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Sample records for cosmic-ray positron fraction

  1. Cosmic-ray positron fraction measurement from 1 to 30 GeV with AMS-01

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Allaby, James V; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, M; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Cardano, F; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Cho, K; Choi, M J; Choi, Y Y; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Cortina, E; Cristinziani, M; Dai, T S; Delgado, C; Difalco, S; Djambazov, L; D'Antone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gast, H; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Hungerford, W; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kim, M Y; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Lanciotti, E; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mujunen, A; Oliva, A; Olzem, J; Palmonari, F; Park, H B; Park, W H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, F; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pilo, F; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Pohl, M; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Ro, S; Röser, U; Rossin, C; Sagdeev, R; Santos, D; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schultzvon Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shin, J W; Shoumilov, E; Shoutko, V; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Spinella, F; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Trumper, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, G; Vite, D; Von Gunten, H; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Xu, S; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zuccon, P

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the cosmic ray positron fraction e+/(e+ + e-) in the energy range of 1-30 GeV is presented. The measurement is based on data taken by the AMS-01 experiment during its 10 day Space Shuttle flight in June 1998. A proton background suppression on the order of 10^6 is reached by identifying converted bremsstrahlung photons emitted from positrons.

  2. Cosmic-Ray Positron Fraction Measurement with the AMS-02 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079577

    The study of Cosmic-Rays has proved to be of utmost importance in the understanding of the processes that govern our galaxy and has became a privileged field for the discovery of new physics. The current availability of precision measurements in a number of recent experiments such as PAMELA or Fermi, and in particular AMS-02, has provided a unique opportunity to challenge the theoretical framework that builds our comprehension of Nature. Certainly, the recent advent of new data on Cosmic-Ray electrons and positrons has raised disagreements with our current knowledge of production and propagation of Cosmic-Rays. The observation of an excess in the Cosmic-Ray electron spectrum has triggered enormous efforts to understand the origin of this anomaly, both from the theoretical and experimental points of view. In this context, AMS is a long awaited program, that among other objectives, will provide the most accurate measurement of the Cosmic-Ray electron spectrum, making possible to investigate a fundamental open q...

  3. High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5–500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Accardo, L; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Carosi, G; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cerreta, D; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Cindolo, F; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Haas, D; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Henning, R; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Levi, G; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lolli, M; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Massera, F; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Monreal, B; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilastrini, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rossi, L; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Rybka, G; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Volpini, G; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Wu, K Y; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhou, F; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ∼200  GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.

  4. Cosmic-ray Positrons from Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.; Büsching, I.

    2015-07-01

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  5. COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harding, A. K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gonthier, P. L. [Hope College, Department of Physics, Holland, MI (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  6. New Limits on Dark Matter Annihilation from Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Cosmic Ray Positron Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergström, L.; Bringmann, T.; Cholis, I.; Hooper, D.; Weniger, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment onboard the International Space Station has recently provided cosmic ray electron and positron data with unprecedented precision in the range from 0.5 to 350 GeV. The observed rise in the positron fraction at energies above 10 GeV remains unexplained, with

  7. HAWC Observations Strongly Favor Pulsar Interpretations of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Fang, Ke [Maryland U.

    2017-11-17

    Recent measurements of the Geminga and B0656+14 pulsars by the gamma-ray telescope HAWC (along with earlier measurements by Milagro) indicate that these objects generate significant fluxes of very high-energy electrons. In this paper, we use the very high-energy gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of these pulsars to calculate and constrain their expected contributions to the local cosmic-ray positron spectrum. Among models that are capable of reproducing the observed characteristics of the gamma-ray emission, we find that pulsars invariably produce a flux of high-energy positrons that is similar in spectrum and magnitude to the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and AMS-02. In light of this result, we conclude that it is very likely that pulsars provide the dominant contribution to the long perplexing cosmic-ray positron excess.

  8. HAWC observations strongly favor pulsar interpretations of the cosmic-ray positron excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Dan; Cholis, Ilias; Linden, Tim; Fang, Ke

    2017-11-01

    Recent measurements of the Geminga and B 0656 +14 pulsars by the gamma-ray telescope HAWC (along with earlier measurements by Milagro) indicate that these objects generate significant fluxes of very high-energy electrons. In this paper, we use the very high-energy gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of these pulsars to calculate and constrain their expected contributions to the local cosmic-ray positron spectrum. Among models that are capable of reproducing the observed characteristics of the gamma-ray emission, we find that pulsars invariably produce a flux of high-energy positrons that is similar in spectrum and magnitude to the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and AMS-02. In light of this result, we conclude that it is very likely that pulsars provide the dominant contribution to the long perplexing cosmic-ray positron excess.

  9. Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS-2 using cosmic-ray electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beischer, B.; von Doetinchem, P.; Gast, H.; Kirn, T.; Schael, S.

    2009-10-01

    The AMS-2 experiment will be launched with the Space Shuttle Discovery and installed on the International Space Station in 2010. It is designed to perform precision spectroscopy of many different cosmic-ray species including electrons and positrons. While the nature of dark matter is as yet unknown, dark matter annihilating in the Galactic halo is a well-motivated source of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. The cosmic-ray positron fraction data available so far show significant deviations between different measurements and from the expectation for purely secondary production. The differences between the measurements up to particle energies of 6 GeV can be understood in a framework of charge-sign-dependent solar modulation and the spectra show excellent agreement if corrected for these time-dependent effects. Recent observations of an excess in the high-energy electron spectrum by ATIC might be connected to the excess in the positron fraction. A possible source of both signatures could be dark matter annihilation or a nearby pulsar. A measurement of the anisotropy of high-energy electrons could distinguish between both scenarios. Therefore the sky coverage of AMS-2 will be discussed in addition to possible dark matter scenarios and the sensitivity of the AMS-2 experiment to these effects.

  10. Cosmic Ray Electron and Positron Excesses from a Fourth Generation Heavy Majorana Neutrino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected features in the energy spectra of cosmic rays electrons and positrons have been recently observed by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT satellite experiments, opening to the exciting possibility of an indirect manifestation of new physics. A TeV-scale fourth lepton family is a natural extension of t...... and/or the muon charged leptons as primary decay products fit well the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT lepton excesses while there is tension with respect to the antiproton to proton fraction constrained by PAMELA....

  11. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes due to cosmic ray shower electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches, RREA, that are presumed to be the cause of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes and their powerful accompanying Ionization/Excitation Flashes. We show here results of LEPTRACK simulations of RREA by the interaction of MeV energy electrons/positrons and photons in cosmic ray showers traversing plausible electric field geometries expected in storm clouds. The input beams of MeV shower products were created using the CORSIKA software package from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. We present images, videos and plots showing the different Ionization, Excitation and gamma-ray photon density fields produced, along with their time and spatial profile evolution, which depend critically on where the line of shower particles intercept the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons in the shower, which make up a significant fraction of shower products, in particular their apparent "orbiting" within a high altitude negative induced shielding charge layer, which has been conjectured to produce a signature microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question posed is if this conjectured positron emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to show if a TGF originates in the macro E-fields of storm clouds or the micro E-fields of lightning leaders where this positron "orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  12. Hints of a Charge Asymmetry in the Electron and Positron Cosmic-Ray Excesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    By combining the recent data from AMS-02 with those from Fermi-LAT, we show the emergence of a charge asymmetry in the electron and positron cosmic-ray excesses, slightly favoring the electron component. Astrophysical and dark matter inspired models introduced to explain the observed excesses can...

  13. Comment on AMS02 results support the secondary origin of cosmic ray positrons

    OpenAIRE

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple calculation of the flux of secondary positrons produced in the ISM that is based only on priors. Our calculated ISM flux agrees very well with that calculated with the elaborate GALPROP code. It confirms that secondary production of positrons in the ISM by the primary cosmic rays cannot explain the observed sub-TeV flux of CR positrons. Moreover, we show that once energy loss of positrons in source and in the ISM are included, secondary production inside the CR sources plu...

  14. A self-consistent model for the Galactic cosmic ray, antiproton and positron spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In this talk I will present the escape model of Galactic cosmic rays. This model explains the measured cosmic ray spectra of individual groups of nuclei from TeV to EeV energies. It predicts an early transition to extragalactic cosmic rays, in agreement with recent Auger data. The escape model also explains the soft neutrino spectrum 1/E^2.5 found by IceCube in concordance with Fermi gamma-ray data. I will show that within the same model one can explain the excess of positrons and antiprotons above 20 GeV found by PAMELA and AMS-02, the discrepancy in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray protons and heavier nuclei in the TeV-PeV energy range and the plateau in cosmic ray dipole anisotropy in the 2-50 TeV energy range by adding the effects of a 2 million year old nearby supernova.

  15. Cosmic ray electron and positron excesses from a fourth generation heavy Majorana neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Sannino, Francesco, E-mail: masina@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sannino@cp3-origins.net [Centre for Particle Physics Phenomenology, CP3 — Origins, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2011-08-01

    Unexpected features in the energy spectra of cosmic rays electrons and positrons have been recently observed by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT satellite experiments, opening to the exciting possibility of an indirect manifestation of new physics. A TeV-scale fourth lepton family is a natural extension of the Standard Model leptonic sector (also linked to the hierarchy problem in Minimal Walking Technicolor models). The heavy Majorana neutrino of this setup mixes with Standard Model charged leptons through a weak charged current interaction. Here, we first study analytically the energy spectrum of the electrons and positrons originated in the heavy Majorana neutrino decay modes, also including polarization effects. We then compare the prediction of this model with the experimental data, exploiting both the standard direct method and our recently proposed Sum Rules method. We find that the decay modes involving the tau and/or the muon charged leptons as primary decay products fit well the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT lepton excesses while there is tension with respect to the antiproton to proton fraction constrained by PAMELA.

  16. Signatures of a Two Million Year Old Supernova in the Spectra of Cosmic Ray Protons, Antiprotons, and Positrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelrieß, M; Neronov, A; Semikoz, D V

    2015-10-30

    The locally observed cosmic ray spectrum has several puzzling features, such as the excess of positrons and antiprotons above ~20  GeV and the discrepancy in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray protons and heavier nuclei in the TeV-PeV energy range. We show that these features are consistently explained by a nearby source which was active approximately two million years ago and has injected (2-3)×10^{50} erg in cosmic rays. The transient nature of the source and its overall energy budget point to the supernova origin of this local cosmic ray source. The age of the supernova suggests that the local cosmic ray injection was produced by the same supernova that has deposited ^{60}Fe isotopes in the deep ocean crust.

  17. Acceleration, transport and fractionation of anomalous cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokipii, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The effects acceleration and transport on the charge and elemental composition of anomalous cosmic rays is discussed in the context of the model of acceleration at the solar-wind termination shock. Since the transport coefficients depend on the mass and charge of the particles, changes of composition are expected, both in the acceleration and the transport process. These effects are shown for different species. Special attention will be given to the production of multiply-charged ionic species from the originally singly-charged species, as a result of the acceleration at the termination shock and subsequent propagation. Good agreement is found with these observations, suggesting that the models are capturing much of the basic physics. In particular, the energy where the singly-charged anomalous cosmic rays give way to multiply-charged particles is very sharp and at very nearly the same energy for all species observed, and also in the model

  18. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  19. Production of positron annihilation radiation by cosmic-rays near sea level

    CERN Document Server

    Puzovic, J M

    2002-01-01

    Production of positron annihilation radiation by cosmic-rays in Al, Fe, Sn and Pb is measured by means of a triggered HPGe detector. The equipment is located in Belgrade, at an absolute height of 125 m a.s.l. The production rate per unit mass is found to be proportional to the square of the atomic number of the material divided by its mass number, with the proportionality constant equal to 8.1(3)x10 sup - sup 6 s sup - sup 1 g sup - sup 1.

  20. Measurements of the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectrum and anisotropies with the Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loparco, F.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite is a pair-conversion telescope for high-energy gamma rays of astrophysical origin. Although it was designed to be a high-sensitivity gamma-ray telescope, the LAT has proved to be an excellent electron/positron detector. It has been operating in low Earth orbit since June 2008 and has collected more than 16 million cosmic-ray electron and positron (CRE) events in its first seven years of operation. The huge data sample collected by the LAT enables a precise measurement of the CRE energy spectrum up to the TeV region. A search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of CREs was also performed. The upper limits on the dipole anisotropy probe the presence of nearby young and middle-aged CRE sources.

  1. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  2. Magnetic monopoles and free fractionally charged states at accelerators and in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Leontaris, George K.; Shafi, Qaisar

    2017-10-01

    Unified theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions which have electric charge quantization predict the existence of topologically stable magnetic monopoles. Intermediate scale monopoles are comparable with detection energies of cosmic ray monopoles at IceCube and other cosmic ray experiments. Magnetic monopoles in some models can be significantly lighter and carry two, three or possibly even higher quanta of the Dirac magnetic charge. They could be light enough for their effects to be detected at the LHC either directly or indirectly. An example based on a D-brane inspired SU(3) C × SU(3) L × SU(3) R (trinification) model with the monopole carrying three quanta of Dirac magnetic charge is presented. These theories also predict the existence of color singlet states with fractional electric charge which may be accessible at the LHC.

  3. Direct detection of a break in the teraelectronvolt cosmic-ray spectrum of electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAMPE Collaboration; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Azzarello, P.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Cai, M. S.; Chang, J.; Chen, D. Y.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. L.; Chen, W.; Cui, M. Y.; Cui, T. S.; D'Amone, A.; de Benedittis, A.; De Mitri, I.; di Santo, M.; Dong, J. N.; Dong, T. K.; Dong, Y. F.; Dong, Z. X.; Donvito, G.; Droz, D.; Duan, K. K.; Duan, J. L.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Fan, R. R.; Fan, Y. Z.; Fang, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Feng, L.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gan, F. J.; Gao, M.; Gao, S. S.; Gargano, F.; Garrappa, S.; Gong, K.; Gong, Y. Z.; Guo, D. Y.; Guo, J. H.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, Y. Y.; Ionica, M.; Jiang, D.; Jiang, W.; Jin, X.; Kong, J.; Lei, S. J.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, W. L.; Li, Y.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. M.; Liao, N. H.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, W. Q.; Liu, Y.; Loparco, F.; Ma, M.; Ma, P. X.; Ma, S. Y.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Q.; Ma, X. Y.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mo, D.; Niu, X. Y.; Peng, X. Y.; Peng, W. X.; Qiao, R.; Rao, J. N.; Salinas, M. M.; Shang, G. Z.; H. Shen, W.; Shen, Z. Q.; Shen, Z. T.; Song, J. X.; Su, H.; Su, M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Surdo, A.; Teng, X. J.; Tian, X. B.; Tykhonov, A.; Vagelli, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, L. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. P.; Wang, Y. Z.; Wen, S. C.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, D. M.; Wei, J. J.; Wei, Y. F.; Wu, D.; Wu, J.; Wu, L. B.; Wu, S. S.; Wu, X.; Xi, K.; Xia, Z. Q.; Xin, Y. L.; Xu, H. T.; Xu, Z. L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, G. F.; Yang, H. B.; Yang, P.; Yang, Y. Q.; Yang, Z. L.; Yao, H. J.; Yu, Y. H.; Yuan, Q.; Yue, C.; Zang, J. J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, D. L.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P. F.; Zhang, S. X.; Zhang, W. Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, X. F.; Zhou, C. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmer, S.

    2017-12-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons (CREs), which lose energy quickly during their propagation, provide a probe of Galactic high-energy processes and may enable the observation of phenomena such as dark-matter particle annihilation or decay. The CRE spectrum has been measured directly up to approximately 2 teraelectronvolts in previous balloon- or space-borne experiments, and indirectly up to approximately 5 teraelectronvolts using ground-based Cherenkov γ-ray telescope arrays. Evidence for a spectral break in the teraelectronvolt energy range has been provided by indirect measurements, although the results were qualified by sizeable systematic uncertainties. Here we report a direct measurement of CREs in the energy range 25 gigaelectronvolts to 4.6 teraelectronvolts by the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) with unprecedentedly high energy resolution and low background. The largest part of the spectrum can be well fitted by a ‘smoothly broken power-law’ model rather than a single power-law model. The direct detection of a spectral break at about 0.9 teraelectronvolts confirms the evidence found by previous indirect measurements, clarifies the behaviour of the CRE spectrum at energies above 1 teraelectronvolt and sheds light on the physical origin of the sub-teraelectronvolt CREs.

  4. A self-consistent model of cosmic-ray fluxes and positron excess: roles of nearby pulsars and a sub-dominant source population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jagdish C.; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: jjagdish@uj.ac.za, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-09-01

    The cosmic-ray positron flux calculated using the cosmic-ray nuclei interactions in our Galaxy cannot explain observed data above 10 GeV. An excess in the measured positron flux is therefore open to interpretation. Nearby pulsars, located within sub-kiloparsec range of the Solar system, are often invoked as plausible sources contributing to the excess. We show that an additional, sub-dominant population of sources together with the contributions from a few nearby pulsars can explain the latest positron excess data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). We simultaneously model, using the DRAGON code, propagation of cosmic-ray proton, Helium, electron and positron and fit their respective flux data. Our fit to the Boron to Carbon ratio data gives a diffusion spectral index of 0.45, which is close to the Kraichnan turbulent spectrum.

  5. Observations of cosmic ray positrons during the 1993 flight of the NMSU/WiZard-TS93 balloon borne apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.N. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Aversa, F. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    As a part of a series of experiments to search for antimatter in the primary cosmic ray, the NMSU balloon borne apparatus was configured for a flight dedicated to the search of positrons. Two completely new instruments were added to the magnetic spectrometer: a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a silicon-tungsten tracking calorimeter. The function of these two instruments complemented one another and the combined action provided a proton rejection factor better than 5x10{sup 5}. The paper shows the results from the analysis on the complete set of data. All the presented spectra are at the level of the spectrometer.

  6. Latest AMS Results: The Positron Fraction and the p-bar/p Ratio

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays is presented. The results show that at 275±32 GeV the positron fraction no longer increases with energy. The current status of the anti-proton analysis is also presented.

  7. STUDY OF POSITRONS FROM COSMIC RAYS INTERACTIONS AND COLD DARK MATTER ANNIHILATIONS IN THE GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    LINEROS RODRIGUEZ ; ROBERTO ALFREDO; LINEROS RODRIGUEZ ; ROBERTO ALFREDO

    2008-01-01

    LOS RAYOS COSMICOS DE POSITRONES Y ELECTRONES CONSTITUYEN SOLO UNA FRACCION DE LOS RAYOS COSMICOS QUE LLEGAN A LA TIERRA. ESTAS PARTICULAS TIENEN LA POTENCIALIDAD DE REVELAR SOLO FUENTES CERCANAS PORQUE SON AFECTADAS EN MAYOR MEDIDA POR PROCESOS DE PERDIDA DE ENERGIA QUE OTRAS CLASES DE RAYOS COSMICOS. POSITRONES GALACTICOS SON PRINCIPALMENTE PRODUCIDOS POR LA INTERACCION DE RAYOS COSMICOS NUCLEARES CON EL GAS INTERESTELAR. LAS OBSERVACIONES DE RAYOS COSMICOS EN LA SEÃ?AL POSITRON-ELECTRON MU...

  8. What can we learn from a sharply falling positron fraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delahaye Timur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from the AMS-02 data have confirmed that the cosmic ray positron fraction increases with energy between 10 and 200 GeV. This quantity should not exceed 50%, and it is hence expected that it will either converge towards 50% or fall. We study the possibility that future data may show the positron fraction dropping down abruptly to the level expected with only secondary production, and forecast the implications of such a feature in term of possible injection mechanisms that include both Dark Matter and pulsars.

  9. Cosmic Ray Signatures of Decaying Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological observations do not require the dark matter particles to be absolutely stable. If they are indeed unstable, their decay into Standard Model particles might occur at a sufficiently large rate to allow the indirect detection of dark matter through an anomalous contribution to the high energy cosmic ray fluxes. We analyze the implications of the excess in the total electron plus positron flux and the positron fraction reported by the Fermi and PAMELA collaborations, respectively, for the scenario of decaying dark matter. We also discuss the constraints on this scenario from measurements of other cosmic ray species and the predictions for the diffuse gamma ray flux and the neutrino flux. In particular, we expect a sizable dipole-like anisotropy which may be observed in the near future by the Fermi-LAT.

  10. Use of neural network techniques to identify cosmic ray electrons and positrons during the 1993 balloon flight of the NMSU/Wizard-TS93 instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotti, R.; Castellano, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Candusso, M.; Casolino, M.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Aversa, F.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The detectors used in the TS93 balloon flight produced a large volume of information for each cosmic ray trigger. Some of the data was visual in nature, other portions contained energy deposition and timing information. The data sets are amenable to conventional analysis techniques but there is no assurance that conventional techniques make full use of subtle correlations and relations amongst the detector responses. With the advent of neural network technologies, particularly adept at classification of complex phenomena, it would seem appropriate to explore the utility of neural network techniques to classify particles observed with the instruments. In this paper neural network based methodology for signal/background discrimination in a cosmic ray space experiment is discussed. Results are presented for electron and positron classification in the TS93 flight data set and will be compared to conventional analyses.

  11. Simulating TGF and gamma ray emission above and within stormclouds due to the interaction of TeV cosmic ray shower electrons/positrons/photons with plausible electric field geometries generated in stormclouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate lepton and photon scattering in any kind of media with a variable density, and permeated by electric/magnetic fields of any geometry, and which can handle an exponential runaway avalanche. Here we show results of simulating the interaction of electrons/positrons/photons in an incoming TeV cosmic ray shower with the kind of electric fields expected in a stormcloud after a CG discharge which removes much of the positive charge build up at the centre of the cloud. The point is to show not just a Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) above the upper negative shielding layer at 12 km but other gamma ray emission due to electron/positron interaction in the remaining positive charge around 9km and the lower negative charge at 6km altitude. We present here images, lightcurves, altitude profiles, spectra and videos showing the different ionization, excitation and photon density fields produced, their time evolution, and how they depend critically on where the cosmic ray shower beam intercepts the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons, which make up a significant fraction of the shower, where they appear to "orbit" within the high altitude negative shielding layer, and which has been conjectured to produce significant microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question is if this conjectured emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to prove that a TGF originates in the macro-fields of stormclouds or the micro-fields of light leaders and streamers where this "positron orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  12. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  13. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  14. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  15. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  16. AMS-02 data confront acceleration of cosmic ray secondaries in nearby sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the model proposed earlier to account for the observed increase in the positron fraction in cosmic rays with increasing energy, in the light of new data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) experiment. The model accounts for the production and acceleration of secondary electrons...

  17. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  18. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  19. On the Energy Spectra of GeV/TeV Cosmic Ray Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Petrosian, Vahe; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-08-19

    Recent observations of cosmic ray electrons from several instruments have revealed various degrees of deviation in the measured electron energy distribution from a simple power-law, in a form of an excess around 0.1 to 1 TeV energies. An even more prominent deviation and excess has been observed in the fraction of cosmic ray positrons around 10 and 100 GeV energies. These observations have received considerable attention and many theoretical models have been proposed to explain them. The models rely on either dark matter annihilation/decay or specific nearby astrophysical sources, and involve several additional assumptions regarding the dark matter distribution or particle acceleration. In this paper we show that the observed excesses in the electron spectrum may be easily reproduced without invoking any unusual sources other than the general diffuse Galactic components of cosmic rays. The model presented here assumes a power-law injection of electrons (and protons) by supernova remnants, and evaluates their expected energy spectrum based on a simple kinetic equation describing the propagation of charged particles in the interstellar medium. The primary physical effect involved is the Klein-Nishina suppression of the electron cooling rate around TeV energies. With a very reasonable choice of the model parameters characterizing the local interstellar medium, we can reproduce the most recent observations by Fermi and HESS experiments. Interestingly, in our model the injection spectral index of cosmic ray electrons becomes comparable to, or even equal to that of cosmic ray protons. The Klein-Nishina effect may also affect the propagation of the secondary e{sup {+-}} pairs, and therefore modify the cosmic ray positron-to-electron ratio. We have explored this possibility by considering two mechanisms for production of e{sup {+-}} pairs within the Galaxy. The first is due to the decay of {pi}{sup {+-}}'s produced by interaction of cosmic ray nuclei with ambient

  20. 11. European cosmic ray symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific programme was organized under three main headings: Cosmic rays in the heliosphere, Cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, Properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Seven invited talks were indexed seprately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  1. Cosmic rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2005-01-01

    Cosmos is a mysterious space by which many researchers are fascinated for many years. But, going into space means that we will receive extra exposure due to existence of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are mainly composed of highly energetic protons. It was born in the last stage of stellar life. Understanding of cosmos will certainly bring right understanding of radiation energy, or energy itself. As no one could see the very early stage of cosmic rays, there is only a speculation. But it is better to speculate something based on certain side evidences, than to give up the whole. Such attitude shall be welcomed in the space researches. Anyway, cosmic rays were born in the last explosion of a star, which is called as Super Nova. After cosmic rays are emitted from the Super Nova, it will reach to the human surroundings. To indicate its intensity, special unit of ''dose rate'' is used. When a man climbs a mountain, cosmic ray intensity surely increases. It doubles as he goes up every 1500m elevation. It was ascertained by our own measurements. Then what happens when the goes up more? At aviation altitude, where airplanes fly, the dose rate will be increased up to 100times the high mountain cases. And what is expected when he goes up further more, up to space orbit altitude? In this case, the dose rate increases up to 10times the airplane cases. Geomagnetism affects the dose rate very much. As primary cosmic ray particles are charged particles, they cannot do well with existence of the magnetic field. In effect, cosmic rays can penetrate into the polar atmosphere along geomagnetic lines of forces which stand almost vertical, but penetration of low energy cosmic rays will be banned when they intend to penetrate crossing the geomagnetic lines of forces in equatorial region. Therefore, exposure due to cosmic rays will become large in polar region, while it remains small in equatorial region. In effect, airplanes which fly over the equator. Only, we have to know that the cosmos

  2. On the cosmic-ray spectra of three-body lepton-flavor-violating dark matter decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Cukierman, Ari; Primulando, Reinard

    2011-01-01

    We consider possible leptonic three-body decays of spin-1/2, charge-asymmetric dark matter. Assuming a general Dirac structure for the four-fermion contact interactions of interest, we study the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra and show that good fits to the current data can be obtained for both charged-lepton-flavor-conserving and flavor-violating decay channels. We find that different choices for the Dirac structure of the underlying decay operator can be significantly compensated by different choices for the dark matter mass and lifetime. The decay modes we consider provide differing predictions for the cosmic-ray positron fraction at energies higher than those currently probed at the PAMELA experiment; these predictions might be tested at cosmic-ray detectors like AMS-02.

  3. Hydride spectroscopy of the diffuse interstellar medium: new clues on the gas fraction in molecular form and cosmic ray ionization rate in relation to H3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, M; Levrier, F; Falgarone, E; Godard, B; Hennebelle, P; Le Petit, F; De Luca, M; Neufeld, D; Sonnentrucker, P; Goldsmith, P; Flagey, N; Lis, D C; Persson, C M; Black, J H; Goicoechea, J R; Menten, K M

    2012-11-13

    The Herschel-guaranteed time key programme PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies (PRISMAS)(1) is providing a survey of the interstellar hydrides containing the elements C, O, N, F and Cl. As the building blocks of interstellar molecules, hydrides provide key information on their formation pathways. They can also be used as tracers of important physical and chemical properties of the interstellar gas that are difficult to measure otherwise. This paper presents an analysis of two sight-lines investigated by the PRISMAS project, towards the star-forming regions W49N and W51. By combining the information extracted from the detected spectral lines, we present an analysis of the physical properties of the diffuse interstellar gas, including the electron abundance, the fraction of gas in molecular form, and constraints on the cosmic ray ionization rate and the gas density.

  4. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  5. A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 10(17)-10(17.5) electronvolts from radio observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Huege, T; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Schellart, P; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Trinh, T N G; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Dettmar, R-J; van Diepen, G; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Enriquez, J E; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J M; Gunst, A W; van Haarlem, M P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Intema, H; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G M; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pietka, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H J A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Stewart, A; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Vogt, C; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wijnholds, S J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Zensus, J A

    2016-03-03

    Cosmic rays are the highest-energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays with energies of 10(17)-10(18) electronvolts are essential to understanding whether they have galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic rays of these energies. Cosmic rays initiate air showers--cascades of secondary particles in the atmosphere-and their masses can be inferred from measurements of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum (Xmax; the depth of the air shower when it contains the most particles) or of the composition of shower particles reaching the ground. Current measurements have either high uncertainty, or a low duty cycle and a high energy threshold. Radio detection of cosmic rays is a rapidly developing technique for determining Xmax (refs 10, 11) with a duty cycle of, in principle, nearly 100 per cent. The radiation is generated by the separation of relativistic electrons and positrons in the geomagnetic field and a negative charge excess in the shower front. Here we report radio measurements of Xmax with a mean uncertainty of 16 grams per square centimetre for air showers initiated by cosmic rays with energies of 10(17)-10(17.5) electronvolts. This high resolution in Xmax enables us to determine the mass spectrum of the cosmic rays: we find a mixed composition, with a light-mass fraction (protons and helium nuclei) of about 80 per cent. Unless, contrary to current expectations, the extragalactic component of cosmic rays contributes substantially to the total flux below 10(17.5) electronvolts, our measurements indicate the existence of an additional galactic component, to account for the light composition that we measured in the 10(17)-10(17.5) electronvolt range.

  6. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  7. Energy Spectrum of Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron from 10 GeV to 3 TeV Observed with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Brogi, P.; Buckley, J. H.; Cannady, N.; Castellini, G.; Checchia, C.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; di Felice, V.; Ebisawa, K.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Ishizaki, W.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawanaka, N.; Kawakubo, Y.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A. M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Pacini, L.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakai, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stolzi, F.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.; Calet Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    First results of a cosmic-ray electron and positron spectrum from 10 GeV to 3 TeV is presented based upon observations with the CALET instrument on the International Space Station starting in October, 2015. Nearly a half million electron and positron events are included in the analysis. CALET is an all-calorimetric instrument with total vertical thickness of 30 X0 and a fine imaging capability designed to achieve a large proton rejection and excellent energy resolution well into the TeV energy region. The observed energy spectrum over 30 GeV can be fit with a single power law with a spectral index of -3.152 ±0.016 (stat+syst ). Possible structure observed above 100 GeV requires further investigation with increased statistics and refined data analysis.

  8. Galactic propagation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    After introducing various phenomenological models of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy, we examine how some of them fare when compared to the data. We show that a model based on resonant diffusion of cosmic rays off an interstellar spectrum of hydromagnetic waves can account for the presently available evidence on cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  9. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  10. Anomalous isotopic composition of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-06-20

    Recent measurements of nonsolar isotopic patterns for the elements neon and (perhaps) magnesium in cosmic rays are interpreted within current models of stellar nucleosynthesis. One possible explanation is that the stars currently responsible for cosmic-ray synthesis in the Galaxy are typically super-metal-rich by a factor of two to three. Other possibilities include the selective acceleration of certain zones or masses of supernovas or the enhancement of /sup 22/Ne in the interstellar medium by mass loss from red giant stars and planetary nebulas. Measurements of critical isotopic ratios are suggested to aid in distinguishing among the various possibilities. Some of these explanations place significant constraints on the fraction of cosmic ray nuclei that must be fresh supernova debris and the masses of the supernovas involved. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  11. Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Based on hydrodynamic numerical simulations and diffusive shock acceleration model, we calculated the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) to thermal energy. We found that the CR fraction can be less than ∼ 0.1 in the intracluster medium, while it would be of order unity in the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  12. Studies in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1974-03-01

    The investigation of the diurnal variation in the cosmic ray intensity on individual days has revealed a new class of diurnal variation showing a maximum around 09 hour direction in the interplanetary space. It is shown to occur during the recovery phase of Forbush decreases as well as during quiet periods. The rigidity spectrum of the anomalous diurnal variation has an exponent around zero, the same as that for the average diurnal variation exhibiting maximum around 18 hours in the interplanetary space. It is shown that the Forbush decreases associated with the diurnal variation exhibiting morning maximum, are 27 day recurrent in nature and are preceded by east limb solar flares on most of the occasions. A qualitative model of the transient modulation by solar corotating corpuscular streams of enhanced solar wind velocity, emanating from the active regions on the solar disc, is proposed to explain the anomalous diurnal anisotropy in the recovery phase of 27 day recurrent Forbush decreases. From this model, the cosmic ray diffusion coefficients, parallel and perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field inside the corotating stream, are derived and compared with the average values. To investigate the possibility of determining the energy spectra of cosmic ray intensity variations from a single station, a continuous record of neutron multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for the period October, 1967 - October, 1971, using the Gulmarg neutron monitor. The average multiplicity spectrum in the Gulmarg neutron monitor shows a mean multiplicity approximately equal to 1.4 for 12 Boron-tri-fluoride counters and is an increasing function of the number of counters used. The mean multiplicity measured in various other neutron monitors, when normalized to the cutoff rigidity of Gulmurg (11.91 GV), shows a systematic increase with the altitude of the station. (author)

  13. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  14. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizot, E.

    2005-12-01

    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  15. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.

  16. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  17. Cosmic Ray Results from the CosmoALEPH Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, C; Jost, B; Maciuc, F; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2008-01-01

    CosmoALEPH is an experiment operated in conjunction with the ALEPH detector. The ALEPH experiment took data from 1989 until the year 2000 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at CERN. It provides, among others, high resolution tracking and calorimetry. CosmoALEPH used this e+e− detector for cosmic ray studies. In addition, six scintillator telescopes were installed in the ALEPH pit and the LEP tunnel. The whole experiment operated underground at a vertical depth of 320 meter water equivalent. Data from ALEPH and the scintillator telescopes provide informaton on the lateral distribution of energetic cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers. The decoherence curve of these remnant air shower muons is sensitive to the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays and to the interaction characteristics of energetic hadrons in the atmosphere. An attempt is made to extract the various interdependencies in describing the propagation of primary and secondary cosmic rays through the atmosphere and the rock ov...

  18. Supernova origin of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, C. L.; Houston, B. P.

    Evidence has recently been presented from gamma-ray observations for the acceleration of cosmic rays in the Loop I supernova remnant. The cosmic ray intensity thus inferred is in agreement with the predictions of the shock acceleration model of Blandford and Cowie (1980). Here, this model is examined further, specifically by comparing its predictions with the presently available information on the cosmic-ray pre-history as well as with the cosmic ray anisotropy measurements in the energy range 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 15th eV. A cosmic ray conversion efficiency of 10-20 percent is found sufficient to exlain the observations. The present study leads also to the interesting suggestion that the bump observed in the primary energy spectrum at 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 15th eV may be due to an excess contribution from local supernovae.

