was important for separating the decision-tree statistical analyses. In patients with low quality of life, three factors were associated with depression: presence of schizophrenic symptoms, number of medications, and lack of household activities. In patients with better quality of life scores, only duration of the

  17. Improving the Management of Late-Life Depression in Primary Care: Barriers and Facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sussman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to elicit Canadian health professionals' views on the barriers to identifying and treating late-life depression in primary care settings and on the solutions felt to be most important and feasible to implement. A consensus development process was used to generate, rank, and discuss solutions. Twenty-three health professionals participated in the consensus process. Results were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants generated 12 solutions. One solution, developing mechanisms to increase family physicians' awareness of resources, was highly ranked for importance and feasibility by most participants. Another solution, providing family physicians with direct mental health support, was highly ranked as important but not as feasible by most participants. Deliberations emphasized the importance of case specific, as needed support based on the principles of shared care. The results suggest that practitioners highly value collaborative care but question the feasibility of implementing these principles in current Canadian primary care contexts.

  18. Anxiety and Depression Are Better Correlates of Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Than Apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacob D; Butterfield, London C; Song, Woojin; Lafo, Jacob; Mangal, Paul; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Due to controversy regarding the influence of apathy on quality of life (QoL), the authors examined the independent influence of apathy, depression, and trait anxiety in a nondemented sample of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Participants (N=107) completed standard self-report measures of QoL and mood/motivation. Analyses investigated the contribution of these measures and empirically derived factor scores on QoL. QoL was predicted by trait anxiety, dysphoria, and decreased interest, with no independent contribution of apathy. Different patterns emerged with respect to domain-specific QoL, with trait anxiety being the strongest predictor across most domains. Anxiety was most widely related to QoL in PD, with minimal contribution of apathy. Future studies should examine different roles of PD mood/motivation symptoms on caregiver QoL.

  19. Do burnout and work engagement predict depressive symptoms and life satisfaction? A three-wave seven-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-12-10

    Burnout and work engagement have been viewed as opposite, yet distinct states of employee well-being. We investigated whether work-related indicators of well-being (i.e. burnout and work engagement) spill-over and generalize to context-free well-being (i.e. depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). More specifically, we examined the causal direction: does burnout/work engagement lead to depressive symptoms/life satisfaction, or the other way around? Three surveys were conducted. In 2003, 71% of all Finnish dentists were surveyed (n=3255), and the response rate of the 3-year follow-up was 84% (n=2555). The second follow-up was conducted four years later with a response rate of 86% (n=1964). Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the cross-lagged associations between the study variables across time. Burnout predicted depressive symptoms and life dissatisfaction from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3. Conversely, work engagement had a negative effect on depressive symptoms and a positive effect on life satisfaction, both from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3, even after adjusting for the impact of burnout at every occasion. The study was conducted among one occupational group, which limits its generalizability. Work-related well-being predicts general wellbeing in the long-term. For example, burnout predicts depressive symptoms and not vice versa. In addition, burnout and work engagement are not direct opposites. Instead, both have unique, incremental impacts on life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Filip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic affordable. Methods and design This paper describes the design of a study evaluating "The stories we live by", a preventive life-review group intervention, which was recently developed for adults of 55 years and over with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both clinical and economic effectiveness will be evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention condition will receive the 8-session preventive intervention. The participants in the control condition will have access to usual care. Clinical end-terms are depressive and anxiety symptoms, current major depressive episode, quality of life and positive mental health post-treatment (3 months after baseline and at follow-ups (6 and 12 months after baseline. Additional goals of this study are to identify groups for whom the intervention is particularly effective and to identify the therapeutic pathways that are vital in inducing clinical change. This will be done by analyzing if treatment response is moderated by demographics, personality, past major depressive episodes, important life events and chronically disease, and mediated by reminiscence functions, perceived control, automatic positive thoughts and meaning in life. Finally the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to care as usual will be assessed by computing incremental costs per case of depression and anxiety avoided (cost-effectiveness and per quality adjusted life year (QALY (cost utility. Discussion It is expected that both the life-review intervention and its evaluation will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. First, the intervention is unique in linking life

  1. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Depressive Symptoms and the Experience of Pleasure in Daily Life: An Exploration of Associations in Early and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-07-01

    Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.

  3. Self-esteem as an important factor in quality of life and depressive symptoms in anosmia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, K; Reichert, J L; Brückler, B; Hinterleitner, V; Schöpf, V

    2017-02-25

    Previous research has reported a negative impact of olfactory dysfunction on quality of life (QoL) and depressive symptoms. As self-esteem was identified as a contributing factor to depression, this study aimed to investigate QoL, depressive symptoms and self-esteem in patients with smell loss. Prospective controlled study. Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, in co-operation with the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Twenty-two anosmic patients (12 females, 10 males) and 25 healthy controls (15 females, 10 males) participated in this study. Olfactory performance was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks battery. In addition, psychological questionnaires that covered the topics quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), depressive symptoms (BDI-II) and self-esteem (MSWS) were conducted. The results of this study revealed a decrease in QoL and reduced body-related self-esteem in anosmic patients. Furthermore, QoL and self-esteem were correlated with depressive symptoms. As self-esteem, QoL and depressive symptoms in anosmia interact with each other, we suggest that self-esteem should be considered in the medical history, in order to provide a personalised intervention, adapted to the patient's needs. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Otolaryngology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cosmic Magnification

    CERN Document Server

    Ménard, B

    2002-01-01

    I present the current status of the cosmic magnification produced by systematic amplification of background sources by large-scale structures. After introducing its principle, I focus on its interests for cosmology and underline its complementary aspect to cosmic shear and galaxy auto-correlations. I finally discuss recent investigations using higher-order statistics.

  5. Cosmic superstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2008-08-28

    Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe.

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of quality of life and depression of older people in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the process of aging and old age is an important question in social sciences. The quality of life at this age, among other things, is being enriched with new life opportunities and challenges, as well as developmental tasks every single individual has to face with. Therefore the focus of this research is the correlation of the quality of life and depressiveness with different demographic characteristics of older people in Serbia. The demographic variables included: gender, age, education, marital status and monthly income of the respondents. The quality of life is measured using the Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire - OPQOL (Bowling, 2009, as well as several questions on life domain satisfaction and chronical disease, while depressiveness was measured using Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS (Greenberg, 2007. The sample was a convenience one, consisted of 497 respondents, 50,35% of men and 49,7% of women, 65-92 years old. The final results show that the quality of life of older people in Serbia is within the average range, and depressiveness belongs to the -category with the level of mild occurence. Men are more satisfied with a job they have or used to have, while women better estimate their independence and control over their life. The age of respondents positively correlates with marital satisfaction, satisfaction with job, with parental role, health, social relations, independence and monthly incomes. The amount of monthly income positively correlates with job satisfaction and well-being, while it is negatively correlated with health, social relations, independence, home and neighbourhood, financial status and the depressiveness of the respondents. The level of education is significantly correlated with marital satisfaction, job, whole life, health, social relations and activities, satisfaction with home and neighbourhood, emotional and psychic well-being, financial status and the level of depressiveness of the respondents

  7. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  8. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per; Ringholm, Lene; Watt, Torquil; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110 with type 1 and 27 with type 2). To evaluate changes from early to late pregnancy, the internationally validated questionnaires 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at 8 and 33 gestational weeks. From early to late pregnancy, the SF-36 scales Physical Function, Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Component Summary worsened (p anxiety score improved slightly from 5.0 (3.3) to 4.5 (3.4) (p = 0.04) whereas the HADS depression score remained unchanged. The prevalence of women with HADS anxiety or depression score ≥8 did not change. Physical quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved slightly during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. A minor reduction in anxiety and stable depression symptoms was observed. The results on mental health are reassuring, considering the great demands that pregnancy places on women with pregestational diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; McDougle, Christopher J; Malison, Robert T; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Price, Lawrence H

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in patients with major depression. Elevations of CSF CRF have also been reported in adult laboratory animals exposed to the stress of brief maternal deprivation or maternal neglect in the neonatal or preweaning period. The present study was designed to determine whether major depression and a history of perceived early adversity in childhood are independently associated with elevated CSF CRF concentrations in adults. In this case-control study, 27 medication-free adults with major depression and 25 matched controls underwent standardized lumbar puncture for collection of a single CSF sample at 1200. Subjects provided data about significant adverse early-life experiences and rated their global perceived level of stress during pre-school and preteen years on a six-point Likert scale. The mean difference in CSF CRF between depressed patients and controls did not reach statistical significance. In a regression model, perceived early-life stress was a significant predictor of CSF CRF, but depression was not. Perinatal adversity and perceived adversity in the preteen adversity years (ages 6-13 years) were both independently associated with decreasing CSF CRF concentrations. The relationship observed between perceived early-life stress and adult CSF CRF concentrations in this study closely parallels recent preclinical findings. More work is needed to elucidate the critical nature and timing of early events that may be associated with enduring neuroendocrine changes in humans.

  10. Quality of life, depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Nuken, Amenla; Samson, Luke; Singh, Shalini; Jorm, Anthony F; Kermode, Michelle

    2013-05-27

    Mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and suicide represent an important public health problem in India. Elsewhere in the world a high prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders have been found among people who inject drugs (PWID). Research in India has largely overlooked symptoms of common mental disorders among this high risk group. This paper reports on the results of a survey examining quality of life, depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among adult males who inject drugs living in Delhi. Participants (n = 420) were recruited from needle and syringe programs using time location sampling and were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Self-report symptom scales were used to measure the severity of symptoms of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-2) within the preceding 2 weeks. We assessed the presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts within the past 12 months. The mean length of injecting career was 20.9 years indicating a sample of chronic injecting drug users, of whom only one-third (38%) were born in Delhi. The level of illiteracy was very high (62%), and just 2% had completed class 12. Scavenging / rag picking was the main form of income for 48%, and many were homeless (69%). One-third (33%) had been beaten up at least twice during the preceding 6 months, and many either never (45%) or rarely (27%) attended family events. We found a high prevalence of depressive (84%, cut-off ≥10) and anxiety (71%, cut-off score of ≥3) symptoms. Fifty-three percent thought about killing themselves in the past 12 months, and 36% had attempted to kill themselves. Our findings revealed a socially excluded population of PWID in Delhi who have minimal education and are often homeless, leaving them vulnerable to physical violence, poverty, poor health, imprisonment and disconnection from family. The high prevalence of psychological distress found in this study has implications for programmes seeking to engage, treat and

  11. Relationship between baseline white-matter changes and development of late-life depressive symptoms: 3-year results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorczuk, A; Firbank, M J; Pantoni, L;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that cerebral white-matter changes and depressive symptoms are linked directly along the causal pathway. We investigated whether baseline severity of cerebral white-matter changes predict longer-term future depressive outcomes in a community sample of non.......09) or incident depression (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the vascular depression hypothesis and strongly implicate white-matter changes in the pathogenesis of late-life depression. Furthermore, the findings indicate that, over time, part of the relationship between white-matter changes and depression...