  19. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  20. Dark cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping-Kai, E-mail: pingkai.hu@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kusenko, Alexander, E-mail: kusenko@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Takhistov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vtakhist@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Most of our results are fairly general and apply to a broad class of dark matter models.

  1. Dark cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Kai Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Most of our results are fairly general and apply to a broad class of dark matter models.

  2. Search for cosmic-ray antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G. F.; Buffington, A.; Orth, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    It appears probable that some fraction of the cosmic rays has extragalactic origin. A search for antimatter nuclei was conducted with the aid of a balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The investigation made use of the fact that matter and antimatter nuclei, because of their opposite signs of charge, would be deflected in opposite directions when passing through a magnetic field. The antimatter flux limits set by the experiments are discussed.

  3. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  4. An upper limit to the proton fraction in cosmic rays above 10.sup.19./sup. eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Boháčová, Martina; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Nosek, D.; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2007), s. 155-168 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134; GA MŠk LN00A006; GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : cosmic rays * ultra-high energy photons * exctensive air shower s * Pierre Auger Observatory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2007

  5. Experimental aspects of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Sommers, P

    2006-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays are detected as extensive air showers, and properties of the primary cosmic rays are deduced from measurements of those air showers. The physics of air showers is reviewed here in order to explain how the measurement techniques work. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory (near this school in Malargue) is used to illustrate the experimental methods. The Auger Observatory combines a surface array of water Cherenkov detectors with atmospheric uorescence detectors. This `hybrid' measurement technique provides high resolution and measurement cross-checks. In conjunction with a complementary site in the northern hemisphere, the Auger Observatory expects to map the arrival directions over the full sky as well as measuring the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and statistical properties of the mass distribution.

  6. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  7. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, K S; Harrison, R G; Kirkby, J

    2002-11-29

    It has been proposed that Earth's climate could be affected by changes in cloudiness caused by variations in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays in the atmosphere. This proposal stems from an observed correlation between cosmic ray intensity and Earth's average cloud cover over the course of one solar cycle. Some scientists question the reliability of the observations, whereas others, who accept them as reliable, suggest that the correlation may be caused by other physical phenomena with decadal periods or by a response to volcanic activity or El Niño. Nevertheless, the observation has raised the intriguing possibility that a cosmic ray-cloud interaction may help explain how a relatively small change in solar output can produce much larger changes in Earth's climate. Physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain how cosmic rays could affect clouds, but they need to be investigated further if the observation is to become more than just another correlation among geophysical variables.

  8. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  9. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionization from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...

  10. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability......A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...

  11. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  12. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    between cosmic ray flux and low cloud top temperature. The temperature of a cloud depends on the radiation properties determined by its droplet distribution. Low clouds are warm (> 273 K) and therefore consist of liquid water droplets. At typical atmospheric supersaturations (similar to1%) a liquid cloud...... that a mechanism to explain the cosmic ray-cloud link might be found through the role of atmospheric ionisation in aerosol production and/or growth. Observations of local aerosol increases in low cloud due to ship exhaust indicate that a small perturbation in atmospheric aerosol can have a major impact on low...... cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability...

  13. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A W

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variatio...

  14. Cosmic ray electrons and protons, and their antiparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezio, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.boezio@ts.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Cosmic rays are a sample of solar, galactic, and extragalactic matter. Their origin, acceleration mechanisms, and subsequent propagation toward Earth have intrigued scientists since their discovery. These issues can be studied via analysis of the energy spectra and composition of cosmic rays. Protons are the most abundant component of the cosmic radiation, and many experiments have been dedicated to the accurate measurement of their spectra. Complementary information is provided by electrons, which comprise about 1% of the cosmic radiation. Because of their low mass, electrons experience severe energy losses through synchrotron emission in the galactic magnetic field and inverse Compton scattering of radiation fields. Electrons therefore provide information on the local galactic environment that is not accessible from the study of the cosmic ray nuclei. Antiparticles, namely antiprotons and positrons, are produced in the interaction between cosmic ray nuclei and the interstellar matter. They are therefore intimately linked to the propagation mechanisms of the parent nuclei. Novel sources of primary cosmic ray antiparticles of either astrophysical (e.g., positrons from pulsars) or exotic origin (e.g., annihilation of dark matter particles) may exist. The nature of dark matter is one of the most prominent open questions in science today. An observation of positrons from pulsars would open a new observation window on these sources. Several experiments equipped with state-of-the art detector systems have recently presented results on the energy spectra of electrons, protons, and their antiparticles with a significant improvement in statistics and better control of systematics The status of the field will be reviewed, with a focus on these recent scientific results. (author)

  15. A Demonstration Device for Cosmic Rays Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon…

  16. WINDS, CLUMPS, AND INTERACTING COSMIC RAYS IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Gallagher, J. S. III, E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We construct a family of models for the evolution of energetic particles in the starburst galaxy M82 and compare them to observations to test the calorimeter assumption that all cosmic ray energy is radiated in the starburst region. Assuming constant cosmic ray acceleration efficiency with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations as a function of energy. Cosmic rays are injected with Galactic energy distributions and electron-to-proton ratio via Type II supernovae at the observed rate of 0.07 yr{sup -1}. From the cosmic ray spectra, we predict the radio synchrotron and {gamma}-ray spectra. To more accurately model the radio spectrum, we incorporate a multiphase interstellar medium in the starburst region of M82. Our model interstellar medium is highly fragmented with compact dense molecular clouds and dense photoionized gas, both embedded in a hot, low density medium in overall pressure equilibrium. The spectra predicted by this one-zone model are compared to the observed radio and {gamma}-ray spectra of M82. {chi}{sup 2} tests are used with radio and {gamma}-ray observations and a range of model predictions to find the best-fit parameters. The best-fit model yields constraints on key parameters in the starburst zone of M82, including a magnetic field strength of {approx}250 {mu}G and a wind advection speed in the range of 300-700 km s{sup -1}. We find that M82 is a good electron calorimeter but not an ideal cosmic-ray proton calorimeter and discuss the implications of our results for the astrophysics of the far-infrared-radio correlation in starburst galaxies.

  17. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    -1911, before CR were discovered). 8. Moreover, in the 1930s it was shown by investigations of West-East CR asymmetry that the largest part of primary CR must be positive energetic particles. Later, in the 1940s - 1950s, it was established by direct measurements at high altitudes on balloons and rockets that the most part of cosmic rays are energetic protons, about 10% He nuclei, 1% more heavy nuclei, 1% energetic electrons, and only about 1% energetic gamma rays. Nevertheless, the name 'cosmic rays' (for short, CR) continues to be used up to now (sometimes they are called astroparticles). 9. The importance of CR for fundamental science was understood in the 1930s - 1950s, when has been discovered the first antiparticle predicted by the Quantum Electrodynamics - positron (in 1932), and then muons (1937), pions, K+, K0 mesons (in 1947), Λ0, Ξ-, Σ+ hyperons (accordingly in 1951, 1952, 1953). Cosmic rays became considered as very important natural source of high and very high energies. 10. In 1940s-1950s formatted also geophysical and astrophysical aspects of CR research. In 1936, the Nobel Prize in Physics received Victor Hess for CR discovery and Charles Anderson for discovery of positrons in CR. Later, many other great scientists in CR research received Nobel Prizes.

  18. Standard Cosmic Ray Energetics and Light Element Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Cassé, M; Vangioni-Flam, E; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Casse, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal poor stars has led to a reassessment of the origin of the light elements in the early Galaxy. At low it is metallicity ([O/H] < -1.75), it is necessary to introduce a production mechanism which is independent of the interstellar metallicity (primary). At higher metallicities, existing data might indicate that secondary production is dominant. In this paper, we focus on the secondary process, related to the standard Galactic cosmic rays, and we examine the cosmic ray energy requirements for both present and past epochs. We find the power input to maintain the present-day Galactic cosmic ray flux is about 1.5e41 erg/s = 5e50 erg/century. This implies that, if supernovae are the sites of cosmic ray acceleration, the fraction of explosion energy going to accelerated particles is about 30%, a value which we obtain consistently both from considering the present cosmic ray flux and confinement and from the present 9Be and 6Li abundances. Using the abundances of 9Be (an...

  19. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelrieß, M.

    2013-04-15

    High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test “vanilla” models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at “Neutrino 2012”.

  20. The origin of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    1986-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made in understanding the origin of cosmic rays within the past decade. The success of equation in accounting for the observed properties of cosmic rays at both the general and the detailed level is a striking illustration that nature can do marvelous things with simple equations. This paper illustrates the important role of detailed, systematic spacecraft observations in the heliosphere in testing theories of relevance to the distant mysterious phenomena that pique the curiosity of astronomers. Tracing the origin of cosmic rays back to collisionless shocks has reminded plasma astrophysicists of how much remains to be understood about the physics of such shocks, which account for much of the radiation that high energy astrophysics is based upon. The X-ray emission from shock-heated electrons, for example, cannot be fully interpreted until the physics of the shocks is understood. It is hoped that plasma simulations of shocks combined with intensive studies of the relevant microphysics will eventually lead us to such an understanding

  1. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Shohei

    1987-01-01

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3 He- 4 He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can...... diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International...

  3. Propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays and Dark Matter indirect Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, Timur

    2010-07-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of propagation of cosmic electrons and positrons in the Milky Way and to the indirect detection of dark matter. The existence of dark matter is a hypothesis considered as reasonable from the point of view of cosmology, astrophysics and even particle physics. Nevertheless its detection still eludes us and it is not possible to verify this hypothesis by other means than gravitational one. A possible way to detect dark matter is to look for its annihilation or decay products among Galactic cosmic rays. During the last three years, data concerning cosmic ray electrons and positrons have been accumulated and have reached a remarkable precision. Such a precision requires from us to refine the theoretical models and to quantify the errors. This thesis addresses the study of all the sources of uncertainties affecting predictions of cosmic electrons and positron fluxes, primary and secondary, classical or from exotic origin. The greatest care has been dedicated to the sources and the propagation in the Galactic halo. Moreover a study of gamma and radio emissions associated to these cosmic rays is presented, again with the will of sizing uncertainties. Finally a status of the research for detection of annihilation or decay of Galactic dark matter is presented. (author)

  4. Background to Dark Matter Searches from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Just as searches for BSM physics at the LHC necessitate a careful audit of SM backgrounds, the search for signals of dark matter in cosmic rays must contend with production of secondaries like e+ and pbar through cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy. The theoretical framework for calculating this has however not been directly calibrated at the high energies being explored by AMS-02 and there may be surprises in store. In particular a nearby source where cosmic rays are being accelerated stochastically can naturally generate a e+ fraction rising with energy as is observed. The test of this is the expected correlated rise in other secondary/primary ratios e.g. B/C and pbar/p. Such a nearby cosmic accelerator should also be detectable through the concomitant flux of neutrinos and its discovery would be (nearly!) as exciting as that of dark matter.

  5. Cosmic rays and stochastic magnetic reconnection in the heliotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Desiati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be generated by diffusive shock acceleration processes in Supernova Remnants, and the arrival direction is likely determined by the distribution of their sources throughout the Galaxy, in particular by the nearest and youngest ones. Transport to Earth through the interstellar medium is expected to affect the cosmic ray properties as well. However, the observed anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays and its energy dependence cannot be explained with diffusion models of particle propagation in the Galaxy. Within a distance of a few parsec, diffusion regime is not valid and particles with energy below about 100 TeV must be influenced by the heliosphere and its elongated tail. The observation of a highly significant localized excess region of cosmic rays from the apparent direction of the downstream interstellar flow at 1–10 TeV energies might provide the first experimental evidence that the heliotail can affect the transport of energetic particles. In particular, TeV cosmic rays propagating through the heliotail interact with the 100–300 AU wide magnetic field polarity domains generated by the 11 yr cycles. Since the strength of non-linear convective processes is expected to be larger than viscous damping, the plasma in the heliotail is turbulent. Where magnetic field domains converge on each other due to solar wind gradient, stochastic magnetic reconnection likely occurs. Such processes may be efficient enough to re-accelerate a fraction of TeV particles as long as scattering processes are not strong. Therefore, the fractional excess of TeV cosmic rays from the narrow region toward the heliotail direction traces sightlines with the lowest smearing scattering effects, that can also explain the observation of a harder than average energy spectrum.

  6. Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves Renyi Ma1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on hydrodynamic numerical simulations and diffusive shock acceleration model, we calculated the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) to thermal energy. We found that the CR fraction can be less than ∼ 0.1 in the intracluster medium, while it would be of order unity in the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Key words.

  7. On propagators of nonlocal relativistic diffusion of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    This report discusses a new model of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy. In contrast to the known models based on the principles of Brownian motion, the proposed model agrees with the relativistic principle of speed limitation and takes into account the large-scale turbulence of the interstellar medium, justifying introduction of fractional differential operators.

  8. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  9. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  10. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  11. Study of cosmic ray semidiurnal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymsky, G F; Krivoshapkin, P A; Gerasimova, S K; Gololobov, P Yu

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of long-term registration of cosmic rays with the muon spectrograph at Yakutsk (62°01'N, 129°43'E) and multidirectional muon telescope at Nagoya (35°10'N, 136°58'E) the cosmic ray semidiurnal variation seasonal change and the change of cosmic ray semiduirnal variation with the solar activity level has been found. The modeling of the seasonal change has been made.

  12. ACORDE - A Cosmic Ray Detector for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00247175; Pagliarone, C.

    2006-01-01

    ACORDE, the ALICE COsmic Ray DEtector is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. This array will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around $10^{15-17}$ eV. In this paper we will describe the ACORDE detector, trigger design and electronics.

  13. Cloud a particle beam facility to investigate the influence of cosmic rays on clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    Palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for solar forcing of the climate during the Holocene and the last ice age, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. However recent observations suggest that cosmic rays may play a key role. Satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by low clouds \\cite{svensmark97,marsh}. Since the cosmic ray intensity is modulated by the solar wind, this may be an important clue to the long-sought mechanism for solar-climate variability. In order to test whether cosmic rays and clouds are causally linked and, if so, to understand the microphysical mechanisms, a novel experiment known as CLOUD\\footnotemark\\ has been proposed \\cite{cloud_proposal}--\\cite{cloud_addendum_2}. CLOUD proposes to investigate ion-aerosol-cloud microphysics under controlled laboratory conditions using a beam from a particle accelerator, which provides a precisely adjustable and measurable artificial source of cosmic rays....

  14. PAMELA mission: heralding a new era in cosmic ray physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciarini S. B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After seven years of data taking in space, the experiment PAMELA is showing very interesting features in cosmic rays, namely in the fluxes of protons, helium, electrons, that might change our basic vision of the mechanisms of production, acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy. In addition, PAMELA measurements of cosmic antiproton and positron fluxes are setting strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter. The continuous particle detection is allowing a constant monitoring of the solar activity and detailed study of the solar modulation for a long period, giving important improvements to the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms. PAMELA is also measuring the radiation environment around the Earth, and has recently discovered an antiproton radiation belt.

  15. The contribution of millisecond pulsars to the Galactic cosmic-ray lepton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Christo; Kopp, Andreas; Harding, Alice K.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Büsching, Ingo

    2015-03-01

    Pulsars are believed to be sources of relativistic electrons and positrons. The abundance of detections of γ -ray millisecond pulsars by Fermi Large Area Telescope coupled with their light curve characteristics that imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, motivated us to investigate this old pulsar population as a source of Galactic electrons and positrons and their contribution to the enhancement in cosmic-ray positron flux at GeV energies. We use a population synthesis code to predict the source properties (number, position, and power) of the present-day Galactic millisecond pulsars, taking into account the latest Fermi and radio observations to calibrate the model output. Next, we simulate pair cascade spectra from these pulsars using a model that invokes an offset-dipole magnetic field. We assume free escape of the pairs from the pulsar environment. We then compute the cumulative spectrum of transported electrons and positrons at Earth, following their diffusion and energy losses as they propagate through the Galaxy. Our results indicate that the predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Comparing our predicted local interstellar spectrum and positron fraction to measurements by AMS-02, PAMELA, and Fermi, we find that millisecond pulsars are only modest contributors at a few tens of GeV, after which this leptonic spectral component cuts off. The positron fraction is therefore only slightly enhanced above 10 GeV relative to a background flux model. This implies that alternative sources such as young, nearby pulsars and supernova remnants should contribute additional primary positrons within the astrophysical scenario.

  16. X-ray Observations of Cosmic Ray Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays, detection of their sources has remained elusive. A major breakthrough has come through the identification of synchrotron X-rays from the shocks of supernova remnants through imaging and spectroscopic observations by the most recent generation of X-ray observatories. This radiation is most likely produced by electrons accelerated to relativistic energy, and thus has offered the first, albeit indirect, observational evidence that diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants produces cosmic rays to TeV energies, possibly as high as the "knee" in the cosmic ray spectrum. X-ray observations have provided information about the maximum energy to which these shOCks accelerate electrons, as well as indirect evidence of proton acceleration. Shock morphologies measured in X-rays have indicated that a substantial fraction of the shock energy can be diverted into particle acceleration. This presentation will summarize what we have learned about cosmic ray acceleration from X-ray observations of supernova remnants over the past two decades.

  17. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, J. N.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A.; Barenthien, N.; Barkhausen, M.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertaina, M. E.; Biermann, P. L.; Bilhaut, R.; Billoir, P.; Blaes, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bolz, H.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifaz, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Camin, D.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Castera, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chiosso, M.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Colombo, E.; Colonges, S.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Courty, B.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, C.; Dolron, P.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Epele, L. N.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Fujii, T.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Geenen, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Genolini, B.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Giudice, N.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gotink, W.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Grygar, J.; Guardone, N.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guglielmi, L.; Habraken, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Kopmann, A.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martina, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, N.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nicotra, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Ohnuki, T.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; PakkSelmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Porter, T.; Pouryamout, J.; Pouthas, J.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Pryke, C. L.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Randriatoamanana, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenua, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schreuder, F.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schuessler, F.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Sequeiros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Speelman, R.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Sutter, M.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Trung, T. N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varnav, D. M.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verkooijen, H.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vlcek, B.; Vorenholt, H.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Widom, A.; Wiebusch, C.; Wiencke, L.; Wijnen, T.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wild, N.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Woerner, G.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10(17) eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic

  18. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, D.; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, Mar (2016), s. 9-18 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * extensive air showers * cosmic ray composition Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  19. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, R., E-mail: rrios@lanl.go [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Tatar, E. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Saltus, M. [Sloan Enterprises, NC (United States); Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  20. Cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    It is inevitable that there is a close connection between cosmic rays and the ISM insofar as the propagation of cosmic rays is conditioned by the magnetic field in the ISM and the cosmic rays interact with the gas (and photon fluxes) in this medium. This paper deals with both topics. Propagation effects manifest themselves as an anisotropy in arrival directions and a review is given of anisotropy measurements and their interpretation. The status of studies of cosmic ray interactions is examined whit particular reference to the information about the ISM itself which comes from observations of the flux of secondary γ-rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with gas, the situation regarding molecular as in the Inner Galaxy being of particular concern

  1. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  2. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  3. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliarone, C; Fernandez-Tellez, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2·10 10 to 2· 10 12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 to 10 17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program

  4. Cosmic Ray Production in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Marcowith, A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    We give a brief review of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs), emphasizing the production of CRs at different stages of supernova evolution by the first-order Fermi shock acceleration mechanism. We suggest that supernovae with trans-relativistic outflows, despite being rather rare, may accelerate CRs to energies above 10^{18} eV over the first year of their evolution. Supernovae in young compact clusters of massive stars, and interaction powered superluminous supernovae, may accelerate CRs well above the PeV regime. We discuss the acceleration of the bulk of the galactic CRs in isolated supernova remnants and re-acceleration of escaped CRs by the multiple shocks present in superbubbles produced by associations of OB stars. The effects of magnetic field amplification by CR driven instabilities, as well as superdiffusive CR transport, are discussed for nonthermal radiation produced by nonlinear shocks of all speeds including trans-relativistic ones.

  5. Cosmic rays and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated for the second edition, this book introduces the growing and dynamic field of particle astrophysics. It provides an overview of high-energy nuclei, photons and neutrinos, including their origins, their propagation in the cosmos, their detection on Earth and their relation to each other. Coverage is expanded to include new content on high energy physics, the propagation of protons and nuclei in cosmic background radiation, neutrino astronomy, high-energy and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, sources and acceleration mechanisms, and atmospheric muons and neutrinos. Readers are able to master the fundamentals of particle astrophysics within the context of the most recent developments in the field. This book will benefit graduate students and established researchers alike, equipping them with the knowledge and tools needed to design and interpret their own experiments and, ultimately, to address a number of questions concerning the nature and origins of cosmic particles that have arisen in recent resea...

  6. A Study of the Link between Cosmic Rays and Clouds with a Cloud Chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laakso, L K; Lehtipalo, K; Miettinen, P K; Duarte branco da silva santos, F; Stojkov, Y; Jud, W; Wurm, F; Pinterich, T; Dommen, J; Curtius, J; Kreissl, F C; Minginette, P; Azeredo lima, J M; Kulmala, M T; Petaja, T T; Volkamer, R M; Schafer, M; Rodrigues tome, A; Viisanen, Y A; Onnela, A T O; Kristic, R; Ehrhart, S K; Amorim, A J; Maksumov, O; Kupc, A; Sitals, R P; Dunne, E M; Riipinen, I A; Downard, A J; Virtanen, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Schuchmann, S; Kvashnin, A; Hansel, A; Vrtala, A; Schallhart, S; Yan, C; Stratmann, F; Pinto mogo, S I; Makhmutov, V; Riccobono, F; Weingartner, E P; Kurten, C A; Rondo, L; Ruuskanen, T M; Finkenzeller, H F; Laaksonen, A J; De menezes, L; Hauser, D; Kajos, M K; Schmitt, T M; Mathot, S; Wasem, A; Guida, R; Metzger, A E; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Flagan, R C; Wex, H D

    2002-01-01

    Three recent independent observations suggest that galactic cosmic rays may exert a significant influence on the climate. Firstly, satellite data suggest a positive correlation between variations of cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of Earth covered by low clouds. Secondly, palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for an association between cosmic ray intensity and climate over the last 10 kyr and at earlier times. Finally, the presence of ion-induced nucleation of new aerosol in the atmosphere is supported by recent observations. If cosmic rays do indeed enhance aerosol production and low cloud formation, this could exert a strong cooling influence on the radiative energy balance of Earth. Physical mechanisms by which cosmic rays may affect aerosol and clouds have been proposed and modelled, but definitive experiments are lacking. The aim of CLOUD is to investigate the nature and significance of cosmic ray-aerosol-cloud mechanisms under controlled laboratory conditions using the T11 beam at the CER...

  7. Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors γ ∝ O(10 11 ). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous γ-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic γ-rays. For multi TeV γ-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects next to them - as probable UHECR sources. (orig.)

  8. ‘Excess’ of primary cosmic ray electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the accurate cosmic ray (CR electron and positron spectra (denoted as Φe− and Φe+, respectively measured by AMS-02 Collaboration, the difference between the electron and positron fluxes (i.e., ΔΦ=Φe−−Φe+, dominated by the propagated primary electrons, can be reliably inferred. In the standard model, the spectrum of propagated primary CR electrons at energies ≥30GeV softens with the increase of energy. The absence of any evidence for such a continuous spectral softening in ΔΦ strongly suggests a significant ‘excess’ of primary CR electrons and at energies of 100–400GeV the identified excess component has a flux comparable to that of the observed positron excess. Middle-age but ‘nearby’ supernova remnants (e.g., Monogem and Geminga are favored sources for such an excess.

  9. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data

  10. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  11. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  12. A theory of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rújula, Alvaro De

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory of non-solar cosmic rays (CRs) based on a single type of CR source at all energies. The total luminosity of the Galaxy, the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the `knee(s)' and `ankle', and the CR composition and its variation with energy are all predicted in terms of very simple and completely `standard' physics. The source of CRs is extremely `economical': it has only one parameter to be fitted to the ensemble of all of the mentioned data. All other inputs are `priors', that is, theoretical or observational items of information independent of the properties of the source of CRs, and chosen to lie in their pre-established ranges. The theory is part of a `unified view of high-energy astrophysics' --based on the `Cannonball' model of the relativistic ejecta of accreting black holes and neutron stars. If correct, this model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the `cannon' that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic processes of accreti...

  13. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  14. Lightning Discharges, Cosmic Rays and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kamra, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    The entirety of the Earth's climate system is continuously bombarded by cosmic rays and exhibits about 2000 thunderstorms active at any time of the day all over the globe. Any linkage among these vast systems should have global consequences. Numerous studies done in the past deal with partial links between some selected aspects of this grand linkage. Results of these studies vary from weakly to strongly significant and are not yet complete enough to justify the physical mechanism proposed to explain such links. This review is aimed at presenting the current understanding, based on the past studies on the link between cosmic ray, lightning and climate. The deficiencies in some proposed links are pointed out. Impacts of cosmic rays on engineering systems and the possible effects of cosmic rays on human health are also briefly discussed. Also enumerated are some problems for future work which may help in developing the grand linkage among these three vast systems.

  15. Satellite observation of cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Robert; Linsley, John

    1981-01-01

    The arrival trajectories of cosmic rays with energies greater than 10 19 eV afford the possibility of being traced backwards for distances comparable to the size of the Galaxy. They provide a means of testing models of the Galactic magnetic field as well as models of the origin of extra-Galactic cosmic rays. The large air showers produced by such cosmic rays can be observed by means of the atmospheric scintillation light they produce. It is shown here that a satellite-based system consisting of a single large mirror with an array of photon sensors at its focus would have outstanding advantages for the study of the highest energy cosmic rays

  16. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  17. Energy estimates of cosmic ray events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1978-12-01

    We propose new methods for estimating the energy of the incident particles in high energy cosmic ray collisions. We demonstrate their validity in emulsion experiments at laboratory accelerators. (author)

  18. Cosmic ray signatures of a 2-3 Myr old local supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelrieß, M.; Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The supernova explosion which deposited Fe 60 isotopes on Earth 2-3 million years ago should have also produced cosmic rays which contribute to the locally observed cosmic ray flux. We show that the contribution of this "local source" causes the "anomalies" observed in the positron and antiproton fluxes and explains why their spectral shapes agree with that of the proton flux. At the same time, this local source component accounts for the difference in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray nuclei as the result of the slightly varying relative importance of the "local" and the average component for distinct CR nuclei. Such a "local supernova" model for the spectra of nuclei can be tested via a combined measurement of the energy dependence of the boron-to-carbon (primary-to-secondary cosmic rays) ratio and of the antiproton spectrum: while the antiproton spectrum is predicted to extend approximately as a power law into the TeV range without any softening break, the B/C ratio is expected to show a "plateau" at a level fixed by the observed positron excess in the 30-300 GeV range. We discuss the observability of such a plateau with dedicated experiments for the measurement of the cosmic ray composition in the 10 TeV energy range (NUCLEON, ISS-CREAM).

  19. Signatures of SUSY dark matter at the LHC and in the spectra of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olzem, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the search for supersymmetry at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the ongoing construction of one of the four large LHC experiments, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), and focuses on the detection of signals from the annihilation of supersymmetric dark matter in the spectra of cosmic rays. The final steps of assembly of 1061 silicon microstrip detector modules for the CMS tracker endcaps are performed at the 1. Physikalisches Institut B at the RWTH Aachen. A laser test facility for these modules was developed and is described in this thesis. In contrast to test procedures based only on the evaluation of pedestal and noise data, the test facility relies on the generation of signals in the silicon sensors by infrared laser illumination. The fully automatic test facility provides high throughput and easy operation for the series production of the modules. Its performance is validated by investigating a reference module with artificially prepared defects of three types: open wirebonds, short-circuited strips and pinholes. It is shown that all defects are clearly detected. In addition to defect detection, an indication for the type of defect is provided. In a further validation step, nine modules from a prototype series are investigated with the laser test facility. Confirming the earlier results on the reference module, defective strips are reliably identified. This thesis describes a novel approach of positron identification with the space-borne AMS-01 experiment, namely through the detection of bremsstrahlung conversion in a silicon microstrip detector. In order to obtain the highest positron selection efficiency possible, novel combinatorial track finding algorithms were developed, particularly optimized for the signature of converted bremsstrahlung. By applying restrictions on the invariant mass of particles the background to the positron sample is largely eliminated. The remaining background contamination is determined from large

  20. Signatures of SUSY dark matter at the LHC and in the spectra of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olzem, J.

    2007-02-27

    This thesis discusses the search for supersymmetry at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the ongoing construction of one of the four large LHC experiments, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), and focuses on the detection of signals from the annihilation of supersymmetric dark matter in the spectra of cosmic rays. The final steps of assembly of 1061 silicon microstrip detector modules for the CMS tracker endcaps are performed at the 1. Physikalisches Institut B at the RWTH Aachen. A laser test facility for these modules was developed and is described in this thesis. In contrast to test procedures based only on the evaluation of pedestal and noise data, the test facility relies on the generation of signals in the silicon sensors by infrared laser illumination. The fully automatic test facility provides high throughput and easy operation for the series production of the modules. Its performance is validated by investigating a reference module with artificially prepared defects of three types: open wirebonds, short-circuited strips and pinholes. It is shown that all defects are clearly detected. In addition to defect detection, an indication for the type of defect is provided. In a further validation step, nine modules from a prototype series are investigated with the laser test facility. Confirming the earlier results on the reference module, defective strips are reliably identified. This thesis describes a novel approach of positron identification with the space-borne AMS-01 experiment, namely through the detection of bremsstrahlung conversion in a silicon microstrip detector. In order to obtain the highest positron selection efficiency possible, novel combinatorial track finding algorithms were developed, particularly optimized for the signature of converted bremsstrahlung. By applying restrictions on the invariant mass of particles the background to the positron sample is largely eliminated. The remaining background contamination is determined from large

  1. Closing CMS to hunt cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Every second the Earth is bombarded by billions of cosmic rays and occasionally one of these cosmic particles will collide with the Earth's atmosphere generating a shower of particles known as an 'air shower'. This is similiar to the collisions and subsequent particle showers observed in accelerators such as the LHC. Here the CMS detector is closed so that systems can be tested using muon cosmic rays in the 'Cosmic Challenge'.

  2. ACORDE a cosmic ray detector for ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Gamez, E.; Herrera, G.; Lopez, R.; Leon-Monzon, I.; Martinez, M.I.; Pagliarone, C.; Paic, G.; Roman, S.; Tejeda, G.; Vargas, M.A.; Vergara, S.; Villasenor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2007-01-01

    ACORDE is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction at CERN. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. It will act as a cosmic ray trigger, and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 -10 17 eV. Here we describe the design of ACORDE along with the present status and integration into ALICE

  3. A new way of air shower detection: measuring the properties of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays impinging onto the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles: extensive air showers. Many of the particles in a shower are electrons and positrons. During the development of the air shower and by interacting with the geomagnetic field, the

  4. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving

  5. TEACHING PHYSICS: Demonstrating cosmic ray induced electromagnetic cascades in the A-level laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article indicates how the study of sea-level cosmic ray phenomena can have a role in A-level physics. It describes a simple but far reaching particle physics experiment that can be carried out in the A-level physics laboratory. A simple model of electron-positron-photon cascades, suitable for use at A-level, is described.

  6. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  7. Reminiscences of cosmic ray research in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peraza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic ray research in Mexico dates from the early 1930s with the work of the pioneering physicist, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta and his students from Mexico. Several experiments of international significance were carried out during that period in Mexico: they dealt with the geomagnetic latitude effect, the north-south and west-east asymmetry of cosmic ray intensity, and the sign of the charge of cosmic rays. The international cosmic ray community has met twice in Mexico for the International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC): the fourth was held in Guanajuato in 1955, and the 30th took place in Mérida, in 2007. In addition, an international meeting on the Pierre Auger Collaboration was held in Morelia in 1999, and the International Workshop on Observing UHE Cosmic Rays took place in Metepec in 2000. A wide range of research topics has been developed, from low-energy Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) to the UHE. Instrumentation has evolved since the early 1950s, from a Simpson type neutron monitor installed in Mexico City (2300 m asl) to a solar neutron telescope and an EAS Cherenkov array, (within the framework of the Auger International Collaboration), both at present operating on Mt. Sierra La Negra in the state of Puebla (4580 m asl). Research collaboration has been undertaken with many countries; in particular, the long-term collaboration with Russian scientists has been very fruitful.

  8. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  9. Recent developments in cosmic ray physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 50125 Firenze (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale F. Crispi 6, 60100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    The search for a theory of the origin of cosmic rays that may be considered as a standard, agreeable model is still ongoing. On one hand, much circumstantial evidence exists of the fact that supernovae in our Galaxy play a crucial role in producing the bulk of cosmic rays observed on Earth. On the other hand, important questions about their ability to accelerate particles up to the knee remain unanswered. The common interpretation of the knee as a feature coinciding with the maximum energy of the light component of cosmic rays and a transition to a gradually heavier mass composition is mainly based on KASCADE results. Some recent data appear to question this finding: YAC1 – Tibet Array and ARGO-YBJ find a flux reduction in the light component at ∼ 700 TeV, appreciably below the knee. Whether the maximum energy of light nuclei is as high as 3000 TeV or rather as low as a few hundred TeV has very important consequences on the supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of cosmic rays, as well on the crucial issue of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. In such a complex phenomenological situation, it is important to have a clear picture of what is really known and what is not. Here I will discuss some solid and less solid aspects of the theory (or theories) for the origin of cosmic rays and the implications for future searches in this field.

  10. It's About Time: Interpreting AMS Antimatter Data in Terms of Cosmic Ray Propagation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    If cosmic ray positrons come from a secondary origin, then their production spectrum is correlated with the production spectrum of other secondary particles such as boron and antiprotons through scattering cross sections measured in the laboratory. This allows to define a first-principle upper bound on the positron flux at the Earth, independent of propagation model assumptions. Using currently available B/C and antiproton/proton data, we show that the positron flux reported by AMS is consistent with the bound and saturates it at high energies. This coincidence is a compelling indication for a secondary source. We explain how improved AMS measurements of the high energy boron, antiproton, and secondary radioactive nuclei fluxes can corroborate or falsify the secondary source hypothesis. Assuming that the positrons are secondary, we show that AMS data imply a propagation time in the Galaxy of order 1Myr or less for cosmic rays with magnetic rigidity > 300 GV. This corresponds to an average traversed interstel...