  12. Determinants of subjective quality of life in depressed patients: the role of self-esteem, response styles, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Christine; Buerger, Christin

    2005-06-01

    We aimed to assess the subjective quality of life (QOL) in depressed patients after discharge from inpatient treatment and to investigate the net impact of self-related constructs (self-esteem, response styles to depressed mood) and of social support on specific subjective QOL domains. Four weeks after discharge from inpatient treatment, 89 unipolar depressed patients were assessed with a comprehensive battery of psychopathology and psychosocial measures. Subjective QOL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). Analyses included hierarchical regressions. Non-remitted patients reported poorer subjective QOL than fully and partially remitted patients regarding physical and psychological health, and overall QOL. After adjusting for demographic and clinical history variables, interviewer-rated severity of depression accounted for 4% to 36% of the variance in individual QOL domain scores. Self-esteem, rumination, distraction and the existence of a partnership added further increments to the explained variance of the psychological QOL domain. Rumination, partnership, and network size of family members providing psychological crisis support also predicted subjective QOL on the social relations domain. Our results suggest that self-esteem, response styles to depressed mood, and social support characteristics contribute substantially to the psychological and social domains of subjective QOL in depressed patients. These associations are not attributable to concurrent symptom severity. Therapy with depressed patients should not only focus on symptom reduction but should help the patients to establish and maintain supportive relationships and to enhance self-appreciation and skills to cope with negative mood in order to improve psychological well-being and health-related quality of life.

  13. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with life satisfaction in elderly Chinese: The mediating role of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ting-Fan; Sun, Xun-Ming; Li, Shu-Juan; Wang, Qun-Shan; Cai, Jian; Li, Lin-Zi; Li, Yan-Xun; Xu, Min-Jie; Wang, Yong; Chu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Zheng-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether sleep duration and quality were related to life satisfaction (LS) among older Chinese adults and whether depression mediated those relationships. Cross-sectional data from the aging arm of the Rugao Longevity and Aging Study were used. Sleep duration, sleep quality, depression, LS and covariates were analyzed using logistic regressions. To assess the potential mediation of depression on the association between sleep duration and quality and LS, Aroian tests were used. Of 1756 older Chinese adults aged 70-84 years, 90.7% of the men and 83.3% of the women reported being satisfied with their lives. After adjusting for covariates, older adults who slept ≤6h per night were more likely to suffer from life dissatisfaction compared with those who slept 7-8h (OR=2.67, 95% CI 1.86-3.79), and individuals who slept poorly were almost 2 times (OR=2.91, 95% CI 2.16-3.91) more likely to have life dissatisfaction. The Aroian tests confirmed that these relationships were partially mediated by depression (pdepression accounted for 13.9% of the total effects. Moreover, the mediating effect of depression on the association between sleep quality and LS was 13.3%. Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality were inversely associated with LS, and the relationships were partially mediated by depression. Our study suggests that both sleep and depression status are important factors for LS among the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety and depression correlate with disease and quality-of-life parameters in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu X

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xujuan Xu,1,* Biyu Shen,2,3,* Aixian Zhang,4 Jingwei Liu,3 Zhanyun Da,4 Hong Liu,4 Zhifeng Gu4 1Department of Nursing, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 2School of Nursing, Nantong University, 3Department of Nursing, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 4Department of Rheumatology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To evaluate the relationship between mental and physical health in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to identify the predictors of psychological status.Methods: Patients with AS (n=103 and healthy controls (n=121 were surveyed between 2010 and 2011 (cross-sectional study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, pain visual analog scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, revised Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, revised Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Short-Form 36 questionnaire were administered.Results: The frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with AS was higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.001. Severe disease status and reduced quality of life (QoL were associated with anxiety and depression. Disease activity and somatic pain were more severe in the anxious and depressed subgroups. Impaired physical functioning (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was higher in the anxious and depressed subgroups, while measures of spinal mobility (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index were not associated with depression. Lower QoL was observed in the depressed subgroup.Conclusion: Low socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance, and fatigue contributed to depression in Chinese patients with AS. These patients may require a psychological care approach that is different from those of other countries. Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, disease activity

  15. Antidepressants differentially related to 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D-3 and 25-(OH) vitamin D-3 in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R C; Derks, W J; Comijs, H C; Schoevers, R A; de Borst, M H; Marijnissen, R M

    2014-01-01

    A low plasma 25-OH vitamin D-3 level is a universal risk factor for a wide range of diseases and has also been implicated in late-life depression. It is currently unknown whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, that is, 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D-3, is also decreased in late-life depression,

  16. Lifestyle- and diet-related factors in late-life depression - a 5-year follow-up of elderly European men: the FINE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, S.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Giampaoli, S.; Kromhout, D.; Nissinen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Late-life depression is one of the main health problems among elderly populations and a key element of healthy ageing. Causal relationships of lifestyle- and diet-related factors in late-life depression are unclear. This study investigates prospective associations of lifestyle- and

  17. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  18. Antidepressants differentially related to 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and 25-(OH) vitamin D(3) in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Derks, W.J.; Comijs, H.C.; Schoevers, R.A.; Borst, M.H. de; Marijnissen, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    A low plasma 25-OH vitamin D3 level is a universal risk factor for a wide range of diseases and has also been implicated in late-life depression. It is currently unknown whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, that is, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, is also decreased in late-life depression, or

  19. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  20. Fatigue in Patients With Advanced Terminal Cancer Correlates With Inflammation, Poor Quality of Life and Sleep, and Anxiety/Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alex Rua; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Fonseca, Fernando; de Paula, Larissa Carvalho; Giglio, Auro Del

    2016-12-01

    To assess which laboratory and clinical factors are associated with fatigue in patients with terminal cancer. We evaluated 51 patients with advanced incurable solid tumors using the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale for fatigue; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR) for sleep quality; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality of Life Questionnaire, Version 3.0 (QLQ C-30); and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) for quality of life. We also analyzed several inflammatory markers and the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS). We observed severe fatigue in 19 (38%) patients (FACIT-F score >36). There was a significant correlation between fatigue as evaluated by the CFQ and quality of sleep and between the CFQ mental fatigue subscale scores and TNF-α level. When fatigue was evaluated using the FACIT-F scale, we observed a significant association between fatigue and anxiety/depression, quality of sleep, mGPS, and hemoglobin levels. Fatigue measured both with the CFQ and FACIT-F scale correlated with poor quality of life according to the EORTC QLQ C-30. In patients with advanced cancer, fatigue is a common symptom associated with the presence of inflammation, poor quality of sleep, depression/anxiety, and poor quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Association between depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence and overweight in later life : review of the recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, E.T.; Sauer, P.J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present an overview of the association between depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence and subsequent overweight in later life. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for all indexed journals from January 1, 1997, to May 30, 2007. Study Selection: Abstracts of 513 a

  2. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Henriksen, Marius; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. METHODS: A total of 451 women with FM participated in this

  3. The Moderating Effect of Impulsivity on the Relationship between Stressful Life Events and Depression among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transpersonal model of stress, the purpose of the study was to investigate the moderating effect of impulsivity on the relationship between stressful life events (SLE) and depression among first year university women. Impulsivity consists of tendencies towards lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, urgency and sensation seeking.…

  4. Family Antecedents and Consequences of Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: A Life Course Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Jung, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using prospective data from 485 adolescents over a 10-year period, the present study identifies distinct segments of depressive symptom trajectories--a nonsignificant slope during adolescence and a significant negative slope during the transition to adulthood. The study hypothesized that different age-graded life experiences would differentially…

  5. Moderator Role of Self-Esteem on the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitci, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…

  6. Exposure to parents’ negative emotions in early life as a developmental pathway in the intergenerational transmission of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aktar, E.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the links between exposure to parents’ depression and anxiety in the early years of life, and infants’ socio-emotional development. The thesis first focuses on the associations between infants’ and parents’ emotional expressions, and between infants’ and parents’ reaction

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  8. A Comparison of Levels of Quality of Life, Depression and Loneliness among Athletes with Different Levels of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Saban; Atan, Tulin; Cavusoglu, Gul; Erim, Vedat; Yamak, Bade

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of life quality, depression and loneliness among the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS), national wrestlers and non national wrestlers in terms of some demographic variables. The participants of the study included 37 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Ondokuz Mayis…

  9. Moderator Role of Self-Esteem on the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitci, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…

  10. The Relation of Parental Attitudes to Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acun-Kapikiran, Necla; Körükçü, Özlem; Kapikiran, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether self-esteem in adolescence has a mediator role in the relationship between parental attitude and life satisfaction and depression. Data was collected from 360 secondary school students ages ranging from 11 to 14 (M = 12.67, SD= 0.97) out of which 216 of them were female and 144 male. The…

  11. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110 ...

  12. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfaction and control in your life Help ease depression symptoms such as hopelessness and anger As part of your treatment, it's important to also address other conditions that often accompany atypical depression, in particular anxiety and drug or alcohol use, ...

  13. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression is a real, treatable brain illness, or health problem. Depression can be caused by big transitions in life, stress, or changes in your body’s chemicals that affect your thoughts and moods. Even if you feel ...

  14. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  15. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among older adults, but it is NOT a normal part of aging. In fact, studies show that most older adults feel satisfied with their lives, despite having more illnesses or physical problems. Important life changes that happen as we get older may cause ...

  16. Interface between social support, quality of life and depression in users eligible for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cissa; Pessalacia, Juliana Dias Reis; Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira da; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2017-08-28

    Analyzing the relationship between social support, quality of life and depression in patients eligible for palliative care at Primary Health Care of a municipality in the interior of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A correlational cross-sectional study carried out with patients treated in six primary health care units. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, tests for differences between averages and medians, and correlation tests. The significance level was 0.05. The sample consisted of 115 participants, and it was identified that the higher the social support, the better the global quality of life (psexo, idade, renda, escolaridade e presença de cuidador. Analizar la relación entre apoyo social, calidad de vida y depresión en pacientes elegibles para cuidados paliativos atendidos en la Atención Primaria a la Salud de un municipio en el interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Estudio transversal correlacional, realizado con pacientes atendidos en seis unidades de atención primaria a la salud. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis estadístico descriptivo, pruebas de diferencias entre medias y medianas y pruebas de correlación. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue 0,05. La muestra fue compuesta por 115 participantes, y se identificó que cuanto mayor el apoyo social, mejor es la calidad de vida global (p sexo, edad, renta, escolaridad y presencia de cuidador.

  17. Increased frequency of anxiety, depression, quality of life and sexual life in young hypogonadotropic hypogonadal males and impacts of testosterone replacement therapy on these conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Umit; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Akbulut, Halil; Sonmez, Alper; Yuksel, Servet; Basaran, Yalcin; Uzun, Ozcan; Bolu, Erol; Saglam, Kenan

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as the failure in production of gonadal hormones, thus resulting in lower amounts of testosterone. Depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life are the most common psychopathological conditions in young hypogonadal men. The aim of the present study was to assess the still debated relationship with testosterone levels and psychological symptoms in young male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Thirty-nine young male patients with CHH and 40 age-matched healthy males were enrolled in the present study. The impact of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) on the patients' anxiety and depression levels, sexual function and quality of life were assessed before and after 6 months of treatment using valid and reliable scales, including the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX). Patients with CHH had significantly higher scores for BDI, BAI, and ASEX than the control subjects at baseline (p=0.011, p=0.036, pstatistically significant (p=0.135). When compared to the control group, treatment naïve hypogonadal patients had more severe symptoms of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and worse quality of life. After 6 months of TRT, we observed improvements in the above parameters, suggesting that low endogenous levels of testosterone might be related to the increased incidence of psychological symptoms.

  18. Quality of life and use of health care resources among patients with chronic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villoro R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renata Villoro,1 María Merino,1 Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega,2 1Department of Health Economics, Instituto Max Weber, Madrid, 2Department of Economics and Finance, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain Purpose: This study estimates the health-related quality of life and the health care resource utilization of patients diagnosed with chronic depression (CD in Spain. Patients and methods: We used the Spanish National Health Survey 2011–2012, a cross-sectional survey representative at the national level, that selects people aged between 18 and 64 years (n=14,691. We estimated utility indices through the EuroQol five-dimensional descriptive system questionnaire included in the survey. We calculated percentage use of health care resources (medical visits, hospitalizations, emergency services, and drug consumption and average number of resources used when available. A systematic comparison was made between people diagnosed with CD and other chronic conditions (OCCs. The chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Kruskal–Wallis test were used to determine the statistical significance of differences between comparison groups. Multivariate analyses (Poisson regression, logistic regression, and linear regression were also carried out to assess the relationship between quality of life and consumption of health care resources. Results: Approximately, 6.1% of the subjects aged between 18 and 64 years were diagnosed with CD (average age 48.3±11 years, 71.7% females. After controlling for age, sex, and total number of comorbidities, a diagnosis of CD reduced utility scores by 0.09 (P<0.05 vs OCCs, and increased the average number of hospitalizations by 15%, the average number of days at hospital by 51%, and the average number of visits to emergency services by 15% (P<0.05. CD also increased the average number of visits to secondary care by 14% and visits to general practitioners by 4%. People with CD had a higher probability of consuming drugs than

  19. Effects of depressive symptoms and family satisfaction on health related quality of life: the Hong Kong FAMILY study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Nan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of depressive symptoms and satisfaction with family support (FS on physical and mental Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Hong Kong FAMILY Project baseline survey in 2009-2011, which included 16,039 community residents (age ≥ 20. The FS was measured using the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR, range 0-10 Questionnaire. HRQoL were assessed using the SF-12 version 2. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived neighborhood cohesion were also assessed. RESULTS: In a multilevel regression model, socio-demographic and behavioral variables explained 21% and 19% of the variance in physical and mental HRQoL. The presence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, standardized coefficients, β of -1.73 and high FS (APGAR score 7-10, 1.15 were associated with mental HRQoL, after adjustment for age, education, household monthly income, drinking status, physical activity, chronic conditions, life stress and neighborhood cohesion. Not FS but the presence of depressive symptoms (β of -0.88 was associated with physical HRQoL. The presence of depressive symptoms in women than men were more associated with a poorer physical HRQoL (p<0.01 while depressive symptoms in men were associated with a decrease in mental HRQoL (p<0.001. The interaction between FS and depressive symptoms was nonsignificant in relation to HRQoL. Among those with depressive symptoms, high FS was associated with a better mental HRQoL (41.1 vs. 37.9, p<0.001 in women but not contribute to variance in men. CONCLUSIONS: Higher FS and presence of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with HRQoL in general population in Hong Kong. Among those with depressive symptoms, high FS was associated with a favorable mental HRQoL in women but not men.

  20. Working conditions, self-perceived stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Bin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246. The final model shows that social support (JCQ was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS. Job demand (JCQ was directly related to stress (DASS and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF. Job control (JCQ was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Stress (DASS was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Anxiety (DASS was directly related to depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF. Depression (DASS was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF. Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases

  1. Sexual satisfaction, anxiety, depression and quality of life among Turkish colorectal cancer patients [Izmir Oncology Group (IZOG) study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Murat; Ulger, Eda; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Yildiz, Yasar; Bayoglu, Vedat; Gumus, Zehra; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Salman, Tarık; Varol, Umut; Ayakdas, Semra; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay

    2015-07-01

    Determination of psychological problems will shed light on the terms of solution and provide support to patients about these problems will ensure the patients' coherence to the treatment and will enhance the benefits they receive from treatment. In this study, we aimed to determine these psychosocial problems and the interactions with each other in colon cancer patients. In this study, 105 patients with colorectal cancer were included. The forms consist of sociodemographic features, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction questionnaires. Male patients had significantly higher European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 function scales and global quality-of-life scores than female patients. Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction scores of female patients were significantly higher than that of male patients. European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 function scales and global quality-of-life scores of the patients with high depression scores were significantly lower, conversely symptom scale scores of the patients with high depression scores were significantly higher than that of the patients with low depression scores. Patients with low anxiety scores had significantly higher European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 function scales and global quality-of-life scores than the patients with high anxiety scores. Symptom scale scores of the patients with high anxiety scores were significantly higher than that of the patients with low anxiety scores. The scores of Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction except premature ejaculation and vaginismus were significantly higher in patients with high anxiety scores and a significant difference was determined in touch

  2. Positive life events, attributional style, and hopefulness: testing a model of recovery from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needles, D J; Abramson, L Y

    1990-05-01

    A model of a recovery process from depression that is compatible with the hopelessness theory of depressive onset is proposed. This model predicts that depressives who have an enhancing attributional style for positive events (i.e., make global, stable attributions for such events) will be more likely to regain hopefulness and, thereby, recover from depression, when positive events occur. This prediction was tested by following a group of depressed college students longitudinally for 6 weeks. Although neither positive events alone nor attributional style alone predicted reduction in hopelessness, depressives who both showed the enhancing attributional style for positive events and experienced more positive events showed dramatic reductions in hopelessness which were accompanied by remission of depressive symptoms. Thus, attributional style for positive events may be a factor that enables some depressives to recover when positive events occur in their lives.

  3. Late-life depression symptom profiles are differentially associated with immunometabolic functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests immune and metabolic dysregulation among depressed persons, possibly restricted to specific subgroups. This study explores the association between depressive disorders and characteristics with immunometabolic functioning among older persons. Data are from the baseline asses

  4. Relationship between progression of brain white matter changes and late-life depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firbank, Michael J; Teodorczuk, Andrew; van der Flier, Wiesje M;

    2012-01-01

    Brain white matter changes (WMC) and depressive symptoms are linked, but the directionality of this association remains unclear.......Brain white matter changes (WMC) and depressive symptoms are linked, but the directionality of this association remains unclear....

  5. Late-life depression symptom profiles are differentially associated with immunometabolic functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests immune and metabolic dysregulation among depressed persons, possibly restricted to specific subgroups. This study explores the association between depressive disorders and characteristics with immunometabolic functioning among older persons. Data are from the baseline asses

  6. Patient-Centered Dialysis Care: Depression, Pain, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable advancements have been made in the provision of chronic dialysis therapy since its inception decades ago. A series of studies inform current dialysis dosing recommendations, while advancements in strategies to treat mineral and bone disease, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances, and anemia have facilitated the management of these well-recognized complications of ESRD. The collective result has been a model of chronic dialysis care focused principally on the achievement of metabolic and dialysis-related targets. In fact, guidelines such as the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative put forth by the National Kidney Foundation recommend metrics that characterize successful dialysis care, including the attainment of specific solute clearance targets; maintenance of hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid hormone levels within target ranges; and the preferred use of primary arteriovenous fistulae for vascular access. This focus on serologic and dialysis-specific outcomes has helped renal providers manage the biochemical effects related to the loss of kidney function and has reduced ESRD-related morbidity and mortality. Yet, absent from this model of care is an emphasis on the treatment of bothersome symptoms and the impact of such treatment on quality of life (QOL). Among the many symptoms that affect patients on chronic dialysis, depression and pain are particularly common, strongly associated with decrements in QOL, and potentially treatable. This review discusses key research findings and unanswered questions pertaining to the prevalence, significance, and treatment of depression and pain and the effect of such treatment on QOL in patients dependent on chronic dialysis, with the broad goal of incorporating symptom management strategies into a paradigm of patient-centered dialysis care. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Association of Cerebral Amyloidosis, Blood Pressure, and Neuronal Injury with Late-Life Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Min Soo; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Yi, Dahyun; Han, Ji Young; Park, Jinsick; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, Eun Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) process may contribute to late-life onset depression (LLOD). Therefore, we investigated the association of LLOD with cerebral amyloidosis and neuronal injury, the two key brain changes in AD, along with vascular risks. Twenty nine non-demented individuals who first experienced major depressive disorder (MDD) after age of 60 years were included as LLOD subjects, and 27 non-demented elderly individuals without lifetime experience of MDD were included as normal controls (NC). Comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was diagnosed in 48% of LLOD subjects and in 0% of NC. LLOD, irrespective of comorbid MCI diagnosis, was associated with prominent prefrontal cortical atrophy. Compared to NC, LLOD subjects with comorbid MCI (LLODMCI) showed increased cerebral 11C-Pittsburg compound B (PiB) retention and plasma beta-amyloid 1–40 and 1–42 peptides, as measures of cerebral amyloidosis; and, such relationship was not observed in overall LLOD or LLOD without MCI (LLODwoMCI). LLOD subjects, particularly the LLODwoMCI, had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) than NC. When analyzed in the same multiple logistic regression model that included prefrontal gray matter (GM) density, cerebral amyloidosis, and SBP as independent variables, only prefrontal GM density showed a significant independent association with LLOD regardless of MCI comorbidity status. Our findings suggest AD process might be related to LLOD via prefrontal neuronal injury in the MCI stage, whereas vascular processes—SBP elevation, in particular—are associated with LLOD via prefrontal neuronal injury even in cognitively intact or less impaired individuals. PMID:27790137