  11. Performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of AMS-02 on the International Space Station ans measurement of the positronic fraction in the 1.5 – 350 GeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Basara, Laurent

    The AMS-02 experiment is a particle detector installed on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011, which measures the characteristics of the cosmic rays to bring answers to the problematics risen by the astroparticle physics since a few decades, in particular the study of dark matter and the search of antimatter. The phenomenological aspects of the physics of cosmic rays are reviewed in a first part. A second one describes the in-flight performances of the different subdetectors of AMS-02, in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter. It is shown, using particles at the ionizing minimum (MIPs), accounting for the main part of cosmic rays, that the calorimeter works as expected, and we find the same performances as on ground. This study is used to follow in time the evolution of the detector performances. It also allows to develop a charge estimator for the nuclei using the calorimeter. A third and final part, deals with the determination of the positronic fraction. The main difficulty of this me...

  12. LHCf sheds new light on cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the single photon obtained using data from the LHCf experiment has turned out to be very different from that predicted by the theoretical models used until now to describe the interactions between very high-energy cosmic rays and the earth's atmosphere. The consequences of this discrepancy for cosmic ray studies could be significant.   Artistic impression of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. (Credit: Asimmetrie/Infn). It took physicists by surprise when analysis of the data collected by the two LHCf calorimeters in 2010 showed that high-energy cosmic rays don't interact with the atmosphere in the manner predicted by theory. The LHCf detectors, set up 140 metres either side of the ATLAS interaction point, are dedicated to the study of the secondary particles emitted at very small angles during proton-proton collisions in the LHC, with energies comparable to cosmic rays entering the earth's atmosphere at 2.5x1016 eV. The aim of the experiment is to r...

  13. Dosimetry of environmental radiations (cosmic ray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Keizo

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic ray is dominant as environmental radiation, though the experimental determination made on cosmic ray doses is few in Japan. The free air ionization intensity at sea level due to cosmic ray has been estimated in the Bay of Wakasa, Japan, at middle geomagnetic latitude (25 deg. N), in October 1977. The ionization chambers used were two air and one argon types. Where the responses to cosmic and terrestrial gamma rays were equal, the ionization intensity due to cosmic ray was obtained by subtracting the ionization intensity due to terrestrial gamma ray from the total ionization intensity. As the terrestrial gamma ray, (1) U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40 in seawater, (2) K-40 in the material of a wooden ship, and (3) Rn-222 and its daughter products in the atmosphere were considered. The result of free air ionization due to cosmic ray with the argon chamber was slightly smaller than those with the other two air chambers; however, both were in good agreement within standard errors. (JPN.)

  14. A demonstration device for cosmic rays telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon telescope, while the other one shows the key avalanche process of electronic ionization that effectively allows muon detection through a photomultiplier. Incoming cosmic rays are visualized in terms of laser beams, whose 3D trajectory is highlighted by turning on LEDs on two orthogonal matrices. Instead the avalanche ionization process is demonstrated through the avalanche falling off glass marbles on an inclined plane, finally turning on a LED. A pictured poster accompanying the demonstrator is as effective in assisting cosmic ray demonstration and its detection. The success of the demonstrator has been fully proven by the general public during a science festival, in which the corresponding project won the Honorable Mention in a dedicated competition.

  15. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-03-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles…Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  16. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both 'conventional' and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  17. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  18. Actinides in the Source of Cosmic Rays and the Present Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Higdon, J. C.; Kratz, K. -L.

    2003-01-01

    The abundances of the actinide elements in the cosmic rays can provide critical constraints on the major sites of their acceleration. Using recent calculations of the r-process yields in core collapse supernovae, we have determined the actinide abundances averaged over various assumed time intervals for their supernova generation and their cosmic-ray acceleration. Using standard Galactic chemical evolution models, we have also determined the expected actinide abundances in the present interstellar medium. From these two components, we have calculated the U/Th and other actinide abundances expected in the supernova-active cores of superbubbles, as a function of their ages and mean metallicity resulting from dilution with interstellar cloud debris. Then, using observations of the fractions of Galactic supernovae that occur in superbubbles and in the rest of the interstellar medium, we calculate the expected actinide abundances in cosmic rays accelerated by Galactic supernovae. We find that the current measurements of actinide/Pt-group and preliminary estimates of the UPuCm/Th ratio in cosmic rays are all consistent with the expected values if superbubble cores have mean metallicities of around 3 times solar. Such metallicities are quite comparable to the superbubble core metallicities inferred from other cosmic-ray observations. Future, more precise measurements of these ratios with experiments such as ECCO are needed to provide a better measure of the mean source metallicity sampled by the local Galactic cosmic rays. Measurements of the cosmic- ray actinide abundances have been favorably compared with the protosolar ratio, inferred from present solar system abundances, to infer that the cosmic rays are accelerated from the general interstellar medium. We suggest, however, that such an inference is not valid because the expected actinide abundances in the present interstellar medium are very different from the protosolar values, which sampled the interstellar medium

  19. The propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Large scale (approximately 15 pc) turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) causes the firehose and mirror instabilities to occur. These produce small scale (approximately 10 -7 pc) magnetic irregularities, which scatter cosmic rays. We use pulsar scintillation data, and a model of the origin of these scintillations, to construct a slab model of the turbulent ISM. Then we find the amplitudes and wavelengths of the magnetic irregularities that arise, and we calculate the coefficients for the diffusion of cosmic rays along the interstellar magnetic fields. We incorporate this diffusion into our model of the turbulent ISM, and show that it can account naturally for both the lifetime of low energy cosmic rays, and the variation of their mean pathlength with energy. Our model has no galactic halo, and contains no scattering by Alfven waves. (author)

  20. Cosmic-Ray Observations with HAWC30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 meters on the slope of Volc'an Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an extensive air-shower array comprising 300 optically-isolated water Cherenkov detectors. Each detector contains 200,000 liters of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. Since September 2012, 30 water Cherenkov detectors have been instrumented and operated in data acquisition. With 10 percent of the detector complete and six months of operation, the event statistics are already sufficient to perform detailed studies of cosmic rays observed at the site. We will report on cosmic-ray observations with HAWC30, in particular the detection and study of the shadow of the moon. From these observations, we infer the pointing accuracy of the detector and our angular resolution of the detector reconstruction.

  1. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  2. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray telescope. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers. 34 references

  3. COSMIC RAYS: From knee to ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the advent of TeV machines providing energies of 10 12 electronvolts, the highest particle energies by far are still provided by cosmic rays, where a sprinkling of particles from outer space go beyond 10 17 electronvolts, a hundred thousand times up on the highest laboratory levels. New results from the 'Fly's Eye' cosmic ray detector in Utah provide new hints on the energy spectrum of these particles. Included in the sample is an event at 3 x 10 20 eV, the highest energy interaction ever recorded

  4. The PAMELA experiment: a decade of Cosmic Ray Physics in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Sparvoli, R.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; Di Felice, V.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S. A.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A. A.; Malakhov, V. V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergè, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Simon, M.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2017-01-01

    The PAMELA detector was launched on June 15 th of 2006 on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite and during ten years of continuous data-taking it has observed very interesting features in cosmic rays, especially in the fluxes of protons, helium and electrons. Moreover, PAMELA measurements of cosmic antiproton and positron fluxes and positron-to-all-electron ratio have set strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter. Measurements of boron, carbon, lithium and beryllium (together with the isotopic fraction) have also shed new light on the elemental composition of the cosmic radiation. Search for signatures of more exotic processes (such as the ones involving Strange Quark Matter) has also been pursued. Furthermore, over the years the instrument has allowed a constant monitoring of the solar activity and a prolonged study of the solar modulation, improving the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms. PAMELA has also measured the radiation environment around the Earth, and detected for the first time the presence of an antiproton radiation belt surrounding our planet. In this highlight paper PAMELA main results will be reviewed.

  5. Cosmic Rays Report from the Structure of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Annila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum of cosmic rays follows a broken power law over twelve orders of magnitude. Since ubiquitous power laws are manifestations of the principle of least action, we interpret the spectrum accordingly. Our analysis complies with understanding that low-energy particles originate mostly from rapidly receding sources throughout the cosmos. The flux peaks about proton rest energy whereafter it decreases because fewer and fewer receding sources are energetic enough to provide particles with high enough velocities to compensate for the recessional velocities. Above 1015.6 eV the flux from the expanding Universe diminishes below the flux from the nearby nonexpanding part of the Universe. In this spectral feature, known as the “knee,” we relate to a distance of about 1.3 Mpc where the gravitational potential tallies the energy density of free space. At higher energies particles decelerate in a dissipative manner to attain thermodynamic balance with the vacuum. At about 1017.2 eV a distinct dissipative mechanism opens up for protons to slow down by electron-positron pair production. At about 1019.6 eV a more effective mechanism opens up via pion production. All in all, the universal principle discloses that the broad spectrum of cosmic rays probes the structure of space from cosmic distances down to microscopic details.

  6. Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2008-11-15

    This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma} {proportional_to} O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi TeV {gamma}-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects

  7. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quasi-periodicity. 1. Introduction. Cosmic ray studies are linked to many branches of physics and astrophysics. Cosmic ray experiments allow high-energy physics researchers to extend their interaction models to super-accelerator energies, lead-.

  8. Actinides and the sources of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, B.; Kratz, K.-L.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; Higdon, J. C.

    2004-02-01

    The abundances of the actinide elements in the cosmic rays can provide critical constraints on the major sites of their acceleration. Using recent calculations of the r-process yields in core-collapse supernovae (SNe), we have determined the actinide abundances averaged over various assumed time intervals for their supernovae generation and their cosmic-ray acceleration. Using standard Galactic chemical evolution models, we have also determined the expected actinide abundances in the present interstellar medium. From these two components, we have calculated the U/Th and other actinide abundances expected in the SN-active cores of superbubbles, as a function of their ages and mean metallicity. We calculate the expected actinide abundances in cosmic-rays accelerated by Galactic SNe. We find that the current measurements of actinide/Pt-group and preliminary estimates of the UPuCM/Th ratio in cosmic rays are all consistent with the expected values if superbubble cores have mean metallicities of around three times solar. Future measurements of the abundance ratios will help to solve these questions. First results of experiments performed on the MIR space station (ECCO) and with balloon flights (TIGER) are promising.

  9. Compact source origin of cosmic ray antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The flux of cosmic ray antiprotons with kinetic energies between /approximately/1 and 15 GeV is /approximately/5 times greater than the flux predicted on the basis of the leaky-box model. This excess is attributed to secondary antineutron production in compact sources. Because the antineutrons are not confined by the magnetic field of the compact source, they leave the interaction site, decay in interstellar space and account for the apparent excess cosmic ray antiproton flux. The escape and decay of neutrons produced in association with the antineutrons is a source of cosmic ray protons. Observations of the angular variation of the intensity and spectral shape of 100 MeV γ-rays produced by neutron-decay protons in the reaction p + p → π 0 → 2γ could reveal compact-source cosmic ray production sites. COS-B observations of spectral hardening near point sources, and future high-resolution observations of galactic point sources by Gamma-1 and the Egret telescope onboard the Gamma Ray Observatory may provide supporting evidence for this model. 12 refs., 2 figs

  10. Height dependence of secondary cosmic ray variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.V.; Dorman, L.I.; Sirotina, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    Altitude dependences of coupling coefficients and secondary cosmic ray variations are investigated. The partial and variational barometric coefficients are calculated according to data on coupling coefficients of a neutron component. Application of data on altitude dependence of variations for calculation of barometric coefficient changes and for determination of a rigidity primary variation spectrum is discussed

  11. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km...

  12. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  13. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  14. A database of charged cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, D.; Melot, F.; Taillet, R.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: This paper gives a description of a new online database and associated online tools (data selection, data export, plots, etc.) for charged cosmic-ray measurements. The experimental setups (type, flight dates, techniques) from which the data originate are included in the database, along with the references to all relevant publications. Methods: The database relies on the MySQL5 engine. The web pages and queries are based on PHP, AJAX and the jquery, jquery.cluetip, jquery-ui, and table-sorter third-party libraries. Results: In this first release, we restrict ourselves to Galactic cosmic rays with Z ≤ 30 and a kinetic energy per nucleon up to a few tens of TeV/n. This corresponds to more than 200 different sub-experiments (i.e., different experiments, or data from the same experiment flying at different times) in as many publications. Conclusions: We set up a cosmic-ray database (CRDB) and provide tools to sort and visualise the data. New data can be submitted, providing the community with a collaborative tool to archive past and future cosmic-ray measurements. http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb; Contact: crdatabase@lpsc.in2p3.fr

  15. Structure formation cosmic rays: Identifying observational constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shocks that arise from baryonic in-fall and merger events during the structure formation are believed to be a source of cosmic rays. These "structure formation cosmic rays" (SFCRs would essentially be primordial in composition, namely, mostly made of protons and alpha particles. However, very little is known about this population of cosmic rays. One way to test the level of its presence is to look at the products of hadronic reactions between SFCRs and the ISM. A perfect probe of these reactions would be Li. The rare isotope Li is produced only by cosmic rays, dominantly in αα → 6Li fusion reactions with the ISM helium. Consequently, this nuclide provides a unique diagnostic of the history of cosmic rays. Exactly because of this unique property is Li affected most by the presence of an additional cosmic ray population. In turn, this could have profound consequences for the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis: cosmic rays created during cosmic structure formation would lead to pre-Galactic Li production, which would act as a "contaminant" to the primordial 7Li content of metalpoor halo stars. Given the already existing problem of establishing the concordance between Li observed in halo stars and primordial 7Li as predicted by the WMAP, it is crucial to set limits to the level of this "contamination". However, the history of SFCRs is not very well known. Thus we propose a few model-independent ways of testing the SFCR species and their history, as well as the existing lithium problem: 1 we establish the connection between gamma-ray and Li production, which enables us to place constraints on the SFCR-made lithium by using the observed Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGRB; 2 we propose a new site for testing the primordial and SFCR-made lithium, namely, low-metalicity High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs, which retain the pre-Galactic composition without any significant depletion. Although using one method alone may not give us strong constraints, using them in

  16. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...

  17. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  18. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  19. Proceedings of the 21. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, P.; Kudela, K.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-09-01

    Scientific symposium deals with problems of cosmic ray. The Symposium included the following sessions: (1): Relationship of cosmic rays to the environment; (2) Energetic particles and the magnetosphere of the Earth; (3) Energetic particles in the heliosphere; (4) Solar-terrestrial effects on different time scales; (5) Cosmic rays below the knee; (6) Cosmic rays above the knee (7) High energy interactions; (8) GeV and TeV gamma ray astronomy; (9) European projects related to cosmic rays; Future perspectives. Proceedings contains 122 papers dealing with the scope of INIS.

  20. Investigation of soft component in cosmic ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2017-07-01

    Cosmic ray detection is a research area which finds various applications in tomographic imaging of large size objects. In such applications, the background sources which contaminate cosmic muon signal require a good understanding of the creation processes, as well as reliable simulation frameworks with high predictive power are needed. One of the main background source is the ;soft component;, that is electrons and positrons. In this paper a simulation framework based on GEANT4 has been established to pin down the key features of the soft component. We have found that the electron and positron flux shows a remarkable invariance against various model parameters including the muon emission altitude or primary particle energy distribution. The correlation between simultaneously arriving particles have been quantitatively investigated, demonstrating that electrons and positrons tend to arrive within a close distance and with low relative angle. This feature, which is highly relevant for counting detectors, has been experimentally verified under open sky and at shallow depth underground. The simulation results have been compared to existing other measurements as well as other simulation programs.

  1. Cosmic-ray muon spin rotation in Fe and industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Tsukamoto, M.; Kubota, S.; Hirai, T.; Manabe, A.; Tomisawa, Y.; Pant, A. D.; Torikai, E.

    2014-12-01

    Spin polarized positive muons contained in the cosmic-rays were stopped in the Fe plates providing a characteristic spin rotation signal of decay positrons. This signal along with the decay lifetime of the negative muons can be used as a non-invasive radiographic measurement method for a characterization of the inner structure of the aged architectures. Principle, results of test experiments and future prospects are described.

  2. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villasenor, Luis

    2006-01-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain

  3. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  4. The glacial cycles and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Müller, R A

    2004-01-01

    The cause of the glacial cycles remains a mystery. The origin is widely accepted to be astronomical since paleoclimatic archives contain strong spectral components that match the frequencies of Earth's orbital modulation. Milankovitch insolation theory contains similar frequencies and has become established as the standard model of the glacial cycles. However, high precision paleoclimatic data have revealed serious discrepancies with the Milankovitch model that fundamentally challenge its validity and re-open the question of what causes the glacial cycles. We propose here that the ice ages are initially driven not by insolation cycles but by cosmic ray changes, probably through their effect on clouds. This conclusion is based on a wide range of evidence, including results presented here on speleothem growth in caves in Austria and Oman, and on a record of cosmic ray flux over the past 220 kyr obtained from the 10Be composition of deep-ocean sediments.

  5. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T; Wolfendale, A W

    2013-01-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century. (letter)

  6. Cosmic Ray Mass Measurements with LOFAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitink Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique that combines a two-dimensional fit of the radio profile to CoREAS simulations and a one-dimensional fit of the particle density distribution. For high-quality detections, the statistical uncertainty on Xmax is smaller than 20 g/cm2. We present results of cosmic-ray mass analysis in the energy regime of 1017 - 1017.5 eV. This range is of particular interest as it may harbor the transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  7. Solar cosmic rays fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty

    2015-01-01

    The book summarizes the results of solar cosmic ray (SCR) investigations since 1942. The present monograph, unlike the reviews published earlier, treats the problem in self-contained form, in all its associations—from fundamental astrophysical aspects to geophysical, aeronautical and cosmonautical applications. It includes a large amount of new data, accumulated during the last several decades of space research. As a result of the "information burst" in space physics, there are a lot of new interesting theoretical concepts, models and ideas that deserve attention. The author gives an extensive bibliography, which covers non-partially the main achievements and failures in this field. The book will be helpful for a wide audience of space physicists and it will be relevant to graduate and postgraduate courses. The book will serve as a reference work for researchers and students in solar physics and astrophysical plasma physics, as well as in cosmic rays physics, astroparticle physics, space science, solar-terr...

  8. Cosmic Ray physics with ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacovacci, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Napoli ”Federico II” and INFN Napoli, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the Yang-BaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R.China, 4300 m a.s.l.). It exploits the full coverage and the high altitude to detect air showers with an energy threshold as low as a few hundred GeV. The detector is made of a single layer of RPCs operated in streamer mode, fully instrumenting a central carpet of about 5800 m{sup 2}. A guard ring extends the partially instrumented area to about 11,000 m{sup 2}. The main results so far achieved on Cosmic Ray physics are reported.

  9. The transport equation for cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    The transport equation for charged particles in a moving irregular magnetic field is derived in the dipole approximation. The contribution of Parker's spiral field for the transport equation is shown to be more than just a drift velocity or a divergence of an antisymmetric diffusion tensor. Without solving the transport equations these results are shown to give better agreement with experimental densities of cosmic rays in the interplanetary space [af

  10. Search for cosmic-ray antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, G.F.; Buffington, A.; Orth, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    In a sample of 1.5times10 4 helium and 4.0times10 4 higher-charged nuclei, obtained with balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometers, we find the ratio of antinuclei to nuclei in the cosmic rays to be less than 8times10 -5 for rigidities (momentum/charge) between 4 and 33 GV/c and less than 10 -2 between 33 and 100 GV/c, at the 95% confidence level. (auth)

  11. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  12. Introduction to high energy cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Grillo, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    After a few general qualitative considerations about the characteristics of primary cosmic rays arriving at the top of atmosphere, the fundamental concepts on their propagation and acceleration are discussed. The experimental situation, both from direct and indirect experiments, is presented, followed by a discussion on some concepts on hadronic interactions at high energy which are applied in a simplified and analytical model to the production of secondary particles in atmosphere

  13. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  14. Cosmic ray propagation with CRPropa 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, R Alves; Evoli, C; Sigl, G; Van Vliet, A; Erdmann, M; Kuempel, D; Mueller, G; Walz, D; Kampert, K-H; Winchen, T

    2015-01-01

    Solving the question of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) requires the development of detailed simulation tools in order to interpret the experimental data and draw conclusions on the UHECR universe. CRPropa is a public Monte Carlo code for the galactic and extragalactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei above ∼ 10 17 eV, as well as their photon and neutrino secondaries. In this contribution the new algorithms and features of CRPropa 3, the next major release, are presented. CRPropa 3 introduces time-dependent scenarios to include cosmic evolution in the presence of cosmic ray deflections in magnetic fields. The usage of high resolution magnetic fields is facilitated by shared memory parallelism, modulated fields and fields with heterogeneous resolution. Galactic propagation is enabled through the implementation of galactic magnetic field models, as well as an efficient forward propagation technique through transformation matrices. To make use of the large Python ecosystem in astrophysics CRPropa 3 can be steered and extended in Python. (paper)

  15. Cosmic ray propagation with CRPropa 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Batista, R.; Erdmann, M.; Evoli, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kuempel, D.; Mueller, G.; Sigl, G.; Van Vliet, A.; Walz, D.; Winchen, T.

    2015-05-01

    Solving the question of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) requires the development of detailed simulation tools in order to interpret the experimental data and draw conclusions on the UHECR universe. CRPropa is a public Monte Carlo code for the galactic and extragalactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei above ∼ 1017 eV, as well as their photon and neutrino secondaries. In this contribution the new algorithms and features of CRPropa 3, the next major release, are presented. CRPropa 3 introduces time-dependent scenarios to include cosmic evolution in the presence of cosmic ray deflections in magnetic fields. The usage of high resolution magnetic fields is facilitated by shared memory parallelism, modulated fields and fields with heterogeneous resolution. Galactic propagation is enabled through the implementation of galactic magnetic field models, as well as an efficient forward propagation technique through transformation matrices. To make use of the large Python ecosystem in astrophysics CRPropa 3 can be steered and extended in Python.

  16. Dark matter and galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillet, R.

    2010-12-01

    Dark matter is one of the major problems encountered by modern cosmology and astrophysics, resisting the efforts of both theoreticians and experimentalists. The problem itself is easy to state: many indirect astrophysical measurements indicate that the mass contained in the Universe seems to be dominated by a new type of matter which has never been directly seen yet, this is why it is called dark matter. This hypothesis of dark matter being made of new particles is of great interest for particle physicists, whose theories provide many candidates: dark matter is one of the major topics of astro-particle physics. This work focuses on searching dark matter in the form of new particles, more precisely to indirect detection, i.e. the search of particles produced by dark matter annihilation rather than dark matter particles themselves. In this framework, I will present the studies I have been doing in the field of cosmic rays physics (particularly cosmic ray sources), in several collaborations. In particular, the study of the antimatter component of cosmic rays can give relevant information about dark matter. The last chapter is dedicated to my teaching activities

  17. Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory: a global cosmic ray detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchov, O.; Homola, P.; Dhital, N.; Bratek, Ł.; Poznański, P.; Wibig, T.; Zamora-Saa, J.; Almeida Cheminant, K.; Alvarez Castillo, D.; Góra, D.; Jagoda, P.; Jałocha, J.; Jarvis, J. F.; Kasztelan, M.; Kopański, K.; Krupiński, M.; Michałek, M.; Nazari, V.; Smelcerz, K.; Smolek, K.; Stasielak, J.; Sułek, M.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is the detection and analysis of extended cosmic ray phenomena, so-called super-preshowers (SPS), using existing as well as new infrastructure (cosmic-ray observatories, educational detectors, single detectors etc.). The search for ensembles of cosmic ray events initiated by SPS is yet an untouched ground, in contrast to the current state-of-the-art analysis, which is focused on the detection of single cosmic ray events. Theoretical explanation of SPS could be given either within classical (e.g., photon-photon interaction) or exotic (e.g., Super Heavy Dark Matter decay or annihilation) scenarios, thus detection of SPS would provide a better understanding of particle physics, high energy astrophysics and cosmology. The ensembles of cosmic rays can be classified based on the spatial and temporal extent of particles constituting the ensemble. Some classes of SPS are predicted to have huge spatial distribution, a unique signature detectable only with a facility of the global size. Since development and commissioning of a completely new facility with such requirements is economically unwarranted and time-consuming, the global analysis goals are achievable when all types of existing detectors are merged into a worldwide network. The idea to use the instruments in operation is based on a novel trigger algorithm: in parallel to looking for neighbour surface detectors receiving the signal simultaneously, one should also look for spatially isolated stations clustered in a small time window. On the other hand, CREDO strategy is also aimed at an active engagement of a large number of participants, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g., smartphones), capable of detecting cosmic rays. It will help not only in expanding the geographical spread of CREDO, but also in managing a large manpower necessary for a more efficient crowd-sourced pattern recognition scheme to

  18. Active galactic nuclei, neutrinos, and interacting cosmic rays in NGC 253 and NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Everett, John E., E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in γ-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic-ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming a constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and γ-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fit the observed γ-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic-ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed γ-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of γ-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

  19. Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticlc, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacoca, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Diaz; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoeandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlager, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronell, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min energy threshold, 6 x 10(19) eV. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1

  20. Minimal model for extragalactic cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelrieß, M.; Kalashev, O.; Ostapchenko, S.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to explain in a unified way the experimental data on ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos, using a single source class and obeying limits on the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background. If UHECRs only interact hadronically with gas around their sources, the resulting diffuse cosmic-ray (CR) flux can be matched well to the observed one, providing at the same time large neutrino fluxes. Since the required fraction of heavy nuclei is, however, rather large, the maxima of air showers in the Earth's atmosphere induced by UHECRs with energies E ≳3 ×1018 eV would be too high. Therefore, additional photohadronic interactions of UHECRs close to the accelerator have to be present, in order to modify the nuclear composition of CRs in a relatively narrow energy interval. We thus include both photon and gas backgrounds and combine the resulting CR spectra with the high-energy part of the Galactic CR fluxes predicted by the escape model. As result, we find a good description of experimental data on the total CR flux, the mean shower maximum depth Xmax and its width r m s (Xmax) in the whole energy range above E ≃1017 eV . The predicted high-energy neutrino flux matches IceCube measurements, while the contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma ray background is of order 30%.

  1. Empirical model for the Earth's cosmic ray shadow at 400 KM: prohibited cosmic ray access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, J.E.; Smart, D.F.; Shea, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of constructing a unit sphere of access that describes the cosmic radiation allowed to an Earth-orbiting spacecraft is discussed. It is found that it is possible to model the occluded portion of the cosmic ray sphere of access as a circular projection with a diameter bounded by the satellite-Earth horizon. Maintaining tangency at the eastern edge of the spacecraft-Earth horizon, this optically occluded area is projected downward by an angle beta which is a function of the magnetic field inclination and cosmic ray arrival direction. This projected plane, corresponding to the forbidden area of cosmic ray access, is bounded by the spacecraft-Earth horizon in easterly directions, and is rotated around the vertical axis by an angle alpha from the eastern direction, where the angle alpha is a function of the offset dipole latitude of the spacecraft

  2. The nature of the cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and supernova remnant contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulares, A.

    1989-01-01

    The observed cosmic-ray (CR) electron spectrum and position fraction e+/(e- + e+) spectrum above 1 GeV are examined, and it is found that a deconvolution of the total spectrum into three components is necessary because of the increase of e+/(e- + e+) above 5 GeV: (1) secondary electrons e+ or e- from the interaction of the CR protons with the interstellar gas provide the total e+ for energies less than 3 GeV, but for energies above 3 GeV these electrons cannot account for the observed positron flux; (2) Electrons (e-) generally thought to derive from supernova remnants (SNRs), probably via shock acceleration, dominate the total spectrum for E of 10 GeV or less but definitely decline relative to total at higher energies; (3) Another (e- + e+) source dominates the total spectrum at E of 40 GeV or greater. The derived spectrum of (2) is consistent in its energy cutoff (though gradual) with that deduced from the observed synchrotron emission of some old SNRs and follows naturally from shock acceleration with synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering losses taken into account. As for (3), nearby pulsars may be important contributors. 66 refs

  3. PAMELA: A Satellite Experiment for Antiparticles Measurement in Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongi, M.; Adriani, O.; Ambriola, M.; Bakaldin, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Basili, A.; Bazilevskaja, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bencardino, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongiorno, L.; Bonvicini, V.; Boscherini, M.; Cafagna, F. S.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C. N.; De Pascale, M. P.; Furano, G.; Galper, A. M.; Giglietto, N.; Grigorjeva, A.; Koldashov, S. V.; Korotkov, M. G.; Krut'kov, S. Y.; Lund, J.; Lundquist, J.; Menicucci, A.; Menn, W.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Minori, M.; Mirizzi, N.; Mitchell, J. W.; Mocchiutti, E.; Morselli, A.; Mukhametshin, R.; Orsi, S.; Osteria, G.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Romita, M.; Rossi, G.; Russo, S.; Schiavon, P.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Spinelli, P.; Stochaj, S. J.; Stozhkov, Y.; Straulino, S.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Taccetti, F.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Wischnewski, R.; Yurkin, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2004-06-01

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that will study the antiproton and positron fluxes in cosmic rays in a wide range of energy (from 80 MeV up to 190 GeV for antiprotons and from 50 MeV up to 270 GeV for positrons) and with high statistics, and that will measure the antihelium/helium ratio with a sensitivity of the order of 10/sup -8/. The detector will fly on-board a polar orbiting Resurs DK1 satellite, which will be launched into space by a Soyuz rocket in 2004 from Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, for a 3-year-long mission. Particle identification and energy measurements are performed in the PAMELA apparatus using the following subdetectors: a magnetic spectrometer made up of a permanent magnet equipped with double-sided microstrip silicon detectors, an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter composed of layers of tungsten absorber and silicon detectors planes, a transition radiation detector made of straw tubes interleaved with carbon fiber radiators, a plastic scintillator time-of-flight and trigger system, a set of anticounter plastic scintillator detectors, and a neutron detector. The features of the detectors and the main results obtained in beam test sessions are presented.

  4. The basis for cosmic ray feedback: Written on the wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2017-05-01

    Star formation and supermassive black hole growth in galaxies appear to be self-limiting. The mechanisms for self-regulation are known as feedback. Cosmic rays, the relativistic particle component of interstellar and intergalactic plasma, are among the agents of feedback. Because cosmic rays are virtually collisionless in the plasma environments of interest, their interaction with the ambient medium is primarily mediated by large scale magnetic fields and kinetic scale plasma waves. Because kinetic scales are much smaller than global scales, this interaction is most conveniently described by fluid models. In this paper, I discuss the kinetic theory and the classical theory of cosmic ray hydrodynamics (CCRH) which follows from assuming cosmic rays interact only with self-excited waves. I generalize CCRH to generalized cosmic ray hydrodynamics, which accommodates interactions with extrinsic turbulence, present examples of cosmic ray feedback, and assess where progress is needed.

  5. The PAMELA Mission: Heralding a new era in precision cosmic ray physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G.C. [University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Physics, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bruno, A. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M. [INFN, Sezione di Rome “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); and others

    2014-11-30

    On the 15th of June 2006, the PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) satellite-borne experiment was launched onboard the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite by a Soyuz rocket from the Baikonur space centre. The satellite was placed in a quasi-polar 70°inclination orbit at an altitude varying between 350 km and 600 km. New results on the antiparticle component of the cosmic radiation were obtained. The positron energy spectrum and positron fraction were measured from 400 MeV up to 200 GeV revealing a positron excess over the predictions of commonly used propagation models. This can be interpreted either as evidence that the propagation models should be revised or in terms of dark matter annihilation or a pulsar contribution. The antiproton spectrum was measured over the energy range from 60 MeV to 350 GeV. The antiproton spectrum is consistent with secondary production and significantly constrains dark matter models. The energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei were measured up to 1.2 TV. The spectral shapes of these two species are different and cannot be described well by a single power law. For the first time the electron spectrum was measured up to 600 GeV complementing the information obtained from the positron data. Nuclear and isotopic composition was obtained with unprecedented precision. The variation of the low energy proton, electron and positron energy spectra was measured from July 2006 until December 2009 accurately sampling the unusual conditions of the most recent solar minimum activity period (2006–2009). Low energy particle spectra were accurately measured also for various solar events that occurred during the PAMELA mission. The Earth’s magnetosphere was studied measuring the particle radiation in different regions of the magnetosphere. Energy spectra and composition of sub-cutoff and trapped particles were obtained. For the first time a belt of trapped antiprotons was detected in the South Atlantic

  6. Review of the Theoretical and Experimental Status of Dark Matter Identification with Cosmic-Ray Antideuterons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or gamma-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Therefore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  7. Cosmic ray access at polar heliographic latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Based on a modified WKB analysis of the interplanetary irregularity spectra, a discussion of the radial dependence of the radial cosmic ray diffusion coefficient at polar heliographic latitudes is presented. At l-AU radial distance the parameters are taken to equal those observed in the ecliptic. In the sense of a present best estimate it is argued that relativistic nuclei should have significantly easier access to 1 AU at the pole than in the ecliptic. The reverse may very well be true for the direct access of very low rigidity particles

  8. Neutron monitor prototype for measurement of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Doh Yun; Kang, Jeong Soo; Kang, Byoung Hwi; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic rays (both galactic and solar) play important role in the interplanetary and extraterrestrial space. At the same time they can affect the human activity. A modern and interesting topic is related to space weather studies. The space weather refers to the dynamic, variable conditions on the Sun, solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere that can diminish the performance and reliability of spacecraft and groundbased systems. Therefore study of cosmic rays, especially the variation of cosmic ray flux is very important

  9. Celestial Messengers Cosmic Rays The Story of a Scientific Adventure

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The book describes from a historical point of view how cosmic rays were discovered. The book describes the research in cosmic rays. The main focus is on how the knowledge was gained, describing the main experiments and the conclusions drawn. Biographical sketches of main researchers are provided. Cosmic rays have an official date of discovery which is linked to the famous balloon flights of the Austrian physicist Hess in 1912. The year 2012 can therefore be considered the centenary of the discovery.

  10. Cosmic ray charged component variations at sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charakhchyan, T. N.; Okhlopkov, V. P.; Krasotkin, A. F.; Svirzhevskij, N. S.; Charakhchyan, L. A.