  8. Association of Cerebral Amyloidosis, Blood Pressure, and Neuronal Injury with Late-life Onset Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soo Byun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD process may contribute to late-life onset depression (LLOD. Therefore, we investigated the association of LLOD with cerebral amyloidosis and neuronal injury, the two key brain changes in AD, along with vascular risks. Twenty nine non-demented individuals who first experienced major depressive disorder (MDD after age of 60 years were included as LLOD subjects, and 27 non-demented elderly individuals without lifetime experience of MDD were included as normal controls (NC. Comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI was diagnosed in 48% of LLOD subjects and in 0% of NC. LLOD, irrespective of comorbid MCI diagnosis, was associated with prominent prefrontal cortical atrophy. Compared to NC, LLOD subjects with comorbid MCI (LLODMCI showed increased cerebral 11C-Pittsburg compound B (PiB retention and plasma beta-amyloid 1-40 and 1-42 peptides, as measures of cerebral amyloidosis; and, such relationship was not observed in overall LLOD or LLOD without MCI (LLODwoMCI. LLOD subjects, particularly the LLODwoMCI, had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP than NC. When analyzed in the same multiple logistic regression model that included prefrontal gray matter (GM density, cerebral amyloidosis and SBP as independent variables, only prefrontal GM density showed a significant independent association with LLOD regardless of MCI comorbidity status. Our findings suggest AD process might be related to LLOD via prefrontal neuronal injury in the MCI stage, whereas vascular processes—SBP elevation, in particular—are associated with LLOD via prefrontal neuronal injury even in cognitively intact or less impaired individuals.

  9. Depression in late life: a hidden public health problem for Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Fernando A.; Gallo Joseph J.; Delva Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Depression is one of the most important causes of disability in the world, causes considerable suffering, and problems associated with depression are extremely costly to society. Depression is one of the most common and debilitating illnesses of older people that is frequently overlooked. The most recent epidemiological study in Mexico estimated the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes among people 18 to 54 years old to be 7.8%, only second to alcohol dependence (8.2%). A previous...

  10. Changes in quality of life following group CBT for anxiety and depression in a psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian Po; McAlinden, Niamh May

    2014-12-30

    The present study examined the relationship between quality of life and symptom change following group CBT treatment for anxiety or depression in a psychiatric hospital outpatient setting. One hundred seventy seven outpatients undergoing eight sessions of group CBT for anxiety (n=124) or mood disorders (n=53) participated. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung-SRDS), Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were administered at baseline and post-treatment. Additionally, the QOLI and SWLS scores of those who achieved reliable improvement or clinically significant symptom change were compared to those who experienced no reliable symptom improvement. There were significant changes across the QOLI, SWLS, BAI and Zung-SRDS outcome measures between baseline and post-treatment, with moderate to very large effect sizes observed. Patients with reliable or clinically significant change in their symptoms experienced significant increases in QOLI and SWLS scores when compared to those whose symptoms did not change reliably. Overall, in a psychiatric hospital outpatient setting, group CBT appeared to be successful in increasing quality of life and satisfaction with life in addition to reducing anxiety and depression symptoms.

  11. Associations between adherence, depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life in young adults with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K. B.; Pressler, T.; Mortensen, L. H.;

    2016-01-01

    was to examine the relationships among treatment adherence, symptoms of depression and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population of young adults with CF.Methods: We administered three standardized questionnaires to 67 patients with CF aged 18–30 years; Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Major...... Depression Inventory, and Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised.Results: There was a response rate of 77 % and a majority of the young adults (84 %) were employed or in an education program. Most participants (74 %) reported low adherence to medications. One third (32.8 %) of the participants reported......Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life shortening disease, however prognosis has improved and the adult population is growing. Most adults with cystic fibrosis live independent lives and balance the demands of work and family life with a significant treatment burden. The aim of this study...

  12. Depression and hopelessness in patients with acute leukemia: the psychological impact of an acute and life-threatening disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheihman, Galina; Zimmermann, Camilla; Deckert, Amy; Fitzgerald, Peter; Mischitelle, Ashley; Rydall, Anne; Schimmer, Aaron; Gagliese, Lucia; Lo, Chris; Rodin, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Acute leukemia (AL) is a life-threatening cancer associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in older adults. Given that there has been little research on the psychological impact of such malignancies with acute onset, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of depression and hopelessness in patients with AL. Three hundred forty-one participants were recruited within 1 month of diagnosis or relapse and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and other psychosocial measures. Multivariate regression analyses identified correlates of depression and hopelessness. 17.8% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 15), 40.4% of which were in the moderate-severe range (BDI-II ≥ 20). 8.5% reported significant symptoms of hopelessness (BHS ≥ 8). Depression was associated with greater physical symptom burden (adjusted R(2)  = 48.4%), while hopelessness was associated with older age and lower self-esteem (adjusted R(2)  = 45.4%). Both were associated with poorer spiritual well-being. Clinically significant depressive symptoms were common early in the course of AL and related to physical symptom burden. Hopelessness was less common and associated with older age and lower self-esteem. The results suggest that whereas depression in AL may be related to disease burden, the preservation of hope may be linked to individual resilience, life stage, and realistic prognosis.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Amy J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3…

  14. DeLLITE Depression in late life: an intervention trial of exercise. Design and recruitment of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Sally

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity shows potential in combating the poor outcomes associated with depression in older people. Meta-analyses show gaps in the research with poor trial design compromising certainty in conclusions and few programmes showing sustained effects. Methods/design The Depression in Late Life: an Intervention Trial of Exercise (DeLLITE is a 12 month randomised controlled trial of a physical activity intervention to increase functional status in people aged 75 years and older with depressive symptoms. The intervention involves an individualised activity programme based on goal setting and progression of difficulty of activities delivered by a trained nurse during 8 home visits over 6 months. The control group received time matched home visits to discuss social contacts and networks. Baseline, 6 and 12 months measures were assessed in face to face visits with the primary outcome being functional status (SPPB, NEADL. Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, quality of life (SF-36, physical activity (AHS Physical Activity Questionnaire and falls (self report. Discussion Due to report in 2008 the DeLLITE study has recruited 70% of those eligible and tests the efficacy of a home based, goal setting physical activity programme in improving function, mood and quality of life in older people with depressive symptomatology. If successful in improving function and mood this trial could prove for the first time that there are long term health benefit of physical activity, independent of social activity, in this high risk group who consume excess health related costs. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12605000475640

  15. Comorbidity of Depression and Anxiety: Association with Poor Quality of Life in Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ornelas Maia, Ana Claudia C.; Braga, Arthur de Azevedo; Paes, Flávia; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is associates with depression and impairment in Quality of Life (QoL). Objective: The objective is to define the frequencies of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a sample of patients diagnosed with type 1 and 2 diabetes, the amount of impairment of QoL and the weight of depression and anxiety in determining the QoL in such of patients. Methods: A total of 210 patients were divided into two groups (type 1 and type 2). Patients completed the HADS and WHOQoL-bref. Results: Groups showed a high prevalence of anxiety (type 1 = 60%, type 2 = 43.8%) and depression (type 1 = 52.4%, type 2 = 38.1%), both measures were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in diabetes type 1 patients. Type 1 patients also showed a QoL in the overall assessment and the physical, psychological and social relations domains. In both Type 1 and 2 diabetes poor QoL was found associated by anxiety and depression comorbidity. Conclusion: In overall diabetes patients depression and anxiety seems to be a determinant of poor QoL. PMID:23935696

  16. Impact of physical exercise on quality of life of older adults with depression or Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Boscarino Tavares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has been associated with improvement of quality of live (QoL, but its effect among the elderly with depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD is still unclear. This systematic review evaluated randomized and controlled studies about the effect of physical exercise on QoL of older individuals with a clinical diagnosis of depression and AD.METHODS:We searched PubMed, ISI, SciELO and Scopus from December 2011 to June 2013 using the following keywords: physical exercise, quality of life, elderly, depression, Alzheimer's disease. Only six studies met inclusion criteria: two examined patients with AD and four, patients with depression.RESULTS: The studies used different methods to prescribe exercise and evaluate QoL, but all had high quality methods. Findings of most studies with individuals with depression suggested that exercise training improved QoL, but studies with patients with AD had divergent results.CONCLUSIONS: Although different methods were used, results suggested that physical exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve the QoL of elderly individuals with depression and AD. Future studies should investigate the effect of other factors, such as the use of specific scales for the elderly, controlled exercise prescriptions and type of control groups.

  17. Physical activity, quality of life and symptoms of depression in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, Alfonso; Martínez-García, Raquel; Molinero, Olga; Márquez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression in community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. The sample was a cohort of 436 elderly (234 women and 202 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. 58% were community-dwellers and 42% were institutionalized in senior residences. Participants completed measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36) and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). All SF-36 domains, except role-emotional, were significantly correlated with the YPAS activity dimension summary index. Physical function, role-physical, general health and vitality correlated with total time activity, and correlations were observed between weekly energy expenditure and physical function, role physical, vitality and mental health. Depressive symptom scores correlated significantly with the YPAS activity dimension summary index and the weekly energy expenditure. Scores for various domains of the SF-36 and for depressive symptoms significantly differed among less and more active individuals of the same sex and institutionalization category. Differences generally reached a higher extent in institutionalized subjects in comparison to community dwellers. In conclusion, physical activity was related to different domains of both the physical and mental components of HRQoL and to decreased depressive symptoms. Results emphasize the positive effects of physical activity in both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

  18. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child's Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Hammerton

    Full Text Available Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child's life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe. The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%. Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a

  19. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child's Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Mars, Becky; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita; Zammit, Stanley; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child's life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe). The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%). Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21)], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a history of

  20. Depression as a Clinical Determinant of Dependence and Low Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

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    Giselle Helena de Paula Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aging process promotes a progressive increase in chronic-degenerative diseases. The effect of these diseases on the functional capacity has been well recognized. Another health parameter concerns “quality of life related to health”. Among the elderly population, cardiovascular diseases stand out due to the epidemiological and clinical impact. Usually, these diseases have been associated with others. This set of problems may compromise both independence and quality of life in elderly patients who seek cardiologic treatment. These health parameters have not been well contemplated by cardiologists. Objective: Evaluating, among the elderly population with cardiovascular disease, which are the most relevant clinical determinants regarding dependence and quality of life. Methods: This group was randomly and consecutively selected and four questionnaires were applied: HAQ, SF-36, PRIME-MD e Mini Mental State. Results: The study included 1,020 elderly patients, 63.3% women. The group had been between 60 and 97 years-old (mean: 75.56 ± 6.62 years-old. 61.4% were independent or mild dependence. The quality of life total score was high (HAQ: 88.66 ± 2.68. 87.8% of patients had a SF-36 total score > 66. In the multivariate analysis, the association between diagnoses and high degrees of dependence was significant only for previous stroke (p = 0.014, obesity (p < 0.001, lack of physical activity (p = 0.016, osteoarthritis (p < 0.001, cognitive impairment (p < 0.001, and major depression (p < 0.001. Analyzing the quality of life, major depression and physical illness for depression was significantly associated with all domains of the SF-36. Conclusion: Among an elderly outpatient cardiology population, dependence and quality of life clinical determinants are not cardiovascular comorbidities, especially the depression.