    Results of measuring the cosmic ray charged component using devices installed at the Olen'ya station (the Murmansk region), in Dolgoprudny town (the Moscow region), and in Mirny (Antarctic continent) are investigated. The analysis has shown that apart from solar origin and seasonal variations there are annual variations of cosmic ray charged component. By results of comparing annual variations of the charged component on the Earth surface to data of neutron and muon components a conclusion is made that annual variations of the charge component on the Earth surface appear to be a manifestation of cosmic ray zonal modulation and are not connected with variations of galactic cosmic rays.

  11. Isotopic composition of cosmic-ray boron and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombel, K. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    New measurements of the cosmic-ray boron and nitrogen isotopes at earth and of the elemental abundances of boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are presented. A region of mutually allowed values for the cosmic-ray nitrogen source ratios is determined, and the cosmic-ray escape mean free path is determined as a function of energy using a leaky box model for cosmic-ray propagation in the Galaxy. Relative to O-16, a N-15 source abundance consistent with solar system composition and a N-14 source abundance which is a factor of about three underabundant relative to the solar value are found.

  12. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Ron E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chapline, George F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Andrew M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nakae, Les F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pawelczak, Iwona A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheets, Steven A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  13. Dark matter indirect detection with charged cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence for the existence of Dark Matter (DM), in the form of an unknown particle filling the galactic halos, originates from many observations in astrophysics and cosmology: its gravitational effects are apparent on galactic rotations, in galaxy clusters and in shaping the large scale structure of the Universe. On the other hand, a non-gravitational manifestation of its presence is yet to be unveiled. One of the most promising techniques is the one of indirect detection, aimed at identifying excesses in cosmic ray fluxes which could possibly be produced by DM annihilations or decays in the Milky Way halo. The current experimental efforts mainly focus in the GeV to TeV energy range, which is also where signals from WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) are expected. Focussing on charged cosmic rays, in particular antiprotons, electrons and positrons, as well as their secondary emissions, an analysis of current and foreseen cosmic ray measurements and improvements on astrophysical models are presented. Antiproton data from PAMELA imposes constraints on annihilating and decaying DM which are similar to (or even slightly stronger than) the most stringent bounds from gamma ray experiments, even when kinetic energies below 10 GeV are discarded. However, choosing different sets of astrophysical parameters, in the form of propagation models and halo profiles, allows the constraints to span over one or two orders of magnitude. In order to exploit fully the power of antiprotons to constrain or discover DM, effects which were previously perceived as sub-leading turn out to be relevant especially for the analysis of the newly released AMS-02 data. In fact, including energy losses, diffusive re-acceleration and solar modulation can somewhat modify the current bounds, even at large DM masses. A wrong interpretation of the data may arise if they are not taken into account. Finally, using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02

  14. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos; Rayons cosmiques et rayonnement du cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, E

    2005-12-01

    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  15. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (total significance...... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...

  16. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    in physical and micro-physical cloud parameters to FDs. The test is subsequently applied to one ground based and three satellite based datasets. Responses (> 95%) to FDs are found in the following parameters of the analyzed datasets. AERONET: Ångström exponent (cloud condensation nuclei changes), SSM....../I: liquid water content, ISCCP: total, high and middle, IR detected clouds over the oceans, MODIS: cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...

  17. Origin and propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarsky, Catherine J.; Ormes, Jonathan F.

    1987-01-01

    The study of systematic trends in elemental abundances is important for unfolding the nuclear and/or atomic effects that should govern the shaping of source abundances and in constraining the parameters of cosmic ray acceleration models. In principle, much can be learned about the large-scale distributions of cosmic rays in the galaxy from all-sky gamma ray surveys such as COS-B and SAS-2. Because of the uncertainties in the matter distribution which come from the inability to measure the abundance of molecular hydrogen, the results are somewhat controversial. The leaky-box model accounts for a surprising amount of the data on heavy nuclei. However, a growing body of data indicates that the simple picture may have to be abandoned in favor of more complex models which contain additional parameters. Future experiments on the Spacelab and space station will hopefully be made of the spectra of individual nuclei at high energy. Antiprotons must be studied in the background free environment above the atmosphere with much higher reliability and presion to obtain spectral information.

  18. Cosmic rays and new accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraki, Y.

    The cross-section of sigma(anti-D,D) increases with energy. The heavy vector boson production cross-section deviates from the naive law 1/M 3 F(s/M 2 ) at very high energy. Comparison with dsigma/dP(T)/(had) and Drell-Yan cross-section dsigma/(dM/2)/(d-y) at very high energy will provide evidence about the existence of the colour quantum number. Centauro will soon be checked by a cosmic-ray experiment. The detail dynamics of such a hadron rich event will be extensively studied at anti-pp colliders. The investigation of the Feynman scaling at the anti-pp collider for hadrons brings a very important knowledge on astrophysics. The 2μ, 3μ, 4μ and multi muon bundle at the anti-pp colliders is extremely interesting. A cosmic ray muon bundle event suggests the successive decay of a anti-BB pair. The total cross-section for (anti-BB) is estimated as 500μb at 150 TeV

  19. Simulation of cosmic ray interaction at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.

    1996-01-01

    Accelerator experiments provide the basis for the development of physical models describing the production of cosmogenic nuclides by cosmic ray particles. Here, experiments are presented by which the irradiation of stony and iron meteoroids in space by galactic cosmic ray protons was successfully simulated; two thick spherical targets made of gabbro and of steel with radii of 25 and 10 cm, respectively, were isotropically irradiated with 1.6 GeV protons at LNS. The artificial meteoroids contained large numbers of individual small targets of up to 27 elements in which the depth-dependent production of radioactive and stable nuclides was analyzed by model calculations based on depth-dependent spectra of primary and secondary particles calculated by the HERMES code system and on experimental and theoretical thin-target cross sections. Due to the results of the two simulation experiments at LNS a consistent modelling of cosmogenic nuclide production rates in stony and iron meteorites was achieved for the first time which allows to interpret the observed abundances of cosmogenic nuclides in stony and iron meteorites with respect to their exposure histories and to describe the history of the cosmic radiation itself. (author)

  20. Cu Hybrid 4 Channel Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Torres, F. J.; Hernández Morquecho, M. A.; Arceo, L.; Félix, J.

    2017-10-01

    There are, in the universe, several sources that produce very energetic cosmic rays that interact with the Earth´s atmosphere and create new low energy particles. To detect them there are different methods, according to the interaction with a medium such as the ionization of a material and Cerenkov radiation, among others. In this work a hybrid cosmic ray detector of 4 channels was designed, built and tested at the Laboratorio de Partículas Elementales of the Universidad de Guanajuato. A Copper bar was used as detection material, both smaller area faces have an ionization and a Cerenkov radiation detection channel. To detect the Cerenkov radiation, Hamamatsu silicon photodiodes were used, and for the ionization channels an RC circuit was developed to measure the signal. The ionization channels were tested simultaneously, observing the analogic signal on an oscilloscope. The RC circuit and discriminator were designed to be on the same board; with the discriminator we can digitize the analogic signal. Details of the design, construction and testing of the ionization channel are presented.

  1. Tracking performance with cosmic rays in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerati, G B

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Tracker is the biggest all-silicon detector in the world and is designed to be extremely efficient and accurate even in a very hostile environment such as that close to the CMS collision point. It consists of an inner pixel detector, made of three barrel layers (48M pixels) and four forward disks (16M pixels), and an outer micro-strip detector, divided in two barrel sub-detectors, TIB and TOB, and two endcap sub-detectors, TID and TEC, for a total of 9.6M strips. The commissioning of the CMS Tracker detector has been initially carried out at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN (TIF), where cosmic ray data were collected for the strip detector only, and is still ongoing at the CMS site (LHC Point 5). Here the Strip and Pixel detectors have been installed in the experiment and are taking part to the cosmic global-runs. After an overview of the tracking algorithms for cosmic-ray data reconstruction, the resulting tracking performance on cosmic data both at TIF and at P5 are presented. The excellent ...

  2. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni, muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS. Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  3. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni), muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS) simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS). Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  4. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  5. A Shifting Shield Provides Protection Against Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The Sun plays an important role in protecting us from cosmic rays, energetic particles that pelt us from outside our solar system. But can we predict when and how it will provide the most protection, and use this to minimize the damage to both pilotedand roboticspace missions?The Challenge of Cosmic RaysSpacecraft outside of Earths atmosphere and magnetic field are at risk of damage from cosmic rays. [ESA]Galactic cosmic rays are high-energy, charged particles that originate from astrophysical processes like supernovae or even distant active galactic nuclei outside of our solar system.One reason to care about the cosmic rays arriving near Earth is because these particles can provide a significant challenge for space missions traveling above Earths protective atmosphere and magnetic field. Since impacts from cosmic rays can damage human DNA, this risk poses a major barrier to plans for interplanetary travel by crewed spacecraft. And roboticmissions arent safe either: cosmic rays can flip bits, wreaking havoc on spacecraft electronics as well.The magnetic field carried by the solar wind provides a protective shield, deflecting galactic cosmic rays from our solar system. [Walt Feimer/NASA GSFCs Conceptual Image Lab]Shielded by the SunConveniently, we do have some broader protection against galactic cosmic rays: a built-in shield provided by the Sun. The interplanetary magnetic field, which is embedded in the solar wind, deflects low-energy cosmic rays from us at the outer reaches of our solar system, decreasing the flux of these cosmic rays that reach us at Earth.This shield, however, isnt stationary; instead, it moves and changes as the strength and direction of the solar wind moves and changes. This results in a much lower cosmic-ray flux at Earth when solar activity is high i.e., at the peak of the 11-year solar cycle than when solar activity is low. This visible change in local cosmic-ray flux with solar activity is known as solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux

  6. Irradiated ISM : Discriminating between cosmic rays and X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Israel, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    The interstellar medium ( ISM) at the centers of active galaxies is exposed to a combination of cosmic-ray, far-ultraviolet (FUV), and X-ray radiation. We apply photodissociation region (PDR) models to this ISM with both "normal" and highly elevated (5 x 10(-15) s(-1)) cosmic- ray (CR) rates and

  7. Using the information on cosmic rays to predict influenza epidemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.D.

    1985-01-01

    A correlation between the incidence of influenza pandemics and increased cosmic ray activity is made. A correlation is also made between the occurrence of these pandemics and the appearance of bright novae, e.g., Nova Eta Car. Four indices based on increased cosmic ray activity and novae are proposed to predict future influenza pandemics and viral antigenic shifts

  8. Energy distribution of cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmic rays cause significant damage to the electronic equipments of the aircrafts. In this paper, we have investigated the accumulation of the deposited energy of cosmic rays on the Earth's atmosphere, especially in the aircraft area. In fact, if a high-energy neutron or proton interacts with a nanodevice having only a few ...

  9. Energy distribution of cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... Abstract. Cosmic rays cause significant damage to the electronic equipments of the aircrafts. In this paper, we have investigated the accumulation of the deposited energy of cosmic rays on the Earth's atmosphere, especially in the aircraft area. In fact, if a high-energy neutron or proton interacts with a ...

  10. Markov Stochastic Technique to Determine Galactic Cosmic Ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new numerical model of particle propagation in the Galaxy has been developed, which allows the study of cosmic-ray production and propagation in 2D. The model has been used to solve cosmic ray diffusive transport equation with a complete network of nuclear interactions using the time backward Markov stochastic ...

  11. Cosmic-ray electrons in the closed-galaxy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Stephens, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    We have examined the consequences of the ''closed galaxy'' cosmic-ray confinement model of Rasmussen and Peters with regard to the electron component of cosmic rays. It is found that the predictions of this model are inconsistent with the observed intensity and charge composition of electrons. The model is also inconsistent with the galactic radio emission

  12. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate

  13. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  14. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar disturbances modulate primary cosmic rays on different time scales. ... (20 × 20 cm2) MultiWire Chamber (MWC) telescope to study cosmic ray variations and investigate their influence on various atmospheric and environmental processes. ... The influence of both atmospheric pressure and temperature was studied.

  15. Cosmic Rays in Magnetospheres of the Earth and other Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2009-01-01

    This monograph describes the behaviour of cosmic rays in the magnetosphere of the Earth and of some other planets. Recently this has become an important topic both theoretically, because it is closely connected with the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, and practically, since cosmic rays determine a significant part of space weather effects on satellites and aircraft. The book contains eight chapters, dealing with – The history of the discovery of geomagnetic effects caused by cosmic rays and their importance for the determination of the nature of cosmic rays or gamma rays – The first explanations of geomagnetic effects within the framework of the dipole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field – Trajectory computations of cutoff rigidities, transmittance functions, asymptotic directions, and acceptance cones in the real geomagnetic field taking into account higher harmonics – Cosmic ray latitude-longitude surveys on ships, trains, tracks, planes, balloons and satellites for determining the...

  16. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  17. Cosmic Ray Nuclei in the Fermi-LAT ACD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David; Hays, E. A.; Brandt, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) serves to identify charged particles, which cross the LAT at a rate orders of magnitude higher than that of the gamma-ray signal. We have developed a method that uses cosmic-ray nuclei, Z > 3, as a calibration source to improve charge resolution of the light deposit measurement in the ACD at high light levels. Improving the charge resolution of the ACD gives the LAT an additional tool for cosmic-ray nuclei charge discrimination and therefore enhances the LAT's capability for analysis of cosmic-ray nuclei. In this analysis, we are able to distinguish eight cosmic-ray nuclei: boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon and iron in the LAT ACD's data. We present the results of our method, and demonstrate improved charge resolution for cosmic-ray nuclei in the ACD.

  18. Cosmic-ray exposure records and origins of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The cosmic-ray records of meteorites can be used to infer much about their origins and recent histories. Some meteorites had simple cosmic-ray exposure histories, while others had complex exposure histories with their cosmogenic products made both before and after a collision in space. The methods used to interpret meteorites' cosmic-ray records, especially identifying simple or complex exposure histories, often are inadequate. Besides spallogenic radionuclides and stable nuclides, measurements of products that have location-sensitive production rates, such as the tracks of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei or neutron-capture nuclides, are very useful in accurately determining a meteorite's history. Samples from different, known locations of a meteorite help in studying the cosmic-ray record. Such extensive sets of meteorite measurements, plus theoretical modeling of complex histories, will improve our ability to predict the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites, to distinguish simple and complex exposure histories, and to better determine exposure ages

  19. Cosmic ray measurements with the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bertucci, B

    2001-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) was flown in June 1998 on board of the shuttle DISCOVERY during its STS91 mission. During 10 days, AMS recorded about 100 Million triggers along a 51.7 inclined orbit at altitudes ranging from 320 to 390 Km. We report on the AMS measurement of the cosmic proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.2 to 200 GeV and of the cosmic helium spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.1 to 100 GeV/nucleon. The good accuracy of these measurements provides better constraints in the modelling of the primary cosmic ray fluxes, first ingredient for a correct calculation of the atmospheric nu fluxes.

  20. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Michael, E-mail: michael.walter@desy.de

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  1. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  2. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray spectrum upon traversing the 2.7 0 K microwave background with respect to pion photoproduction, pair-production reactions, and cosmological effects. Our approach employs exact transport equations which manifestly conserve nucleon number and embody the laboratory details of these reactions. A spectrum enhancement appears around 6 x 10 19 eV due to the ''pile-up'' of energy-degraded nucleons, and a ''dip'' occurs around 10 19 eV due to combined effects. Both of these features appear in the observational spectrum. We analyze the resulting neutrino spectrum and the effects of cosmological source distributions. We present a complete model of the ultrahigh-energy spectrum and anisotropy in reasonable agreement with observation and which predicts an observable electron-neutrino spectrum

  3. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis....... The array operates in the Pyhäsalmi Mine, Finland, at a depth of 75 metres (or 210 m.w.e) corresponding to the cut-off energy of approximately 50 GeV for vertical muons. The data recording with a partial array has started and preliminary results of the first test runs are presented....

  4. Cosmic ray energetics and mass (CREAM) calibrating a cosmic ray calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, S H; Alford, R; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Malinin, A; Schindhelm, E; Wang, J Z; Wu, J; Beatty, J J; Coutu, S; Minnick, S A; Nutter, S; Duvernois, M A; Choi, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Park, I H; Swordy, S P

    2002-01-01

    CREAM is slated to fly as the first NASA ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) payload in late 2003. On this 60-plus-day flight CREAM is expected to collect more direct high-energy cosmic ray events than the current world total. With three such flights CREAM is expected to have a proton energy reach above 5*10/sup 14/ eV, probing near 100 Te V for the predicted kink in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. With a transition radiation detector (TRD) above a sampling tungsten /scintillator calorimeter, an in-flight cross-calibration of the absolute energy scale becomes possible with heavy ions. We report on results from a 2001 beam test of the calorimeter in an SPS beam at the European High Energy Physics lab (CERN) and on the planned in- flight calibration. (7 refs).

  5. Lunar monitoring outpost of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail; Kalmykov, Nikolai; Turundaevskiy, Andrey; Chubenko, Alexander; Podorozhny, Dmitry; Mukhamedshin, Rauf; Sveshnikova, Lubov; Tkachev, Leonid; Konstantinov, Andrey

    The basic purpose of the planned NEUTRONIUM-100 experiment considers expansion of the direct measurements of cosmic rays spectra and anisotropy to the energy range of ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. These measurements will make it possible to solve the problem of the “knee” of the spectrum and to make choice between the existing models of the cosmic rays origin and propagation. The proposed innovative method of energy measurements is based on the simultaneous detection of different components of back scattered radiation generated by showers produced by the primary particle in the regolyth (neutrons, gamma rays and radio waves). A multi-module system disposed on the Moon's surface is proposed for particles registration. Each module consists of a radio antenna, contiguous to the regolyth, scintillation detectors with gadolinium admixture and silicon charge detectors. Scintillation detectors record electrons and gamma-rays of back scattered radiation and delayed neutrons. The area of the experimental facility will be at least ~100 m2, suitable for upgrading. Average density of the detecting equipment is evaluated as 10-20 g/m2. Taking into account the weight of the equipment delivered from the Earth will be about 10 tons it is possible to compose an eqperimental facility with geometric factor of 150-300 m2sr. The Moon provides unique conditions for this experiment due to presence of the absorbing material and absence of atmosphere. The experiment will allow expansion of the measurements up to ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. Currently direct measurements reach energy range of up to ~1015 eV, and Auger shower method does not provide information about the primary particle's charge. It is expected that ~15 particles with energy >1017 eV will be detected by the proposed experimental equipment per year. It will provide an opportunity to solve the problems of the current high-energy astrophysics.

  6. From radio signals to cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, C.

    2009-12-01

    Radio detection of high energy cosmic rays is currently being reinvested, both on the experimental and theoretical sides. The question is to know whether radio-detection is a competitive technique compared or in addition to usual detection techniques; in order to increase statistics at the highest energies (around 10 20 eV - where particle astronomy should be possible) or to characterize precisely the cosmic rays at lower energies (some 10 18 eV). During this work, we tried to progress towards the answer, using radio emission models, experimental data analysis and preparing the next generation of detectors. On the theoretical side, geo-synchrotron emission of the particles of the showers has been computed analytically using a simplified shower model as well as using the Monte Carlo simulation AIRES to have a realistic shower development. Various dependencies of the electric field have been extracted, among which a proportionality of the field with the -v → * B → vector under certain conditions. Experimentally, the analysis of CODALEMA data enabled to characterise more precisely the electric field produced by air showers, in particular the topology of the field at ground level, the energy dependency and the coherence with a -v → * B → proportionality. These results are summarised in an overall parametrization of the electric field. More data are probably required in order to give a definitive statement on the interest of the radio-detection technique. The CODALEMA parametrization has finally been used to extrapolate CODALEMA's results to a future larger array, extrapolation applied in particular to the AERA detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. (author)

  7. Faraday rotation in an electron-positron plasma containing a fraction of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.O.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Faraday rotation in a magnetized electron-positron plasma containing a fraction of ions is investigated by using a multifluid description. It is shown that the Faraday rotation for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies much larger than the electron/positron plasma and electron gyrofrequencies is proportional to the ion number density and the magnitude of the ambient magnetic-field strength. The results are relevant for astrophysical observations and diagnostics of laboratory electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas

  8. Observation of the thunderstorm-related ground cosmic ray flux variations by ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; D'Alessandro, F.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A correlation between the secondary cosmic ray flux and the near-earth electric field intensity, measured during thunderstorms, has been found by analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, a full coverage air shower array located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China). The counting rates of showers with different particle multiplicities (m =1 , 2, 3, and ≥4 ) have been found to be strongly dependent upon the intensity and polarity of the electric field measured during the course of 15 thunderstorms. In negative electric fields (i.e., accelerating negative charges downwards), the counting rates increase with increasing electric field strength. In positive fields, the rates decrease with field intensity until a certain value of the field EFmin (whose value depends on the event multiplicity), above which the rates begin increasing. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that this peculiar behavior can be well described by the presence of an electric field in a layer of thickness of a few hundred meters in the atmosphere above the detector, which accelerates/decelerates the secondary shower particles of opposite charge, modifying the number of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. These results, for the first time to our knowledge, give a consistent explanation for the origin of the variation of the electron/positron flux observed for decades by high altitude cosmic ray detectors during thunderstorms.

  9. Resistive Plate Chambers performance with Cosmic Rays in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Piccolo, D; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Marinov, A; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Zaganidis, N; Akimenko, S; Ball, A; Crotty, I; Guida, R; Sharma, A; Van Doninck, W; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Marangelli, B; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Trentadue, R; Tupputi, S; Colaleo, A; Loddo, F; Ranieri, A; Cimmino, A; Sciacca, C; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Lomidze, D; Paolucci, P; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Fabbri, F L; Baesso, P; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Avila, C; Carrillo, C; Gomez, B; Ocampo, A; Osorio, A; Sanabria, J C; Polese, G; Tuuva, T; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Kierzkowski, K; Kudla, I M; Oklinski, W; Pietrusinski, M; Bluj, M; Fruboes, T; Gorski, M; Kazana, M; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Poznik, K T; Zabolotny, W; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Ye, Y L; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Butt, J B; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Malik, I A; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S F; Shahzad, H; Cho, S W; Jo, M; Hong, B; Kim, C; Kim, H C; Kim, J H; Lee, H S; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S; Rhee, H B; Seo, E S; Shin, S S; Sim, K S; Lee, J S; Lee, S E

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers are used in the CMS experiment as a dedicated muon trigger both in barrel and endcap system. About 4000 square meter of double gap RPCs have been produced and have been installed in the experiment since more than one year and half. The full barrel system and a fraction of the endcaps have been monitored to study dark current behaviour and system stability, and have been extensively commissioned with Cosmic Rays collected by the full CMS experiment.

  10. A cosmic-ray dosimeter with a semiconductor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, V. V.; Redko, V. I.

    The Intercosmos-17 cosmic-ray dosimeter is described, and a circuit diagram of the device is presented. The operation of the instrument is characterized by the extraction, enhancement, and processing of information in a digital form with rejection of noise signals. When an optimal thickness is chosen for the sensitive region of the detector, the amplitude of signals from charged particles of minimally ionized cosmic rays can exceed the amplitude of noise pulses from the detector and preamplifier. This makes it possible to achieve a negligibly small value of subthreshold losses of useful information and an almost total discrimination of noise pulses in measuring cosmic-ray charged particles.

  11. Antiprotons production of propagating cosmic rays under distributed reacceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Heinbach, U.; Koch, C.

    1987-01-01

    The available measurements on the cosmic ray anti p/p-ratio show an excess of antiprotons above predictions derived in the framework of the standard picture of cosmic ray origin and propagation. We calculated the anti p production from collisions of cosmic rays with the interstellar gas under the condition of distributed reacceleration. It could be shown that the calculated anti p/p-ratio is enhanced compared to that derived from the 'leaky box' model but it remains difficult to bring it into agreement with the data by reasonable astrophysical assumptions. (orig.)

  12. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  13. Advanced detection techniques for educational experiments in cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiola, Salvatore; La-Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Simone

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we describe several detection techniques that can be employed to study cosmic ray properties and carry out training activities at high school and undergraduate level. Some of the proposed devices and instrumentation are inherited from professional research experiments, while others were especially developed and marketed for educational cosmic ray experiments. The educational impact of experiments in cosmic ray physics in high-school or undergraduate curricula will be exploited through various examples, going from simple experiments carried out with small Geiger counters or scintillation devices to more advanced detection instrumentation which can offer starting points for not trivial research work. (authors)

  14. Cosmic-ray antimatter - A primary origin hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the possibility that the observed cosmic-ray protons are of primary extragalactic origin, taking into account the significance of the current antiproton data. Attention is given to questions regarding primary antiprotons, antihelium fluxes, and the propagation of extragalactic cosmic rays. It is concluded that the primary origin hypothesis should be considered as a serious alternative explanation for the cosmic-ray antiproton fluxes. Such extragalactic primary origin can be considered in the context of a baryon symmetric domain cosmology. The fluxes and propagation characteristics suggested are found to be in rough agreement with the present antiproton data.

  15. Measurements at LHC and their relevance for cosmic ray physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many LHC measurements are already used to improve hadronic interaction models used in cosmic ray analyses. This already had a positive effect on the model dependence of crucial data analyses. Some of the data and the model tuning is reviewed. However, the LHC still has a lot more potential to provide crucial information. Since the start of Run2 the highest accelerator beam energies are reached and no further increase can be expected for a long time. First data of Run2 are published and the fundamental performance of cosmic ray hadronic interaction models can be scrutinized. The relevance of LHC data in general for cosmic ray data analyses is demonstrated.

  16. Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piussi, L. M.; Tomelleri, E.; Tonon, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Mejia Aguilar, A.; Monsorno, R.; Zebisch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in environmental monitoring and modelling: being located at the soil-atmosphere boundary, it is a driving force for water, energy and carbon fluxes. Nevertheless its importance, soil moisture observations lack of long time-series at high acquisition frequency in spatial meso-scale resolutions: traditional measurements deliver either long time series with high measurement frequency at spatial point scale or large scale and low frequency acquisitions. The Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing (CRNS) technique fills this gap because it supplies information from a footprint of 240m of diameter and 15 to 83 cm of depth at a temporal resolution varying between 15 minutes and 24 hours. In addition, being a passive sensing technique, it is non-invasive. For these reasons, CRNS is gaining more and more attention from the scientific community. Nevertheless, the application of this technique in complex systems is still an open issue: where different Hydrogen pools are present and where their distributions vary appreciably with space and time, the traditional calibration method shows some limits. In order to obtain a better understanding of the data and to compare them with remote sensing products and spatially distributed traditional measurements (i.e. Wireless Sensors Network), the complexity of the surrounding environment has to be taken into account. In the current work we assessed the effects of spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture within the footprint, in a steep, heterogeneous mountain grassland area. Measurement were performed with a Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) and a mobile Wireless Sensors Network. We performed an in-deep sensitivity analysis of the effects of varying distributions of soil moisture on the calibration of the CRNP and our preliminary results show how the footprint shape varies depending on these dynamics. The results are then compared with remote sensing data (Sentinel 1 and 2). The current work is an assessment of

  17. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: analysis of extensive air showers and their associated electromagnetic signal in the MHz domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenu, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes a review of the present results in the field of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. After a presentation of some results about the Fermi mechanism to accelerate cosmic rays, the author more particularly addresses the reconstruction of air showers, and the search for sources. He also addresses the radio signal emitted by air shower secondary positrons and electrons. He proposes an overview of the present knowledge on the basis of present experiments. Data show that the electric field is mainly due to the influence of the Earth magnetic field which acts on electrons and positrons, but more recently, the contribution due to electrons in excess seems to appear in data. The author reports the last advances in the field of simulation of the electric field, with notably the prediction of new signal produced by the disappearance of the air shower during its absorption by the soil [fr

  18. Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.; Aminaei, A.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, IST

    2010-06-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin energy threshold, 6 x 10{sup 19} eV. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1{sup o} from the position of an active galactic nucleus within 75 Mpc (using the Veron-Cetty and Veron 12th catalog). An updated measurement of this fraction is reported here using the arrival directions of cosmic rays recorded above the same energy threshold through 31 December 2009. The number of arrival directions has increased from 27 to 69, allowing a more precise measurement. The correlating fraction is (38{sub -6}{sup +7})%, compared with 21% expected for isotropic cosmic rays. This is down from the early estimate of (69{sub -13}{sup +11})%. The enlarged set of arrival directions is examined also in relation to other populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2 Microns All Sky Survey and active galactic nuclei detected in hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A celestial region around the position of the radiogalaxy Cen A has the largest excess of arrival directions relative to isotropic expectations. The 2-point autocorrelation function is shown for the enlarged set of arrival directions and compared to the isotropic expectation.

  19. Cosmic Ray Hit Detection with Homogenous Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O. M.

    Cosmic ray (CR) hits can affect a significant number of pixels both on long-exposure ground-based CCD observations and on the Space Telescope frames. Thus, methods of identifying the damaged pixels are an important part of the data preprocessing for practically any application. The paper presents an implementation of a CR hit detection algorithm based on a homogenous structure (also called cellular automata ), a concept originating in artificial intelligence and dicrete mathematics. Each pixel of the image is represented by a small automaton, which interacts with its neighbors and assumes a distinct state if it ``decides'' that a CR hit is present. On test data, the algorithm has shown a high detection rate (~0.7 ) and a low false alarm rate (frame. A homogenous structure is extremely trainable, which can be very important for processing large batches of data obtained under similar conditions. Training and optimizing issues are discussed, as well as possible other applications of this concept to image processing.

  20. Commissioning of the TRT with cosmics rays

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 35 two-dimensional space points with 0.17 mm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| &lt; 2 and pT &gt; 0.5 GeV. Transition radiation X-rays, generated by particles with γ&gt;1000 in the special material between the straws, are absorbed in the Xenon based gas mixture and give rise to large signal amplitudes. The front-end electronics implements two thresholds to discriminate the signals: a low threshold (&lt;300 eV) for registering the passage of minimum ionizing particles, and a high threshold (&gt;6 keV) to flag the absorption of transition radiation X-rays. In advance of proton collisions, the TRT has been successfully commissioned with data collected from several million cosmic ray muons, and from beam-ha...

  1. A Cosmic Ray Telescope For Educational Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voulgaris, G.; Kazanas, S.; Chamilothoris, I.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray detectors are widely used, for educational purposes, in order to motivate students to the physics of elementary particles and astrophysics. Using a 'telescope' of scintillation counters, the directional characteristics, diurnal variation, correlation with solar activity, can be determined, and conclusions about the composition, origin and interaction of elementary particles with the magnetic field of earth can be inferred. A telescope was built from two rectangular scintillator panels with dimensions: 91.6x1.9x3.7 cm 3 . The scintillators are placed on top of each other, separated by a fixed distance of 34.6 cm. They are supported by a wooden frame which can be rotated around a horizontal axis. Direction is determined by the coincidence of the signals of the two PMTs. Standard NIM modules are used for readout. This device is to be used in the undergraduate nuclear and particle physics laboratory. The design and construction of the telescope as well as some preliminary results are presented.

  2. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  3. Altitude variation of cosmic-ray neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Ohkubo, T.; Hara, A.

    1987-01-01

    The altitude variation of the cosmic-ray neutron energy spectrum and the dose equivalent rate was measured at an average geomagnetic latitude of 24 degrees N by using the high-efficiency multi-sphere neutron spectrometer and neutron dose-equivalent counter developed by the authors. The data were obtained from a 2-h flight over Japan on 27 February 1985. The neutron energy spectra measured at sea level and at altitudes of 4880 m and at 11,280 m were compared with the calculated spectra of O'Brien and with other experimental spectra, and they are in moderately good agreement with them. The dose equivalent rate increases according to a quadratic curve up to about 6000 m and then increases linearly between 6000 m and 11,280 m. The dependence of dose equivalent rates at sea level and at an altitude of 12,500 m on geomagnetic latitude also is given by referring to other experimental results

  4. Cosmic ray records in Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S.; Herpers, U.; Sarafin, R.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Suter, M.; Woelfli, W.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Be(10), Al(26), and Mn(53) and noble gases were determined in more than 28 meteorites from Antarctica by nuclear analytical techniques and static mass spectrometry, respectively. The summarized results are listed. The concentrations of Al(26) and Mn(53) are normalized to the repective main target elements and given in dpm/kg Si sub eq and dpm/kg Fe. The errors stated include statistical as well as systematical errors. For noble gas concentrations estimated errors are 5% and for isotopic ratios 1.5%. Cosmic ray exposure ages T sub 21 were calculated by the noble gas concentrations and the terrestrial residence time (T) on the basis of the spallogenic nuclide Al(26). The suggested pairing of the LL6 chondrite RKPA 80238 and RKPA 80248 and the eucrites ALHA 76005 and ALHA 79017 is confirmed not only by the noble gas data but also by the concentrations of the spallation produced radionuclides. Futhermore, ALHA 80122, clasified as an H6 chondrite, has a noble gas pattern which suggest that this meteorite belongs to the ALHA 80111 shower.

  5. Long-term and transient time variation of cosmic ray fluxes detected in Argentina by CARPET cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Raulin, J.-P.; Bertoni, F. C. P.; Echer, E.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Fernandez, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present results obtained at El Leoncito (CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina) with the CARPET charged particles detector installed in April 2006. The observed modulation of the cosmic ray flux is discussed as a function of its time variability and it is related to longer solar activity variations and to shorter variations during solar and geomagnetic transient activity. Short period (few minutes, few hours) cosmic ray modulation events are observed during rain time (precipitation) and significant variations of the atmospheric electric field. Complementary observations of the atmospheric electric field indicate that its time variations play an important role in the detected cosmic ray event.

  6. Particle injection and cosmic ray acceleration at collisionless parallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quest, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of collisionless parallel shocks is studied using one-dimensional hybrid simulations, with emphasis on particle injection into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. It is argued that for sufficiently high Mach number shocks, and in the absence of wave turbulence, the fluid firehose marginal stability condition will be exceeded at the interface between the upstream, unshocked, plasma and the heated plasma downstream. As a consequence, nonlinear, low-frequency, electromagnetic waves are generated and act to slow the plasma and provide dissipation for the shock. It is shown that large amplitude waves at the shock ramp scatter a small fraction of the upstream ions back into the upstream medium. These ions, in turn, resonantly generate the electromagnetic waves that are swept back into the shock. As these waves propagate through the shock they are compressed and amplified, allowing them to non-resonantly scatter the bulk of the plasma. Moreover, the compressed waves back-scatter a small fraction of the upstream ions, maintaining the shock structure in a quasi-steady state. The back-scattered ions are accelerated during the wave generation process to 2 to 4 times the ram energy and provide a likely seed population for cosmic rays. 49 refs., 7 figs

  7. The acceleration of cosmic ray by shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, W.I.; Leer, E.; Skadron, G.