  1. Depression as a Clinical Determinant of Dependence and Low Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Giselle Helena de Paula; Gebara, Otavio Celso Eluf; Gerbi, Catia Cilene da Silva; Pierri, Humberto; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2015-06-01

    The aging process promotes a progressive increase in chronic-degenerative diseases. The effect of these diseases on the functional capacity has been well recognized. Another health parameter concerns "quality of life related to health". Among the elderly population, cardiovascular diseases stand out due to the epidemiological and clinical impact. Usually, these diseases have been associated with others. This set of problems may compromise both independence and quality of life in elderly patients who seek cardiologic treatment. These health parameters have not been well contemplated by cardiologists. Evaluating, among the elderly population with cardiovascular disease, which are the most relevant clinical determinants regarding dependence and quality of life. This group was randomly and consecutively selected and four questionnaires were applied: HAQ, SF-36, PRIME-MD e Mini Mental State. The study included 1,020 elderly patients, 63.3% women. The group had been between 60 and 97 years-old (mean: 75.56 ± 6.62 years-old). 61.4% were independent or mild dependence. The quality of life total score was high (HAQ: 88.66 ± 2.68). 87.8% of patients had a SF-36 total score > 66. In the multivariate analysis, the association between diagnoses and high degrees of dependence was significant only for previous stroke (p = 0.014), obesity (p depression (p quality of life, major depression and physical illness for depression was significantly associated with all domains of the SF-36. Among an elderly outpatient cardiology population, dependence and quality of life clinical determinants are not cardiovascular comorbidities, especially the depression.

  2. Influence of the interaction between the serotonin 1A receptor C-1019G polymorphism and negative life stressors on the development of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Seung-Gul; Choi, Jung-Eun; Yun, Kyu-Wol; Lim, Weon-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the interaction between the serotonin 1A receptor gene (HTR1A) C-1019G polymorphism and recent negative life stressors on depression in a Korean community sample. The HTR1A C-1019G polymorphism was genotyped in 416 community-dwelling Koreans (156 males, 260 females; 44.37 ± 14.67 years old). Lifetime and current major depressive episodes were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D) was self-applied and face-to-face interviews investigating negative life stressors within the last 6 months were also performed. The results indicated that there were significant interactions between the C-1019G polymorphism and negative life stressors on CES-D scores (p = 0.02) as well as on current major depressive episodes (p = 0.002), but not on past major depressive episodes. G carriers alone had higher CES-D scores and more frequently experienced major depressive episodes after stressors. The interaction between the C-1019G polymorphism in HTR1A and recent negative life stressors accounted for current major depressive episodes and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that people with this gene variant may be more susceptible to developing depression especially after negative life stressors. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The B-VITAGE trial: A randomized trial of homocysteine lowering treatment of depression in later life

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    van Bockxmeer Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and depressive symptoms are common in later life. Observational evidence suggests that depression is more prevalent among people with high plasma homocysteine (tHcy, but the results of randomized trials to date have been unable to show that lowering tHcy through the supplementation of vitamins B6, B12 and folate benefits depressive symptoms. We designed the B-VITAGE trial to determine whether adjunctive treatment with vitamins B6, B12 and folate increases the efficacy of standard antidepressant treatment. Methods/Design The B-VITAGE trial is a 12-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of daily citalopram (20 to 40 mg plus B12(0.4 mg, B6 (25 mg and folic acid (2 mg or citalopram (20 to 40 mg plus placebo for the treatment of depression in later life. The trial aims to recruit over 300 older adults with major depression (DSM-IV and has been powered to detect the impact of an intervention associated with moderate effect size. Depressive symptoms will be rated with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The trial has two main outcomes of interest: a reduction of 50% or more in the MADRS total score between baseline and week 12 and the remission of the depressive episode at weeks 12, 26 and 52 according to DSM-IV criteria. We hypothesize that subjects randomly allocated to the vitamin arm of the study will be more likely to show a clinically significant improvement and achieve and maintain remission of symptoms at 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes of interest include compliance with treatment, reduction in the severity of depressive symptoms, switching to different antidepressants, the use of non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments, response to treatment according to MTHFRC677T genotype, and changes in cognitive function over 52 weeks. Conclusions The results of this trial will clarify whether the systematic use of B

  4. Coping, quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients in a curative and palliative, end-of-life care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Schilderman, Johannes; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Donders, Rogier; Vissers, Kris C; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Prins, Judith B

    2011-01-01

    Coping strategies may be important factors influencing quality of life (QOL), depression, and hopelessness. However, most studies on this issue were performed in patients still undergoing anticancer treatment. Unknown is which coping strategies are of importance for palliative-cancer patients who no longer receive treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess coping strategies in curatively treated and palliative-cancer patients no longer receiving anticancer treatment and to examine the relation of these coping strategies with QOL, depression, and hopelessness. A descriptive research design was used. Ninety-two curative and 59 palliative patients filled out the COPE-Easy abbreviated version, the European Organisation for Research-and-Treatment of Cancer QOL-Questionnaire version 2.0, Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. In both curative and palliative patients, active coping strategies and acceptance were beneficial in terms of QOL, depression, and hopelessness, unlike avoidant coping strategies and venting of emotions. Palliative patients scored higher on the coping strategy, seeking moral support. For the outcome variable, emotional functioning, significant interactions were observed between the variable, curative/palliative care setting, and the coping strategy, seeking moral support. For the outcome variable, role functioning, significant interactions were observed between the variable, curative/palliative care setting, and the coping strategy, waiting. Coping strategies were significantly correlated to QOL, depression, and hopelessness. However, this correlation differed in the curative and palliative, end-of-life care setting. The observed relations between coping strategies, QOL, depression, and hopelessness give room to cognitive-behavioral nursing interventions. Specific attention is needed for differences in coping strategies between curative and palliative patients.

  5. Efficacy of illness perception focused intervention on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with myocardial infarction

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    Reza Bagherian Sararoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide, which can reduces quality of life in patients. Some disabilities are depression and anxiety which delay returning to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of illness perception focused intervention on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in MI patients. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial study of 48 recently hospitalized MI patients was conducted (24 in intervention group and 24 in control group. Intervention group was trained to understand the disease by a mental health counselor in three half-an-hour sessions for three consecutive days. Data were collected from three questionnaires: hospital anxiety and depression scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (short form, and Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Brief at admission, 1.5, and 3 months postdischarge. Data were analyzed with ANOVA repeated measure. Results: The mean duration of returning to work was 28.7 ± 8.1 days in intervention groups and 46 ± 7.6 days in control group which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Moreover, anxiety, depression, and illness perceptions score were significantly decreased in intervention groups which were 8.3 ± 3.3, 6.8 ± 3.5, and 36.5 ± 5 in intervention groups and 15.8 ± 2.1(P < 0.001, 17.1 ± 2.3 (P < 0.001, and 41.9 ± 4 (P < 0.001 in control group, respectively. Mean of quality of life subscales scores just physical health subscale showed a significant reduction after 3 months in the control group. Conclusion: Training MI patients to understand the disease in three half-an-hour sessions for 3 consecutive days can decrease the duration of returning to work, anxiety and depression, and increase illness perceptions which can make a better outcome.

  6. Relationship between depression and physical activity, disability, burden, and health-related quality of life among patients with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Namita; Khanna, Rahul; Shah, Ruchit M

    2015-04-01

    This study purports to examine the relationship of depression with physical activity, disability, arthritis-attributable burden (joint limitation, work limitation, social activity limitation, and joint pain), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among arthritis patients. Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults in the United States, was used for the purpose of this study. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to address the study objectives. The final study sample included 167,068 arthritis patients, 45,459 of whom had comorbid depression. Arthritis patients with depression had lower odds of engaging in physical activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.070, confidence interval [CI] 1.006-1.139) and higher odds of being disabled (OR=1.411, CI 1.306-1.524). Arthritis patients with depression also had greater odds of arthritis-attributable joint limitations (OR=1.551, CI 1.460-1.648), work limitations (OR=1.506, CI 1.414-1.604), social activity limitations (OR=1.647, CI 1.557-1.742), and pain (OR=1.438, CI 1.364-1.517) as compared to those without depression. Arthritis patients with versus without depression had greater odds of poor general health status (OR=1.698, CI 1.586-1.819), physical HRQOL (OR=1.592, CI 1.486-1.704), mental HRQOL (OR=6.225, CI 5.768-6.718), and activity limitations (OR=2.345, CI 2.168-2.537). Study results indicate toward a negative functional impact of depression among arthritis patients. Policy makers should consider incorporating screening and management of depression into routine clinical care of arthritis patients.

  7. Roles of attachment and self-esteem: impact of early life stress on depressive symptoms among Japanese institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hanako; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-02-05

    Although exposure to early life stress is known to affect mental health, the underlying mechanisms of its impacts on depressive symptoms among institutionalized children and adolescents have been little studied. To investigate the role of attachment and self-esteem in association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and depressive symptoms, 342 children (149 boys, 193 girls; age range 9-18 years old, mean age = 13.5 ± 2.4) living in residential foster care facilities in Japan completed questionnaires related to internal working models, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Their care workers completed questionnaires on ACEs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was created and the goodness of fit was examined (CMIN = 129.223, df = 1.360, GFI = .959, AGFI = .936, CFI = .939, RMSEA = .033). Maltreatment negatively predicted scores on secure attachment, but positively predicted scores on avoidant and ambivalent attachment. The secure attachment score negatively predicted depressive symptoms. The ambivalent attachment score positively predicted depressive symptoms both directly and through self-esteem, whereas the avoidant attachment score positively predicted depressive symptoms only directly. Maltreatment neither directly predicts self-esteem nor depressive symptoms, and parental illness/death and parental sociopathic behaviors did not predict any variables. Results show that the adversity of child maltreatment affects depression through attachment styles and low self-esteem among institutionalized children. Implications of child maltreatment and recommendations for child welfare services and clinical interventions for institutionalized children are discussed.

  8. Oral health-related quality of life is linked with subjective well-being and depression in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Alexander Jochen; Danner, Daniel; Schmitt, Marina; Nitschke, Ina; Rammelsberg, Peter; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2011-10-01

    Although a body of research has targeted predictors of well-being and depression in old age, the consideration of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as a predictor of these major psychosocial endpoints has been rare in the previous literature. The objective of this study was to test whether OHRQoL is associated with well-being and depression, after controlling for relevant confounders; also, the mediating role of subjective health, a major predictor of both well-being and depression, has been explored. OHRQoL was measured by two commonly used assessment instruments, the geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI) and oral health impact profile (OHIP); well-being was assessed by the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) and depression by the self-rating depression scale (SDS). We used a subsample of 197 participants from the older cohort (1930-1932) of the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development. Regression models and structural equations modeling (SEM) were used for the test for study variable relationships. Both GOHAI and OHIP revealed significant associations to both PGCMS and SDS at the bivariate level. In regression analyses considering gender, household situation, subjective health, and both OHRQoL indicators, only OHIP remained a significant predictor of well-being and depression. In addition, supportive evidence for a mediating role of subjective health regarding the linkage between OHRQoL and an overall latent construct of well-being was found in the SEM analysis. In conclusion, OHRQoL is significantly linked with well-being and depression in old age, while subjective health is able to mediate the relationship. The generally underrated role of OHRQoL with respect to well-being and depression in late adulthood deserves more attention.

  9. Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckheere, Egon; Bastian, Brock; Fried, Eiko I; Murphy, Sean C; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Western societies often overemphasize the pursuit of happiness, and regard negative feelings such as sadness or anxiety as maladaptive and unwanted. Despite this emphasis on happiness, the amount of people suffering from depressive complaints is remarkably high. To explain this apparent paradox, we examined whether experiencing social pressure not to feel sad or anxious could in fact contribute to depressive symptoms. A sample of individuals (n = 112) with elevated depression scores (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] ≥ 10) took part in an online daily diary study in which they rated their depressive symptoms and perceived social pressure not to feel depressed or anxious for 30 consecutive days. Using multilevel VAR models, we investigated the temporal relation between this perceived social pressure and depressive symptoms to determine directionality. Primary analyses consistently indicated that experiencing social pressure predicts increases in both overall severity scores and most individual symptoms of depression, but not vice versa. A set of secondary analyses, in which we adopted a network perspective on depression, confirmed these findings. Using this approach, centrality analysis revealed that perceived social pressure not to feel negative plays an instigating role in depression, reflected by the high out- and low instrength centrality of this pressure in the various depression networks. Together, these findings indicate how perceived societal norms may contribute to depression, hinting at a possible malignant consequence of society's denouncement of negative emotions. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Activities of daily living, quality of life, social support and depression levels of elderly individuals in Turkish society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsar, Serap; Dindar, Ilknur; Kurt, Seda

    2015-06-01

    To determine activities of daily living, quality of life, social support and depression levels of elderly individuals and the factors affecting each of these items. The cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2009 to June 2012 in Edirne, Turkey, and included elderly individuals over 60 years of age. Data was collected using a survey form, the Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data was analysed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Of the 912 subjects in the study, 509(55.8%) were females and 402(44.2%) were males, with an overall mean age of 68.05 ± 6.6 years (range: 60-94 years). Besides, 644(70.6%) of the subjects were married and 595(65.2%) were living with their spouse. The levels of social support and activities of daily living of elderly individuals with a high quality of life were higher, and their levels of depression were lower (pelderly to ensure that they maintain a better quality of life.

  11. Group integrative reminiscence therapy on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms in institutionalised older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Fen

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use group integrative reminiscence as a nursing intervention to evaluate the immediate effects on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms for a special group named 'institutionalised older veterans' after a 12-week intervention. The study group comprised institutionalised older veterans with combat experience, including being wounded in war and who were twice forced to relocate. The group participants had lower life satisfaction, and greater use for mental health services and greater non-specific health complaints were reported from this group. Reminiscence therapy has been considered an effective nursing intervention, but the effects on institutionalised older veterans have not been studied. A quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling were conducted. A total of 74 participants were studied with pre- and post-tests to measure the effect of group integrative reminiscence therapy. The activity was held once weekly for 12 weeks. The Life Satisfaction Index A, self-esteem scale and Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form were used as research tools, and the t-test, Fisher's exact test and generalised estimating equation were used for data analysis. All participants were male, with an average age of 81·34 years old, 91·9% unmarried and were in bad health. After 12 weeks of intervention, the reminiscence groups significantly improved their self-esteem and life satisfaction and decreased depressive symptoms compared with control groups. Group integrative reminiscence revealed immediate effects on improving the self-esteem and life satisfaction of institutionalised older veterans, and depressive symptoms were also decreased. Moreover, a sense of positive self-value and belonging to the institution was produced. Group integrative reminiscence is an applicable nursing intervention for vulnerable persons such as institutionalised older veterans. A structured protocol based on the characteristics of the residents and the

  12. The relationship between frailty, anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Gobbens, Robbert J J

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people constitute over 80% of the population of patients with heart failure (HF). Frailty is a distinct biological syndrome that reflects decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors. Moreover, frailty can serve as an independent predictor of visits to the emergency department, hospitalizations, and mortality. The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship between frailty, anxiety and depression, and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of elderly patients with HF. The study included 100 patients (53 men and 47 women) with a diagnosis of HF. Frailty was measured using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) scale. HRQoL was measured using the 36-Item Short Form Medical Outcomes Study Survey. To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used. Frailty was found in 89% of the studied population. The study showed significant inverse correlations between the values of the physical component scale (PCS) domain results and TFI score, and a significant inverse correlation between the values of the mental component scale (MCS) domain and TFI score. When participants showed increased levels of frailty as measured by the TFI scale, there was also an increase in the levels of anxiety and depression. With increased anxiety and depression, there was deterioration in the quality of life of patients with HF. Frailty has a negative impact on the HRQoL results of elderly patients with HF. The assessment of frailty syndrome, and anxiety and depression should be taken into account when estimating risk and making therapeutic decisions for cardiovascular disease treatment and care.

  13. Temporal change in inbreeding depression in life-history traits in captive populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): evidence for purging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L-K; Pélabon, C; Bolstad, G H; Viken, A; Fleming, I A; Rosenqvist, G

    2011-04-01

    Inbreeding depression, which generally affects the fitness of small populations, may be diminished by purging recessive deleterious alleles when inbreeding persists over several generations. Evidence of purging remains rare, especially because of the difficulties of separating the effects of various factors affecting fitness in small populations. We compared the expression of life-history traits in inbred populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) with contemporary control populations over 10 generations in captivity. We estimated inbreeding depression as the difference between the two types of populations at each generation. After 10 generations, the inbreeding coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.56 and 0.16 in the inbred and control populations, respectively. Analysing changes in the life-history traits across generations showed that inbreeding depression in clutch size and offspring survival increased during the first four to six generations in the populations from the inbred treatment and subsequently decreased as expected if purging occurred. Inbreeding depression in two other traits was weaker but showed similar changes across generations. The loss of six populations in the inbred treatment indicates that removal of deleterious alleles also occurred by extinction of populations that presumably harboured high genetic load.

  14. Reductions in cannabis use are associated with improvements in anxiety, depression, and sleep quality, but not quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Mooney, Larissa J; Huang, David; Zhu, Yuhui; Tomko, Rachel L; McClure, Erin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between reductions in cannabis use and changes in anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and quality of life. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from a cannabis use disorder medication trial in 302 adults (ages 18-50). Changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression, sleep quality, and quality of life were assessed in relation to changes in cannabis use during the 12-week trial of treatment. Based on the slope of individual cannabis use trajectory, the sample was classified into two groups (Cannabis Use Reduction, n=152 vs. Cannabis Use Increase, n=150) which was included as a binary covariate in subsequent modeling. Controlling for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity), treatment condition, and time-varying tobacco and alcohol use, separate latent growth curve models showed a significant association between the Cannabis Use Reduction group and improvement (i.e., lower values in slope) in anxiety (β=-0.09, SE=0.04; pdepression (β=-0.11, SE=0.04; pcannabis use and improvements in anxiety, depression, and sleep quality. Clinicians treating patients with co-occurring cannabis use and problems with anxiety, depression, or sleep quality should attend to cannabis use reduction as a component of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety, depression and impaired health-related quality of life are therapeutic challenges in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Then Bergh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety, depression and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL are commonly reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS and are of great interest for therapeutic approaches. Based on regional differences a quantitative assessment of these factors in comparison to the general population, and the consideration of demographic cofactors, would be useful when designing specific interventions. We adopted such an approach in a German cohort of MS patients. Anxiety, depression (HADS and HRQoL (SF-36 were measured in 49 consecutive outpatients with MS and compared to age- and gender-adjusted control groups (n=1330 for HADS; n=5087 for SF-36 extracted from German National Health Surveys. Patients with MS showed significantly increased levels of anxiety and depression as well as decreased HRQoL with the exception of mental health; the effect sizes ranged from 0.39 (depression to 1.06 (physical functioning. As could be expected, MS patients with relapsing-remitting clinical course had better physical functioning than patients with secondary progressive MS. There were strong relations between anxiety and depression (r=0.54; P less than 0.01, and between neurological impairment (EDSS and physical functioning (r=-0.80; P less than 0.001 as well as depression (r=0.48; P less than 0.05. This investigation of MS patients confirms the prevalence and impact of anxiety, depression and most of the HRQoL dimensions in MS patients and provides evidence for the usefulness of a quantitative comparison to a region-specific general population as a starting point for therapeutic approaches.