    1977-01-01

    The acceleration of cosmic rays in flows involving shocks and other compressional waves is considered in terms of one-dimensionl, steady flows and the diffusion approximation. The results suggest that very substantial energy conversion can occur. (author)

  8. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  9. ASPIRE - Cloud Chambers as an Introduction to Cosmic Ray Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Julie; Matthews, John; Jui, Charles

    2012-03-01

    ASPIRE is the K12 - Education & Public Outreach program for the Telescope Array ultra-high energy cosmic ray research project in Utah. The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra-high energy cosmic rays with an array of ˜500 surface scintillator detectors and three fluorescence telescope stations observing over 300 square miles in the West Desert of Utah. Telescope Array is a collaboration of international institutions from the United States, Japan, Korea, Russia and Belgium. Cloud chambers are an inexpensive and easy demonstration to visually observe evidence of charged particles and cosmic ray activity both for informal events as well as for K12 classroom activities. Join us in building a cloud chamber and observe cosmic rays with these table-top demonstrations. A brief overview of the Telescope Array project in Millard County, Utah will also be presented.

  10. Cosmic Rays Variation Before Changes in Sun-Earth Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2011-12-01

    Influence of cosmic rays variations on the Sun-Earth Environment has been observed before the changes in the atmospheric temperature, outbreak of influenza, cyclone, earthquake and tsunami. It has been recorded by Sun Observatory Heleospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Before the earthquake and tsunami the planetary indices (Kp) and Electron flux (E-flux) shows sudden changes followed by the atmospheric perturbations including very high temperature rise to sudden fall resulting snowfall in high altitude and rainfall in tropical areas. The active fault zones shows sudden faulting after the sudden drop in cosmic ray intensity and rise in Kp and E-flux. Besides the geo-environment the extraterrestrial influence on outbreak of H1N1 influenza has also been recorded based on the Mexico Cosmic ray data and its correlation with SOHO records. Distant stars have the potential to influence the heliophysical parameters by showering cosmic rays.

  11. The Determination of the Muon Magnetic Moment from Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, C.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment suited for use in an advanced laboratory course in particle physics. The magnetic moment of cosmic ray muons which have some polarization is determined with an error of about five percent. (Author/GS)

  12. Cosmic Ray Acceleration from Multiple Galactic Wind Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Cory; Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic rays still have an unknown origin. Many mechanisms have been suggested for their acceleration including quasars, pulsars, magnetars, supernovae, supernova remnants, and galactic termination shocks. The source of acceleration may be a mixture of these and a different mixture in different energy regimes. Using numerical simulations, we investigate multiple shocks in galactic winds as potential cosmic rays sources. By having shocks closer to the parent galaxy, more particles may diffuse back to the disk instead of being blown out in the wind, as found in Bustard, Zweibel, and Cotter (2017, ApJ) and also Merten, Bustard, Zweibel, and Tjus (to be submitted to ApJ). Specifically, this flux of cosmic rays could contribute to the unexplained "shin" region between the well-known "knee" and "ankle" of the cosmic ray spectrum. We would like to acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. DGE-125625 and NSF grant No. AST-1616037.

  13. Cosmic Ray Muons Timing in the ATLAS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirose, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of calorimeter timing both for detector commissioning and in searches for new physics. In particular I present real and simulated cosmic ray muons data (2007) results for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter system. The analysis shows that several detector errors such as imperfect calibrations can be uncovered. I also demonstrate the use of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter's excellent timing resolution in suppressing cosmic ray fake missing transverse energy (E T ) in searches for supersymmetry.

  14. Transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review the main features of the observed Cosmic Rays spectrum in the energy range 10 17 eV to 10 20 eV. We present a theoretical model that explains the main observed features of the spectrum, namely the second Knee and Dip, and implies a transition from Galactic to Extra-Galactic cosmic rays at energy E ≅ 10 18 eV, with a proton dominated Extra-Galactic spectrum

  15. The effect of cosmic rays on thunderstorm electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    The inflow of charges of small ions, formed by cosmic rays, into thunderstorm cells is estimated on the basis of rocket measurements of ionic concentrations below 90 km. Out of the two processes that form the thunderstorm charge (generation and separation of charges), the former is supposed to be caused by cosmic rays, and the nature of separation is assumed to be the same as in other thunderstorm theories.

  16. Cosmic ray antimatter: Is it primary or secondary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1981-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic ray antiprotons, including the low energy measurement of Buffington, were examined. It is concluded that the cosmic ray antiproton data may be strong evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present antiproton data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having antiproton/proton approximately equal to .0032 + or - 0.7.

  17. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  18. Detection of High-Z Objects using Multiple Scattering of Cosmic Ray Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Gary E.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Gomez, John; Morris, Christopher; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    Detection of high-Z material hidden inside a large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in 3 dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons, approximately 10,000 m-2min-1, can generate a reliable detection signal in a fraction of a minute, using large-area muon detectors as used in particle and nuclear physics

  19. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  20. Gamma ray astronomy and the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabici, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration operating at expanding supernova remnant shells is by far the most popular model for the origin of galactic cosmic rays. Despite the general consensus received by the model, an unambiguous and conclusive proof of the supernova remnant hypothesis is still missing. In this context, the recent developments in gamma ray astronomy provide us with precious insights into the problem of the origin of galactic cosmic rays, since production of gamma rays is expected both during the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova remnant shocks and during their subsequent propagation in the interstellar medium. In particular, the recent detection of a number of supernova remnants at TeV energies nicely fits with the model, but it still does not constitute a conclusive proof of it, mainly due to the difficulty of disentangling the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the observed gamma ray emission. The main goal of my research is to search for an unambiguous and conclusive observational test for proving (or disproving) the idea that supernova remnants are the sources of galactic cosmic rays with energies up to (at least) the cosmic ray knee. Our present comprehension of the mechanisms of particle acceleration at shocks and of the propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields encourages beliefs that such a conclusive test might come from future observations of supernova remnants and of the Galaxy in the almost unexplored domain of multi-TeV gamma rays. (author)

  1. Review and interpretation of recent cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, A.

    1978-01-01

    Be 10 has long been of interest for cosmic ray propagation, because its radioactive decay half-life is well matched to the expected cosmic ray age. Recent beryllium isotope measurements from satellites and balloons have covered an energy range from about 30 to 300 MeV/nucleon/sup 1-3/. At the lowest energies, most of the Be 10 is absent, indicating a cosmic ray lifetime of order 2 x 10 7 years and the rather low average density of 0.2 atoms/cc traversed by the cosmic rays. At higher energies, a greater proportion of Be 10 is observed, indicating a somewhat shorter lifetime. These experiments will be reviewed and then compared with a new experiment covering from 100 to 1000 Mev/nucleon 4 . Although improved experiments will be necessary to realize the full potential of cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements, these first results are already disclosing interesting and unexpected facts about cosmic ray acceleration and propagation

  2. The anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Brenda

    2013-02-01

    The arrival directions of cosmic rays will be isotropized by the deflection of these charged particles in the Galactic magnetic fields. For example, a 10 TeV proton in a typical Galactic field of 2 micro Gauss has a gyroradius of only 0.005 parsec (=1000 AU) which is much smaller than the distance to any postulated sources. However, observations of TeV cosmic rays by Milagro, Tibet III, ARGO, and IceCube, show anisotropies on both large and small angular scales. These observations require the detection of large numbers of cosmic rays because the anisotropies are less than a few parts in 1000. The large angular scale anisotropies, such as a dipole, could point to diffusion from a nearby source, but the smaller scale anisotropies of extent ~10 degrees are much more difficult to explain. Possibilities that have been explored in the literature include magnetic funneling of cosmic rays from nearby sources and acceleration by magnetic reconnection in the heliosphere's magnetotail. No matter what the mechanism, these observations provide new information about cosmic ray production, nearby magnetic fields, and how the cosmic rays observed at Earth are affected by their propagation.

  3. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhkov, Y I

    2003-01-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10 8 times). But at altitudes of h ∼ 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h ∼ 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning

  4. CALET: a calorimeter for cosmic-ray measurements in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nicola, E-mail: mori@fi.infn.it

    2013-06-15

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) instrument is scheduled for a launch in 2014 and attached to the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station. Its main objective is to perform precise measurements of the electron+positron spectrum in cosmic rays at energies up to some TeV, searching for signals from dark matter and/or contributions from nearby astrophysical sources like pulsars. Other scientific goals include the investigation of heavy ions spectra up to Fe, elemental abundance of trans-iron nuclei and a measurement of the diffuse γ ray emission with high energy resolution. The instrument is now under construction, and consists of a charge detection device (CHD) composed of two layers of plastic scintillators, a finely-segmented sampling calorimeter (IMC) and a deep, homogeneous calorimeter (TASC) made of PbWO scintillating bars. The good containment of electromagnetic showers (total depth ∼3X{sub 0}(IMC)+27X{sub 0}(TASC)=30X{sub 0}) together with the homogeneity of TASC give an energy resolution for electrons and γ rays about 2%. CHD can discriminate the charge of primary particles with a resolution between 15% and 30% up to Fe. The finely-segmented IMC, made by tungsten layers and 1mm-wide scintillating fibers, can provide detailed information about the start and early development of particle showers. Lateral and longitudinal shower-development information from TASC, together with informations from IMC, can be used to achieve an electron/proton rejection power about 10{sup 5}. High-statistics for collected data will be achieved by means of the planned 5-years exposure time together with a geometrical factor of 0.12 m{sup 2} sr. Furthermore, a Gamma-Ray Burst monitor will complement the main detector. In this paper the status of the mission, the design and expected performance of the instrument will be detailed.

  5. Assessment of galactic cosmic ray models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2012-08-01

    Among several factors involved in the development of a manned space mission concept, the astronauts' health is a major concern that needs to be considered carefully. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which mainly consist of high-energetic nuclei ranging from hydrogen to iron and beyond, pose a major radiation health risk in long-term space missions. It is therefore required to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts in order to estimate their radiation risks. This can be done either by performing direct measurements or by making computer based simulations from which the dose can be derived. A necessary prerequisite for an accurate estimation of the exposure using simulations is a reliable description of the GCR spectra. The aim of this work is to compare GCR models and to test their applicability for the exposure assessment of astronauts. To achieve this, commonly used models capable of describing both light and heavy GCR particle spectra were evaluated by investigating the model spectra for various particles over several decades. The updated Badhwar-O'Neill model published in the year 2010, CREME2009 which uses the International Standard model for GCR, CREME96 and the Burger-Usoskin model were examined. Hydrogen, helium, oxygen and iron nuclei spectra calculated by the different models are compared with measurements from various high-altitude balloon and space-borne experiments. During certain epochs in the last decade, there are large discrepancies between the GCR energy spectra described by the models and the measurements. All the models exhibit weaknesses in describing the increased GCR flux that was observed in 2009-2010.

  6. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Bravo, S.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Plewa, M.; Schultz, D.; Tosi, D.; BenZvi, S.; Jensen, K.; Peacock, J.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Simons, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available

  7. Implications of the cosmic ray electron spectrum and anisotropy measured with Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca; Mazziotta, Mario Nicola

    2010-11-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration recently released the updated results of the measurement of the cosmic ray electron (CRE) spectrum and published its first constraints on the CRE anisotropy. With respect to the previous Fermi-LAT results, the CRE spectrum measurement was extended down from 20 to 7 GeV, thus providing a better lever arm to discriminate theoretical models. Here we show that the new data strengthen the evidence for the presence of two distinct electron and positron spectral components. Furthermore, we show that under such hypothesis most relevant CRE and positron data sets are remarkably well reproduced. Consistent fits of cosmic-ray nuclei and antiproton data, which are crucial to validate the adopted propagation setup(s) and to fix the solar modulation potential, are obtained for the Kraichnan and plain-diffusion propagation setups, while the Kolmogorov one is disfavored. We then confirm that nearby pulsars are viable source candidates of the required e ± extra-component. In that case, we show that the predicted CRE anisotropy is compatible with Fermi-LAT constraints and that a positive detection should be at hand of that observatory. Models assuming that only nearby supernova remnants contribute to the high energy tail of the observed CRE spectrum are in contrast with anisotropy limits. (orig.)

  8. Stable Superstring Relics and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Coriano, Claudio; Plumacher, Michael; Coriano, Claudio; Faraggi, Alon E.; Plumacher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    One of the most intriguing experimental results of recent years is the observation of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) above the GZK cutoff. Plausible candidates for the UHECR primaries are the decay products of a meta--stable matter state with mass of order O(10^{12-15 GeV}), which simultaneously is a good cold dark matter candidate. We study possible meta-stable matter states that arise from Wilson line breaking of GUT symmetries in semi-realistic heterotic string models. In the models that we study the exotic matter states can be classified according to patterns of SO(10) symmetry breaking. We show that cryptons, which are states that carry fractional electric charge $\\pm1/2$, and are confined by a hidden gauge group cannot produce viable dark matter. This is due to the fact that, in addition to the lightest neutral bound state, cryptons give rise to meta-stable charged bound states. However, these states may still account for the UHECR events. We argue that the uniton, which is an exotic Standard Mod...

  9. Abnormal increase of cosmic ray on August 7th, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Masahiro; Murakami, Kazuaki; Wada, Masami

    1974-01-01

    The abnormal increase of cosmic ray on Aug. 7th particularly the dependence of its starting time on local time was studied. Cosmic ray increased twice before and after the greatest Forbush decrease in history on August 4th and 7th, 1972. This study is a trial to estimate the anisotropic flow of solar cosmic ray from the time difference time at different places. Further, the past instance of 23 ground-level events were statistically restudied, and the relationship between the time of generation of solar cosmic ray and the time of transmission to the earth was investigated. A list is given regarding the solar cosmic ray of more than 10 9 eV which occurred since the observation had started. The list shows definite three groups. Attention is paid to the transmission time of F type which is considered to have the most simplest transmission mechanism. The dispersion of the transmission time is large regarding flare-starting time and peak wave intensity time, but is small regarding solar wave-starting time, but the dependence on the longitude is systematic. After all, cosmic ray is accelerated after 10 minutes since solar electric wave has started, and arrives at the earth most early in the case of a flare occurred at the root of garden force line toward the earth. In conclusion, the method of studying the difference of the starting time of abnormal increase according to local time may be an effective means for examining in the characteristics of anisotropic flow of solar cosmic ray. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  11. Semi-implicit anisotropic cosmic ray transport on an unstructured moving mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Simpson, Christine M.; Kannan, Rahul; Springel, Volker

    2016-11-01

    In the interstellar medium of galaxies and the intracluster gas of galaxy clusters, the charged particles making up cosmic rays are moving almost exclusively along (but not across) magnetic field lines. The resulting anisotropic transport of cosmic rays in the form of diffusion or streaming not only affects the gas dynamics but also rearranges the magnetic fields themselves. The coupled dynamics of magnetic fields and cosmic rays can thus impact the formation and evolution of galaxies and the thermal evolution of galaxy clusters in critical ways. Numerically studying these effects requires solvers for anisotropic diffusion that are accurate, efficient, and robust, requirements that have proved difficult to be satisfied in practice. Here, we present an anisotropic diffusion solver on an unstructured moving mesh that is conservative, does not violate the entropy condition, allows for semi-implicit time integration with individual timesteps, and only requires solving a single linear system of equations per timestep. We apply our new scheme to a large number of test problems and show that it works as well or better than previous implementations. Finally, we demonstrate for a numerically demanding simulation of the formation of an isolated disc galaxy that our local time-stepping scheme reproduces the results obtained with global time-stepping at a fraction of the computational cost.

  12. Cosmic ray event in 994 C.E. recorded in radiocarbon from Danish oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogtmann-Schulz, A.; Østbø, S. M.; Nielsen, S. G. B.; Olsen, J.; Karoff, C.; Knudsen, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    We present measurements of radiocarbon in annual tree rings from the time period 980-1006 Common Era (C.E.), hereby covering the cosmic ray event in 994 C.E. The new radiocarbon record from Danish oak is based on both earlywood and latewood fractions of the tree rings, which makes it possible to study seasonal variations in 14C production. The measurements show a rapid increase of ˜10‰ from 993 to 994 C.E. in latewood, followed by a modest decline and relatively high values over the ensuing ˜10 years. This rapid increase occurs from 994 to 995 C.E. in earlywood, suggesting that the cosmic ray event most likely occurred during the period between April and June 994 C.E. Our new record from Danish oak shows strong agreement with existing Δ14C records from Japan, thus supporting the hypothesis that the 994 C.E. cosmic ray event was uniform throughout the Northern Hemisphere and therefore can be used as an astrochronological tie point to anchor floating chronologies of ancient history.

  13. The application of nuclear cross section measurements to spallation reactions in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects and implications of nuclear transformations of the comic ray particles themselves, and how those transformations are simulated in the laboratory are dealt with. Thus, although the majority of cosmic rays are protons and alpha particles, it is the small fraction of heavier species that is the main concern here. These nuclides interact with the interstellar matter (again mostly hydrogen and helium) in which they propagate, and thus can undergo nuclear reactions. For the cosmic ray physicist the effects of these reactions are both favourable and unfavourable. The unfavourable aspect arises from the fact that the composition of the cosmic ray is significantly altered, thus tending to mask an important indication as to their origin. Counterbalancing this is the fact that the effects left by the nuclear reactions are one of the most valuable links with the propagation process itself. A careful unravelling of these effects can thus reveal important information on where and how this propagation takes place. The type of nuclear information needed and techniques that are used to obtain it are considered. (Auth.)

  14. Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays; Diurnal Variability Abstract Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, D. F.; Okpala, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the variability of Cosmic rays flux during solar quiet days at mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. By using the five (5) quietest days for each month and the five disturbed days for each month, the monthly mean diurnal variation of cosmic ray anisotropy have been derived for the period 1999-2015, which covers part of cycles 23, and cycle 24. This study seeks to understand the heliospheric contribution to the variation of these Cosmic rays on quietest days, three stations (Inuvik, Moscow, Rome) Neutron Monitors were employed. This study seeks to understand the important features of the high latitude and mid latitude diurnal wave, and how solar and geomagnetic activity may be influencing the wave characteristics. Cosmic ray wave characteristics were obtained by discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The mean, diurnal amplitude, phase and dispersion for each month's diurnal wave were calculated and profiled. There was clear indication that the terrestrial effect on the variability of the monthly mean was more associated with geomagnetic activity rather than rigidity of the cosmic rays. Correlation of the time series of these wave characteristic with solar and geomagnetic activity index showed better association with solar activity.

  15. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampert Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  16. Cosmic rays flux and geomagnetic field variations at midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Anna; Ribeiro, Paulo; Tragaldabas Collaboration Team

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that the cosmic rays flux is modulated by the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic field deflects charged particles in accordance with their momentum and the local field strength and direction. The geomagnetic cutoffs depend both on the internal and the external components of the geomagnetic field, therefore reflecting the geodynamo and the solar activity variations. A new generation, high performance, cosmic ray detector Tragaldabas was recently installed at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The detector has been acquiring test data since September 2013 with a rate of about 80 events/s over a solid angle of ~5 srad. around the vertical direction. To take full advantage of this new facility for the study of cosmic rays arriving to the Earth, an international collaboration has been organized, of about 20 researchers from 10 laboratories of 5 European countries. The Magnetic Observatory of Coimbra (Portugal) has been measuring the geomagnetic field components for almost 150 years since the first measurements in 1866. It is presently equipped with up-to-date instruments. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the global cosmic ray fluxes acquired by the new Tragaldabas detector in relation to the geomagnetic field variations measured by the Coimbra observatory. We also compare the data from the new cosmic rays detector with results obtained by the Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor (CaLMa, Gadalajara, Spain) that is in operation since October 2011.

  17. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Marsh, N.D.

    mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets.We have chosen to start our......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionisation from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...

  19. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F. [INFN/Laboratori Nazionali Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Di Matteo, A. [INFN and Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Salamida, F., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: armando.dimatteo@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.petrera@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  20. A large area experiment to determine cosmic ray isotopic abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, B. G.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Heinrich, W.; Simon, M.; Tittel, H. O.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the isotopic composition of cosmic rays have shown that the cosmic ray isotope ratios, Ne-22/Ne-20 and (Mg-25 + Mg-26)/Mg-24, exceed the solar abundance ratios by factors of 2.7 and 1.8, respectively. There are several processes which could be responsible for the observed excess of neutron-rich isotopes. The considered models imply neutron enrichment in the case of other, less abundant species, and a measurement of the involved isotopic abundances could provide a basis for the determination of the dominating processes occurring in cosmic ray sources. However, an experiment utilizing special equipment is necessary to conduct the required measurements. Such an experiment, the Aluminum Isotopic Composition Experiment (Alice), is being designed in a joint effort involving NASA and a West German university. Alice uses a Cherenkov-range technique to determine the isotopic composition of elements from oxygen through argon.

  1. Cosmic-ray heating of cooling flows - A critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that a combination of MHD wave-mediated cosmic ray heating and thermal conduction could balance cooling in intracluster media and substantially reduce the rate of inflow. The appropriate system of steady state equations is solved, including a new self-consistent formulation for the cosmic-ray diffusivity. Models which can produce substantial positive temperature gradients in static configurations are found when conduction is reduced by a factor of 10 or more. These models have too-flat thermal pressure profiles compared with observations. It is found that cosmic-ray heating is unlikely either to stabilize positive density perturbations against condensation or to contribute appreciably to the powering of the optical filaments.

  2. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haungs, Andreas

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeV to EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  3. Cosmic rays,Climate and the CERN CLOUD Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    For more than two centuries, scientists have been puzzled by observations of solar-climate variability yet the lack of any established physical mechanism. Some recent observations, although disputed, suggest that clouds may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind. The CLOUD experiment aims to settle the question of whether or not cosmic rays have a climatically-significant effect on clouds by carrying out a series of carefully-controlled measurements in a large cloud chamber exposed to a beam from the CERN PS. This talk will present the scientific motivation for CLOUD and the first results, which have recently been published in Nature (Kirkby et al. (2011). Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Nature 476, 429-433).

  4. Nuclear and astrophysical aspects of investigation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashbaev, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper the review of nuclear and astrophysical aspects of investigation of cosmic rays performed by Cosmic Rays Laboratory of Physical-Technical Institute of ASU is presented. Data were shown about sharp differences of pion and nucleon interaction characteristics at the high energies (E 0 ∼ 10 12 eV) obtained with unique installation created at the Kumbel mountain(3200 m above sea level). Experimental results performed with large scale X-ray emulsion chambers at the superhigh energies (E 0 = 10 15 - 10 16 eV) in frame of International collaboration 'Pamir' are described. A mass composition of primary Cosmic Rays and spectrum of diffuse gamma-rays at the superhigh energies are obtained. New generation of ground Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope with area of 10 m 2 constructed at the Parkent is described. (author)

  5. Acceleration of galactic cosmic rays in shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1981-06-01

    The old problem of the origin of cosmic rays has triggered off fresh interest owing to the discovery of a new model which enables a lot of energy to be transferred to a small number of particles on the one hand and the discovery of the coronal environment in which this transfer occurs, on the other. In this paper, interest is taken in the galactic cosmic rays and an endeavour is made to find out if the model can reveal the existence of cosmic rays over a wide energy range. The existence of an energy break, predicted by the model, was recognized fairly early but, in the literature, it varies from 30 GeV ro 10 6 GeV according to the authors. A study has been made of the two main causes of an energy break: the sphericity of the shock and the life time of the shock wave [fr

  6. Cosmic-ray modulation: an ab initio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, N.E.; Burger, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of cosmic-ray modulation in the heliosphere can only be gained through a proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic rays. We present an ab initio model for cosmic-ray modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. This model is solved for periods of minimum solar activity, utilizing boundary values chosen so that model results are in fair to good agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities, not only in the solar ecliptic plane but also along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modelled slab and 2D turbulence energy spectra. The latter spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers commencing at the 2D outerscale. There currently exist no models or observations for this quantity, and it is the only free parameter in this study. The modelled turbulence spectra are used as inputs for parallel mean free path expressions based on those derived from quasi-linear theory and perpendicular mean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. Furthermore, the effects of turbulence on cosmic-ray drifts are modelled in a self-consistent way, employing a recently developed model for drift along the wavy current sheet. The resulting diffusion coefficients and drift expressions are applied to the study of galactic cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons using a three dimensional, steady-state cosmic-ray modulation code, and sample solutions in fair agreement with multiple spacecraft observations are presented. (author)

  7. Cosmic-ray modulation: an ab initio approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, N.E.; Burger, R.A., E-mail: 12580996@nwu.ac.za [Center for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2014-07-01

    A better understanding of cosmic-ray modulation in the heliosphere can only be gained through a proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic rays. We present an ab initio model for cosmic-ray modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. This model is solved for periods of minimum solar activity, utilizing boundary values chosen so that model results are in fair to good agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities, not only in the solar ecliptic plane but also along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modelled slab and 2D turbulence energy spectra. The latter spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers commencing at the 2D outerscale. There currently exist no models or observations for this quantity, and it is the only free parameter in this study. The modelled turbulence spectra are used as inputs for parallel mean free path expressions based on those derived from quasi-linear theory and perpendicular mean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. Furthermore, the effects of turbulence on cosmic-ray drifts are modelled in a self-consistent way, employing a recently developed model for drift along the wavy current sheet. The resulting diffusion coefficients and drift expressions are applied to the study of galactic cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons using a three dimensional, steady-state cosmic-ray modulation code, and sample solutions in fair agreement with multiple spacecraft observations are presented. (author)

  8. Flux and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays: beyond homogeneous models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Guilhem

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I study the consequence of non homogeneously distributed cosmic ray sources in the Milky way. The document starts with theoretical and experimental synthesis. Firstly, I will describe the interstellar medium to understand the mechanism of propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays. Then, the detailed study of cosmic rays diffusion on the galactic magnetic field allows to write a commonly used propagation equation. I will recall the Steady-state solutions of this equation, then I will focus on the time dependant solutions with point-like sources. A statistical study is performed in order to estimate the standard deviation of the flux around its mean value. The computation of this standard deviation leads to mathematical divergences. Thus, I will develop statistical tools to bypass this issue. So i will discuss the effect of the granularity of cosmic ray sources. Its impact on cosmic ray spectrum can explain some recent features observed by the experiments CREAM and PAMELA.Besides, this thesis is focused on the study of the anisotropy of cosmic rays. I will recap experimental methods of measurements, and I will show how to connect theoretical calculation from propagation theories to experimental measurements. Then, the influence of the local environment on the anisotropy measurements will be discussed, particularly the effect of a local diffusion coefficient. Then, I will compute anisotropy and its variance in a framework of point-like local sources with the tools developed in the first part. Finally, the possible influence of local sources on the anisotropy is discussed in the light of the last experimental results. (author) [fr

  9. Propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putze, Antje

    2006-06-01

    Cosmic rays are composed of charged particles, which arrive after a long travel through the Galaxy on Earth. Supernova explosions are considered to be galactic sources, which accelerate these particles up to energies around 10 18 eV. Beyond this energy, one supposes that the extragalactic sources, like active galaxy nuclei (AGN), gamma ray bursts or pulsars, are the origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays. The spectral index of the elemental energy distributions of cosmic rays reflects the dynamic of its propagation, particularly the conjugation of the effects connected to the cosmic ray source spectrum and those connected to its propagation (acceleration, absorption and escape). The evolution of the spectral index with the cosmic-ray particle energy constitutes a sensitive test of the components, which determine this evolution. The precise index measurement of individual elemental spectra of the cosmic rays by AMS up to TeV and by the experiment CREAM beyond it, from TeV to PeV, will permit to proceed in this problematic. One of the difficulties on this measurement is to take well into account the systematic errors. During the data analysis we have to take into account in particular the interaction (diffusion and fragmentation) of the ions while their travel through the Earth's atmosphere. The study of the interaction and the fragmentation of these ions in the atmosphere is hence indispensable and described in this work. The study is based on a matrix calculation, which had been successfully implemented and tested and which has permitted to analyse the effects, caused by the experimental uncertainties on the cross sections, on the spectral index measurement. (author)

  10. A cosmic ray super high energy multijet family event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Baotang; Wang Chengrui; Ren Jingru

    1986-01-01

    A cosmic ray super high energy family event with visible energy of about 1500 TeV and five big cores is reported. This event was found in the 1980-1981 exposure of Mt. Kambala (5500 M a.s.l.) emulsion chamber experiment. The family characteristics are analyzed and compared with the other cosmic ray events in the same energy range. The production and fragmentation characteristics of the five jets are studied and compared with the experimntal results of accelerators and C-jets as well as with QCD predictions up to TeV. Some features on hadronic interactions at TeV range are discussed

  11. Field testing for cosmic ray soft errors in semiconductor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.; Taber, A.H.; Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; Walsh, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed by IBM to investigate the causes of soft errors in semiconductor memory chips under field test conditions. The effects of alpha-particles and cosmic rays are separated by comparing multiple measurements of the soft-error rate (SER) of samples of memory chips deep underground and at various altitudes above the earth. The results of case studies on four different memory chips show that cosmic rays are an important source of the ionizing radiation that causes soft errors. The results of field testing are used to confirm the accuracy of the modeling and the accelerated testing of chips

  12. ICECUBE OBSERVATORY: NEUTRINOS AND THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Desiati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The completed IceCube Observatory, the first km3 neutrino telescope, is already providing the most stringent limits on the flux of high energy cosmic neutrinos from point-like and diffuse galactic and extra-galactic sources. The non-detection of extra-terrestrial neutrinos has important consequences on the origin of the cosmic rays. Here the current status of astrophysical neutrino searches, and of the observation of a persistent cosmic ray anisotropy above 100TeV, are reviewed.

  13. Cosmic rays and space weather: effects on global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider possible effects of cosmic rays and some other space factors on the Earth's climate change. It is well known that the system of internal and external factors formatting the climate is very unstable; decreasing planetary temperature leads to an increase of snow surface, and decrease of the total solar energy input into the system decreases the planetary temperature even more, etc. From this it follows that even energetically small factors may have a big influence on climate change. In our opinion, the most important of these factors are cosmic rays and cosmic dust through their influence on clouds, and thus, on climate.

  14. Analysis of cosmic-ray events with ALICE at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Cahuantzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALICE is one of the four main experiments of the LHC at CERN. Located 40 meters underground, with 30 m of overburden rock, it can also operate to detect muons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. An analysis of the data collected with cosmic-ray triggers from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to about 31 days of live time, is presented. Making use of the ability of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC to track large numbers of charged particles, a special emphasis is given to the study of muon bundles, and in particular to events with high-muon density.

  15. ATLAS and ultra high energy cosmic ray physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction to extended air shower cosmic ray physics the current and future deployment of forward detectors at ATLAS is discussed along with the various aspects of the current and future ATLAS programs to explore hadronic physics. The emphasis is placed on those results and future plans that have particular relevance for high-energy, and ultra high-energy, cosmic ray physics. The possible use of ATLAS as an “underground” cosmic muon observatory is briefly considered.

  16. The OPERA cosmic ray test facility at the Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Dal Corso, F.; De Deo, M.; Degli Esposti, L.; D'Incecco, M.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Garfagnini, A.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Moro, R.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zauner, B.

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA experiment foresees the use of about 3000m2 of RPCs, that will be tested before the installation in a dedicated cosmic ray test facility. The test facility is composed of 2 triggering walls selecting horizontal cosmic rays muons. Each wall houses 64 glass RPCs equipped with 128 horizontal Flat Cable Strips. The z-coordinate is measured with a standard digital chain, while the x-coordinate is obtained by measuring the propagation time of the signals along the strips. In this paper the performance of the trigger walls and the first results of the RPC debug are presented

  17. 14. European cosmic ray symposium. Symposium program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The abstracts of the 14. European Cosmic Ray Symposium are presented. The papers cover a large variety of topics in cosmic ray physics, both from the theoretical and the experimental point of view. Sun physics, and the effects on the inner heliosphere, the composition, and the properties of the primary and secondary cosmic radiation, galactic acceleration and the results of accelerator physics relevant to cosmic radiation physics, and the description and the results of large detector systems are presented. 63 items are indexed for INIS database. (K.A.)

  18. Explaining the Cosmic-Ray e+/(e- + e+) and (bar p)/p Ratios Using a Steady-State Injection Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Kamae, T.; Baldini, L.; Giordano, F.; Grondin, M.H.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Sgro, C.; Tanaka, T.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of cosmic ray (CR) injection into the Galactic space based on recent γ-ray observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Steady-state injection of nuclear particles and electrons (e - ) from the Galactic ensemble of SNRs, and electrons and positrons (e + ) from the Galactic ensemble of PWNe are assumed, with their injection spectra inferred under guidance of γ-ray observations and recent development of evolution and emission models. The ensembles of SNRs and PWNe are assumed to share the same spatial distributions. Assessment of possible secondary CR contribution from dense molecular clouds interacting with SNRs is also given. CR propagation in the interstellar space is handled by GALPROP. Different underlying source distribution models and Galaxy halo sizes are employed to estimate the systematic uncertainty of the model. We show that this observation-based model reproduces the positron fraction e + /(e - + e + ) and antiproton-to-proton ratio ((bar p)/p) reported by PAMELA and other previous missions reasonably well, without calling for any speculative sources. A discrepancy remains, however, between the total e - + e + spectrum measured by Fermi and our model below ∼ 20 GeV, for which the potential causes are discussed. Important quantities for Galactic CRs including their energy injection, average lifetime in the Galaxy, and mean gas density along their typical propagation path are also estimated.