  16. Association of depressive/anxiety symptoms with quality of life and work ability in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Chi Chiu; Chan, Kar Li; Ho, Ling Yin

    2016-01-01

    To study the association of depressive/anxiety symptoms with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work ability in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Consecutive patients with ≥4 ACR criteria for SLE were recruited. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). HRQoL was assessed by the Chinese version of MOS-Short Form (SF)-36. Disease activity of SLE was assessed by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and organ damage was assessed by the ACR/SLICC damage index (SDI). The relationship between HAD scores, work ability and HRQoL was studied. A total of 367 SLE patients were studied (95% women; age 40.2±12.9 years; disease duration 9.3±7.2 years). Fifty-five (15%) patients had HADS-depression score ≥10 and 70 (19%) patients had HADS-anxiety score ≥10. Patients with either score ≥10 had significantly lower SF36 score (physical and mental component) than those with score working in the preceding year (n=190), 30(16%) patients either quitted their job (n=22) or reduced working hours (n=8). Patients with work disability had significantly higher HAD-depression score than those without (6.31±5.51 vs 3.93±3.72; p=0.03). Depressive/anxiety symptoms were fairly common in SLE patients and independently associated with poorer HRQoL. Patients with more depressive symptoms were more likely to experience work disability.

  17. Self-reported obstructive sleep apnea is associated with nonresponse to antidepressant pharmacotherapy in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Lauren; Stahl, Sarah T; Buysse, Daniel J; Lenze, Eric J; Blumberger, Daniel; Mulsant, Benoit; Butters, Meryl; Gebara, Marie Anne; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently comorbid with late-life depression. The purpose of this project was to determine, using a sample of older adults with major depressive disorder, whether patient-reported diagnosis of OSA was associated with rate of response to venlafaxine. Participants from this multisite study were adults ≥60 years old (n = 468) with major depressive disorder and a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score of ≥15. Depression response was the outcome variable, defined as a MADRS score of ≤10 for two consecutive assessments at the end of 12 weeks of open-label treatment with venlafaxine 300 mg/day. To assess OSA, participants were asked if they had been diagnosed with OSA using polysomnography. Eighty participants (17.1%) reported a diagnosis of OSA prior to baseline. Participants with OSA were more likely to be male, report greater impairment on measures of health, experience a longer duration of the index episode, and receive an adequate antidepressant trial prior to entering the study. During the 12 weeks of treatment, 40.8% responded to treatment with venlafaxine (43.6%, n = 169/388 of the no OSA group, and 27.5%, n = 22/80 of the OSA group). Participants without OSA were 1.79 times more likely to respond to treatment (HR: 1.79 [95%CI: 1.13-2.86], P < .05) compared to those with OSA. OSA may impair response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy in depressed older adults. Future studies of antidepressant response rates among depressed older adults with OSA should both prospectively diagnose OSA and monitor adherence to treatments such as continuous positive airway pressure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Location of cerebrovascular and degenerative changes, depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in later life: the SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grool, Anne M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2011-10-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in later life and frequently co-occur. Structural changes in critical brain regions may underlie both conditions. The authors examined associations of infarcts, white-matter lesions (WML) and atrophy at different locations with depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Memory, Depression and Aging (SMART-Medea) study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 585 non-demented patients aged ≥50 years with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease. Volumetric measures of WML and atrophy were obtained with 1.5 T MRI; infarcts were rated visually. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (score ≥6). z Scores of executive functioning, memory and processing speed were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, intelligence, vascular disease, physical functioning and co-occurring brain changes. Depressive symptoms were present in 102 (17%) patients and were associated with poorer memory (B=-0.26, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.06). Large subcortical infarcts and lacunar infarcts in deep white-matter tracts were both associated with depressive symptoms (RR=2.66, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.54; RR=2.02, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.59) and poorer executive functioning and memory. Periventricular WML volume was associated with poorer executive functioning; cortical infarcts in the left hemisphere and media flow region, ventricular volume and cortical atrophy were associated with a slower processing speed. In this sample of non-demented older persons, subcortical infarcts contributed to an increased risk of depressive symptoms as well as cognitive impairment. This depended on location in projecting white-matter tracts, and not on infarct size.

  19. Depression and affective temperaments are associated with poor health-related quality of life in patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Pennica, Alfredo; Serafini, Gianluca; Battuello, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Teti, Elisabetta; Girardi, Nicoletta; Amore, Mario; Lamis, Dorian A; Aceti, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents one of the most chronic and debilitating infections worldwide. Hopelessness and affective temperaments (mood that is characteristic of an individual's habitual functioning) may play important roles in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine affective temperaments in a sample of patients with HIV, the impact of hopelessness on HRQoL, and associations among HRQoL, hopelessness, and affective temperaments. The study involved 88 participants who were administered the short- form health survey (SF-36), the Beck hopelessness scale (BHS), the suicidal history self-rating screening scale (SHSS), the Gotland male depression scale (GMDS), and the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A). Patients with a poorer HRQoL reported more severe depression and hopelessness than patients with a higher HRQoL. Patients with a poorer HRQoL also had higher scores on all dimensions of the TEMPS-A with a depressive component compared to patients with a higher HRQoL. The small sample size in this study limits the generalizability of the findings. Patients with a poorer HRQoL were more depressed and also at an increased risk of suicide as indicated by the more severe hopelessness they reported compared to patients with higher HRQoL. These patients were also more likely to have depressive affective temperaments than those with a higher HRQoL.

  20. Influence of personality on depression, burden, and health-related quality of life in family caregivers of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Park, Myonghwa; Lee, Yunhwan; Choi, Seong Hye; Moon, So Young; Seo, Sang Won; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Han, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kee Hyung; Han, Seol-Heui; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jae-Hong; Park, Sun A; Shim, Yong S; Kim, Jong Hun; Hong, Chang Hyung; Na, Duk L; Ye, Byoung Seok; Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Yeonsil

    2017-02-01

    Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression. Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers' personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined. Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL. Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.

  1. Is insomnia a perpetuating factor for late-life depression in the IMPACT cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Hegel, Mark; Unützer, Jürgen; Fan, Ming-Yu; Sateia, Michael J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Phillips, Cindy; Perlis, Michael L

    2008-04-01

    Insomnia and depressive disorders are significant health problems in the elderly. Persistent insomnia is a risk factor for the development of new-onset and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Less clear is whether persistent insomnia may perpetuate MDD andlor dysthymia. The present longitudinal study examines the relationship of insomnia to the continuation of depression in the context of an intervention study in elderly subjects. Data were drawn from Project IMPACT, a multisite intervention study, which enrolled 1801 elderly patients with MDD and/or dysthymia. In the current study, subjects were assigned to an insomnia-status group (Persistent, Intermediate, and No Insomnia) based on insomnia scores at both baseline and 3-month time points. Logistic regressions were conducted to determine whether Persistent Insomnia was prospectively associated with increased risk of remaining depressed and/or achieving a less than 50% clinical improvement at 6 and at 12 months compared with the No Insomnia reference group. The Intermediate Insomnia group was compared with the other 2 groups to determine whether a dose-response relationship existed between insomnia type and subsequent depression. Eighteen primary clinics in 5 states. Older adults (60+) with depression. Overall, patients with persistent insomnia were 1.8 to 3.5 times more likely to remain depressed, compared with patients with no insomnia. The findings were more robust in patients receiving usual care for depression than in patients receiving enhanced care. Findings were also more robust in subjects who had MDD as opposed to those with dysthymia alone. These findings suggest that, in addition to being a risk factor for a depressive episode, persistent insomnia may serve to perpetuate the illness in some elderly patients and especially in those receiving standard care for depression in primary care settings. Enhanced depression care may partially mitigate the perpetuating effects of insomnia on depression.

  2. Relationship between attributional dimensions, negative life events and depression: A “hopelessness” model test

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtović, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The “hopelessness” theory is a recent cognitive model of depression, according to which maladaptive attributional patterns in interaction with stress lead to the development and aggravation of depressive symptoms. It also suggests that attributional patterns and their interaction with stress are closely related to the specific constellation of symptoms, called “hopelessness depression”, than to general depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the etiological predictions o...

  3. Quality Improvement in Nursing Homes: Identifying Depressed Residents is Critical to Improving Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crogan, Neval L; Evans, Bronwynne C

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of depression in nursing home residents is three to five times higher than in older adults from the community.1 Depression is thought to be related to the gloomy institutionalized environment and an assortment of losses, including those associated with function, independence, social roles, friends and relatives, and past leisure activities.2 Despite the public's increased awareness of depression, it remains underrecognized and undertreated by professionals who care for older residents in nursing homes.3 It seems intuitive that depression must be recognized before it can be treated, yet our national long-term care system continues to utilize an unreliable scale from the Minimum Data Set as its foundation for assessment. Warnings of the scale's inadequacy have been sounded repeatedly almost since its conception4,5 and its potential role in lack of recognition and treatment of depression by nursing home staff, nurse practitioners, and physicians is a troubling one.The purpose of this article is to (1) report the prevalence of depression in a sub-sample of residents from a National Institutes of Health study whose depression was not detected by the MDS and, consequently, was previously untreated, (2) compare their nutritional and functional status with residents whose depressive states were previously detected by the MDS and treated, and (3) recommend quality improvement strategies for identification and treatment of depression in nursing home residents.

  4. Preventing depression in later life: state of the art and science circa 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Fawzi; Dew, Mary Amanda; Albert, Steven M; Lotrich, Francis E; Reynolds, Charles F

    2011-03-01

    Unipolar major depression is among the leading contributors to the global burden of illness-related disability, and is predicted to be the greatest contributor to illness burden by 2030. It is a matter of public health significance to identify people at high risk for depression and/or already mildly symptomatic, and to discover ways of implementing timely and rational risk reduction strategies to preempt major depression. In this article, the published literature is reviewed to summarize what is known about depression prevention in older adults, and, ultimately, to inform future research.

  5. Relationships between Depression, Lifestyle and Quality of Life in the Community Dwelling Elderly: A Comparison between Gender and Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Demura, Shinichi; Sato, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the comprehensive relationships between depression and the characteristics of lifestyle and quality of life (QOL) of healthy, community dwelling elderly, and compare them according to gender and age groups. 1302 subjects (657 males and 645 females) were used for analysis. The investigators in this study were researchers working at universities in each prefecture. Data collection was conducted in a general delivery survey and interview setting or...