  19. The heliospheric modulation of cosmic ray boron and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potgieter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The observed boron to carbon ratio (B/C at Earth provides a good measure of the overall secondary to primary ratio of galactic cosmic rays. This makes B/C an important constraint and test for the validity and general applicability of theoretical and numerical models of galactic propagation and heliospheric modulation. For this purpose, the modulation of boron and carbon in the heliosphere must be understood in greater detail. The latest approach to heliospheric modulation, using a numerical model containing a termination shock, a heliosheath and particle drifts, is used to the study the modulation of the two species. This model also includes a more comprehensive set of diffusion coefficients. From this and previous work follows that the model is compatible with a variety of observations, for seven species, i.e. protons, anti-protons, electrons, positrons, helium, boron, and carbon, with the same set of parameters for both solar magnetic polarity cycles. Despite the rather flat interstellar spectrum for carbon below 100MeV/nuc, the modulated spectra at 1AU look very similar for boron and carbon, caused by adiabatic energy losses, implying that the carbon modulation should have a much larger radial gradient in the outer heliosphere below ~200-500MeV/nuc than boron. Significant modulation can be caused by the heliosheath but it is strongly dependent on energy and on the field polarity, with almost no effect at high energies to the largest effect at low energies. The solar wind termination shock has an important effect on the B to C ratio in the heliosphere, although small at Earth, during the A<0 cycle, with E<~600MeV/nuc, but it seems less significant for the A>0 cycle and with increasing tilt angles. Drift models produce different spectra for consecutive solar minimum conditions which may account for the modulation level differences between observations around 100MeV/nuc compared to around 500MeV/nuc. All factors taken into account, heliospheric

  20. The heliospheric modulation of cosmic ray boron and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potgieter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The observed boron to carbon ratio (B/C at Earth provides a good measure of the overall secondary to primary ratio of galactic cosmic rays. This makes B/C an important constraint and test for the validity and general applicability of theoretical and numerical models of galactic propagation and heliospheric modulation. For this purpose, the modulation of boron and carbon in the heliosphere must be understood in greater detail. The latest approach to heliospheric modulation, using a numerical model containing a termination shock, a heliosheath and particle drifts, is used to the study the modulation of the two species. This model also includes a more comprehensive set of diffusion coefficients. From this and previous work follows that the model is compatible with a variety of observations, for seven species, i.e. protons, anti-protons, electrons, positrons, helium, boron, and carbon, with the same set of parameters for both solar magnetic polarity cycles. Despite the rather flat interstellar spectrum for carbon below 100MeV/nuc, the modulated spectra at 1AU look very similar for boron and carbon, caused by adiabatic energy losses, implying that the carbon modulation should have a much larger radial gradient in the outer heliosphere below ~200-500MeV/nuc than boron. Significant modulation can be caused by the heliosheath but it is strongly dependent on energy and on the field polarity, with almost no effect at high energies to the largest effect at low energies. The solar wind termination shock has an important effect on the B to C ratio in the heliosphere, although small at Earth, during the A<0 cycle, with E<~600MeV/nuc, but it seems less significant for the A>0 cycle and with increasing tilt angles. Drift models produce different spectra for consecutive solar minimum conditions which may account for the modulation level differences between observations around 100MeV/nuc compared to around 500MeV/nuc. All factors taken into account

  1. Search for antimatter in 1012 eV cosmic rays using Artemis method and interpretation of the cosmic rays spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarede, D.

    1999-04-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is a review of the present knowledge of the antimatter and of the cosmic rays. Theoretical and experimental aspects are presented. It is demonstrated that a measurement of the antimatter abundance in TeV cosmic rays is of fundamental interest, and would establish the symmetric or asymmetric nature of the Universe. The second part is dedicated to the method of antimatter research through the Earth Moon ion spectrometer (ARTEMIS). The account is given of the winter 1996-97 41-nights observation campaign undertaken at the Whipple Observatory in Arizona (USA). A 109 photomultiplier camera is operated on the 40 meter telescope to detect by Cherenkov imaging the cosmic ray initiated showers. We describe the performance of an optical filter used to reduce the noise. The development and the utilization of a simulation program are described. The main work is the analysis of the data: data characterization, understanding of the apparatus, understanding of the noise and its influence, calibration, search for signals by different methods. Subtle systematic effects are uncovered. The simulations establish that the amount of data is insufficient to reveal a shadow effect in the cosmic ray flux. The conclusion of this work is that the experimental setup was not suitable, and we propose important improvements of the method based on a bigger focal plane that would allow to reach a one percent sensitivity on the antimatter content of the cosmic rays. In the third part of the thesis, an interpretation of the total cosmic ray spectrum is proposed and discussed. (author)

  2. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  3. The PAMELA experiment on satellite and its capability in cosmic rays measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Barbier, L M; Bartalucci, S; Bazilevskaja, G; Bellotti, R; Bertazzoni, S; Bidoli, V; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bonvicini, V; Boscherini, M; Bravar, U; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, Per J; Casolino, M; Castellano, M; Castellini, G; Christian, E R; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; D'Alessandro, R; De Marzo, C N; De Pascale, M P; Finetti, N; Furano, G; Gabbanini, A; Galper, A M; Giglietto, N; Grandi, M; Grigorieva, A; Guarino, F; Hof, M; Koldashov, S V; Korotkov, M G; Krizmanic, J F; Krutkov, S; Lund, J; Marangelli, B; Marino, L; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Mirizzi, N; Mitchell, J W; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Morselli, A; Mukhametshin, R; Ormes, J F; Osteria, G; Ozerov, J V; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Perego, A; Piccardi, S; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Salsano, A; Schiavon, Paolo; Scian, G; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spataro, B; Spillantini, P; Spinelli, P; Stephens, S A; Stochaj, S J; Stozhkov, Yu I; Straulino, S; Streitmatter, R E; Taccetti, F; Tesi, M; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasiljev, G; Vignoli, V; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2002-01-01

    The PAMELA equipment will be assembled in 2001 and installed on board the Russian satellite Resurs. PAMELA is conceived mainly to study the antiproton and positron fluxes in cosmic rays up to high energy (190 GeV for p-bar and 270 GeV for e sup +) and to search antinuclei, up to 30 GeV/n, with a sensitivity of 10 sup - sup 7 in the He-bar/He ratio. The PAMELA telescope consists of: a magnetic spectrometer made up of a permanent magnet system equipped with double sided microstrip silicon detectors; a transition radiation detector made up of active layers of proportional straw tubes interleaved with carbon fibre radiators; and a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter made up of layers of tungsten absorbers and silicon detector planes. A time-of-flight system and anti-coincidence counters complete the PAMELA equipment. In the past years, tests have been done on each subdetector of PAMELA; the main results are presented and their implications on the anti-particles identification capability in cosmic rays are discus...

  4. A method to measure the γ-ray content in VHE cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Menzione, A.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Bartoli, B.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Luksys, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine the effectiveness of methods to tag photon initiated air showers and reject hadron initiated ones. The technique is based on the rate reduction in the Moon direction. With a photon energy threshold below or equal to 1 TeV, with an angular resolution of a few mrad and being insensitive to visible light, the proposed CLUE detector allows a wide and original physics program. In particular the direct measurement of the fraction of primary photons in the continuum of the cosmic ray flux is feasible with adequate statistics in a few months of data taking. (orig.)

  5. Nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD) model of cosmic ray propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T

    2017-01-01

    The problem of physical interpretation of the nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD model) for cosmic ray transport in the Galaxy is discussed. The model accounts for the turbulent character of the interstellar medium and the relativistic principle of the speed limitation. Involving fractional calculus and non-Gaussian Lévy statistics yields numerical results compatible with observation data. A special attention is paid to the knee problem. The relativistic speed limit requirement steepens theoretical background spectrum at certain energies, and the position of the break, its sharpness and slopes of asymptotes depend on D α ( E ) and α . (paper)

  6. Markov Stochastic Technique to Determine Galactic Cosmic Ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    calculate the contribution of various galactic locations to the production of certain cosmic ray nuclei ... equation starting from an observer position described by Zhang (1999) we can calculate the elemental or isotopic ... The method depends on solving a group of diffusion transport equations each repre- senting a particular ...

  7. Modern status of the Tien-Shan cosmic ray station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov V.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a description of the new complex installation for the study of extensive air showers which was created at the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station, as well as the results of the first measurements made there in 2015–2016. We also present new results on high-energy radiation observed during a thunderstorm.

  8. Cosmic rays intensity and atmosphere humidity at near earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskomov, V. V.; Sedov, A. N.; Saduyev, N. O.; Kalikulov, O. A.; Naurzbayeva, A. Zh; Alimgazinova, N. Sh; Kenzhina, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of estimation the mutual influence of humidity and flux of cosmic rays in first approximation were carried out. Normalized cross-correlation function of time series of neutron monitors count rate and level of relative atmosphere humidity near cosmic rays registration point is studied. Corrected and uncorrected on pressure minute and hour data of 6NM64 neutron monitor count rate were used for the study. Neutron monitor is located in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, at an altitude of 850 m above sea level. Also, data from NM64 neutron monitor of Tien Shan mountain research station of Institute of Ionosphere, located at an altitude of 3340 m above sea level were used. Uncorrected on pressure cosmic rays intensity better reflects the changes in relative atmosphere humidity. Average and sometimes strong relationship is often observed by time changes of atmosphere humidity near the point of cosmic rays detection and their intensity: the value of normalized cross-correlation function of respective signals, even in case of their long duration and a large number of data (eg, for minute changes at intervals of up to several months) covers 0.5 - 0.75 range, sometimes falling to ∼⃒ 0.4.

  9. Cosmic-ray neutron simulations and measurements in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2014-10-01

    This study used simulations of galactic cosmic ray in the atmosphere to investigate the neutron background environment in Taiwan, emphasising its altitude dependence and spectrum variation near interfaces. The calculated results were analysed and compared with two measurements. The first measurement was a mobile neutron survey from sea level up to 3275 m in altitude conducted using a car-mounted high-sensitivity neutron detector. The second was a previous measured result focusing on the changes in neutron spectra near air/ground and air/water interfaces. The attenuation length of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere was estimated to be 163 g cm(-2) in Taiwan. Cosmic-ray neutron spectra vary with altitude and especially near interfaces. The determined spectra near the air/ground and air/water interfaces agree well with measurements for neutrons below 10 MeV. However, the high-energy portion of spectra was observed to be much higher than our previous estimation. Because high-energy neutrons contribute substantially to a dose evaluation, revising the annual sea-level effective dose from cosmic-ray neutrons at ground level in Taiwan to 35 μSv, which corresponds to a neutron flux of 5.30 × 10(-3) n cm(-2) s(-1), was suggested. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Average Anisotropy Characteristics of High Energy Cosmic Ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solar wind velocity and Ap index. As we know from convection diffusion approximate theory, solar wind velocity plays an important role in cosmic ray modulation. In the absence of solar wind data, one can use the daily values of Ap index. Since Ap val- ues are well correlated with solar wind velocity, we can use Ap values to ...

  11. Performance of the LHCb muon system with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, M; Auriemma, G; Baldini, W; Bencivenni, G; Berutti, R; Bocci, V; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Botchin, B; Cadeddu, S; Campana, P; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Carletti, M; Ciambrone, P; Dane, E; de Capua, S; Deplano, C; De Simone, P; Dettori, F; Falabella, A; Ferreira Rodriguez, F; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Graziani, G; Gruber, L; Kashchuk, A; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Lenzi, M; Levitskaya, O; Mair, K; Maev, O; Manca, G; Martellotti, G; Massafferri Rodrigues, A; Messi, R; Murtas, F; Neustroev, P; Oldeman, R G.C; Palutan, M; Passaleva, G; Penso, G; Petrella, A; Pinci, D; Pozzi, S; Sabatino, G; Saitta, B; Santacesaria, R; Santovetti, E; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, T; Sciubba, A; Shatalov, P; Vecchi, S; Veltri, M; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb Muon system performance is presented using cosmic ray events collected in 2009. These events allowed to test and optimize the detector configuration before the LHC start. The space and time alignment and the measurement of chamber efficiency, time resolution and cluster size are described in detail. The results are in agreement with the expected detector performance.

  12. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: Facts, Myths, and Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-06-27

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in astrophysics/particle theory/particle experiment. In the first part, we explain the important progress made in recent years towards understanding the experimental data on cosmic rays with energies > 10^8 GeV. We begin with a brief survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, mass composition, and arrival directions. At this point we also give a short overview of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of acceleration and propagation in order to discuss the conjectured nearby cosmic ray sources, and emphasize some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos which should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. In the second part, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers. We explain the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from ...

  13. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the. North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of ...

  14. The LHCf experiment modelling cosmic rays at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; D'Alessandro, R; Faus, A; Fukui, K; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Mizuishi, M; Menjo, H; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S B; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Tamura, T; Taki, K; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, K

    2008-01-01

    The LHCf experiment at LHC has been designed to provide a calibration of nuclear interaction models used in cosmic ray physics up to energies relevant to test the region between the knee and the GZK cut-off. Details of the detector and its performances are discussed.

  15. Modelling cosmic ray intensities along the Ulysses trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Ndiitwani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Time dependent cosmic ray modulation in the inner heliosphere is studied by comparing results from a 2-D, time-dependent cosmic ray transport model with Ulysses observations. A compound approach, which combines the effects of the global changes in the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude with drifts to establish a realistic time-dependence, in the diffusion and drift coefficients, are used. We show that this model results in realistic cosmic ray modulation from the Ulysses launch (1990 until recently (2004 when compared to 2.5-GV electron and proton and 1.2-GV electron and Helium observations from this spacecraft. This approach is also applied to compute radial gradients present in 2.5-GV cosmic ray electron and protons in the inner heliosphere. The observed latitude dependence for both positive and negative charged particles during both the fast latitude scan periods, corresponding to different solar activity conditions, could also be realistically computed. For this an additional reduction in particle drifts (compared to diffusion toward solar maximum is needed. This results in a realistic charge-sign dependent modulation at solar maximum and the model is also applied to predict charge-sign dependent modulation up to the next expected solar minimum.

  16. The role of cosmic rays in the Earth's atmospheric processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmic rays; global electric circuit; ion-aerosol; cloud variation; weather and climate; global warming. PACS Nos 94.20.Wq; 96.50.S; 96.50.Vg. 1. Introduction. The Sun is the chief driving force of the terrestrial atmospheric processes. Hence, any variation in atmospheric processes is attributed to variation in solar radia-.

  17. Fibre laser hydrophones for cosmic ray particle detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.J.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of ultra high energetic cosmic neutrinos provides a unique means to search for extragalactic sources that accelerate particles to extreme energies. It allows to study the neutrino component of the GZK cut-off in the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the search for neutrinos beyond this

  18. Status of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the recent results on Ultra-High energy cosmic rays obtained by the Auger and Telescope Array Observatories, and discuss some of the Astrophysical scenarios that could account for them, a connection with LHC results  as well as the possible connections to neutrino and gamma ray observations.

  19. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particle detectors of different types, have been oper- ated at different latitudes, including instruments car- ried by balloons (Braun et al. 2005; Barbashina et al. ..... connect the influence of the cosmic rays with atmospheric physical-chemical processes. Different instrumentations and techniques have been elaborated to study ...

  20. CERN explores link between cosmic rays and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    "Scientists at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, have started a new experiment to investigate the possible influence of galactic cosmic rays on the Earths clouds and climate. This is the first time that a high energy physics accelerator has been used for atmospheric and climate science." (1 page)

  1. Romi Bhabha and Cosmic Ray Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmic rays are very high energy particles arriving from the depths of space and incident on the earth's atmosphere at all places and at all times. The energy of these particles extends over 12 decades from around 109 ev to 1021 ev and mercifully for the survival of life, the intensity falls by atleast 22 decades from about 100 ...

  2. Cosmic rays and total ozone at higher middle latitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Kudela, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 9 (2003), s. 2139-2144 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : cosmic rays * ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  3. Search for microwave emission from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho jr., W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, L.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 5 (2012), "051104-1"-"051104-5" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : air showers * ultrahigh energy cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012

  4. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  5. Study of cosmic ray nuclei detection by an image calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Ozerov, Yu.V.; Zemskov, V.M.; Zverev, V.G.; Galper, A.M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Carlson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fuglesang, C. [ESA-EAC, Cologne (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that a cosmic gamma-ray telescope made of a multilayer silicon tracker and a imaging CsI calorimeter, is capable of identifying cosmic ray nuclei. The telescope charge resolution is estimated around 4% independently of charge. Simulation methods are used to determine the telescope properties for nuclei detection.

  6. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 1. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as Observed by a Small Multiwire Detector Operated at High Cutoff Rigidity. Abdullrahnan Maghrabi Mohammed Alanazi A. Aldosari M. Almuteri. Research Article Volume 38 Issue 1 March ...

  7. Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants have long been considered to be the dominant sources of Galactic cosmic rays. For a long time the prime evidence consisted of radio synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants, indicating the presence of electrons with energies of several GeV. However, in order to explain the

  8. The Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector and cosmic ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M. L.; Corbato, S.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.; Steinberg, R. I.

    The above-ground and underground components of the Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) and cosmic-ray telescope being constructed at Homestake are described, and its use for cosmic-ray observations is discussed. The underground LASD comprises 200 0.3 x 0.3 x 8-m teflon-lined PVC scintillator elements containing mineral-oil-based scintillator and viewed by two 5-inch photomultiplier tubes each, with element time and spatial resolution 1.3 ns and 15 cm, respectively, and muon background flux 1100/sq m yr. The elements are arranged in a hollow 8 x 8 x 16-m box surrounding the Brookhaven Cl-37 solar-neutrino detector at a depth of 4850 ft. The surface air-shower array consists of 100 3-sq-m scintillation cells (4 x 8 x 2-ft reinforced-concrete boxes containing styrofoam insulation and 4-inch-deep scintillator viewed by two 5-inch photomultiplier tubes) deployed over an area of about 0.8 sq km above the LASD. The combined instruments can study the multiplicity and transverse-momentum distributions of cosmic-ray muons, the elemental composition of the primary cosmic rays, and related phenomena.

  9. Markov Stochastic Technique to Determine Galactic Cosmic Ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The method follows the trajectory of random walking pseudo-particles that represent the particle number density. Instead of solving particle transport equations of one nuclear species at a time, we use a matrix to represent the cosmic ray composition so that number densities at a particular location and particle momentum for ...

  10. Further delays hit troubled $2bn cosmic-ray detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    "A $2bn mission to study cosmic rays will have to wait another few months before being sent to the International Space Station (ISS) after NASA announced last month that it was pushing back the launch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour until 26 February 2011" (0.5 page)

  11. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral ...

  12. Development of cosmic-ray radiography with nuclear emulsion and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    2017-01-01

    We are developing cosmic-ray radiography with nuclear emulsion. Cosmic-ray radiography is non-destructive inspection technology to take image of inner structure of gigantic objects (nuclear reactor, pyramids, volcanoes and so on). We conducted cosmic-ray radiography of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from 2014 to 2015 and are conducting cosmic-ray radiography of Pyramids at Egypt from 2015. In this paper, technical details and latest results are presented. (author)

  13. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  14. Signs of cosmic rays in gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Denis Borgarelli

    2010-01-01

    One of the phenomena predicted by Einstein in the derivation of general relativity is the existence of small perturbations of the metric that he named gravitational waves. As they travel through space oscillates the space-time according to its polarization. This is the only major prediction of general relativity not yet proven completely. The small signal generated by the passage of a gravitational wave compared to the noise in the system of detection makes their direct detection one challenge of modern science. In this paper we study the noise generated by cosmic rays in the gravitational antenna Mario Schenberg, located in the city of Sao Paulo. Single muons and hadrons flux measurements held in the northern hemisphere were used to calculate the expected flux of these particles in the city of Sao Paulo. The calculation of the energy deposited in the detector of gravitational waves from cosmic rays was performed by Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4. The transport of muons and protons, with several energy and some different angles of incidence, across the building and the resonant sphere was simulated. We developed a thermo-acoustic model, called multi-point, suitable for calculating the energy deposited in the normal modes from the energy deposited on the sphere by elementary particles. With these results we calculate the expected rate of cosmic ray signals in the main detection mode of gravitational waves, nl = 12, of the Mario Schenberg detector, for temperatures T noise between 10 -5 and 10 -7 K. The results showed for the designed for 4.2 K sensitivity of the Mario Schenberg detector that the rate of signals due to cosmic rays is very small, being around 5 events per day. However, when it will reach the quantum limit will be needed a more detailed analysis of the antenna signal output, since the expected number of cosmic ray noise increases considerably, reaching about 250 signals per day. (author)

  15. Cosmic-ray electrons and galactic radio emission - a conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Daniel, R.R.; Stephens, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to attempts in the past to deduce information of astrophysical importance from a study of the galactic non-thermal continuum in relation to cosmic ray electrons observed in the neighbourhood of the Earth. Such investigations were carried out using the cosmic ray electron data obtained from a single experiment or by making use of an average spectrum derived from world data, although it was known that the flux values observed by different investigators in any energy band differed by as much as a factor of 4. This has led to conflicting conclusions being drawn from the analysis of data of different observers. The present authors used a different approach for analysing the observational data, based on arguments of internal consistency between each measured electron spectrum and the magnetic field strength and the dimension of the radio-emitting region required to explain the radio observations. Such an approach makes it possible to highlight the inconsistencies associated with some of the electron measurements and permits certain inferences of cosmic ray and astrophysical interest. From the discussion it is concluded that the observed spectral index of the radio continuum in the Galaxy is in conflict with some of the cosmic ray electron measurements; also that the absolute intensities of cosmic ray electrons as measured in some experiments are so low that they cannot be reconciled either with the interstellar magnetic field limits or with the extent of the galactic disk, and it is likely that the field strength derived from Faraday rotation measurements gives only a lower limit to the local magnetic field in the Galaxy. (U.K.)

  16. Single particle effects, Biostack, and risk evaluation - Studies on the radiation risk from Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    The possible health risks posed by Galactic cosmic rays, especially the possible heightened cancer risk, are examined. The results of the Biostack studies of the biological effects of high-energy cosmic rays are discussed. The biological mechanisms involved in possible harm due to cosmic rays are considered.

  17. Electron anisotropy: A tool to discriminate dark matter in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are typically affected by large uncertainties. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons (CRE) is basically model independent and offers a straightforward criterion to discriminate among CRE from DM or from local discrete sources, like e.g. pulsars. In particular, in absence of the latter, DM sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if a larger anisotropy is detected, this would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete CRE sources. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years.

  18. The distribution of time intervals between cosmic ray showers -a study of the randomness of cosmic ray arrival times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, R.W.; Gerhardy, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    It has recently been reported that cosmic ray showers arrive in an appreciably nonrandom manner with an excessive number of short time intervals between showers. The authors have investigated the distribution of time intervals between showers of size Nsub(e) approximately > 10 5 and find that if there is any excess of short intervals it must be approximately < 5%

  19. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning? : A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow,

  20. At what particle energy do extragalactic cosmic rays start to predominate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibig, Tadeusz; Wolfendale, Arnold W

    2005-01-01

    We have previously argued (e.g. Szabelski et al 2002 Astropart. Phys. 17 125) that the well-known 'ankle' in the cosmic ray energy spectrum, at log E (eV) ∼ 18.7-19.0, marks the transition from mainly galactic sources at lower energies to mainly extragalactic above. Recently, however, there have been claims for lower transitional energies, specifically from log E (eV) ∼ 17.0 (Thompson et al 2004 Proc. Catania Cosmic Ray Conf.) via 17.2-17.8 (Berezinsky et al 2004 Astropart. Phys. 21 617) to 18.0 (Hillas 2004 Proc. Leeds Cosmic Ray Conf.). In our model the ankle arises naturally from the sum of simple power law-spectra with slopes differing by Δγ ∼ 1.8; from differential slope γ = -3.8 for galactic particles (near log E = 19) to γ ∼ -2.0 for extragalactic sources. In the other models, on the other hand, the ankle is intrinsic to the extragalactic component alone, and arises from the shape of the rate of energy loss versus energy for the (assumed) protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our detailed analysis of the world's data on the ultra-high energy spectrum shows that taken together, or separately, the resulting mean sharpness of the ankle (second derivative of the log(intensity x E 3 ) with respect to log E) is consistent with our 'mixed' model. For explanation in terms of extragalactic particles alone, however, the ankle will be at the wrong energy-for reasonable production models and of insufficient magnitude if, as seems likely, there is still a significant fraction of heavy nuclei at the ankle energy

  1. Are stellar flares and the galactic cosmic rays related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that the Galactic cosmic rays may be accelerated by a two stage process in which one process, such as stellar flares, inject non-relativistic, super-thermal particles which are subsequently boosted to cosmic ray energies by some other mechanism, perhaps related to supernovae (eg. Casse and Goret, 1978). Two-stage models in which the injection and re-acceleration processes are uncorrelated are apparently untenable because they cannot fit the observed energy dependence of the LiBeBN/CNO ratio (Fransson and Epstein, 1980). Here it is shown that additional contraints derived by considering the energy losses and nuclear reactions suffered by the super-thermal particles prior to their re-acceleration severely restrict other types of two-stage models. (Auth.)

  2. Uncertainty from Extrapolation of Cosmic Ray Air Shower Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Rasha; Thomson, Gordon

    In this work we investigate the uncertainties in the prediction of the average shower maximum, , by the currently used high energy cosmic ray shower simulation models. Recent measurements at the LHC have provided constrains on some of the parameters in these models. However, uncertainties in the prediction of remain due to extrapolation from accelerator data up to center of mass of 250 TeV. The extrapolation in the elasticity, multiplicity, and p-p cross section from the LHC energy range to 3 × 1019 eV in a cosmic ray's lab frame is investigated in this proceeding. Our calculation of the uncertainty in is approximately equal to the difference among the modern models being used in the field.

  3. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, H; Villasenor, L

    2008-01-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm 2 ) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV

  4. Inverse Flux versus Pressure of Muons from Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, D.; Armendariz, R.

    2017-12-01

    When an incoming cosmic ray proton or atom collides with particles in earth's atmosphere a shower of secondary muons is created. Cosmic ray muon flux was measured at the Queensborough Community College using a QuarkNet detector consisting of three stacked scintillator muon counters and a three-fold coincidence trigger. Data was recorded during a three-day period during a severe weather storm that occurred from March 13-17, 2017. A computer program was created in Python to read the muon flux rate and atmospheric pressure sensor readings from the detector's data acquisition board. The program converts the data from hexadecimal to decimal, re-bins the data in a more suitable format, creates and overlays plots of muon flux with atmospheric pressure. Results thus far show a strong correlation between muon flux and atmospheric pressure. More data analysis will be done to verify the above conclusion.

  5. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is desinged to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 1017 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 1018 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations.

  6. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla, Pue., 72000 (Mexico); Villasenor, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)], E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  7. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  8. Anomalous Transport of High Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Nasser F.

    2014-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays may exhibit anomalous transport as they traverse and are accelerated by a collection of supernovae explosions in a galactic superbubble. Signatures of this anomalous transport can show up in the particles' evolution and their spectra. In a continuous-time-random- walk (CTRW) model assuming standard diffusive shock acceleration theory (DSA) for each shock encounter, and where the superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks, acceleration and transport in the superbubble can be shown to be sub-diffusive. While the sub-diffusive transport can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These CTRW simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.

  9. Cosmic-ray tests of the DOe preshower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baringer, P.; Bross, A.; Buescher, V.; Canelli, F.; Davis, G.; Del Signore, K.; Desai, S.; Estrada, J.; Ginther, G.; Gordeev, A.; Grannis, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hou, S. E-mail: suen@fnal.gov; Kotcher, J.; Lincoln, D.; Liu, M.; Mayorov, A.A.; Neal, H.A.; Nunnemann, T.; Patwa, A.; Qian, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rubinov, P.; Sawyer, L.; Talalaevskii, A.; Turcot, A.S.; Kooten, R. van; Wang, Z.M.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Yamin, P.; Yip, K.; Zhou, B

    2001-08-21

    The DOe preshower detector consists of scintillator strips with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, and a readout using Visible Light Photon Counters. The response to minimum ionizing particles has been tested with cosmic-ray muons. We report results on the gain calibration and light-yield distributions. The spatial resolution is investigated taking into account the light sharing between strips, the effects of multiple scattering and various systematic uncertainties. The detection efficiency and noise contamination are also investigated.

  10. Cosmic-ray tests of the DOe preshower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Baringer, P; Büscher, V; Canelli, F; Davis, G; Del Signore, K; Desai, S; Estrada, J; Ginther, G; Gordeev, A; Grannis, P; Grünendahl, S; Hou, S; Kotcher, J; Lincoln, D; Liu, M; Mayorov, A A; Neal, H A; Nunnemann, T; Patwa, A; Qian, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rubinov, P; Sawyer, L; Talalaevskii, A; Turcot, A S; Kooten, R V; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Yamin, P; Yip, K; Zhou, B

    2001-01-01

    The DOe preshower detector consists of scintillator strips with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, and a readout using Visible Light Photon Counters. The response to minimum ionizing particles has been tested with cosmic-ray muons. We report results on the gain calibration and light-yield distributions. The spatial resolution is investigated taking into account the light sharing between strips, the effects of multiple scattering and various systematic uncertainties. The detection efficiency and noise contamination are also investigated.

  11. On the spectrum of stable secondary nuclei in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, P.

    2017-10-01

    The ratio of the fluxes of secondary and primary nuclei in cosmic rays has long been used as an indicator of the grammage traversed in the journey of cosmic ray particles throughout the Galaxy. The basic idea is that primary particles are accelerated in astrophysical sources, such as supernova remnant shocks and eventually propagate in the Galactic volume, occasionally interacting with gas, mainly in the disc of the Galaxy, and there they produce secondary nuclei through spallation. At sufficiently high energy, typically ≳100 GeV/n, the ratio of fluxes of the secondary nucleus to that of the main primary nucleus is found to scale as Ek^{-δ }, where Ek is the energy per nucleon (a conserved quantity in spallation reactions) and δ identifies the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The same shock waves that may be responsible for cosmic ray acceleration in the first place also pick up any other charged particle in the upstream, provided being above threshold for injection. The secondary nuclei produced by spallation in the interstellar medium are no exception, hence they also get accelerated. This effect is unavoidable, only its strength may be subject of debate. We compute the spectrum of secondary elements such as boron and lithium taking into account shock reacceleration and compare our predictions with the recent observations of the B/C ratio and preliminary measurements of the boron and lithium flux. Both these sets of data seem to confirm that reacceleration of secondary nuclei indeed plays an important role, thereby affecting the validity of those scaling rules that are often used in cosmic ray physics.

  12. Human exposure to galactic cosmic rays in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Research Center GCR (galactic cosmic rays) code (HZETRN) and the computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model are used to estimate astronaut exposures, from GCR particles, for missions beyond earth's magnetosphere. Conventional risk assessments in terms of total absorbed dose and dose equivalent are made for skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow. For each organ, evaluations are made of relative contributions from incident protons, iron nuclei, and their secondary reaction products.

  13. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  14. PREFACE: Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2008-02-01

    The physics of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos has become nowadays a subject of fast development. On the other hand present and planed experimental facilities installed in the American continent, attract and facilitate the involvement of local young researchers. For these reasons Professor Oscar Saavedra and his team of the high altitude cosmic ray Chacaltaya laboratory and the Universidad Mayor de San Andres in La Paz Bolivia, conceived the idea of organizing the First School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics in La Paz 9-20 August 2004. That school was possible, in spite of the scarcity of funds, thanks to the solidary participation of several distinguish lecturers who paid their travel and local expenses. Their lectures were made available on a CD by the local students. It was then decided that a second school be organized for 2006 in Mexico. It was held from 28 August to 15 September 15. Some of the lecturers in this Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics were too busy to write their lectures, but here we put at the disposal of the interested community the contributions of Roberto Battiston, Karen S Caballero, Edgar Casimiro, David Delepine, Giorgio Giacomelli, Gonzalo Rodríguez and Luis Villaseñor. This School was possible thanks to the financial assistance of CONACyT (Mexico), the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), the University of Torino and the Centro Latino Americano de Fisica. Arnulfo Zepeda The editors of these proceedings are: Rebeca López Rodrigo Pelayo Oscar Saavedra Arnulfo Zepeda

  15. A simplified model for the acceleration of cosmic ray particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groen, Oeyvind [Oslo University College, Faculty of Engineering, PO Box 4, St. Olavs Plass, N-0130 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not meant as a detailed model, which is expected to be rather complicated, but rather as a 'pedagogic model' pointing out some important elements of a more complete model. Furthermore, the present model is sufficiently simple that it may be suitable as an 'astrophysical example' in the teaching of the special theory of relativity. In this model a particle is accelerated by ultrarelativistic shocks in a source of gamma ray bursts. No assumption as to the details of the accelerating mechanism is made except that the force acting on a charged particle depends only upon the charge of the particle and not upon its mass, and the product of the force and the thickness of the shock waves must be sufficiently great. It is important for the success of the model that the energy radiated by the particles is taken mainly from the Schott energy and not from the kinetic energy of the particles. It is shown how this model of the accelerating process can explain why electrons are accelerated to less energy than protons and heavier nuclei. The mechanism also explains how particles may be accelerated to energies greater than 10{sup 20} eV.

  16. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunne Eimear M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth’s cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: (1 monthly to decadal timescale analysis and (2 daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on sudden high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush decrease events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS. Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983–1995 period are attributed to the chance agreement between solar changes and artificially induced cloud trends. It is possible that the satellite cloud datasets and analysis methods may simply be too insensitive to detect a small solar signal. Evidence from ground-based studies suggests that some weak but statistically significant cosmic ray-cloud relationships may exist at regional scales, involving mechanisms related to the global electric circuit. However, a poor understanding of these mechanisms and their effects on cloud makes the net impacts of such links uncertain. Regardless of this, it is clear that there is no robust evidence of a widespread link between the cosmic ray flux and clouds.

  17. Radiographic Images Produced by Cosmic-Ray Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    An application of high energy physics instrumentation is to look for structure or different densities (materials) hidden in a matrix (tons) of material. By tracing muons produced by primary Cosmic Rays, it has been possible to generate a kind of radiographs which shows the inner structure of dense containers, monuments or mountains. In this paper I review the basics principles of such techniques with emphasis in the Sun Pyramid project, carried out by IFUNAM in collaboration with Instituto Nacioanal de Antropologia e Historia

  18. Pulsars and cosmic rays in the dense supernova shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, V.S.; Prilutsky, O.F.

    1977-01-01

    Cosmic rays (c.r.) injected by a young pulsar in the dense supernova shell are considered. The maintenance of the Galactic c.r. pool by pulsar production is shown to have a difficulty: adiabatic energy losses of c.r. in the expanding shell demand a high initial c.r. luminosity of pulsar, which results in too high flux of γ-radiation produced through π 0 -decays (in excess over diffuse γ-ray background). (author)

  19. Time-Correlated Particles Produced by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, George F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Andrew M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nakae, Les F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pawelczak, Iwona [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, Neal J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheets, Steven A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wurtz, Ron E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    This report describes the NA-22 supported cosmic ray experimental and analysis activities carried out at LLNL since the last report, dated October 1, 2013. In particular we report on an analysis of the origin of the plastic scintillator signals resembling the signals produced by minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). Our most notable result is that when measured in coincidence with a liquid scintillator neutron signal the MIP-like signals in the plastic scintillators are mainly due to high energy tertiary neutrons.

  20. On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in p-Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum Xmax and the muon number on the ground Nμ. The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.

  1. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  2. Cosmic-ray test and temperature effects of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin; Lai Yongfang; Li Qinghua; Tang Le

    2004-01-01

    A comic-ray test system has been built for testing the performance of MRPC modules. Some methods have been studied to improve the time resolution of the cosmic-ray test based on this testing system. The time resolutions of about 84 ps and 75 ps can be achieved for MRPC and its reference time, respectively. The temperature effects of MRPC have also been researched and some useful results are obtained. (author)

  3. Field dependent cosmic ray streaming at high rigidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Data from underground μ meson telescopes at depths of 25, 40, and 80 mwe covering the period 1965--1973 have been analyzed as a function of interplanetary magnetic field direction. Cosmic ray streaming both in and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, with directions dependent on the sense of the interplanetary magnetic field, is observed throughout the period at all depths. The field dependent streaming in the ecliptic plane exhibits some variability in amplitude and phase but contains a component in the direction perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field direction which is consistent with B x delN streaming due to a perpendicular cosmic ray density gradient pointing southward (higher density below the ecliptic plane than above it). In the case of the field dependent streaming perpendicular to the ecliptic plane the direction of the streaming has remained remarkably consistent over the 9-year period. One possible source of this streaming is B x delN streaming due to a radial heliocentric cosmic ray density gradient; this possibility is discussed along with other possible sources. There does not appear to be an obvious variation in the amplitude of the field dependent streaming either in or perpendicular to the ecliptic plane with increasing rigidity; both effects are still apparent at rigidities well above the 52-GV threshold rigidity of the Socorro 80-mwe telescope. The amplitudes of both anisotropies appear larger at solar maximum than at solar minimum

  4. 1912 – 2012: a century of studying cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    One year ago, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was docked to the International Space Station. This state-of-the-art tool for studying cosmic rays has revolutionised methods of detecting cosmic radiation, which was discovered barely a century ago.   Victor Francis Hess (in the basket), back from his balloon flight in August 1912. Source: American Physical Society. Exactly one hundred years ago, the Austrian-American physicist Victor Francis Hess discovered cosmic rays. The researcher observed the phenomenon while on board a balloon; he found that at an altitude of 1,000 to 5,000 metres, the wires of his Wulf electrometer (a tool used to measure radiation) showed an increase in electrical charge. Hess had just proven the existence of ionising radiation coming from outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Twenty years or so later, the invention of the Geiger-Müller counter enabled physicists to study the properties of the rays more precisely. One century later, cosmic rays and the ques...

  5. Do coronal holes influence cosmic ray daily harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    Coronal holes are identified by their low emissivity in either EUV (Munro and Withrobe, 1973) or in X-rays (Krieger et al, 1973). They are seats of unidirectional magnetic fields. Also, high speed solar wind streams originate in them. Also, high speed solar wind streams originate in then (Krieger et al, 1973; Neupert and Pizzo, 1974; Nolte et al, 1976). Coronal holes often extend over a wide range of heliolatitudes (Timothy et al, 1975). Elsewhere in the Proceedings we have presented results on the long term changes observed in the amplitudes and the times of maximum of the diurnal, the semidiurnal and the tridiurnal variations of cosmic rays, at low (neutrons) and at high (underground muons) primary rigidities (Ahluwalia, 1977). We have shown that a dramatic shift to early hours is noticeable in the times of maxima of the harmonics during 1971-72 period. In this paper we examine the nature of the contributions of off-ecliptic cosmic rays of high enough rigidity, streaming under the influence of large scale ordered interplanetary magnetic field set up by the coronal holes, to the cosmic ray daily harmonics. Some models are presented and discussed in a preliminary fashion. (author)

  6. The Galactic Center: A Petaelectronvolt Cosmic-ray Acceleration Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi-Qing; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Zhen [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Hai-Jin; Chen, Tian-Lu [Physics Department of the Science School, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China)

    2017-02-20

    The multiteraelectronvolt γ -rays from the galactic center (GC) have a cutoff at tens of teraelectronvolts, whereas the diffuse emission has no such cutoff, which is regarded as an indication of petaelectronvolt proton acceleration by the HESS experiment. It is important to understand the inconsistency and study the possibility that petaelectronvolt cosmic-ray acceleration could account for the apparently contradictory point and diffuse γ -ray spectra. In this work, we propose that the cosmic rays are accelerated up to greater than petaelectronvolts in the GC. The interaction between cosmic rays and molecular clouds is responsible for the multiteraelectronvolt γ -ray emissions from both the point and diffuse sources today. Enhanced by the small volume filling factor (VFF) of the clumpy structure, the absorption of the γ -rays leads to a sharp cutoff spectrum at tens of teraelectronvolts produced in the GC. Away from the GC, the VFF grows, and the absorption enhancement becomes negligible. As a result, the spectra of γ -ray emissions for both point and diffuse sources can be successfully reproduced under such a self-consistent picture. In addition, a “surviving tail” at ∼100 TeV is expected from the point source, which can be observed by future projects CTA and LHAASO. Neutrinos are simultaneously produced during proton-proton (PP) collision. With 5–10 years of observations, the KM3Net experiment will be able to detect the petaelectronvolt source according to our calculation.

  7. A study of the link between cosmic rays and clouds with a cloud chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Fastrup, B; Lillestøl, Egil; Thorn, E; Bosteels, Michel; Gonidec, A; Harigel, G G; Kirkby, Jasper; Mele, S; Minginette, P; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Schinzel, D; Seidl, W; Grundsøe, P; Marsh, N D; Polny, J; Svensmark, H; Viisanen, Y; Kurvinen, K L; Orava, Risto; Hämeri, K; Kulmala, M; Laakso, I; Mäkelä, J M; O'Dowd, C D; Afrosimov, V; Basalaev, A; Panov, M; Laaksonen, B D; Joutsensaari, J; Ermakov, V; Makhmutov, V S; Maksumov, O; Pokrevsky, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Svirzhevsky, N S; Carslaw, K; Yin, Y; Trautmann, T; Arnold, F; Wohlfrom, K H; Hagen, D; Schmitt, J; Whitefield, P; Aplin, K; Harrison, R G; Bingham, R; Close, Francis Edwin; Gibbins, C; Irving, A; Kellett, B; Lockwood, M; Petersen, D; Szymanski, W W; Wagner, P E; Vrtala, A; CERN. Geneva. SPS-PS Experiments Committee

    2000-01-01

    Recent satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by clouds. If this correlation were to be established by a causal mechanism, it could provide a crucial step in understanding the long-sought mechanism connecting solar and climate variability. The Earth's climate seems to be remarkably sensitive to solar activity, but variations of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation appear to be too small to account for the observed climate variability. However, since the GCR intensity is strongly modulated by the solar wind, a GCR-cloud link may provide a sufficient amplifying mechanism. Moreover if this connection were to be confirmed, it could have profound consequences for our understanding of the solar contributions to the current global warming. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) project proposes to test experimentally the existence a link between cosmic rays and cloud formation, and to understand the microphysical me...

  8. Strangelets and the TeV-PeV cosmic-ray anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Kumiko; Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles; Silk, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Several experiments (e.g., Milagro and IceCube) have reported the presence in the sky of regions with significant excess in the arrival direction distributions of Galactic cosmic rays in the TeV-to-PeV energy range. Here we study the possibility that these hotspots are a manifestation of the peculiar nature of these cosmic rays, and of the presence of molecular clouds near the sources. We propose that stable quark matter lumps or so-called strangelets can be emitted in the course of the transition of a neutron star to a more compact astrophysical object. A fraction of these massive particles would lose their charge by spallation or electron capture in molecular clouds located in the immediate neighborhood of their source, and propagate rectilinearly without decaying further, hence inducing anisotropies of the order of the cloud size. With reasonable astrophysical assumptions regarding the neutron star transition rate, strangelet injection and neutralization rates, we can reproduce successfully the observed hotspot characteristics and their distribution in the sky.

  9. Strangelets and the TeV–PeV cosmic-ray anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, Kumiko, E-mail: kotera@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 – CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris (France); Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: mperezga@usal.es [Department of Fundamental Physics and IUFFyM, University of Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: silk@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 – CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Several experiments (e.g., Milagro and IceCube) have reported the presence in the sky of regions with significant excess in the arrival direction distributions of Galactic cosmic rays in the TeV-to-PeV energy range. Here we study the possibility that these hotspots are a manifestation of the peculiar nature of these cosmic rays, and of the presence of molecular clouds near the sources. We propose that stable quark matter lumps or so-called strangelets can be emitted in the course of the transition of a neutron star to a more compact astrophysical object. A fraction of these massive particles would lose their charge by spallation or electron capture in molecular clouds located in the immediate neighborhood of their source, and propagate rectilinearly without decaying further, hence inducing anisotropies of the order of the cloud size. With reasonable astrophysical assumptions regarding the neutron star transition rate, strangelet injection and neutralization rates, we can reproduce successfully the observed hotspot characteristics and their distribution in the sky.

  10. Voyager measurements of the isotopic composition of cosmic-ray aluminum and implications for the propagation of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiak, A.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the cosmic-ray isotopic composition of aluminum in the low-energy range form 75 to 206 MeV per nucleon.This measurement was made using the high-energy telescope of the CRS experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft during the time period from 1977 to 1993 with an average solar modulation level about 497 MV, roughly the same as at Earth near sunspot minimum. We obtain approximately 430 Al events of which approximately 35 are Al-26 and 395 are Al-27. The Al isotopes were separated with an average mass resolution sigma of 0.35 amu. Our interpretation of the isotopic composition of cosmic-ray aluminum is based on a standard Leaky-Box model for the interstellar propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei using the latest cross sections of the New Mexico-Saclay collaboration as well as a disk-halo diffusion model. From our observed ratio Al-26/Al-27 of 8.3 +/- 2.4 % we deduce an average interstellar density of about 0.52 (+0.26, -0.2) atoms per cu cm. This density is larger than the value of 0.28 (+0.14, -0.11) atoms per cu cm we found from an analysis of the observed abundance of the longer lived Be-10 made using data from the Voyager detectors over almost the same time interval and using essentially the same propagation program.

  11. Cosmic Ray Origin: Lessons from Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Galactic/Extragalactic Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, Etienne

    2014-11-15

    We examine the question of the origin of the Galactic cosmic-rays (GCRs) in the light of the data available at the highest energy end of the spectrum. We argue that the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and of the KASCADE-Grande experiment suggest that the transition between the Galactic and the extragalactic components takes place at the energy of the ankle in the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum, and at an energy of the order of 10{sup 17} eV for protons. Such a high energy for Galactic protons appears difficult to reconcile with the general view that GCRs are accelerated by the standard diffusive shock acceleration process at the forward shock of individual supernova remnants (SNRs). We also review various difficulties of the standard SNR-GCR connection, related to the evolution of the light element abundances and to significant isotopic anomalies. We point out that most of the power injected by the supernovæ in the Galaxy is actually released inside superbubbles, which may thus play an important role in the origin of cosmic-rays, and could solve some persistent problems of the standard SNR-GCR scenario in a rather natural way.

  12. Study of Primary Cosmic Ray Electrons In Energy Range 10^11 - 10^13 Ev By Pamela Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, S.; Pamela Collaboration

    The main goal of the magnetic spectrometer PAMELA is the study of antiparticle fluxes with energy up to 300 GeV in cosmic rays on board satellite. A modification of instrument was done by introducing of neutron detector. This device was placed under imaging calorimeter and bottom scintillator counter. It consists of two layers of 36 3He gas counters enveloped by a polyethylene moderator. The neutron detector gives additional possibility to identify the antiprotons going in aperture of spectrome- ter and generating the nuclear cascade in tungsten plates of calorimeter. This shower is followed by big number of neutrons in contrast to electromagnetic one caused by elec- tron or positron. From other side the combination of the imaging calorimeter, bottom scintillator and neutron detector constitute the independent instrument with large field of view which gives the possibility to measure the electron-positron cosmic ray com- ponent in energy range 1011-1013 eV with a rejection factor of order 10-4 regarding to nuclear one.

  13. Cosmic-ray thermal neutron detection for environmental purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looms, M. C.; Rosolem, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Andreasen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron detection has been successfully used to produce time-series of hectometer-scale soil moisture estimates at various soil types and land covers. The method relies on measurements of epithermal neutron intensities with energies in the range of approximately 10-1000 eV (electron Volt). As the cosmic-ray neutron technology matures, additional sensing possibilities emerge, such as biomass, snow and litter layer thickness detection. The physical processes controlling neutron transport depend on the neutron energy. Because of this, many of these new applications benefit from measurements of cosmic-ray neutrons at multiple energy levels. For instance, several published studies suggest a correlation between the thermal-to-epithermal ratio and amount of biomass, where thermal neutrons refer to neutron energies below 0.5 eV. However, the vast majority of the theoretical investigations to date have focused on epithermal neutrons for environmental applications, since epithermal neutrons are more sensitive to the presence of hydrogen than at other energies. As a result, not much is known about thermal neutron transport in environmental systems. In this study, we investigate the thermal neutron behavior in environmental settings using the neutron transport model Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code (MCNP6). First, we model the two common detector types: 1) The bare detector, measuring mainly thermal neutrons, and 2) the moderated detector, measuring mainly epithermal neutrons. The percentage of epithermal neutrons captured using the bare detector and the percentage of the thermal neutrons captured using the moderated detector is quantified for two separate detector systems and compared to measured values. Second, we determine whether it is relevant to correct thermal measurements for changes in vapor pressure, using a similar procedure previously proposed for epithermal neutron measurements. Finally, we investigate the area of influence of the two

  14. Constraints on particle dark matter from cosmic-ray antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Maccione, L.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic-ray antiprotons represent an important channel for dark matter indirect-detection studies. Current measurements of the antiproton flux at the top of the atmosphere and theoretical determinations of the secondary antiproton production in the Galaxy are in good agreement, with no manifest deviation which could point to an exotic contribution in this channel. Therefore, antiprotons can be used as a powerful tool for constraining particle dark matter properties. By using the spectrum of PAMELA data from 50 MV to 180 GV in rigidity, we derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section (or decay rate, for decaying dark matter) for the whole spectrum of dark matter annihilation (decay) channels and under different hypotheses of cosmic-rays transport in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. For typical models of galactic propagation, the constraints are strong, setting a lower bound on the dark matter mass of a ''thermal'' relic at about 40–80 GeV for hadronic annihilation channels. These bounds are enhanced to about 150 GeV on the dark matter mass, when large cosmic-rays confinement volumes in the Galaxy are considered, and are reduced to 3–4 GeV for annihilation to light quarks (no bound for heavy-quark production) when the confinement volume is small. Bounds for dark matter lighter than few tens of GeV are due to the low energy part of the PAMELA spectrum, an energy region where solar modulation is relevant: to this aim, we have implemented a detailed solution of the transport equation in the heliosphere, which allowed us not only to extend bounds to light dark matter, but also to determine the uncertainty on the constraints arising from solar modulation modelling. Finally, we estimate the impact of soon-to-come AMS-02 data on the antiproton constraints

  15. Holographic recording of cosmic ray tracks in BEBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjelkhagen, H.; Pouyat, F.; Seidl, W.; Harigel, G.; Baltay, C.; Bregman, M.; Hibbs, M.; Schaffer, A.; Cence, R.; Brucker, E.B.; Hart, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    We report on a successful test of holography in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at CERN, which was filled with a heavy neon-hydrogen mixture. During the test of a modified in-line scheme we photographed bubble tracks longer than 1 m, which were produced by cosmic rays. The smallest bubbles, which were recorded with excellent contrast, had a diameter of > or approx. 120 μm. This presents an improved resolution of a factor of five compared to photos taken with conventional cameras. (orig.)

  16. Antiprotons from spallation of cosmic rays on ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, F

    2002-01-01

    We provide the first evaluation of the secondary interstellar cosmic antiproton flux that is fully consistent with cosmic ray nuclei in the framework of a two-zone diffusion model. We also study and conservatively quantify all possible sources of uncertainty that may affect that antiproton flux. Uncertainties related to propagation are shown to range between 10% and 25%, depending on which part of the spectrum is considered, while the ones related to nuclear physics stand around 22-25 % over all the energy spectrum.

  17. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  18. Assembly Manual for the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, M

    2002-01-01

    The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector consists of 3 main components that must be prepared separately before they can be assembled. These components are the scintillator, circuit board, and casing. They are described in the main sections of this report, which may be completed in any order. Preparing the scintillator paddles involves several steps--cutting the scintillator material to the appropriate size and shape, preparing and attaching Lucite cookies (optional), polishing the edges, gluing the end to the photomultiplier tube (optional), and wrapping the scintillator. Since the detector has 2 paddles, each of the sections needs to be repeated for the other paddle.

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Theories of Cosmic Ray Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalchi, A.

    2005-01-01

    The transport of charged cosmic rays in plasmawave turbulence is a modern and interesting field of research. We are mainly interested in spatial diffusion parallel and perpendicular to a large scale magnetic field. During the last decades quasilinear theory was the standard tool for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. Through comparison with numerical simulations we found several cases where quasilinear theory is invalid. On could define three major problems of transport theory. I will demonstrate that new nonlinear theories which were proposed recently can solve at least some to these problems

  20. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 1000 TeV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. In these lectures we present the recent observational results from HiRes, Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory as well as (some of) the possible astrophysical origins of UHECR. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  1. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 1000 TeV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. In these lectures we present the recent observational results from HiRes, Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory as well as (some of) the possible astrophysical origins of UHECR. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  2. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 1000 TeV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. In these lectures we present the recent observational results from HiRes, Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory as well as (some of) the possible astrophysical origins of UHECR. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  3. Cosmic ray and gamma astrophysics with the AMS-02 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to operate on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum period of three years. The aim of AMS is the direct detection of charged particles in the rigidity range from 0.5 GV to few TV to perform high statistics studies of cosmic rays in space and a search for antimatter and dark matter. AMS will provide precise gamma measurements in the GeV range. In addition, the good angular resolution and identification capabilities of the detector will allow clean studies of galactic and extra-galactic sources, the diffuse gamma background and gamma ray bursts

  4. Cosmic ray fluctuations at rigidities 4 to 180 GV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko, G.; Erdoes, G.; Stehlik, M.; Katz, M.E.; Nosov, S.F.

    1986-07-01

    The power spectral density of cosmic ray fluctuations observed at both underground and ground level during the years 1976-1980 was calculated. The spectral index is independent of the phase of solar cycle in the frequency range of 5x10 -7 - 5x10 -5 Hz and its value is equal to 2. The level of fluctuations shows a weak dependence on the rigidity (R) of the particles P∼R -2/3 . The obtained experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  5. CMS Data Processing Workflows during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    The CMS Collaboration conducted a month-long data taking exercise, the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla, during October-November 2008, with the goal of commissioning the experiment for extended operation. With all installed detector systems participating, CMS recorded 270 million cosmic ray events with the solenoid at a magnetic field strength of 3.8 T. This paper describes the data flow from the detector through the various online and offline computing systems, as well as the workflows used for recording the data, for aligning and calibrating the detector, and for analysis of the data.

  6. Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Rollinde, Emmanuel; Maurin, David; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Olive, Keith A.; Inoue, Susumu

    2007-01-01

    Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in t...

  7. CMS Data Processing Workflows during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

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Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration conducted a month-long data taking exercise, the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla, during October-November 2008, with the goal of commissioning the experiment for extended operation. With all installed detector systems participating, CMS recorded 270 million cosmic ray events with the solenoid at a magnetic field strength of 3.8 T. This paper describes the data flow from the detector through the various online and offline computing systems, as well as the workflows used for recording the data, for aligning and calibrating the detector, and for analysis of the data.

  8. Interplanetary dust fluxes, solar and galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The role of dust fluxes in cosmic ray (CR) propagation in the interplanetary space is investigated. Global effects arising in the interaction of CR with magnetic and electric fields of a sporadic meteor cloud or of all meteor fluxes as a whole are discussed. The local effects arising in the interaction of CR with magnetic and electric fields of separate meteor fluxes are also considered. It is shown that an increase in the CR intensity during the maximum activity of meteor fluxes confirms the supposition on the CR acceleration in electric fields of meteor fluxes

  9. Regolith history from cosmic-ray-produced isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fireman, E.L.

    1974-04-01

    A statistical model is given for soil development relating meteoroid impacts on the moon to cosmic-ray-produced isotopes in the soil. By means of this model, the average lunar mass loss rate during the past 14 aeons is determined to be 170 g/sq cm aeon and the soil mixing rate to be approximately 200 cm/aeon from the gadolinium isotope data for the Apollo 15 and 16 drill stems. The isotope data also restrict the time variation of the meteoroid flux during the past 14 aeons. (U.S.)

  10. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; 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Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; 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Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  11. Escape of Cosmic Rays from their Acceleration Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Mikhail; Sagdeev, Roald; Diamond, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    The escape of cosmic rays (CR) from sites of their acceleration, such as supernova remnants (SNR), is calculated self-consistently with the CR transport suppression by self-excited Alfvén waves. The treatment uniformly applies both to the accelerator's nearby zone where intense CRs drive strong turbulence efficiently reducing their escape, and far zone where the CRs rapidly diffuse as test particles. To demonstrate the inseparability of the two zones in calculating the escape flux, an exact solution is obtained for the nonlinear spreading of a sharply localized CR cloud.

  12. Nuclear spallation of cosmic ray nuclei in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear spallation of cosmic rays during propagation is qualitatively reviewed. After the problem is defined, a discussion is presented of the relevant information obtainable from studying nuclear reactions, specifically, quantity and distribution of traversed matter, time and place of propagation, and source composition. Comments are offered on the cross sections and nuclear reactions that are critical for a complete understanding in this area. This is followed by a brief look at the present status of research and possibilities for further work using the Bevalac. (U.S.)

  13. Assembly Manual for the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector consists of 3 main components that must be prepared separately before they can be assembled. These components are the scintillator, circuit board, and casing. They are described in the main sections of this report, which may be completed in any order. Preparing the scintillator paddles involves several steps--cutting the scintillator material to the appropriate size and shape, preparing and attaching Lucite cookies (optional), polishing the edges, gluing the end to the photomultiplier tube (optional), and wrapping the scintillator. Since the detector has 2 paddles, each of the sections needs to be repeated for the other paddle

  14. Assembly Manual for the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Michael

    2002-12-17

    The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector consists of 3 main components that must be prepared separately before they can be assembled. These components are the scintillator, circuit board, and casing. They are described in the main sections of this report, which may be completed in any order. Preparing the scintillator paddles involves several steps--cutting the scintillator material to the appropriate size and shape, preparing and attaching Lucite cookies (optional), polishing the edges, gluing the end to the photomultiplier tube (optional), and wrapping the scintillator. Since the detector has 2 paddles, each of the sections needs to be repeated for the other paddle.

  15. LHCf experiment: forward physics at LHC for cosmic rays study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prete M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment, optimized for the study of forward physics at LHC, completes its main physics program in this year 2015, with the proton-proton collisions at the energy of 13 TeV. LHCf gives important results on the study of neutral particles at extreme pseudo-rapidity, both for proton-proton and for proton-ion interactions. These results are an important reference for tuning the models of the hadronic interaction currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. The results of this analysis and the future perspective are presented in this paper.

  16. Enhancement of high-energy cosmic-ray spectrum by type-II supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Miyaji, S.; Parnell, T. A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmic-ray spectrum has an intensity enhancement in the energy range 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 16th eV per nucleus. Recent observations of heavy cosmic rays in this energy range indicate that the Ca/Fe ratio may be as large as 10 times the solar value. It is suggested that pulsars in type-II supernova remnants are the origin of this component of the cosmic-ray spectrum.

  17. Study of the Solar Anisotropy for Cosmic Ray Primaries of about 200 GeV Energy with the L3+C Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benitez, M; van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, J; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, Valery P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bahr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillere, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Bohm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J; de Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degre, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; DeNotaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Duran, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El Hage, A; El Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagan, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S N; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Gruenewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, Ch; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, Lawrence W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; Konig, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Kraemer, R W; Kruger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladron de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levtchenko, P; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, F L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Mana, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, y G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novak, T; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J -F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroue, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, y S; Riles, Keith; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sanchez, E; Schafer, C; Schegelsky, V; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schopper, H; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Straessner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillasi, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Toth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vasquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitsky, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopianov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S

    2008-01-01

    Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the nonuniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10^-4. The measurements have been performed in the years 1999 and 2000.

  18. Observation of terrestrial orbital motion using the cosmic-ray Compton-Getting effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, D.J.; Groom, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Using underground observations, the authors have found a small diurnal amplitude modulation of the cosmic-ray muon intensity which agrees in amplitude and phase with a first-order relativistic effect due to the Earth's motion, as discussed by Compton and Getting :1935, Phys. Rev., 47, 817:. Analysis of the arrival times of 5x10 8 muons during a period of 5.4 yr yields a fractional amplitude variation of 2.5sub(-0.6) sup(+0.7) x 10 -4 , with a maximum near dawn, at 08:18+-1.0 h local mean solar time (LT). The expected amplitude is 3.40 x 10 -4 , with the maximum at 06:00LT. (author)

  19. The renaissance of radio detection of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huege, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the first radio signals from cosmic ray air showers were detected. After many successful studies, however, research ceased not even 10 years later. Only a decade ago, the field was revived with the application of powerful digital signal processing techniques. Since then, the detection technique has matured, and we are now in a phase of transition from small-scale experiments accessing energies below 1018 eV to experiments with a reach for energies beyond 1019 eV. We have demonstrated that air shower radio signals carry information on both the energy and the mass of the primary particle, and current experiments are in the process of quantifying the precision with which this information can be accessed. All of this rests on solid understanding of the radio emission processes, which can be interpreted as a coherent superposition of geomagnetic emission, Askaryan charge-excess radiation, and Cherenkov-like coherence effects arising in the density gradient of the atmosphere. In this article, I highlight the “state of the art” of radio detection of cosmic rays and briefly discuss its perspectives for the next few years. (author)

  20. Intensity variation of cosmic rays near the heliospheric current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, K.S.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray intensity variations near the heliospheric current sheet-both above and below it-have been studied during 1964-76. Superposed epoch analysis of the cosmic ray neutron monitor data with respect to sector boundaries (i.e., heliospheric current sheet crossings) has been performed. In this analysis data from neutron monitors well distributed in latitude over the Earth's surface is used. First, this study has been made during the two solar activity minimum periods 1964-65 and 1975-76, using the data from Thule (cut-off rigidity O GV), Deep River (cut-off rigidity 1.02 GV), Rome (cut-off rigidity 6.32 GV) and Huancayo (cut-off rigidity 13.45 GV) neutron monitors. The data is analyzed from Deep River, Rome and Huancayo neutron monitors, for which data is available for the full period (1964-76), by dividing the periods according to the changes in solar activity, interplanetary magnetic field polarity and coronal holes. All these studies have shown a negative gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude (current sheet). These results have been discussed in the light of theoretical and observational evidences. Suggestions have been given to overcome the discrepancy between the observational and theoretical results. Further, possible explanations for these observational results have been suggested. (author)

  1. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E. [Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Aix-en-Provence (France). CEREGE, College de France; Abarca-del-Rio, R. [Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) (Chile). Dept. de Geofisica (DGEO)

    2014-10-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  2. First results of the cosmic ray NUCLEON experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, E.; Bulatov, V.; Dorokhov, V.; Gorbunov, N.; Filippov, S.; Grebenyuk, V.; Karmanov, D.; Kovalev, I.; Kudryashov, I.; Kurganov, A.; Merkin, M.; Panov, A.; Podorozhny, D.; Polkov, D.; Porokhovoy, S.; Shumikhin, V.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Turundaevskiy, A.; Vasiliev, O.; Voronin, A.

    2017-07-01

    The NUCLEON experiment was designed to study the chemical composition and energy spectra of galactic cosmic ray nuclei from protons to zinc at energies of ~ 1011-1015 eV per particle. The research was carried out with the NUCLEON scientific equipment installed on the Russian satellite "Resource-P" No. 2 as an additional payload. This article presents the results for the measured nuclei spectra related to the first approximately 250 days of the scientific data collection during 2015 and 2016. The all-particle spectrum and the spectra of p, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are presented. Some interesting ratios of the spectra are also presented and discussed. The experiment is now in its beginning stage and the data still have a preliminary character, but they already give numerous indications of the existence of various non-canonical phenomena in the physics of cosmic rays, which are expressed in the violation of a simple universal power law of the energy spectra. These features of the data are briefly discussed.

  3. Physics of charged cosmic rays with the AMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialle, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The electrically charged cosmic rays contain very important information about the mechanisms of stars and galaxies and about primordial universe which cannot be found elsewhere. The AMS experiment aims at searching for primordial antimatter, non-baryonic dark matter, and at measuring with high statistics and high accuracy the electrically charged cosmic ray particles and light nuclei in the extraterrestrial space beyond the atmosphere. AMS is the first magnetic spectrometer which will be flown in space. It will be installed for 3 years on the international space station (ISS) in 2003. A test flight with the space shuttle DISCOVERY took place in June 1998 with a first detector and gave many results: best limit on the existence of antinuclei, fluxes of protons, leptons, and helium nuclei above the geomagnetic threshold, existence of a secondary flux below the geomagnetic threshold. These results are described below. The physics goal and perspectives for AMS on the space station with an improved detector are described as well. (author)

  4. First results of the cosmic ray NUCLEON experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, E.; Shumikhin, V.; Bulatov, V.

    2017-01-01

    The NUCLEON experiment was designed to study the chemical composition and energy spectra of galactic cosmic ray nuclei from protons to zinc at energies of ∼ 10 11 –10 15 eV per particle. The research was carried out with the NUCLEON scientific equipment installed on the Russian satellite 'Resource-P' No. 2 as an additional payload. This article presents the results for the measured nuclei spectra related to the first approximately 250 days of the scientific data collection during 2015 and 2016. The all-particle spectrum and the spectra of p, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are presented. Some interesting ratios of the spectra are also presented and discussed. The experiment is now in its beginning stage and the data still have a preliminary character, but they already give numerous indications of the existence of various non-canonical phenomena in the physics of cosmic rays, which are expressed in the violation of a simple universal power law of the energy spectra. These features of the data are briefly discussed.

  5. Cosmic ray runs acquired with ATLAS muon stations

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerutti, F.

    Starting in the fall 2005 several cosmic ray runs have been acquired in the ATLAS pit with six muon stations. These were three large outer and three large middle chambers of the feet sector (sector 13) that have been readout in the ATLAS cavern. In the first data taking period the trigger was based on two large scintillators (~300x30 cm2) positioned in sector 13 just below the large chambers. In this first run the precision chambers (the Monitored Drift Tubes) were operated in a close to final configuration. Typical trigger rates with this setup were of the order of 1 Hz. Several data sets of 10k events were acquired with final electronics up to the muon ROD and analysed with ATHENA-based software. These data allowed the first checks of the functionality and efficiency of the MDT stations in the ATLAS pit and the first measurement of the FE electronics noise in the ATLAS environment. A few event were also collected in a combined run with the TILE barrel calorimeter. An event display of a cosmic ray a...

  6. Cosmic ray anisotropy: 1012 - 1020eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experiments designed to study the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays of energy 10 12 - 10 20 eV are reviewed. It is shown that at all energies there is evidence for anisotropy, the amplitude of which ranges from 0.75% at the lowest energies to 90+-20% above 4.10 19 eV. The increase of anisotropy with energy is not smooth, showing features which occur at energies similar to those at which features are observed in the cosmic ray energy spectrum. At least up to 2.10 17 eV it seems probable that the acceleration sites lie within our Galaxy, and it is hard to escape the conclusion that particles of energy >10 19 eV are extragalactic. Sources of the highest energy particles (approximately 10 20 eV) must lie within 200Mpc, and considerably closer if, as seems likely, the intergalactic medium is such as to prevent rectilinear propagation. Between 2.10 17 and 10 19 eV the location of the sources is less certain. The aim of future arrival direction experiments should be to study anisotropy as a function of primary mass composition

  7. A Quark Matter Contribution to the Cosmic Ray Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Kyle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I will describe a possible dark matter model in which the dark matter is composed of heavy “nuggets” of standard model quarks and antiquarks bound in a high density phase of QCD. If objects of this type are formed early in the universe's history they may provide the observed dark matter content. In this scenario the nuggets are dark not because of their fundamentally weak interactions but because of the incredibly small number density required to explain the observed mass density of the dark matter. The correspondingly small flux of these objects through the earth renders them invisible to conventional high sensitivity dark matter searches intended to detect weakly interacting particles with a flux many orders of magnitude larger. Instead the greatest search potential for dark matter models of this form may come from the largest scale cosmic ray detectors. I will briefly describe the properties of quark nugget dark matter and then use these properties in order to predict the signal they would produce in a variety of cosmic ray detectors.

  8. Bioeffectiveness of Cosmic Rays Near the Earth Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, N. K.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental studies of the dynamics of morphological and functional state of the diverse biosystems (microflora, plant Maranta leuconeura «Fascinator», cell cultures, human peripheral blood, the human body ) have shown that geocosmical agents modulated the functional state of biological systems Belisheva 2006; Belisheva et all 2007 ) . First time on the experimental data showed the importance of the increase in the fluxes of solar cosmic rays (CRs ) with high energies (Belisheva et all 2002; 2012; Belisheva, Lammer, Biernat, 2004) and galactic cosmic ray variations (Belisheva et al, 2005; 2006; Vinnichenko Belisheva, 2009 ) near the Earth surface for the functional state of biosystems. The evidence of the presence of the particles with high bioeffectiveness in the secondary cosmic rays was obtained by simulating the particle cascades in the atmosphere, performed by using Geant4 (Planetocosmics, based on the Monte Carlo code (Maurchev et al, 2011), and experimental data, where radiobiological effects of cosmic rays were revealed. Modeling transport of solar protons through the Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles in different layers of the atmosphere, allowed us to estimate the total neutron flux during three solar proton events, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays - Ground Level Enhancement GLE (43, 44, 45) in October 1989 (19, 22, 24 October). The results obtained by simulation were compared with the data of neutron monitors and balloon measurements made during solar proton events. Confirmation of the neutron fluxes near the Earth surface during the GLE (43, 44, 45) were obtained in the experiments on the cellular cultures (Belisheva et al. 2012). A direct evidence of biological effects of CR has been demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the

  9. New look on the origin of cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istomin Ya.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of the flux of high energy particles, E > 3 · 1018 eV, it is shown that the distribution of the power density of extragalactic rays over energy is of the power law, q̅(E ∝ E−2.7, with the same index of 2.7 that has the distribution of Galactic cosmic rays before the so called ‘knee', E 3 · 1015 eV, from the Galaxy because of the dependence of the coefficient of diffusion of cosmic rays on energy, D∝E0.7. The obtained index of the density distribution of particles over energy, N(E∝E−2.7−0.7/2=E−3.05, for E > 3 · 1015 eV agrees well with the observed one, N(E∝E−3.1. The estimated time of the termination of the jet in the Galaxy is 4.2 · 104 years ago.