  6. [The relation between health-related quality of life and pain, depression, anxiety, and functional independence in persons with chronic physical disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsuslu, Tülay; Yümin, Eylem Tütün; Oztürk, Asuman; Yümin, Murat

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relation between health- related quality of life and pain, depression, anxiety, and functional independence. The study included 82 healthy subjects aged 38.18+/-11.06 and 89 physically disabled subjects aged 37.72+/-16.40. Physical and social characteristics of the subjects such as age, height, length, weight, gender, occupational and marital status, and level of education were recorded. Visual Analogue Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Nottingham Health Profile, and Functional Independence Measure were used to evaluate pain, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and functional independence, respectively. Compared to healthy individuals, chronically disabled subjects had higher pain, depression and anxiety and lower quality of life scores. Between-group comparison showed that there was a significant difference in pain, depression, anxiety levels and health-related quality of life (pdisabled individuals indicated a negative correlation between pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life (pdisabled individuals, there is a strong correlation between pain, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. These results should be considered carefully when planning assessment and rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic disabilities.

  7. Improving physical quality of life with group physical activity in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannu Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the change in quality of life over 32 weeks in depressed women assuming antidepressant drug with (experimental group or without (control group physical exercise from a study which results on objective dimension of outcome were already published. Methods Trial with randomized naturalistic control. Patients selected from the clinical activity registries of a Psychiatric University Unit. Inclusion criteria: female, between 40 and 60 years, diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorders (MMD, DSM-IV TR resistant to ongoing treatment. Exclusion criteria: diagnosis of psychotic disorders; any contraindications to physical activity. 30 patients (71.4% of the eligible participated to the study. Cases: 10 randomized patients undergoing pharmacological treatment plus physical activity. Controls: 20 patients undergoing only pharmacological therapy. Quality of life was measured by means of WHOQOL-Bref. Results The patients that made physical activity had their WHOQOL-Bref physical score improved from T0 to T8, the differences was statistically significant. In the control group WHOQOL-Bref physical remains the same and, consequentially, the difference between T0 and T8 do not reach any statistical significance. The perceived quality of life in the other domains did not change during the treatment in both groups. Thus no other differences were found between and within groups. Discussion and Conclusion The data presented in the previous paper found that physical activity seems a good adjunctive treatment in the long term management of patients with MDD. These new data indicated that physical activity may also improve the perceived physical quality of life. The dimensions related with social functioning, environment and psychical well being seem do not improved, unexpectedly, during the trial. Two objective dimension not strictly related to the depressive symptoms improved: social functioning and Clinical Global

  8. A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: Early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Jane McQuaid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288, it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e. in the case of early-life abuse or neglect may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity.

  9. Effects of massage therapy on anxiety, depression, hyperventilation and quality of life in HIV infected patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Reychler; Gilles, Caty; Aude, Arcq; Laurie, Lebrun; Leïla, Belkhir; Jean-Cyr, Yombi; Jean-Christophe, Marot

    2017-06-01

    HIV infection is often preceded or accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities. These disorders improve with complementary therapies. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of massage therapy on anxiety, depression, hyperventilation and quality of life in HIV infected patients. Adult HIV-infected patients were randomized (n=29) in massage therapy group (one hour a week during four weeks) and control group. Anxiety and depression (HADS-A and HADS-D), hyperventilation (Nijmegen questionnaire) and quality of life (WHOQOL-HIV) were evaluated at inclusion and after 4 weeks. At inclusion, 51% and 17% of the patients had a positive HADS-A and HADS-D score respectively. Two facets from WHOQOL-HIV ("Home environment" and "Death and dying" (p=0.04)) were different between groups. After the four week massage therapy, a significant improvement was observed only for Nijmegen questionnaire (p=0.01) and HADS-A (p=0.04) contrarily to WHOQOL-HIV and HADS-D. Domains of the WHOQOL-HIV did not improve following the massage therapy. Only "Pain and discomfort" facet improved after massage therapy (p=0.04). This study highlights the positive impact of a four week massage therapy on anxiety and hyperventilation in HIV infected patients. However, neither benefit of this program was observed on depression and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An online intervention for reducing depressive symptoms: secondary benefits for self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Dimity; Griffiths, Kathleen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen

    2014-04-30

    Internet-based interventions are increasingly recognized as effective for the treatment and prevention of depression; however, there is a paucity of research investigating potential secondary benefits. From a consumer perspective, improvements in indicators of wellbeing such as perceived quality of life may represent the most important outcomes for evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention. This study investigated the 'secondary' benefits for self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life and perceived social support of two 12-week online depression interventions when delivered alone and in combination. Participants comprised 298 adults displaying elevated psychological distress. Participants were randomised to receive: an Internet Support Group (ISG); an automated Internet psycho-educational training program for depression; a combination of these conditions; or a control website. Analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Following the automated training program immediate improvements were shown in participants׳ self-esteem and empowerment relative to control participants. Improvements in perceived quality of life were reported 6-months following the completion of the intervention when combined with an ISG. These findings provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of this online intervention for improving individual wellbeing beyond the primary aim of the treatment. However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms underlying improvement in these secondary outcomes.

  11. The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Chiu-Yen; Jin, Suh-Fen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Huang, Tzu-Shin; Clark, Mary Jo

    2006-03-01

    The need to provide quality mental health care for elders in nursing home settings has been a critical issue, as the aging population grows rapidly and institutional care becomes a necessity for some elders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to describe the effect of participation in reminiscence group therapy on older nursing home residents' depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who met the study criteria. Residents of one ward were assigned to the reminiscence therapy group intervention, while residents of the other ward served as controls. Nine weekly one-hour sessions were designed to elicit reminiscence as group therapy for 12 elders in the experimental group. Another 12 elders were recruited for a control group matched to experimental subjects on relevant criteria. Depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were measured one week before and after the therapy. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 10.0) was used to analyze data. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy significantly improved self-esteem, although effects on depression and life satisfaction were not significant. Reminiscence groups could enhance elders' social interaction with one another in nursing home settings and become support groups for participants. The model we created here can serve as a reference for future application in institutional care.

  12. Are there Gender, Racial, or Relationship Differences in Caregiver Task Difficulty, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Changes among Stroke Family Caregivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Nenette M.; Bakas, Tamilyn; McLennon, Susan M.; Weaver, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in caregiver perceptions of task difficulty, depressive symptoms, and life changes based on caregiver characteristics of gender, race, and type of relationship to the person with stroke. Methods A sample of 243 stroke caregivers (females n =191; males n =52; non-African Americans n= 184; African Americans n=59; non-spouses n =127; spouses n =116) were interviewed by telephone within 8 weeks of the survivor’s discharge to home. Measures included the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS) for task difficulty, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, and Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale (BCOS) for life changes. Three general linear models computed differences in OCBS, PHQ9, and OCBS scores. Results Significant differences were found on the OCBS for females (pstroke caregivers are relatively more likely to experience task difficulty, depressive symptoms, and negative life changes as a result of providing care. African American spouses were also at risk. Tailoring interventions based on caregivers’ characteristics may improve outcomes. PMID:25141098

  13. Evaluation of relationship between sexual functions, depression and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Bennur; Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Ozgen, Gulten; Okumus, Muhammed Masuk; Seyahi, Nurhan; Sit, Dede; Kadioglu, Pınar

    2015-03-01

    The relation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with metabolic, psychiatric and endocrinologic disorder is well-known. Depressive mood and sexual dysfunction are frequently observed as renal functions deteriorate. We aimed to analyze the relationship of sexual dysfunction, depressive mood and life quality in patients with CKD at predialysis stage. Fifty-three patients; 27 female and 26 male with CKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15 and 90 mL/min and followed up in the Nephrology Department, Bursa Sevket Yılmaz Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched 20 female and 20 male healthy control subjects were assigned to the control group. Detailed medical and sexual history was obtained by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Erectile Function International Evaluation Form (IEFF), Short form (SF) 36 Form and Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI). Biochemical and hormonal parameters including urea, creatinine, uric acid, sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein, total testosterone, DHEA-S, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol and prolactin were analyzed. Depression was observed in 12 male (46%) and 14 female (51%) patients. The frequency of depression among male patients and control subjects was similar, however, significantly higher in female patients than female controls (p=0.036). Physical function score, physical role score and pain score in SF 36 of entire patients were significantly lower than controls (p=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001, respectively). The frequency of depression was similar between patients and controls (p>0.05). When SF 36 tests of male and female patients were compared, general health status, vitality and mental health status were significantly better in male patients (p=0.005, 0.016, 0.035, respectively). SF 36 scores of female patients were significantly lower than female controls (p=0.0001). The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) was similar between male patients (84%) and controls (75%) (p=0.62). On the

  14. Sleep disorders, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life among young adults: a survey of university students in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Chinthaka B; Arroll, Bruce; Fernando, Antonio T

    2014-08-01

    Sleep symptoms, depression and anxiety often coexist and tertiary students are a population group that are increasingly recognised to be at risk. However the rates of these conditions in the New Zealand population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of sleep disorders, depression and anxiety, and identify correlations between satisfactions with life among university students in Auckland. Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to undergraduate students from six schools of The University of Auckland. The different types of sleep disorders were calculated for the students who reported a significant sleep problem lasting more than 1 month. The rate of depression, anxiety and substance use as well as the satisfaction with life scale scores were also calculated for the whole cohort. A total of 1933 students were invited to participate and 66.8% completed the questionnaire. The median age was 20 years (range 16-38) and women represented 63.9% of the total group. A total of 39.4% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than 1 month. The most prevalent causes for sleep symptoms were depression and anxiety. Delayed sleep phase disorder was found in 24.9% of students and parasomnias were reported by 12.4%. Depression and anxiety were present in 17.3% and 19.7% of the total group respectively, and 7.3% of students had thoughts of "being better off dead" or self-harm. A total of 15.5% students were found to have a CAGE score greater than or equal to 2 and 9.3% reported using recreational drugs in the last 3 months. Moderate negative correlations between SWLS scores and depression and anxiety were found (r=-0.45 and r=-0.37 respectively). A large number of university students are suffering from significant sleep symptoms. Mood disorders, substance use, and circadian rhythm disorders can greatly contribute to sleep difficulties in this population group. The study also showed that harmful

  15. Relationship among health-related quality of life, depression and awareness of home care services in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ülkü; Bayrak Kahraman, Burcu; Kaynak, İlknur; Görgülü, Ümit

    2016-11-01

    The present descriptive study was carried out to determine the relationship between health-related quality of life, depression and awareness of home care services among elderly patients. Patients aged 65 years or older staying at the surgery and internal medicine clinics were included in the study. The "Patien