  10. Modeling geomagnetic shielding of solar energetic particles and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are a space weather hazard posing risks to manned and robotic space flight missions. At low- to mid-latitudes the Earth's magnetic field usually shields the upper atmosphere and spacecraft in low Earth orbit from SEPs. During severe geomagnetic storms distortion of the Earth's field suppresses geomagnetic shielding giving SEPs access to Earth at the mid-latitudes. Significant variations in geomagnetic shielding can occur on timescales of an hour or less in response to changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF. Geomagnetic shielding of energetic ions is quantified in terms of cutoff rigidity, and a dynamic geomagnetic cutoff model can be used for predicting SEP and cosmic ray fluxes in geospace. Two advancements in recent years that have made a real-time geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model a possibility are (1) increased computer power, and (2) the development of accurate dynamic geomagnetic field models that respond to changes in Dst, solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF. A numerical model capable of a real time cutoff prediction will be presented. Issues and techniques related to modeling SEP and cosmic ray fluxes in the magnetosphere will be discussed.

  11. From cosmic ray physics to cosmic ray astronomy: Bruno Rossi and the opening of new windows on the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Rossi is considered one of the fathers of modern physics, being also a pioneer in virtually every aspect of what is today called high-energy astrophysics. At the beginning of 1930s he was the pioneer of cosmic ray research in Italy, and, as one of the leading actors in the study of the nature and behavior of the cosmic radiation, he witnessed the birth of particle physics and was one of the main investigators in this fields for many years. While cosmic ray physics moved more and more towards astrophysics, Rossi continued to be one of the inspirers of this line of research. When outer space became a reality, he did not hesitate to leap into this new scientific dimension. Rossi's intuition on the importance of exploiting new technological windows to look at the universe with new eyes, is a fundamental key to understand the profound unity which guided his scientific research path up to its culminating moments at the beginning of 1960s, when his group at MIT performed the first in situ measurements of the density, speed and direction of the solar wind at the boundary of Earth's magnetosphere, and when he promoted the search for extra-solar sources of X rays. A visionary idea which eventually led to the breakthrough experiment which discovered Scorpius X-1 in 1962, and inaugurated X-ray astronomy.

  12. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  13. High-energy cosmic rays: Puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The existence of cosmic rays of energies exceeding 1020 eV is one of the mysteries of high-energy astrophysics. The spectrum and the high energy to which it extends rule out almost all suggested source models. The challenges posed by observations to models for the origin of high-energy cosmic rays are ...

  14. The Hisparc cosmic ray experiment : data acquisition and reconstruction of shower direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.; Fokkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of cosmic ray physics is a century old and an exciting area of research. When cosmic ray particles enter our atmosphere they collide with air molecules creating new high-energy particles. These particles participate in further collisions and the entire process is known as an air shower.

  15. Restriction of cosmic-ray acceleration, mechanisms by high-energy Be7/Be data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Buffington, A.; Mast, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    New high-energy cosmic-ray Be data indicate that the ratio Be 7 /Be drops by approximately a factor of two between 200 and 1500 MeV/nucleon. This result may provide a severe constraint for theories of cosmic-ray acceleration

  16. Ultra high energy cosmic rays above 10 GeV: Hints to new physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays above 10. 11. GeV: Hints to new physics beyond Standard Model. PIJUSHPANI BHATTACHARJEE. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. Abstract. The observed cosmic ray events above 10ЅЅ GeV are difficult to explain within the con- text of known physics ...

  17. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra: Contributions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent measurements of cosmic ray proton and helium spectra show a hardening above .... In our approach, there is no need to modify the conventional CR ... accounts for that process, where K0 is the normalization constant and β denotes the parti- cle velocity. The magnetic halo, inside which cosmic rays propagate ...

  18. Long-term Modulation of Cosmic Ray Intensity in relation to Sunspot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it should be more closely connected with cosmic ray modulation than with other solar characteristics (sunspot numbers or coronal emission intensity). The intensity of galactic cosmic rays varies inversely with sunspot numbers, having their maximum intensity at the minimum of the 11-year sunspot cycle (Forbush 1954, 1958) ...

  19. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  20. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra: Contributions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Recent measurements of cosmic ray proton and helium spectra show a hardening above a few hundreds of GeV. This excess is hard to understand in the framework of the conventional mod- els of galactic cosmic ray production and propagation. Here, we propose to explain this anomaly by the presence of local ...

  1. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  2. The role of VHE muons in an explanation of unusual events observed in cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanov, AG; Petrukhin, AA; Shalabaeva, AV

    2005-01-01

    Unusual events observed in cosmic-ray experiments that cannot be explained in the context of modern theories and models are considered. The peculiarities of VHE (>= 100 TeV) muon interactions and their possible contribution to the production of various unusual events in cosmic rays are analyzed.

  3. Studies of the performance of the ATLAS detector using cosmic-ray muons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Ferrari, P.; Garitaonandia, H.; Gosselink, M.; Kayl, M.S.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Tsiakiris, M.; van der Kraaij, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Muons from cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere provide a high-statistics source of particles that can be used to study the performance and calibration of the ATLAS detector. Cosmic-ray muons can penetrate to the cavern and deposit energy in all detector subsystems. Such events have played an

  4. Atomic properties of the elements and cosmic ray composition at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Goret, P.; Cesarsky, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Possible correlations between the abundances of cosmic rays at the source and the solar system abundances are discussed. Cosmic ray source abundances could be explained if the particles are accelerated to injection energies in a dilute, moderately hot plasma, from which they escape in a rigidity dependant fashion [fr

  5. Investigation of the zenith angle dependence of cosmic-ray muons ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Angular distribution of cosmic-ray muons at sea level has been investigated using the. Geant4 simulation package. The model used in the simulations was tested by comparing the sim- ulation results with the measurements made using the Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector. Primary particles' energy and fluxes ...

  6. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-07

    Jan 7, 2016 ... Recent measurements of cosmic ray proton and helium spectra show a hardening above a few hundreds of GeV. This excess is hard to understand in the framework of the conventional models of galactic cosmic ray production and propagation. Here, we propose to explain this anomaly by the presence of ...

  7. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  8. Investigation of the zenith angle dependence of cosmic-ray muons ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angular distribution of cosmic-ray muons at sea level has been investigated using the Geant4 simulation package. The model used in the simulations was tested by comparing the simulation results with the measurements made using the Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector. Primary particles' energy and fluxes were obtained ...

  9. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China JinPing underground laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Hao, Xi-Qing; Yue, Qian; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Chen, Yun-Hua; Li, Jin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ren, Jin-Bao; Shen, Man-Bin; Wang, Ji-Min; Wu, Shi-Yong; Xue, Tao; Yi, Nan; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory running in the world at present. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL, which has an effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4)×10-10/(cm2·s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL.

  10. Charge asymmetric cosmic rays as a probe of flavor violating asymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara and INFN Sez. di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Sannino, Francesco, E-mail: masina@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sannino@cp3-origins.net [CP3-Origins and DIAS, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2011-09-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric.

  11. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China Jinping underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Hao Xiqing; Yue Qian

    2013-01-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory running in the world at present. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL, which has an effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4)×10 -10 /(cm 2 ·s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL. (authors)

  12. Cosmic-ray acceleration and the radio evolution of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.A.; Robertson, J.W.; Scott, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A more detailed analysis of the Scott and Chevalier model for production of galactic cosmic rays in supernova remnants is presented. Particles are accelerated by second-order Fermi acceleration with turbulent vortices (produced by the motions of the supernova ejecta through the remnant) acting as moving scattering centers. The time-dependent equation of continuity in particle energy space is solved numerically. The results of the calculations are in substantial agreement with all time-dependent observations of the radio emission from Cas A. This mechanism implies an dependent solution yields a cosmic ray spectrum with the same slope as galactic cosmic rays. The results of our calculations and new work on γ-rays by, e.g., Stecker and by Lingenfelter and Higdon and cosmic ray composition by, e.g., Hainebach, Norman, and Schramm support our hypothesis that galactic cosmic rays are produced in supernova remnants by the mechanism proposed by Scott and Chevalier

  13. The positron excess as a smoking gun for dynamical dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    One of the most puzzling aspects of recent data from the AMS-02 experiment is an apparent rise in the cosmic-ray positron fraction as a function of energy. This feature is observed out to energies of approximately 350 GeV. One explanation of these results interprets the extra positrons as arising from the decays of dark-matter particles. This in turn typically requires that such particles have rather heavy TeV-scale masses and not undergo simple two-body decays to leptons. In this talk, by contrast, we show that Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) can not only match existing AMS-02 data on the positron excess, but also accomplish this feat with significantly lighter dark-matter constituents undergoing simple two-body decays to leptons. We also demonstrate that the Dynamical Dark Matter framework makes a fairly robust prediction that the positron fraction should level off and then remain roughly constant out to approximately 1 TeV, without experiencing any sharp downturns. Thus, if we interpret the positron excess in terms of decaying dark matter, the existence of a plateau in the positron fraction at energies less than 1 TeV may be taken as a “smoking gun” of Dynamical Dark Matter

  14. An observation on a cosmic-ray induced event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawayanagi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors observed a big A-jet family in the chamber No. 21. In this paper summary of the family is given though some of the results are preliminary. Emulsion chamber technique has been giving a way of observing ultrahigh energy atmospheric interactions made by cosmic-ray radiations with fine spacial resolution and good stability for a long duration of exposure. The two-story structure of emulsion chamber adopted by Brasil-Japan Collaboration on Emulsion Chamber Experiments at Mt. Chacaltaya makes it possible to observe local interactions within the chamber in addition to atmospheric interactions at the same time. For this purpose an inner target layer of plastic/petroleum pitch is located between the upper and the lower parts of the chamber. The observation of these local interactions, called C-jets, is used to make auto-calibration of energies of observed cascade showers

  15. Search for antimatter with the AMS cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristinziani, Markus

    2003-01-01

    Antimatter search results of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector are presented. About 108 triggers were collected in the 1998 precursor flight onboard space shuttle Discovery. This ten day mission exposed the detector on a 51.7° orbit at an altitude around 350km. Identification of charged cosmic rays is achieved by multiple energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Bending inside the 0.15T magnetic volume yields a measurement of the absolute value of the particle's rigidity. The supplemental knowledge of the sense of traversal identifies the sign of the charge. In the rigidity range 1 < R < 140 GV no antinucleus at any rigidity was detected, while 2.86 × 106 helium and 1.65 × 105 heavy nuclei were precisely measured. Hence, upper limits on the flux ratio Zbar/Z are given. Different prior assumptions on the antimatter spectrum are considered and corresponding limits are given.

  16. Cosmic ray diffusion in a violent interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.M.; Toptygin, I.N.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of the avaiable observational data on the cosmic ray (CR) spectrum, anisotropy and composition are in good agreement with a suggestion on the diffusion propagation of CR with energy below 10(15) eV in the interstellar medium. The magnitude of the CR diffusion coefficient and its energy dependence are determined by interstellar medium (ISM) magnetic field spectra. Direct observational data on magnetic field spectra are still absent. A theoretical model to the turbulence generation in the multiphase ISM is resented. The model is based on the multiple generation of secondary shocks and concomitant large-scale rarefactions due to supernova shock interactions with interstellar clouds. The distribution function for ISM shocks are derived to include supernova statistics, diffuse cloud distribution, and various shock wave propagation regimes. This permits calculation of the ISM magnetic field fluctuation spectrum and CR diffusion coefficient for the hot phase of ISM

  17. Commissioning the CMS pixel detector with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Heyburn, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of two general purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS experiment prides itself on an ambitious, all silicon based, tracking system. After almost 20 years of design and construction the CMS tracker detector has been installed and commissioned. The tracker detector consists of ten layers of silicon microstrip detectors while three layers of pixel detector modules are situated closest to the interaction point. The pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels of 100mm 150mm size, and is designed to use the shape of the actual charge distribution of charged particles to gain hit resolutions down to 12mm. This paper will focus on commissioning activities in the CMS pixel detector. Results from cosmic ray studies will be presented, in addition to results obtained from the integration of the pixel detector within the CMS detector and various calibration and alignment analyses.

  18. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Elgart, S. Robin; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  19. Physics of charged cosmic rays with the AMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialle, J.P.

    2000-04-01

    The AMS experiment aims at searching for primordial antimatter, non-baryonic dark matter, and measuring with high statistics and high accuracy the electrically charged cosmic ray particles and light nuclei in the extraterrestrial space beyond the atmosphere. AMS is the first magnetic spectrometer which will be flown in space. It will be installed for 3 years on the international space station (ISS) in 2003. A test flight with the space shuttle DISCOVERY took place in June 1998 with a first detector and gave many results: best limit on the existence of antinuclei, fluxes of protons, leptons, and helium nuclei above the geomagnetic threshold, existence of a secondary flux below the geomagnetic threshold. These results are described below. The physics goal and perspectives for AMS on the space station with an improved detector are described as well. (author)

  20. Fixed target measurements at LHCb for cosmic rays physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069608

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target. The energy scale achievable at the LHC, combined with the LHCb forward geometry and detector capabilities, allow to explore particle production in a wide Bjorken-$x$ range at the $\\sqrt {s_{NN}} ~$ ~ 100 GeV energy scale, providing novel inputs to nuclear and cosmic ray physics. The first measurement of antiproton production in collisions of LHC protons on helium nuclei at rest is presented. The knowledge of this cross-section is of great importance for the study of the cosmic antiproton flux, and the LHCb results are expected to improve the interpretation of the recent high-precision measurements of cosmic antiprotons performed by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments.

  1. 14th International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor; Wefel, John P; Neutrinos and explosive events in the universe

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains the Lectures and selected participant contributions to the 14th Course of the International School of Cosmic Rays Astrophysics, a NATO Advanced Study Institute. Well known astrophysicists and astronomers discuss different aspects of the generation of high energy signals in powerful astrophysical objects concentrating on the production of neutrinos and gamma rays from high energy particle interactions. Recent results from new experiments and observatories are presented. Topics cover a wide range including the Spitzer infrared observatory, TeV gamma ray observations, dark matter, and neutrino telescopes. The combination of basic knowledge about the production of high energy signals with information about the data analysis of ongoing observations places the book between the usual levels of a textbook and a conference proceedings. It will give the reader a good introduction to the current field of astroparticle physics, and some of the fascinating astrophysics being addressed.

  2. Interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonyan, F.A.; Kanevskij, B.L.; Vardanyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of the bump and black-body cutoff in the cosmic-ray (CR) spectrum arising from the π-meson photoproduction reaction in collisions of CR protons with the microwave background radiation (MBR) photons is studied. A kinetic equation which describes CR proton propagation in MBR with account of a catastrophic of the π-meson photoproduction process is derived. The equilibrium CR proton spectrum obtained from the solution of the stationary kinetic equation is in general agreement with spectrum obtained under assumption of continuous energy loss approximation. However spectra from local sources especially for the times of propagation t>10 9 years differ noticeably from those obtained in the continuous loss approximation. 24 refs.; 5 figs

  3. Acceleration of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in starburst superwinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been stubbornly elusive. However, the latest report of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a compelling indication for a possible correlation between the arrival directions of UHECRs and nearby starburst galaxies. We argue that if starbursts are sources of UHECRs, then particle acceleration in the large-scale terminal shock of the superwind that flows from the starburst engine represents the best known concept model in the market. We investigate new constraints on the model and readjust free parameters accordingly. We show that UHECR acceleration above about 1 011 GeV remains consistent with observation. We also show that the model could accommodate hard source spectra as required by Auger data. We demonstrate how neutrino emission can be used as a discriminator among acceleration models.

  4. High energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays at mountain altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    The diffusion equations describing the unidimensional propagation of .the high energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays throughout the atmosphere are sol"V'ed under two assumptions: (l) The nucleon-nucleon collisions are described according to Fermi's therlnOdynamical model involving completely inelastic pion and.nucleon-antinucleon pair production. (2) A somewhat opposite assumption is made assuming partially elastic collisions without nucleon-anti.nucleon pair production. Due to the present inaccuracy of experiments, we are able to derive only tentati v.e conclusions. The values computed under both hypotheses for the absorption mean free path and the charged to neutral particles ratio are found in acceptable ranges when compared to experimental data. The diffeential energy spectrum at a given depth is always found steeper than the primary, and steeper than indicated by experimental values if the primary is taken proportional to the 2.5 inverse power of energy.

  5. Muon reconstruction performance using cosmic rays in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Calderon, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    After the incident with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in September 2008, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration invested a considerable effort in further refining the understanding of the detector using cosmic muon data. About 300 million cosmic events were recorded with the CMS detector fully operational and the central solenoid switched on at the nominal value of 3.8 Tesla. The resulting data set provides ample statistics to study in great detail the detector performance and allows to analyze properties of cosmic rays. We present recent results on detector performance from the cosmic muon analysis activities and compare cosmic data to dedicated cosmic Monte Carlo samples. These results demonstrate the readiness of the CMS detector to do physics analysis with muons, and the study of cosmic muon properties provides interesting links to astrophysics.

  6. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; 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Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L.L.; Macana Goia, J.A.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macek, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R.J.; Mader, W.F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mattig, P.; Mattig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P.J.; Magradze, E.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makouski, M.; Makovec, N.; Malecki, Pa.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V.P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Mandelli, L.; Mandic, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P.S.; Manjavidze, I.D.; Manning, P.M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J.F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C.P.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, Z.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F.F.; Martin, J.P.; Martin, T.A.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martini, A.; Martyniuk, A.C.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Massa, I.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mc Donald, J.; Mc Kee, S.P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R.L.; McCubbin, N.A.; McFarlane, K.W.; McGlone, H.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T.M.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B.R.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F.S.; Messina, A.M.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A.S.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T.C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R.P.; Migas, S.; Mijovic, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, D.W.; Mills, W.J.; Mills, C.M.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D.A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A.A.; Minano, M.; Minashvili, I.A.; Mincer, A.I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L.M.; Mirabelli, G.; Misawa, S.; Miscetti, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V.A.; Miyagawa, P.S.; Mjornmark, J.U.; Mladenov, D.; Moa, T.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Monig, K.; Moser, N.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Mock, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R.W.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llacer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morley, A.K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morozov, S.V.; Morris, J.D.; Moser, H.G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S.V.; Moyse, E.J.W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Muller, T.A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Garcia, R.; Murray, W.J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A.G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N.R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S.K.; Neal, H.A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T.K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M.S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R.M.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F.M.; Nickerson, R.B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Nicquevert, B.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nozicka, M.; Nugent, I.M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D.C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F.G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S.H.; Ohm, C.C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olchevski, A.G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Ottersbach, J.P; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parker, S.I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pasztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L.S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M.I.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E.; Perez Garcia-Estan, M.T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommes, K.; Ponsot, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, JEM; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider has collected several hundred million cosmic ray events during 2008 and 2009. These data were used to commission the Muon Spectrometer and to study the performance of the trigger and tracking chambers, their alignment, the detector control system, the data acquisition and the analysis programs. We present the performance in the relevant parameters that determine the quality of the muon measurement. We discuss the single element efficiency, resolution and noise rates, the calibration method of the detector response and of the alignment system, the track reconstruction efficiency and the momentum measurement. The results show that the detector is close to the design performance and that the Muon Spectrometer is ready to detect muons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  7. A quest for sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Kumiko

    2012-03-01

    The origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs, particles arriving on the Earth with energy 10^17- 10^21 eV) is still a mystery. I will review the experimental and theoretical efforts that are being deployed by the community to solve this long-standing enigma, including the recent results from the Auger Observatory. I will discuss the observable signatures that help narrow down the list of possible candidate sources, namely the distribution of the arrival directions of UHECRs in the sky, their energy spectrum, their chemical composition, and their multi-messenger signatures (in neutrinos, gamma-rays and gravitational waves). I will focus in particular on one candidate source that has been little discussed in the literature: young rotation-powered pulsars. The production of UHECRs in these objects could give a picture that is surprisingly consistent with the latest data measured with the Auger Observatory.

  8. A Bayesian on-off analysis of cosmic ray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Dalibor; Nosková, Jana

    2017-09-01

    We deal with the analysis of on-off measurements designed for the confirmation of a weak source of events whose presence is hypothesized, based on former observations. The problem of a small number of source events that are masked by an imprecisely known background is addressed from a Bayesian point of view. We examine three closely related variables, the posterior distributions of which carry relevant information about various aspects of the investigated phenomena. This information is utilized for predictions of further observations, given actual data. Backed by details of detection, we propose how to quantify disparities between different measurements. The usefulness of the Bayesian inference is demonstrated on examples taken from cosmic ray physics.

  9. Production of NO by galactic cosmic rays and lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    As part of the ongoing development of the LLNL 2-D Stratospheric Transport-Kinetics Model, values for NO production rates due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and lightning have been calculated. With the combined NO production rates from GCRs and lightning included in the LLNL 2-D model, we compared our predicted NO/sub y/ mixing ratios with those from LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data and other models. Although our predicted NO/sub y/ mixing ratios are lower than the LIMS data at 16 mb and 30 mb, our values at these pressures are generally higher and in better agreement with LIMS than are the corresponding mixing ratios from other models. Further research is needed on the sensitivity of these results to changes in model transport processes. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. Imaging the inside of thick structures using cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardincerri, E., E-mail: elenaguardincerri@lanl.gov; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C.; Bacon, J. D.; Daughton, T. M.; Fellows, S.; Morley, D. J.; Johnson, O. R.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Poulson, D. C.; Wang, Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The authors present here a new method to image reinforcement elements inside thick structures and the results of a demonstration measurement performed on a mock-up wall built at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method, referred to as “multiple scattering muon radiography”, relies on the use of cosmic-ray muons as probes. The work described in this article was performed to prove the viability of the technique as a means to image the interior of the dome of Florence Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites and among the highest profile buildings in existence. Its result shows the effectiveness of the technique as a tool to radiograph thick structures and image denser object inside them.

  11. Imaging the inside of thick structures using cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C.; Bacon, J. D.; Daughton, T. M.; Fellows, S.; Morley, D. J.; Johnson, O. R.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Poulson, D. C.; Wang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present here a new method to image reinforcement elements inside thick structures and the results of a demonstration measurement performed on a mock-up wall built at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method, referred to as "multiple scattering muon radiography", relies on the use of cosmic-ray muons as probes. The work described in this article was performed to prove the viability of the technique as a means to image the interior of the dome of Florence Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites and among the highest profile buildings in existence. Its result shows the effectiveness of the technique as a tool to radiograph thick structures and image denser object inside them.

  12. Imaging the inside of thick structures using cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C.; Bacon, J. D.; Daughton, T. M.; Fellows, S.; Morley, D. J.; Johnson, O. R.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Poulson, D. C.; Wang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present here a new method to image reinforcement elements inside thick structures and the results of a demonstration measurement performed on a mock-up wall built at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method, referred to as “multiple scattering muon radiography”, relies on the use of cosmic-ray muons as probes. The work described in this article was performed to prove the viability of the technique as a means to image the interior of the dome of Florence Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites and among the highest profile buildings in existence. Its result shows the effectiveness of the technique as a tool to radiograph thick structures and image denser object inside them

  13. Detailed analysis of observed antiprotons in cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Davoudifar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the origin of antiprotons observed in cosmic rays (above the atmosphere is analyzed in details. We have considered the origin of the primaries, (which their interactions with the interstellar medium is one of the most important sources of antiprotons is a supernova type II then used a diffusion model for their propagation. We have used the latest parameterization for antiproton production cross section in pp collisions (instead of well known parameterization introduced by Tan et al. as well as our calculated residence time for primaries. The resulted intensity shows the secondary antiprotons produced in pp collisions in the galaxy, have a high population as one can not consider an excess for extragalactic antiprotons. Also there is a high degree of uncertainty in different parameters.

  14. Cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and associated interstellar emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    Last several years were highlighted by many breakthroughs and discoveries in astrophysics of cosmic rays (CRs), thanks to superior instruments such as PAMELA, Fermi-LAT, Agile, INTEGRAL, HESS, VERITAS, Milagro, ATIC, CREAM, ACE, Voyager 1, 2 and others. They provide key pieces of information that may lead to the solution of the century-old puzzle of the origin of CRs and may contain signatures of new physics. The long-awaited AMS-02 data will be published by the time of the conference; they may confirm earlier measurements at the new precision level and/or outline significant discrepancies. I will review the CR measurements and relevant observations of the Galactic CR sources and the diffuse emissions and discuss what we can learn about CRs and their propagation in the Galaxy.

  15. Cosmic Rays & ULF Waves: Research in Schools Projects in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Research in Schools (RiS) projects offer school students opportunities to experience scientific research over prolonged periods within their school environment. Over the past two years we have piloted a RiS programme with five London schools across two research areas: the cosmic ray muons which serve as backgrounds to current neutrino experiments; and the magnetospheric ultra-low frequency waves that play a key role within space weather. From the evaluation of this pilot programme we have found that RiS can have significantly positive results on students' understanding and appreciation of science, as well as equipping them with vital skills. Teachers are also found to benefit from the projects, reconnecting them with their subject at an academic level, challenging them and aiding towards their professional development. It is important to note that supervision from current researchers was key to these outcomes. Finally, a number of recommendations on project structure, resources and workloads are presented.

  16. Performance of CMS Muon Reconstruction in Cosmic-Ray Events

    CERN Document Server

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Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The performance of muon reconstruction in CMS is evaluated using a large data sample of cosmic-ray muons recorded in 2008. Efficiencies of various high-level trigger, identification, and reconstruction algorithms have been measured for a broad range of muon momenta, and were found to be in good agreement with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. The relative momentum resolution for muons crossing the barrel part of the detector is better than 1% at 10 GeV/c and is about 8% at 500 GeV/c, the latter being only a factor of two worse than expected with ideal alignment conditions. Muon charge misassignment ranges from less than 0.01% at 10 GeV/c to about 1% at 500 GeV/c.

  17. Performance of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; 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Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the performance of the CMS drift tube barrel muon system are described, with results based on data collected during the CMS Cosmic Run at Four Tesla. For most of these data, the solenoidal magnet was operated with a central field of 3.8 T. The analysis of data from 246 out of a total of 250 chambers indicates a very good muon reconstruction capability, with a coordinate resolution for a single hit of about 260 microns, and a nearly 100% efficiency for the drift tube cells. The resolution of the track direction measured in the bending plane is about 1.8 mrad, and the efficiency to reconstruct a segment in a single chamber is higher than 99%. The CMS simulation of cosmic rays reproduces well the performance of the barrel muon detector.

  18. A method of detector correction for cosmic ray muon radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Zhao Ziran; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Wang Zhentian

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography which has good penetrability and sensitivity to high-Z materials is an effective way for detecting shielded nuclear materials. The problem of data correction is one of the key points of muon radiography technique. Because of the influence of environmental background, environmental yawp and error of detectors, the raw data can not be used directly. If we used the raw data as the usable data to reconstruct without any corrections, it would turn up terrible artifacts. Based on the characteristics of the muon radiography system, aimed at the error of detectors, this paper proposes a method of detector correction. The simulation experiments demonstrate that this method can effectively correct the error produced by detectors. Therefore, we can say that it does a further step to let the technique of cosmic muon radiography into out real life. (authors)

  19. High Energy Galactic Cosmic Rays Observed by RUNJOB Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareyama, Makoto [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2006-03-21

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) from proton to iron with the energy of 10{sup 13} - 10{sup 15} eV were observed by RUssia-Nippon JOint Balloon (RUNJOB) experiments. Each energy spectrum of the primary nuclear components except for helium is in agreement with the results obtained by other observations in the same energy region as the RUNJOB observation within statistical errors, while the intensity of the helium component is nearly half that obtained by the JACEE and the SOKOL observations. The spectrum slopes seem to be almost parallel or become gradually harder as mass becomes heavier. The power indices of the spectra are nearly -2.75 in the energy range of 20-500 TeV/nucleous. These our results support the acceleration mechanism and the propagation process in Galaxy of GCRs depend on its rigidity.

  20. Fast "swarm of detectors" and their application in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoziyoev, G. P.; Shoziyoev, Sh. P.

    2017-06-01

    New opportunities in science appeared with the latest technology of the 21st century. This paper points to creating a new architecture for detection systems of different characteristics in astrophysics and geophysics using the latest technologies related to multicopter cluster systems, alternative energy sources, cluster technologies, cloud computing and big data. The idea of a quick-deployable scaleable dynamic system of a controlled drone with a small set of different detectors for detecting various components of extensive air showers in cosmic rays and in geophysics is very attractive. Development of this type of new system also allows to give a multiplier effect for the development of various sciences and research methods to observe natural phenomena.

  1. Modeling relativistic jets and cosmic-ray acceleration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globus, Noemie

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores various issues related to relativistic jets associated with black holes. Their formation as well as the acceleration and collimation processes, are studied using a fluid approximation within a global description of the flow. The general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations can be integrated using the 3+1 formalism, and the covariant equations can be transposed to a vectorial form, where the physical vectorial quantities are measured by an Eulerian observer comoving with the rotation, the so-called zero angular momentum observer. This formalism allows us to study the physics of the magnetosphere surrounding a Kerr black hole, i.e., the physics of a strongly magnetized plasma in differential rotation in curved space-time. This formalism enabled me to develop a self-similar meridional model in the Kerr metric that allows us to obtain relativistic jet solutions, and to describe the dynamics, and the geometry of the flow close to the rotational axis. In particular, I have investigated how the rotation of the black hole affects the collimation process. I have found solutions for T Tauri stars in the Newtonian approximation in order to study magnetic braking, and to compare them with their generalization in the Kerr metric. Relativistic jets could also be the seat of high-energy corpuscular and photon emission. In particular, gamma-ray bursts could be possible sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. This problem requires the use of a local description of the flow. Finally, we have investigated the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays in these shocks, taking into account the competition between relativistic Fermi acceleration and energy loss due to interaction with the gamma ray background, in order to ascertain whether the observed energies can be obtained in this way. (author)

  2. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  3. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ∼1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections

  4. GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF GALACTIC WINDS INCLUDING COSMIC-RAY STREAMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S University Avenue, 311 West Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, H.-Y. Karen [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen, E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu, E-mail: hsyang@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: zweibel@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays (CRs) injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of CRs along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors, depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the CR streaming instability, CRs propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfvén waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as turbulent damping, the coupling of CRs to the gas is weaker and their effective propagation speed faster than the Alfvén speed. Alternatively, CRs could scatter from “extrinsic turbulence” that is driven by another mechanism. We demonstrate that the presence of moderately super-Alfvénic CR streaming enhances the efficiency of galactic wind driving. Cosmic rays stream away from denser regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and in the process accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For CR acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, CRs reduce the galactic star formation rates and significantly aid in launching galactic winds.

  5. Global Simulations of Galactic Winds Including Cosmic-ray Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Zweibel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays (CRs) injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of CRs along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors, depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the CR streaming instability, CRs propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfvén waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as turbulent damping, the coupling of CRs to the gas is weaker and their effective propagation speed faster than the Alfvén speed. Alternatively, CRs could scatter from “extrinsic turbulence” that is driven by another mechanism. We demonstrate that the presence of moderately super-Alfvénic CR streaming enhances the efficiency of galactic wind driving. Cosmic rays stream away from denser regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and in the process accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For CR acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, CRs reduce the galactic star formation rates and significantly aid in launching galactic winds.

  6. THE IMPLICATIONS OF A HIGH COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Fields, Brian D.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse interstellar clouds show large abundances of H + 3 which can only be maintained by a high ionization rate of H 2 . Cosmic rays are the dominant ionization mechanism in this environment, so the large ionization rate implies a high cosmic-ray flux, and a large amount of energy residing in cosmic rays. In this paper, we find that the standard propagated cosmic-ray spectrum predicts an ionization rate much lower than that inferred from H + 3 . Low-energy (∼10 MeV) cosmic rays are the most efficient at ionizing hydrogen, but cannot be directly detected; consequently, an otherwise unobservable enhancement of the low-energy cosmic-ray flux offers a plausible explanation for the H + 3 results. Beyond ionization, cosmic rays also interact with the interstellar medium by spalling atomic nuclei and exciting atomic nuclear states. These processes produce the light elements Li, Be, and B, as well as gamma-ray lines. To test the consequences of an enhanced low-energy cosmic-ray flux, we adopt two physically motivated cosmic-ray spectra which by construction reproduce the ionization rate inferred in diffuse clouds, and investigate the implications of these spectra on dense cloud ionization rates, light-element abundances, gamma-ray fluxes, and energetics. One spectrum proposed here provides an explanation for the high ionization rate seen in diffuse clouds while still appearing to be broadly consistent with other observables, but the shape of this spectrum suggests that supernovae remnants may not be the predominant accelerators of low-energy cosmic rays.

  7. Scalar dark matter, type II seesaw and the DAMPE cosmic ray e+ + e- excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Okada, Nobuchika; Shafi, Qaisar

    2018-04-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) has reported a measurement of the flux of high energy cosmic ray electrons plus positrons (CREs) in the energy range between 25GeV and 4.6TeV. With unprecedented high energy resolution, the DAMPE data exhibit an excess of the CREs flux at an energy of around 1.4TeV. In this letter, we discuss how the observed excess can be understood in a minimal framework where the Standard Model (SM) is supplemented by a stable SM singlet scalar as dark matter (DM) and type II seesaw for generating the neutrino mass matrix. In our framework, a pair of DM particles annihilates into a pair of the SM SU(2) triplet scalars (Δs) in type II seesaw, and the subsequent Δ decays create the primary source of the excessive CREs around 1.4TeV. The lepton flavor structure of the primary source of CREs has a direct relation with the neutrino oscillation data. We find that the DM interpretation of the DAMPE excess determines the pattern of neutrino mass spectrum to be the inverted hierarchy type, taking into account the constraints from the Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  8. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia